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ARCHITECTURAL STANDARDS AND CONSIDERATIONS

Before an architectural office begins planning and designing a hotel, it should know
exactly how a hotel operates. Every type of building must function smoothly to achieve the end
result that the client is seeking.
Hotels are designed and built so that the client, owner, or operator of the hotel will get a
satisfactory financial return on his investment. In order to achieve the greatest return for the
money invested, we again face a dual problem. In the first instance, the guest must feel
completely comfortable and at ease from the moment lie steps through the entrance doorway,
checks in, goes to his room, avails himself of the food and beverages available, and spends a
comfortable night in a well-appointed, scrupulously clean room, and returns the next day to a
room which is as fresh and inviting as it was the moment he first entered it after checking in.
Everything for the guest’s creature comforts should be carefully considered, whether it be the
ease of finding the registration desk, the cashier, the bars and dining rooms, the elevators that
will take hint up to his room, and finally the room itself. The service at the registration desk, in
the bars and dining rooms, arid in the guest room itself as well as in the corridors must be such
that the guest finds his every want courteously and efficiently taken care of. The physical
environment becomes an important part of the guest's creature comfort. These factors include
color and decor, lighting, proper air temperature, comfortable furnishings and, above all, a
pleasant and relaxed atmosphere. Everything that the guest expects and should get will be a
result of what takes place at the back of the house. It is only in this area that everything that will
keep a guest contented during his stay is arranged for and so ordered that everything the guest is
seeking is accomplished unobtrusively and, what is most important, economically.

BACK-END SERVICES & MAINTENANCE
Deliveries and Supplies
Though rarely seen by a guest, the back of the house is the most crucial part of the plan.
It must be laid out with two paramount objectives: control and efficiency. Foodstuffs, housekeeping supplies, and a great many other items must be received out of sight of the hotel guests.
Such receiving is usually done at a loading dock, which should be covered so that deliveries can
be made regardless of the weather. An operating hotel, even a small one, will have deliveries
going on throughout the day. The receiving of shipments as well as the checking of whatever
comes into the hotel and, finally, sending the various items received to their proper destination
must be under tight control. This is usually the function of a receiving department that should be
located directly on or adjacent to the loading dock. Tight control must be exercised in two
directions. In one direction, it is not uncommon for material to be delivered and, within a short
time of its having been left on the dock unchecked, for the management to find that this material
has disappeared or that some parts of the shipment have gone astray. The second part of the
control is to make sure that, once these shipments have arrived, they go directly to their
destination without a chance of becoming lost on the way. Pilferage will apply to almost every
item, including linens, foodstuffs, wine and even items of furnishings. A good back-of-the-house
plan will be worked out in such a way that the flow of supplies is tightly con-trolled by the
security that the architect works into his plan. A tight, well-planned back of the house will have
circulation patterns that will provide the utmost in control. It is this type of planning that is
definitely the province of the architect.

incidentally. It is not uncommon for thieves to attempt entry through the service area and to work their way up through service elevators to accomplish what they came for. refrigerated) that the receiving office has this space in full view to discourage an outside accomplice or an employee who is leaving the hotel from entering the garbage room to filch what was placed there previously by someone in the kitchen or the supply areas. Once again. which is punched by the employees . A tight control at the point of entry and egress of all employees is highly desirable and can easily be accomplished if it is the same point as that at which food and other hotel supplies are brought in. Employee Areas and Access Planning Another form of control which must be exercised and which becomes a part of the architect's planning is the flow of personnel into and out of the hotel. This is not necessarily a must.Garbage Handling There is one further item in the control area which. the . in which case tight surveillance is necessary only in the garbage receiving area. garbage destructors or compressors may be used. In the larger hotels. Hotel personnel usually come through at a point close or adjacent to the receiving area. Usually time control is through the medi-um of a time clock. but it is advisable because the same control office can observe the coming and going of the help . it is wise to have the garbage rooms so placed (and. Well-wrapped steaks and cans of food can be concealed in garbage and removed by an accomplice before the garbage haulers pick up the refuse. Where garbage is shipped out. at first glance. the movement of garbage out of the hotel to a point where it will be picked up by garbage trucks. might seem highly unimportant: namely. Experience has indicated that a good deal of pilferage in hotels is accomplished through the medium of garbage removal.

architect's careful planning will make it possible for employees to reach their various dressing and locker areas with a minimum of travel time lost. as an example. . It should also be borne in mind that the housekeeper controls soiled and clean laundry as well as clean uniforms ready for reissue. It is usual to issue uniforms in an area as close to the locker rooms or the point of entry as possible. Locker rooms should be provided with ample toilet facilities and showers. The distinction here is for from a fine line . cooks. and he may determine whether waiters and bellmen are to be placed together or separated. the plan of the back of the house will make it possible for the people to get to their work stations with little time lost. It must be borne in mind that there is class distinction in hotels and. Maids and waitresses may or may not be in the same locker room. tortuous passages. that dishwashers and porters are not placed in the same locker rooms as head waiters and reception clerks. Maids and porters will want to get to service elevators along the shortest possible route. In this phase of planning. The interplay of all of these activities will dictate a finesse in planning to bring all these activities together and to achieve as little loss in time and motion as possible. in which case there is no laundry room at all or only a small laundry which handles towels only. Once the personnel have changed into their uniforms. Many hotels avail themselves of city laundry service. A hotel laundry that does its own uniforms and flatwork (sheets. it should be borne in mind that uniforms are usually under the control of the housekeeper. The mix of hotel employees will be dictated by the hotel operator. so that the proximity of the uniform issuing room to the house-keeping department becomes a most important consideration. and dishwashers should get to their work areas without going through long. Chefs. depending on the hotel operation. Laundry Facilities A laundry is a usual adjunct of most good-sized hotels.

Under the housekeeper's strict control and supervision will be all the maids and porters. toilet paper. If the laundry is done by a laundry service out of the hotel. Larger hotels will maintain their own cleaning department for dry cleaning and pressing of woolens and similar garments. Aside from such obvious things as a stock of . Presently. after donning their uniforms. and ashtrays. then items like towels require a comparatively small space for washing and drying. matches. At present some "no iron" linens are in use.) requires a good-sized space for washers. pillowcases. for here are kept all the supplies that become a part of housekeeping.pillowcases. the disposable types that have been produced are still not of sufficient strength and durability for hotel use. drum ironers. together with an area for folding and stacking the clean towels. etc. and it is definitely under the supervision of the laundry manager. Such a cleaning and valet service is usually a part of or close to the laundry area. since only washers and fluff dryers are necessary. is the province of the chief house-keeper. dryers. who will usually have assistant floor housekeepers. room service menus. and men's and women's wearing apparel. although the future may produce exactly that. experiments with disposable sheets. and uniforms will do away with laundry services in hotels. having several functions. thus eliminating some of the large ironers. (Most hotels use inexpensive ashtrays that carry the hotel name and that the guests may take along as souvenirs. linens. in the not-too-distant future. These people. It may be that. uniforms and guests' laundry. will come to the housekeeper for instructions and vary often for supplies to take with them to the various guest-room floors. Housekeeping The housekeeping department.) The housekeeper's area is also a storage area. The porters will deliver to the service areas on the guestroom floors all linen and soap as well as facial tissue. and various pressing machines-each suitable for its own type of flatwork.

the supplying of additional soap. After the comestibles . Just one word of caution-each expert will want more space than the plan can possibly allow. all for the guests' convenience. but it is cer-tainly helpful for the architect to have a good working knowledge of what takes place in the food preparation area and in the kitchens . It will make for better communication between the architect and the kitchen engineer when they are discussing the planning of these spaces . etc. straightening of the room.linen. the housekeeper will carry in her warehouse storage area additional lamps (which are easily broken by guests) and small items of furnishings which are easily removed or destroyed. a night maid who will make up beds for guests ready to go to sleep. Food and Beverage Service Today's food operation is a highly complicated one. It might be useful for the architect to know how many rooms a maid can make up during her daily tour of duty. This entails the removal of the bedspreads. They don't really need that much space. One night maid usually can handle twice as many rooms as a day maid handles. Most hotel kitchens and food preparation areas are planned by experts known as kitchen engineers. and drapes that need repair. toilet paper. paper goods. pillowcases. In addition to the regular daytime maid. The kitchen engineer will conjure up visions of irate chefs stalking off the premises. in most hotels. there will be. It is not the architect's province to plan a kitchen. etc.. and an architect should be familiar with the entire operation. soaps.. Let us follow the flow of the raw food from the time it is delivered to the steward until it is finally cooked and ready to be picked up by the waiters or the waitresses. In the housekeeper's department there will usually be s place for a seamstress to mend those sheets. but experience has indicated that the architect's knowledge of what the requirements are will temper the demands of the kitchen engineer .

Here have been delivered all the prepared vegetables and fruits so that the garde orange (can arrange salads. seafoods. somewhere in the waiter's line of traffic. This food preparation area will have reach-in boxes for cuts of meat and fish which have been prepared and are ready for the final stage of cooking. exotic dishes used for buffets or banquets. Farther along the waiter's course will be a section. coffee. and other items are stored. ice. The chef reaches in and takes out what he needs to prepare the required dish. Canned food and other bottled or packaged food which does not need refrigeration will be sent to dry-storage rooms. and work up tire various types of hors d'oeuvre as well as seafood cocktails and other cold items for the start of a meal car salads that accompany the main dish. A bus boy has picked up the soiled dishes after a guest has completed his meal. Vegetables will be sent to Small portions of whatever food is called for on the waiters order. In this storage space will also be kept the various condiments that the chef will need in the preparation of his food. they are sent to either dry storage or liquor storage (a room with a big lock on it) or to one of the various cold holding rooms or boxes. but because of the need to get the dishes from the dining room to the . vegetables.. butter. close to tire exit. This entire area is for self-service by the waiters. Off to one side. garnishes. In some cases the waiter will pick up his own soiled dishes and deposit them in the dishwashing area. etc. and egg boilers. The garde manger. and signed for. checked. that are used.have been weighed in. on special occasions. He will have his own reach-in boxes for all the types of fruits. Here also will be found the coffee urns. toasters. This is a very noisy operation in which sound should be carefully baffled. will be the garde manger section. tea. where such items as bread and rolls. who will pick up the items they need on their way to the guest waiting for the delivery of his food. He brings the soiled dishes into that kitchen area which is allocated for dishwashing. Bread and rolls may be in a roll warmer. prepare cold desserts. will prepare special trays of cold.

The waiter. . A checker controls all foods and beverages leaving the kitchen area to make sure that the items are correct and the prices properly indicated. will be brought back into the kitchen area for the service of freshly prepared food. Here again. His office is usually enclosed with glass to give him aural privacy but complete visual control. Before leaving the kitchen. which is set where the chef can observe all the activities in tire kitchen. coming into the kitchen. who will check off the drink items as to quantity and price . before entering the dining room. of notes sity. we must look at some other areas that we will usually find in our ideal kitchen. the dishwasher is usually placed close to the dining room area so that the dishes can be dis-posed of as soon as the waiter or busboy enters the kitchen. he will pass the checker. so it must be kept fairly isolated from the actual cooking and serving area. There will be a chef's office. One other space will usually occur in our ideal kitchen--a service bar with a bar-tender who will prepare tire drinks that the waiter has ordered. not only noisy but also a rather untidy operation. Here the chef will prepare and plan menus. it roust be on the direct path of travel. as soon its they have been properly cleaned. He will be placing orders for food and will generally be operating a rather complicated and meticulous part of the hotel service. The dishwashing area is. the garde manger's serving tables .dishwasher. he will usually go by a checker's desk where he presents a check indicating the items that he is taking out of the kitchen to the diner. and the pick-up area . places his orders and follows a definite path along the cooks and chefs' serving tables. The reason for keeping it within the kitchen is obvious since the dishes. Then. so that after the pre-pared drinks have been picked up by the waiter.

consisting mainly of griddles. We are assuming that this hotel is not too large and does not require a separate banquet kitchen but rather a banquet serving area. Normally. These. In the banquet area there will be mobile cabinets that take trays. Wherever a hot dish is called for. The cooking area. Another part of the kitchen will be devoted to tire banquet area. we will find a room-service operator. The room-service area should. The room-service area is always close to tire cooking and garde manger area. the room-service waiter will pick it up at the chef's cooking area. For the rest of the day. Those banquet cabinets can be stocked before a banquet for certain types of manes. who sits at a telephone taking calls from the guests. when many guests are calling in for their breakfasts rather than coming down to the dining room. and on top of the rolling service table he will place the cold dishes. The first of these is the room-service area. of necessity. In the warming compartment below the tablecloth. .In addition to the chef's office. and the garde manger section will be manned by a crew who are expert in the preparation of breakfast menus. managing their schedule so that it does not interfere with lunch or dinner. Much of the room service will consist of breakfasts or sandwiches and salads. assuming that everything is happening on this one level). will be manned by short-order chefs who are ready to prepare various hot breakfast dishes. We will see again that the chefs will prepare the banquet food. sandwiches and salads coming from the garde manager will be most in demand. which are set and ready to carry the dishes that have been ordered by the guest via telephone. Here there must be sufficient space for a fairly large number of room-service rolling tables. must come (town to the kitchen from the service areas on each of the guest floors. These calls are especially numerous in the morning. These are electrified cabinets arranged to keep dishes either hot or cold. In other instances. be as close to the service elevators as possible. the room-service waiter will place the hot dishes. of course. there may be two other areas (once again.

Very often the banquet facilities are not on the same floor as the dining rooms. In this area will be found the various pieces of equipment for heating and cooling as well as all the tanks and pumps to keep all the mechanical systems in operation. There are many new types of floor preparations which can be applied directly over the concrete slab and which lend themselves to easy cleaning as well as offering a firm foothold to prevent slipping on wet spots. The walls. This domain belongs to the house engineer and. there should be pro-vision for an engineer's . every effort should be made to hold down the noise level in the kitchen. Here again. working with the kitchen engineer. In this area will also be found all central switch gear that controls electric current for every purpose in the hotel complex. A large banquet area in a hotel will require a separate banquet kitchen with its own cooking facilities as well as its own dishwashing area. were usually ceramic tile. naturally. with its cement joints and the possibility of spalling tile. in most kitchens. the new plastic materials are by some standards even better than tile.where steak and roast beef are oil the banquet menu. By all means. in which case there would have to be an elevator connecting the main kitchen with the banquet area. determine the location of the banquet cooking and service area. there must be areas in which the chef can broil the steaks or large ovens where a number of roasts can be prepared at the same time . Mechanical Spaces Another area that should be considered in designing the back-of-the-house spaces will be the boiler or mechanical room. Each mechanical room will be of a size and shape that will satisfy the require-ments for all the creature comforts that a modern hotel has to offer. Here the architect must review the food service requirements and.

. carpet replacements. we should note the fact that there will probably be a secretarial pool to handle all the spaces that have been enumerated above. Somewhere in the area. with a mechanical repair shop close by. who may double as the banquet manager. Before leaving this area. and cleaning equipment that will be used by the house porters .office. wallpaper replacements. and an assistant manager's office . In this part of the hotel complex one would usually find the head of the food and beverage department. There are a number of other shops that probably will be located in this area of the hotel. and definitely an area for a locksmith. cleaning materials. Administrative Areas Included in these areas you will find accounting and bookkeeping offices (which back up the front cashiers). There will be a mail sorting room. which will include a reception area. which might well be placed behind the registration desk. These would include a carpentry shop. where they are easily accessible. and other storage areas will contain spare parts for the furniture. a manager's office. since guests' mail is delivered at this point. will be storage rooms in which will be kept a multitude of spare parts to service the hotel. Some of this storage space will be used for mechanical equipment replacements. and offices for management. reservations offices (which back up to the front registration desk) . an upholstery shop. More will be said about all these spaces when front-of-the-house operation is discussed further.

The size of the desk will be determined by the size of the hotel. while a hotel of 100 to 200 rooms will have one or at roost two spaces at which guests may register . Whether the system be the involved electronic system or whether it be a reservation made by telephone or wire. Chain hotels and chain motels have developed complicated and efficient electronic systems for advance reservation bookings which are made from any point within the chain. The traveling public is aware of this fact.FRONT-END SERVICES Guest Registration A hotel registration desk must be located so that it is immediately visible as one enters the hotel lobby.000 rooms might have anywhere from four to six registration clerks. 2. Advance Reservations The hotel industry depends primarily on advance reservations to keep its rooms filled. time of departure of guests who are already checked into the hotel. and systems whereby the registration clerk can also be informed whether the room has been vacated and whether the room has already been made up by the maid on the floor and is ready to receive a new guest. Since questions do arise at the time when the guest is . There is no special rule to be followed except that a hotel of let us say. The architect should acquaint himself with the requirements of the front desk and also be aware of certain companies who manufacture the filing systems and the electronic equipment which is used for reservation and guest control. The systems employed are very much like the systems now being used by airlines for bookings and reservations. Deluxe hotels now make use of computers which serve to indicate time of arrival of guests who have made reservations. and most travelers will book their reservations in advance. a reservation clerk within a reservation office in the hotel will take care of all these requests for rooms.

Such a situation can be avoided by planning the registration and cashier . Cashier and Bookkeeping The average hotel usually has the cashier's counter located adjacent to the registration desk. There is no hard and fast rule concerning this close interrelationship. either upon registration or during their stay. If the hotel is large enough to require a separate area and separate personnel for handling of keys. There are times in large hotels. Some of the larger hotels have room-key clerks whose functions consist only of receiving keys from guests as they leave the hotel and giving the incoming guests. the keys to their rooms. Keys There are two other services that the front or registration desk must perform. The larger hotels may place cashiers in the so-called "front desk" area but somewhat remote from the actual registration desk. This will enable a reservation clerk to go back to the reservation department to check on a questionable reservation or to adjust any problems which may arise at the time that the new guests are checking in. This will make for traffic congestion and some confusion. it behooves the architect to realize that some control is necessary in the handing out of keys to make sure that keys are given only to the registered guests for that particular room. Since it is comparatively simple for someone to ask for a key who is not entitled to it and who may be using that key to enter and rob an absent guest. The first and obvious one is to serve as the place where the room keys are kept. where one convention is checking out while another is checking in. the location of the reservation office must obviously be as close to the front desk as the plan will permit. this function will usually be alongside the actual registration desk. especially those catering to conventions.checking in.

who remain at their stations. jewelry. Guests are requested by hotel management to leave such valuables in the hotel's safe deposit boxes or vault. Larger hotels will have a complete bookkeeping department. The guest enters this room and gives the valuables to the cashier through a pass-through window. This pass-through window should have a view of the vault or the safe so that the guest can watch his valuables being deposited properly. It is desirable to have the guest transfer his valuables to a cashier out of sight of the public occupying the main lobby. a small closed room is normally provided. whether it be cash. A hotel cashier must also handle . so that any questions of charges can be quickly checked and adjusted by the cashier. This convenience is especially useful in large resort or convention hotels where women guests will be wearing jewelry on special occasions. Safety Deposit Service Conveniences will usually be found in the cashier's area for guests who bring valuables with them. Very often the night cashier will handle a good deal of the bookkeeping. The same procedure will be followed when the guest wishes to withdraw his valuables from the safekeeping of the hotel. or important papers.facilities so that lines forming in front of the registration desk do not conflict with lines forming at the cashier's counter. The cashier in the smaller hotels will handle most of the bookkeeping. who will contact the bookkeeping department for clarification or corrections in the guests' bills. This will require more than just the actual cashiers. A closed room makes it possible for the guest to deliver and receive the jewelry without being observed. a precaution that is most necessary in today's theft-prone society. Where safe deposit boxes are furnished by the hotel. It is obvious that this bookkeeping department should be close to if not backed up to tire front desk cashiers. the cashier will hand ar key to the guest. while the bookkeeping department handles all entries and bookkeeping for the guests. Therefore. relieving the daytime staff of this chore.

bookkeepers. therefore.000. As a hotel project grows larger. Accessibility to the public. must consider the feeding of guests. as a rule. A larger. It must be borne in mind that this front of the house works closely with the back of the house. and conventions. Aside from the manager and the assistant manager. Small hotels may get by with a pleasant coffee shop restaurant. with sizable convention facilities. more leisurely dining could be provided. the administrative area grows more complex. Administrative Areas The administration of a hotel operation depends entirely upon its size. a more careful and detailed study is made to arrange a smoothly functioning suite of administrative offices together with secretarial pools. whether it has 50 rooms or 2. This type of unit is becoming more popular in the smaller hotel where feeding facilities are kept to a minimum. either at a counter or at a table. etc. Restaurant Facilities Every hotel. within the same apace. and where. As the complexity of the office and administrative area grows. mediumsized hotel will have a manager and an assistant manager and. Such a facility would be the type where quick coffee shop service could be offered a guest. is of the utmost importance. there will be a reception office where one or two receptionists will be acting as a buffer between the public and the manager. A larger hotel. banquets. Many of the people in the administrative area will deal with guests as well as hotel customers seeking to arrange for luncheons. The cashiers in these facilities will be bringing their cash receipts to the central cashier. will also have an office for the convention manager and his assistants. there may be an office for a food and beverage manager and a banquet manager. The difference .the cash from restaurants and coffee shop.

it is possible to take care of a large breakfast business using the entire facility. with its appropriate decor for more leisurely dining. thus allowing for maximum table and seating arrangements in the so-called restaurant area when the coffee shop is doing a minimum business. and coffee shops which are in any way different from the standard requirements for any such facility. This is especially true for . Under normal situations there will be a cocktail lounge or beverage bar even in the smallest dining facility. Attention is called to the fact that people staying at hotels have a tendency to seek out highly touted specialty restaurants within an area rather than eating their meals in the hotel. or while waiting. it is possible to get a more permanent type of separation between coffee shop end restaurant by pushing the coffee shop separator around the counter area. In such a facility.between the two is achieved primarily through decor end atmosphere rather than any physical or structural arrangement. Where convention facilities are offered within a hotel. the division is re-established. There is no special requirement for the design of hotel restaurants. For luncheon. so it can be taken away during the breakfast-hour rush. it is wise to have a bar placed close to the convention facilities. before going to the dining room. Conventioneers seem to have a propensity for a cocktail before or after meetings. This impulse-type of beverage buying is boosted tremendously if beverage facilities are placed in the normal path of traffic. will offer a more varied menu with probably higher cost per meal than in the coffee shop. making it possible to serve quick meals for those in a hurry in the coffee shop area and more leisurely luncheons in the restaurant portion. In the evening. The cocktail lounge will usually be found close to the dining room so that hotel guests can pause for a cocktail before lunch or dinner. There are occasions when a visual separation between coffee shop and restaurant is made movable. The larger hotel will have a pleasant coffee shop for quick service and for simpler meals. to meet friends or other guests. cocktail lounges. whereas a restaurant. bars.

some hotels are installing roof-top restaurants where a view of the city or the general area is available and in which fairly limited menus are offered-mostly openhearth kitchen service which includes steaks. so that there is the possibility of vertical distribution of food from the preparation areas which would probably be on the lower level. The size of the lobby is largely determined by the number of guest rooms as well as by the type of hotel that . it may not be possible to operate out of one central kitchen. seafood. And don't forget that. regardless of its size. It is highly desirable to keep such an adjunct as close to the main kitchen as possible. or gourmet dishes. and cuts of roast beef . The same hotel kitchen can prepare almost any type of special food including Chinese. The important thing to remember in laying out these spaces is that the decor must be developed to entice the hotel guests to eat in the hotel rather than outside in other specialty restaurants . Wherever a rooftop restaurant is created. so that they can compete favorably with individual restaurants in the general area of the hotel. because of public assembly requirements. chops. In this case there may be several kitchens. Continuing in this vein of specialized feeding. Polynesian. Lobbies Every hotel. the plans must include not only a stage of sorts. the architect must bear in mind that there will be increased traffic in the elevators taking diners from both in and outside the hotel to this specialized rooftop facility. hotels more and more are turning to specialty restaurants whose specialty is not only food but also decor. the stairs must be sized larger. Such a menu requires a very small kitchen and obviates the need for creating large. must have a public lobby. Toward that end. expensive facilities on a roof for specialty cooking. When faced with this type of dining and entertainment feature. but also dressing rooms for performers and a room for the orchestra.evening dining. Supper clubs or nightclubs will also be found in the larger hotels. preferably on a horizontal core. together with the attendant stage lighting. In the planning of large hotels that encompass all the dining facilities already mentioned.

every hotel and motel will use elevators to take guests from the point at which they have checked in up to the floor where the guest's room is located. A hotel catering to conventions needs a large lobby because here again there is a constant gathering of conventioneers before they go off to lectures. color. It goes without saying that the larger the hotel. luncheons. and decor must create the proper ambience regardless of whether the hotel is large or small.and two-story motels. and dinners. It is advisable to place them centrally so that the distance walked by a guest in any direction is reduced to a minimum. finishing materials. Another consideration in the planning of elevators is that of their location on the guestroom floors. The interior designer plays a most vital part in planning and designing hotel lobbies. . It would obviously be wrong to place the elevators at the end of a long corridor. either from the entrance of the hotel or from the check-in or registration area. seminars. more than any other. This apace. meetings. There is no rule of thumb to determine the size of a lobby.is on the architect's drawing boards . One must proceed by making a careful study of similar types of hotels and arrive at decisions after discussions with hotel opera-tors and managers. Elevators Except for one. It would not be wise for the architect to make a determination as to these factors. The number. size. A resort hotel will require a large lobby because guests will congregate there in the evening. The lobby will also have to be larger in a resort or convention hotel. and speed of the required elevators is best determined by the elevator companies themselves. lighting. A hotel lobby sets the mood for a hotel. It would be far better to have these elevators placed so that they are about midway between the two ends of the guest-room corridor. the larger the lobby. moderately priced or expensive. Elevators should be located so that they are immediately visible. in a city or a resort. will create the first and usually the most lasting impression. Furnishings.

It is advisable to place them centrally so that the distance walked by a guest in any direction is reduced to a minimum. Many of the people in the administrative area will deal with guests as well as hotel cus-tomers seeking to arrange for luncheons. Such a facility would be the type where quick coffee shop service could be offered a guest. either from the entrance of the hotel or from the check-in or registration area . Elevators Except for one. This is the simplest operation and is found only in the smaller hotels . the administrative area grows more complex. with sizable conven-tion facilities. It would obviously be wrong to place the elevators at the end of a long corridor. perforce. Small hotels may get by with a pleasant coffee shop restaurant . The door to his office faces the public lobby. whether it has 50 rooms or 2. size. either at a counter or at a table. within the same apace. A larger. The number. Aside from the manager and the assistant manager. banquets. etc. Most elevator companies are computerizing this information and can furnish it to the architect within a matter of hours. As a hotel project grows larger. . Obvi-ously.Administrative Area The administration of a hotel operation de-pends entirely upon its size . there may be an office for a food and beverage manager and a banquet manager. and it is they who will inform the architect what the number and size as well as the speed of the elevators should be . bookkeepers.and two-story motels. as a rule. Accessibility to the public. This type of unit is becoming more popular in the smaller hotel where feeding facilities are kept to a minimum. must consider the feeding of guests . and conventions . who may have his secretary working in the same room with him. is of the utmost importance . It would be far better to have these elevators placed so that they are about midway between the two ends of the guest-room corridor . and where. Elevator companies can give the answers when facts and figures are given to them. The accompanying illustrations show how these areas have been handled in various hotels . teletype machines. Elevators should be located so that they are immediately visible. and an additional door is pro-vided so that he can go from his office to the front desk . a more careful and detailed study is.000. It must be borne in mind that this front of the house works closely with the back of the house. es the complexity of thi office and administrative area grows. medium-sized hotel will have a manager and an assistant manager and. Restaurant Facilities Every hotel. more leisurely dining could be provided . a mailroom for incoming mail and for voluminous outgoing mail. It would not be wise for the architect to make a determination as to these factors . Another consid-eration in the planning of elevators is that of their location on the guest-room floors . every hotel and motel will use elevators to take guests from the point at which they have checked in up to the floor where the guest's room is located . there will be e reception office where one or two typistreceptionists will be acting as a buffer between the public and the manager. will also have an office for the convention manager and his assistants . therefore. and speed of the required elevators is best determined by the elevator companies themselves . A small hotel will most likely have an office for a manager. made to arrange e smoothly functioning suite of administrative offices together with secretarial pools. A larger hotel.

The foyer should be further demarked from the guest-room corridor by its decor and lighting . men as well as women guests appreciate the chance to have a look at themselves before descending to the main lobby floor . coming out or getting into the elevators. In connection with this thought. Guests coming or going late at night. Every hotel should have arrangements for suites of a permanent nature as opposed to a combination of a studio room with a typical guest room . in which case they would be disturbing guests whose doors open off this area . It is an obvious truism that the luxury of space is an expensive one when considered in the light of construction costs . denote the fact that it is the elevator foyer. it is well to remember (although this may not have any influence on the planning or the archi-tecture of a hotel) that. For the moment. Space. where an operator is aiming for the high-priced market. Now let us have a look at the guest room itself . It would be as if a grocer were forced to throw out each day's unsold supply of boxed cereal and to lay in a fresh supply every morning . There should obviously be a good-sized ash receiver for cigarettes. The room that is not sold and the revenue that is lost can never be re-covered (Fig . This is the final product that is to be sold . It is also a thought-ful gesture to have a full-length mirror in this area . Suites will be furnished like fine sitting . let us eliminate the space taken by a bathroom and a closet and consider the actual room itself . unlike an item on a merchant's shelf. Whatever its size. may talk loudly or may be too noisy. The accompanying illustrations of guest rooms in hotels designed by the authors show as wide a variety of dimensions as an architect may encounter . It is wise to remember that no guest-room doors should be placed opposite the elevators . namely. It is always a thoughtful touch to have certain appurtenances which indicate consideration for the guest in the total overall planning . Guest Rooms Everything that has been said about hotels thus far may be considered peripheral to the prime product that a hotel has to offer. 5) . a guest room that is not sold one night means a complete loss . cigars. This may be a large open space or a space slightly wider then the corridor itself . and other trash nui-sances that the guest may want to get rid of before getting into the elevator. it would be well to create rooms that are sized not for the actual furniture require-ments but for the sheer luxury of spaciousness. The length and width are determined by the amount of furniture that is to go into the room and by the degree of luxury that the hotel operator wishes to achieve . however. One of these appurtenances would be a small bench or some type of seat for guests who may want to wait in the foyer for the elevator or who may be waiting to meet someone else on the floor . That is a pre-cise analogy to the situation of the hotel man and his guest rooms . Let us consider the latter first . does convey a feeling of luxury and. by its width. The first consideration is that of size . the guest should find himself in an eras which can be designated as an ele-vator foyer .Guest-Floor Corridors We will now accompany our guest from the elevator to the guest's room . As the elevator doors open. the guest rooms . it should.

This makes for maxi-mum flexibility. A complete bath-room should be planned for each of the sitting rooms of a suite to make it possible to rent the rooms out singly . This means that each room will have its own separate key. If such will be the case. incidental-ly. These large suites. including the sitting room. a bathroom or lavatory facility certainly is needed in each living room or sitting room of a suite . the architect should give a good deal of thought to this feature in the hotel . An innovation devised by the writer's firm was the introduction of two lavatories in the bathroom facilities . Since the travel-ing public is very conscious of bathroom accommodations. If a hotel offers convention facilities. or one lavatory may be placed in the bath-room and another outside the bathroom . Conventions will mean that there will be a good deal of entertaining going on. would have its own key. Since this room will be used for entertaining (either busi-ness or private). In this case. Even if the room is not rented singly. They are used not only by the affluent traveler because he can afford it but also by travelers who do a good deal of enter-taining. There are times when suites are not used." or the type of sofa which opens out to become a comfortable double bed (never as comfortable as a true bed). two men. This last arrangement is most desirable. the plan-ner should provide for a storage room on each floor capable of holding alternate types of furniture to suit the requirements of guests using large suite-sitting rooms. regardless of whether it is a husband and wife. The minimum bath-room will have a combination tub-shower. The accompanying plans of the writer's projects show various arrangements of bathroom accommodations . Guest Bathrooms We are now ready to review the bathroom requirements in a hotel . a lavatory. A foyer which connects the bedrooms and the sitting area makes this separate keying of rooms possible . may double at times as seminar or confer-ence rooms. A single door or a pair of doors leading to the foyer of the suite will be on one key. it will require an inordinate number of suites . they may be pulled out into a dressing area.rooms. Plumbing connections might well be arranged so that a bar can also be introduced in the sitting room . so that the sitting room can be rented on an individual basis. These suites are also often used by two couples or by a large family. in which case the sitting room of the suite may be used for sleeping at night . and companies whose representatives are guests in the hotel will want good-sized suites for fairly large cocktail parties and other forms of entertainment. they have the use of the bathroom . These two lavatories may be right in the bathroom itself. a bar with water connection becomes a pleasant adjunct. In this context the hotel may be asked to move most of the furniture out of the suite living room and bring in seminar chairs for meetings . and the hotel should be able to rent each of the rooms in the suite separately . the foyer becomes part of the corridors and each room. or two women traveling together. but they will usually be the type that is referred to as a "davenport. especially business travelers who entertain clients and customers on their arrival in any given city . but by opening these doors tem-porarily (the plans should be devised so that the doors can be swung back and out of the way). dual sleep pieces will be required. and a water closet . so that if two people occupy a room.

one at the nor-mal hand level and one at the higher level where a fixed shower head normally would occur. This type of shower head. Thus. the guest has the option of allowing the hand-type shower head to remain in a standard position or to remove it and use it as he pleases. A good hotel installation will go for the additional expense and the additional dimension by installing 5-ft 6-in . The extent of these facilities will be determined by the hotel operator who. for instance. so that the walls separating one room from the other can be made movable. European hotels invariably have not only the tub. incidentally. and we are finding that in many hotels in Amer-ica the bidet is being introduced . but they are quite expensive . and lavatory but also a bidet . wherever it is feasible. although there is a growing tendency to using the so-called "telephone shower head . we would have a meet-ing room to take 50 people . and by using two movable shower-head supports. Flushometers are not desirable because they are noisy. is also convenient for women guests washing their hair. The tub in a guest room is normally a 5-ft tub. but again. It immediately becomes obvious that if. the husband is shaving. there is one word of caution. Manufacturers of bathroom equipment have devised a hand-held shower head which operates as well as the normal wall shower head. and there are many luxury hotels with 6-ft tubs . Movable. The rooms will vary in size to accommodate anywhere from 10 to as many as 100 people . tub." This is a hand-operated shower head which is more common in Europe than it is in America . It is wise for the architect to have a thorough knowledge of what the feeding and space requirements for these facilities are. This is a particularly European custom. The numbers used are not necessarily those that will be found in .facilities without inter-fering with each other. and so on . the wife can be taking a bath or shower-and other possibilities are immediate-ly self-evident . The normal shower head becomes standard in all hotels. and if another wall is opened. and banquets . dinners. A wall-hung unit makes cleaning of hotel bathrooms easier for the maid. Banqueting Facilities Most hotels and motels include meeting and banquet facilities . its economics will determine whether this fairly expensive type of installa-tion is warranted . In most instances. in turn. A noisy flushing toilet is a disturbing noise element not only to the occupants of the room but also to the oc-cupants of the adjoining rooms. the meeting rooms will be ar-ranged in a straight line. There are noiseless flushometers. this additional feature is found only in the most luxurious hotels . The normal meeting room requirements are rather simple . will convey his requirements to the architect . The largest hotels are usually designed with a full banqueting and convention facility . separating walls make it possible to achieve a greet flexibility in the size of the rooms to accommodate meet-ings of various sizes . luncheons. we would be able to seat 75 people. Larger hotels will have a more diversified arrangement for meetings. The average hotel uses a silent tank-type of toilet as the most expedient type of water closet for hotels . Taking the water closet as the first of the fixtures in the bathroom. if two meeting rooms which normally might seat 25 people are thrown open to one. The smaller hotels may provide only a number of meeting rooms which may also be used for luncheons and dinners. tuba . water closet. The European hotels invariably have at least a 5-ft 6-in . Obviously.

allowing for meeting rooms that can accom-modate 150 to 250 people . they are merely used for convenience. . it is also possible to subdivide the space by the use of movable walls to create smaller rooms when a large room is not required . all subdivisible. A large space which might seat 1. es an example.hotels. which normally qualify for conventions or large banquets. so that there are lines of meeting rooms of a smaller nature. In larger rooms.000 people when all folding wells have been moved back can be cut up into anywhere from four to six spaces. and a really large space that is also subdivisible. In many instances both arrangements will be found in a hotel.