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Introduction

**Because time is used as an independent variable
**

in most control systems, it is usually of interest to

evaluate the output response with respect to

time, or simply, the time response.

In the analysis problem, a reference input signal

is applied to a system, and the performance of

the system is evaluated by studying the system

response in the time domain.

Introduction

The

**inputs to many practical control systems are not
**

exactly known ahead of time.

In

**many cases, the actual inputs of a control system
**

may vary in random fashion with respect to time.

(For instance, in a radar-tracking system for anti-aircraft

missiles, the position and speed of the target to be tracked

may vary in an unpredictable manner).

It

**is difficult to design a control system so that it will
**

perform satisfactorily to all possible forms of input

signals.

Introduction

For

**the purpose of analysis and design, it is necessary to
**

assume some basic types of test inputs so that the

performance of a system can be evaluated.

By

**selecting these basic test signals properly, not only is
**

the mathematical treatment of the problem systematized,

but the response due to these inputs allows the prediction

of the system’s performance to other more complex inputs.

In

**the design problem, performance criteria may be
**

specified with respect to those test signals so that the

system may be designed to meet the criteria.

**Typical Test Signals For The Time Response of
**

Control Systems

**Step-Function Input:
**

R t 0

r (t )

0 t 0

or

r (t ) R us (t )

r (t )

R

0

t

**us (t ) is the unit-step function
**

The step function is very useful as a signal since its initial

instantaneous jump in amplitude reveals a great deal

about a system’s quickness in responding to inputs with

abrupt changes.

**Typical Test Signals For The Time Response of
**

Control Systems

r (t )

**Ramp-Function Input:
**

R t

r (t ) R t 1(t )

0

t0

Slope=R

t0

0

t

**The ramp function has ability to test how the system would
**

respond to a signal that changes linearly with time.

**Typical Test Signals For The Time Response of
**

Control Systems

**Parabolic-Function Input:
**

R 2

R 2

t

r (t ) t 1(t ) 2

2

0

r (t )

t0

t0

0

t

**The parabolic function represents a signal that is one order
**

faster than the ramp function.

**Typical Responses to Typical Test Signals of
**

Control Systems

1). Unit step response

s Rs s

1

s

1

ht L s

s

1

2). Unit ramp response

1

Ct s s Rs s 2

s

1

ct t L s 2

s

1

3). Impulse response

K s s Rs s 1 s

k t L1 s

**Typical Responses to Typical Test Signals of
**

Control Systems

Relationship between these responses

H (s ) (S )

Ct(s ) (S )

1

K (s )

s

1

s

2

t

1

s

H (s )

h(t)

,

k( )d

0

1

s

t

,

ct(t)

h( )d

0

{k(t )impulse response , h(t )step response , ct(t ) ramp response}

dh(t )

K ( s ) sH ( s ) , k(t )

dt

dct (t )

H ( s ) sC t ( s ) , h(t )

dt

**The Unit-Step Response
**

and Time-Domain Specification

Basic and macroscopically requirements to

design a control system:

**The system must be stable (stability)—First requirement.
**

The control should be accurate (accuracy).

The response should be quick-acting (rapidity).

**The Unit-Step Response
**

and Time-Domain Specification

The response of a system could be : C(s) Ct (t ) Cs (t )

Transient portion Ct (t ) and steady-state portion Cs (t )

**For linear control systems,the characterization of the
**

transient response is often done by use of the response of

a linear control system when the input is a unit-step

function.

Many control systems are dominated by a second order

pair of poles. So look at time response (to a unit-step

input) of C s

n2

R s

s

s 2 2ns n2

**The Unit-Step Response
**

and Time-Domain Specification

Peak overshoot is important, both because it is a measure

(to a degree) of stability, and for practical reasons, overshoot

should be minimized (think of an elevator!).

For under-damped systems

y (t )

ymax

ymax yss

100%

Percent overshot %

yss

overshoot

y ss

0

t

t p Peak time

The typical uint-step response of a second-order system

**The Unit-Step Response
**

and Time-Domain Specification

Settling Time: The settling time is defined as the time

required for the step response to decrease and stay

within a specified percentage of its final value.

A frequently used figure is 5 percent.

**Setting time is a measure of rapidity (quick-acting ) of the system.
**

y (t )

1.05

1.00

0.95

0

ts

t

The typical uint-step response of a second-order system

**The Unit-Step Response
**

and Time-Domain Specification

Delay Time: The delay time is defined as the time

required for the step response to reach 50 percent

of its final value.

y (t )

1.00

0.50

0

td

The typical uint-step response of a second-order system

t

**The Unit-Step Response
**

and Time-Domain Specification

Rise Time: For under-damped systems with an overshoot, the

rise time is defined as the time required for the step response

to rise from 0 to 100% of its final value.

Rise time is a measure of rapidity (quick-acting ) of the system.

y (t )

1.00

0

tr

The typical uint-step response of a second-order system

t

**The Unit-Step Response
**

and Time-Domain Specification

Rise Time: If the system is over-damped, then the peak time

is not defined, and the 10-90% rise time is normally used.

Rise time is a measure of rapidity (quick-acting ) of the system.

y (t )

1.00

0.90

0.10

0

tr

The typical uint-step response of a second-order system

t

**The Unit-Step Response
**

and Time-Domain Specification

Steady-State Error: The steady-state error of a

system response is defined as the discrepancy

between the output and the reference input when

the steady state(t→∞) is reached. ess 1 c

Steady-State Error is a measure of accuracy of the system.

y (t )

ess

0

t

The typical uint-step response of a second-order system

**The Unit-Step Response
**

and Time-Domain Specification

Each of the above parameters may be important in the

design of the control system.

=2% or 5%

The typical uint-step response of a second-order system

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