Introduction
In practice, the performance of a control system is
more realistically measured by its timedomain
characteristics. The reason is that the performance of
most control systems is judged based on the time
responses due to certain test signals.
This is in contrast to the analysis and design of
communication systems for which the frequency
response is of more importance, since most of the
signals to be processed are either sinusoidal or
composed of sinusoidal components.
Introduction
We learned in timedomain that the time response of a
control system is usually more difficult to determine
analytically, especially for highorder systems.
In the frequency domain, there is a wealth of graphical
methods available that are not limited to loworder
systems.
There are correlating relations between the frequencydomain and the timedomain performances in a linear
system, so the timedomain properties of the system
can be predicted based on the frequencydomain
characteristics.
Frequency Response
r
c
At sin 1t
t
0
r t
ct
Ac1 sin(1t 1 )
t
0
system
t
t
0
0
At sin 2t
Ac 2 sin( 2t 2 )
Frequency Response
Firstorder system
Input
Uc
1
Ts 1
s
ur Ar sin t
Ur
s s U r s
uc t
1
Ar T
T
e
2
2
T 1
s
Ar
s2 2
A
1
2 r
Ts 1 s 2
Ar
T 1
2
Transient response
2
sin(t arctan T )
Steady state response
If the system is stable, then the transient response→0 when t→∞
Ar
uc t
The steady state response lim
t
Ac
T 1
2
Ar
T 1
2
2
2
sin(t arctan T )
arctg (T )
Frequency Response
General system
m( s )
( s)
n( s )
R(s)
m( s )
n
(s p )
(s)
r (t ) A sin t
C(s)
A
R( s ) 2 2
s
i
i 1
Where pi is assumed to be distinct poles (i=1,2,3…n).
Then, in partial fraction form, we have
C (s)
m( s )
n
(s p )
A
2
s 2
i
i 1
kn
k1
k2
a1
a2
s p1 s p2
s p n s j s j
Frequency Response
C ( s)
k
k1
k
a1
a2
2 n
s p1 s p2
s pn s j s j
Taking the inverse Laplace transform yields
c(t ) k1e
p1t
k2e
p2t
kn e
Transient response ct (t )
pn t
a1
a2
L
s
j
s
j
1
Steady state response cs (t )
For the stable system all poles (pi) have negative real parts,
then the transient response
n
ct (t ) ki e pit 0
i 1
the steady state response:
a
a2
cs (t ) L1 1
s j s j
Frequency Response
a
a2
cs (t ) L1 1
s j s j
a1 ( s)
a2 a
*
1
A ( j ) j ( ( j ) 90o )
A
A
( s j )
( j )
e
( s j )( s j )
2j
2
s j
A ( j )
2
e j ( ( j )90
o
Euler formula
)
e j cos j sin
cs (t ) a1e jt a2 e jt
e
e
A ( j )
2
A ( j ) sin(t ( j ))
j (t ( j ) 90o )
j (t ( j ) 90o )
e j e j
cos
2
e j e j
sin
2j
Frequency Response
a
a2
cs (t ) L1 1
A ( j ) sin(t )
s j s j
where ( j )
Compare with the sinusoid input r (t ) A sint , we have:
The amplitude ratio of the steadystate output cs(t) versus sinusoid input r(t):
A ( j )
A
(jω)
C ( j )
R( j )
magnitude character istic
The phase difference between the steadystate output and sinusoid input:
[t ( j)] t ( j) C( j) R( j) phase characteristic
Then we have :
( j )
C ( j )
( s) s j
R( j )
Frequency Response
Definition : frequency response (or characteristic) —the ratio of
the complex vector of the steadystate output versus sinusoid
input for a linear system, that is:
( j )
C ( j )
( s) s j
R( j )
Here: R( j) the complex vector representation of the sinusoid input
C ( j ) the complex vector representa tion of the output
( j) frequency response(or characteristic)
when
r (t ) Ar sin(t r )
the steady  state output
cs (t ) ( j ) Ar sin[t r ( j )]
Thus the steadystate response depends only on the magnitude
and phase of ( j ) , at a specific frequency .
Example
A unity feedback control system, the openloop transfer function:
G( s)
1
0.5s
If : r (t ) 10 sin(6.28t 60o )
Determine the steadystate response of the system.
Solution:
known : 6.28 Ar 10 T 0.5
The closedloop transfer function :
( )
1
T 2 2 1
when 6.28
( )
1
C ( s)
G( s)
0.5s 1
( s )
R( s ) 1 G ( s ) 1 1
0.5s 1
0.5s
arctg (T )
1
(0.5 6.28) 1
2
0.3
() arctg (0.5 6.28) 72.40
cs (t ) ( j ) Ar sin[t r ( j )] 0.3 10 sin(6.28t 600 72.40 )
3sin(6.28t  12.40 )
Frequency Response Plot
Graphic expression of the frequency response
1. Rectangular coordinates plot
2. Polar plot (Nyquist curve)
3. Bode diagram(logarithmic plot)
Frequency Response Plot
1. Rectangular coordinates plot
10
10
G( j )
2s 1
j 2 1
Example
G( s )
G ( j )
G ( j )
0
10
0o
0.5
7.07
45 o
1
4.47
63.435 o
2
2.4
75.964 o
3
1.64
80.538 o
4
1.24
82.875 o
5
0 .995
84 .29 o
10
tg 1 (2 )
10
1 (2 ) 2
G ( j ) G( j )
5
1
0
90o
0.5 1
2
3
4
5
Frequency Response Plot
2. Polar plot (Nyquist curve )
The polar plot is easily useful for investigating system stability.
It is done in polar coordinates as varies from 0 to .
G( j ) G(s) s j Re{G( )} j Im{G( )}
Im
or G( j ) G( j ) e j ( j ) G( j ) G( j )
0
The magnitude and phase response:
r G( j )
G( j)
Calculate G( ) and G( ) for different ω.
10
G( j1 )
0
1
Frequency Response Plot
3. Bode diagram(logarithmic plot)
Plot the frequency characteristic in a semilog coordinate:
Magnitude response — Ycoordinate in decibels: 20 log10 G( j )
Xcoordinate in logarithm of ω: log10
Phase response — Ycoordinate in radian or degree: G( j )
Xcoordinate in logarithm of ω: log10
Note:
The logarithm of the magnitude is normally expressed in terms
of the logarithm to the base 10, multiplying by 20,where the units are
decibels (dB).
log10 A unit change in log10 in the rectangular coordinates is
equivalent to one decades of variation in ω ,that is from 1 to 10, 10 to 100,
,and so on.
20 log10 G( j )
Frequency Response Plot
L( ) (dB)
Bode Plot
60
L( ) 20 lg G( j )
40
20
0
Note:
1
2
4
6 8 10
20
40 60 80 100
2
(rad / s)
3
2
() G( j)
The logarithm of the magnitude is normally expressed in terms
of the logarithm to the base 10, multiplying by 20,where the units are
decibels (dB).
log10 A unit change in log10 in the rectangular coordinates is
equivalent to one decades of variation in ω ,that is from 1 to 10, 10 to 100,
,and so on.
20 log10 G( j )
Frequency Response of The Typical Elements
1. Inertial element
G s
G j
1
Ts 1
1
Tj 1
Rectangular coordinates plot
1
G s j
T 2 2 1
G arctg (T )
G
1
0.707
Characteristic point
b
0
G 0.707
1
T
G
4
1
b
T b t s 3
t s 3T
b  bandwidth
1T
4
2
G
Frequency Response of The Typical Elements
1. Inertial element
G s
G j
1
Ts 1
1
Tj 1
Polar plot (Nyquist curve )
G j
1
T 2 2 1
e j arg tgT G e jG
Im
0
1
450
0
1/ T
Frequency Response of The Typical Elements
1. Inertial element
G s
1
Ts 1
G j
Bode diagram(logarithmic plot)
G
1
T 2 2 1
20 lg G 20 lg T 2 2 1
G arctgT
Characteristic point
1
,
T
20lg G 20 lg 0.707 3 db
G arctgT
4
1 / T Break frequency or Corner frequency
1
Tj 1
Frequency Response of The Typical Elements
1. Inertial element
Asymptotic plot
a. 1
T 1
T
1
b. T 1
T
20 lg G 20 lg T 2 2 1
20 lg G 0 because (T)2 is neglected when compare with 1
20 lg G 20 lg T 2 2 20 lg T
[20]
1 T
10 T
2
10 T
10 n T
20 lg T 20 lg 1 0dB
20 lg T 20 lg 10 20dB
20 lg T 20 lg 10 2 40dB
20 lg T 20 lg 10 n n 20dB
Blue curve: exact plot
Red curve: asymptotic plot(corner plot)
Frequency Response of The Typical Elements
2. Oscillating element
n2
Gs 2
s 2 n s n2
n2
G j
j 2 2 n j n2
G j
1
2
2
2
1 2
n n
G j arctg
2
n
1
n
2
Frequency Response of The Typical Elements
2. Oscillating element
1 2 2
n
d G j
m
1
0
G
d
m 2 1 2
m resonant frequency
G m resonant peak
1
G
2
n
G
2
n
1
Rectangular coordinates plot
G

0
.
707
0.707
0.707
2
b n
b  bandwidth
Polar plot
Frequency Response of The Typical Elements
2. Oscillating element
Bode diagram
Asymptotic plot
20 lg G 20 lg
1
n
2
2
2
2
n
n
G arctg
2
1
n
2
n or
n or
1 20 lg  G  0dB
n
1 20 lg G 20 lg( ) 2 40 lg( )
n
n
n
n Break frequency or Corner frequency
[40]
Frequency Response of The Typical Elements
3. Proportional element
Transfer function: G( s) K
G( j ) K L( ) 20 lg G( j ) 20 lg K
Frequency response: G( j ) K
( ) G( j ) 0o
L( ), ( )
Im
0
K
Re
L( )
L( ) 20 log K dB
( ) 0o
0dB, 0o
0.1
Polar plot
1
10
100
Bode diagram
(lg )
Frequency Response of The Typical Elements
4. Integrating element
Transfer function:
G ( s)
1
s
1
1
G
(
j
)
L( ) 20 lg G ( j ) 20 lg
Frequency response: G( j )
j
( ) G( j ) 90o
L( ), ( )
Im
0
20dB / dec
Re
0dB, 0o
0.01 0.1
0
Polar plot
1
10
Bode diagram
(lg )
( ) 90o
Frequency Response of The Typical Elements
5. Differentiating element
Transfer function
s
differenti al
G( s)
s 1
first order differenti al
( s / ) 2 2 ( s / ) 1 second order differenti al
n
n
Im
Im
Im
Re
Re
1
differential
firstorder differential
Polar plot
Re
1
secondorder differential
Frequency Response of The Typical Elements
5. Differentiating element
Because of the transfer functions of the differentiating elements are
the reciprocal of the transfer functions of Integrating element, Inertial
element and Oscillating element respectively
inverse
s
1
s
s 1
inverse
1
Ts 1
( s / n ) 2 ( s / n ) 1
inverse
1 /[( s / n ) 2 2 ( s / n ) 1]
2
Bode curves of the differentiating elements are symmetrical to the lgωaxis
with the Bode curves of the Integrating element, Inertial element and
Oscillating element respectively.
Then we have the Bode diagrams of the differentiating elements:
Frequency Response of The Typical Elements
L( ), ( )
L( ), ( )
180o
20dB / dec
( ) 90o
(lg )
0dB, 0o
0.1
10
1
100
20dB / dec
o
(lg )
0dB, 0o
10
(lg )
1
10
100
2thorder differential
90o
1
n
0.1
L( ), ( )
0.1
90o
0dB, 0o
differential
45
40dB / dec
100
1thorder differential
Frequency Response of The Typical Elements
6. Delay element
Transfer function: G( s) es
G( j ) 1 L( ) 20 lg G( j ) 0
G( j ) e j
( ) G( j )
R=1
L( )
Im
0dB, 0o
Re
0
L( )
(lg )
0
( )
Polar plot
Bode diagram