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Automatic Control Theory

Please Note:
Two broad categories of control:
 Manual Control
 Automatic Control --- A machine(or system)

works by machine-self, not by manual operation.

Please Note:

This course introduces analyzing and designing
of automatic control systems .
Topics include the properties and advantages
of automatic control systems, time-domain and
frequency-domain performance measures,
stability and degree of stability, the Root locus
method and frequency-domain design.

Please Note:

Matlab will be required extensively. If
you have not used it before,then start
practicing. We suggest that everyone
become familiar with the use of
MATLAB

Reasons for Using Automatic Control:





Reduce workload
Perform tasks people can’t
Reduce the effects of disturbances
Reduce the effects of plant variations
Stabilize an unstable system
Improve the performance of a system (time
response)
Improve the linearity of the system

Reasons for Using Automatic Control:

Many vehicles (spacecraft, aircraft, rockets) and
aerospace processes (propulsion) need to be
controlled just to function.
Example: the F-117 does not even fly without
computer control, and the X-29 is unstable.
There are also many stable systems that simply
require better performance in some sense (e.g.,
faster, less oscillatory), and we can use control to
modify this behavior.

Examples

of Automatic Control Systems

Example #1

* Operating principle……
* Feedback control……

A water-level control system

Examples

of Automatic Control Systems

The block diagram description for a control system : Convenience

x
x1

x3
+ + e
x2

Signal
(variable)

xxx

Adders (comparison)
e =x 1+ x3 -x 2

Components
(devices)

Examples

of Automatic Control Systems

Example #1

resistance comparator
Desired
water level
Input

amplifier
Error

Actuator
Motor

Gearing

Valve

Water
container

Actual
water level
Output

Process

controller
Float
Feedback
signal

measurement
(Sensor)

The block diagram discription of a water-level control system

Examples

of Automatic Control Systems

Example #2
+

Uk=k(ur-uf)

ur

e

ua

DC
motor
M

regulator

load
trigger

Uf (Feedback)

-

rectifier

techometer

M

Fig. 1.4

+

* Operating principle……

A DC-Motor control system
* Feedback control……

Examples of Automatic Control Systems
Example #2
comparator
Desired
rotate speed n

e

Reference
input ur

Error

Actuator
Regulator

uk

Trigger

a

Rectifier

ua

Output n

Process

controller

Feedback signal

DC
motor

Actual
rotate speed n

Techometer

uf

measurement (Sensor)
Fig. 1.9

The block diagram discription of the DC-motor control system

Examples of Automatic Control Systems
 Identify the control goal:
Position the reader head to read the date stored on a track on the disk.

 Identify the variables to control:
The position of the read head.
Rotation Spindle
of arm
Actuator
motor

Example #3

Dis
k

Track a
Track b

Arm
Head slider

A disk drive read system

Examples of Automatic Control Systems
Rotation Spindle
Track a
Dis
of arm
Track b
k
Actuator
motor

Example #3

Arm

It is obvious :
a closed loop system
not a open loop system

Desired
head
position

error

Control
device

Actuator
motor

Head slider

Read
arm

sensor

Block diagram of a disk drive read system

Actual
head
position

Fundamental Structure of Control Systems

Automatic control systems can be designed
to hold an output steady or to track a desired
reference signal.

Regulator: keep output at a steady, known value.
Tracking or servo system: Make output track a
reference system.

Fundamental Structure of Control Systems
We can further categorize control systems as either
open-loop or closed-loop.
Closed-loop controllers(or feedback controllers)
compute the control action based on the measured
output of the system being controlled.

Fundamental Structure of Control Systems
 Open loop control systems
Disturbance
(Noise)
Input r(t)
Reference
desired output

Controller

uk

uact
Actuator

Control
signal

Process

Output c(t)
(actual output)

Actuating
signal
Fig. 1.10

Features: Only there is a forward action from the input to the output.

Fundamental Structure of Control Systems

Closed loop (feedback) control systems
Disturbance
(Noise)
Input r(t)
Reference
desired output

+

e(t)=
r(t)-b(t)
Controller

(+)

uk

Actuator

Control
signal

uact

Process

Output c(t)
(actual output)

Actuating
signal

Feedback signal b(t)

measurement

Features:

Fig. 1.11

not only there is a forward action , also a backward action between the
output and the input (measuring the output and comparing it with the input).
1) measuring the output (controlled variable) . 2) Feedback.

Notes:

1) Positive feedback; 2) Negative feedback—Feedback.

Please Note:

Typically think of closed-loop control
—so we would analyze the closed-loop
dynamics.
Note that a typical control system
includes the sensors, actuators, and the
control law.

Feedback Control System
Comparison between the reference input and the feedback signal
results in an actuating signal that is the difference between these two
quantities.
The actuating signal acts to maintain the output at the desired value.
 This system is called a closed-loop control system.

Plant
Reference

Controller

Control
signal

Disturbance

Output

Actuator

Dynamic process

Sensor
Measurement
Sensor noise

Components in a typical control system

Feedback Control of Dynamic System
Plant
Control
signal

Reference

Controller

Disturbance

Output
Actuator

Dynamic process

Sensor
Measurement
Sensor noise

Typically, we are interested in cases where the plant and
controller are linear and time-invariant, or can be modeled
as such. Then we can represent components as transfer
functions.(We will learn this later)

Please Note:

types of control systems

1)
2)
3)
4)

linear systems versus
Nonlinear systems.
Time-invariant systems vs. Time-varying systems.
Continuous systems vs. Discrete (data) systems.
Constant input modulation vs. Servo control systems.

Basic

performance requirements of control systems

1) Stability.
2) Rapidness (instantaneous characteristic).
3) Accuracy (steady state performance).

Please Note:
Stability
2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

-0.5

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Please Note:
Rapidness (instantaneous characteristic)
1.4

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Please Note:
Accuracy (steady state performance).
1.4

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Main Content

1. Introduction to Control Systems

2. Mathematical Models of Systems

3. Time-Domain Analysis of Control Systems

4. The Root Locus Analysis

5. Frequency-Domain Analysis

6. Design of Feedback Control Systems

Teaching and Grading

This Course Credit 3
Teaching methods are composed of lecture in class
and exercises/experiment after class.
Grading
Homework
20% (Due on Mondays at class)
Participation 10%
Midterm exam 30% (at approximately week8)
Final exam
40%

Pre-request Course
Calculas
Engineering Mathmatics (Complex Variables Functions)

References

1. Farid Golnarahi ,Benjamin C. Kuo,
Automatic Control Systems, Ninth edition,
John Wiley & Sons Inc,2009.
2. Prof. Steven Hall, course materials for 16.06
Principles of Automatic Control, Fall 2012. MIT
OpenCourseWare(http://ocw.mit.edu),
Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

References

3. Richard C. Dorf, Robert H. Bishop,
Modern Control Systems, 12th Edition,
Prentice Hall,2010.
(you can use an old edition)

4. Robert H. Bishop, Modern Control System
Analysis and Design Using Matlab and
Simulink,Tsinghua University Press,2003

Please Note:

Classroom NMB F205
Time Monday 16:00PM - 17:45PM every week
Thursday 8:00AM – 9:45AM biweekly