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# Time-Domain Analysis of Control Systems

Introduction

Because time is used as an independent variable
in most control systems, it is usually of interest to
evaluate the output response with respect to
time, or simply, the time response.
In the analysis problem, a reference input signal
is applied to a system, and the performance of
the system is evaluated by studying the system
response in the time domain.

Introduction
The

inputs to many practical control systems are not
In

many cases, the actual inputs of a control system
may vary in random fashion with respect to time.
(For instance, in a radar-tracking system for anti-aircraft
missiles, the position and speed of the target to be tracked
may vary in an unpredictable manner).
It

is difficult to design a control system so that it will
perform satisfactorily to all possible forms of input
signals.

Introduction
For

the purpose of analysis and design, it is necessary to
assume some basic types of test inputs so that the
performance of a system can be evaluated.
By

selecting these basic test signals properly, not only is
the mathematical treatment of the problem systematized,
but the response due to these inputs allows the prediction
of the system’s performance to other more complex inputs.
In

the design problem, performance criteria may be
specified with respect to those test signals so that the
system may be designed to meet the criteria.

Typical Test Signals For The Time Response of
Control Systems

Step-Function Input:
R t  0
r (t )  
0 t  0

or

r (t )  R  us (t )

r (t )

R

0

t

us (t ) is the unit-step function
The step function is very useful as a signal since its initial
instantaneous jump in amplitude reveals a great deal
about a system’s quickness in responding to inputs with
abrupt changes.

Typical Test Signals For The Time Response of
Control Systems
r (t )

Ramp-Function Input:
R  t
r (t )  R  t 1(t )  
0

t0

Slope=R

t0

0

t

The ramp function has ability to test how the system would
respond to a signal that changes linearly with time.

Typical Test Signals For The Time Response of
Control Systems

Parabolic-Function Input:
R 2
R 2
 t
r (t )  t 1(t )   2
2

0

r (t )

t0
t0

0

t

The parabolic function represents a signal that is one order
faster than the ramp function.

Typical Responses to Typical Test Signals of
Control Systems
1). Unit step response

s   Rs   s  

1
s

1

ht   L s   
s

1

2). Unit ramp response

1
Ct s   s Rs   s  2
s

1

ct t   L s   2 
s 

1

3). Impulse response

K s   s  Rs   s 1  s 

k t   L1 s 

Typical Responses to Typical Test Signals of
Control Systems
Relationship between these responses

H (s )  (S ) 
Ct(s )  (S ) 

1

 K (s ) 

s
1

s

2

t

1

s

 H (s ) 

h(t) 

,

 k( )d 
0

1

s

t

,

ct(t) 

 h( )d 
0

{k(t )impulse response , h(t )step response , ct(t ) ramp response}

dh(t )
K ( s )  sH ( s ) , k(t ) 
dt
dct (t )
H ( s )  sC t ( s ) , h(t ) 
dt

The Unit-Step Response
and Time-Domain Specification
Basic and macroscopically requirements to
design a control system:

The system must be stable (stability)—First requirement.
The control should be accurate (accuracy).
The response should be quick-acting (rapidity).

The Unit-Step Response
and Time-Domain Specification
The response of a system could be : C(s)  Ct (t )  Cs (t )
Transient portion Ct (t ) and steady-state portion Cs (t )

For linear control systems,the characterization of the
transient response is often done by use of the response of
a linear control system when the input is a unit-step
function.
Many control systems are dominated by a second order
pair of poles. So look at time response (to a unit-step
input) of C s 
n2
R s 

  s  

s 2  2ns  n2

The Unit-Step Response
and Time-Domain Specification
Peak overshoot is important, both because it is a measure
(to a degree) of stability, and for practical reasons, overshoot
should be minimized (think of an elevator!).
For under-damped systems
y (t )
ymax

ymax  yss
100%
Percent overshot  % 
yss
overshoot

y ss

0

t
t p Peak time

The typical uint-step response of a second-order system

The Unit-Step Response
and Time-Domain Specification
Settling Time: The settling time is defined as the time
required for the step response to decrease and stay
within a specified percentage of its final value.
A frequently used figure is 5 percent.

Setting time is a measure of rapidity (quick-acting ) of the system.
y (t )

1.05
1.00
0.95

0

ts

t

The typical uint-step response of a second-order system

The Unit-Step Response
and Time-Domain Specification
Delay Time: The delay time is defined as the time
required for the step response to reach 50 percent
of its final value.
y (t )

1.00
0.50

0

td
The typical uint-step response of a second-order system

t

The Unit-Step Response
and Time-Domain Specification
Rise Time: For under-damped systems with an overshoot, the
rise time is defined as the time required for the step response
to rise from 0 to 100% of its final value.
Rise time is a measure of rapidity (quick-acting ) of the system.
y (t )

1.00

0

tr

The typical uint-step response of a second-order system

t

The Unit-Step Response
and Time-Domain Specification
Rise Time: If the system is over-damped, then the peak time
is not defined, and the 10-90% rise time is normally used.
Rise time is a measure of rapidity (quick-acting ) of the system.
y (t )

1.00
0.90

0.10

0

tr

The typical uint-step response of a second-order system

t

The Unit-Step Response
and Time-Domain Specification
system response is defined as the discrepancy
between the output and the reference input when
the steady state(t→∞) is reached. ess  1  c   
Steady-State Error is a measure of accuracy of the system.
y (t )

ess

0

t

The typical uint-step response of a second-order system

The Unit-Step Response
and Time-Domain Specification
Each of the above parameters may be important in the
design of the control system.

 =2% or 5%

The typical uint-step response of a second-order system