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# Frequency Domain Analysis

Introduction

In practice, the performance of a control system is
more realistically measured by its time-domain
characteristics. The reason is that the performance of
most control systems is judged based on the time
responses due to certain test signals.
This is in contrast to the analysis and design of
communication systems for which the frequency
response is of more importance, since most of the
signals to be processed are either sinusoidal or
composed of sinusoidal components.

Introduction

We learned in time-domain that the time response of a
control system is usually more difficult to determine
analytically, especially for high-order systems.
In the frequency domain, there is a wealth of graphical
methods available that are not limited to low-order
systems.
There are correlating relations between the frequencydomain and the time-domain performances in a linear
system, so the time-domain properties of the system
can be predicted based on the frequency-domain
characteristics.

Frequency Response
r

c

At sin 1t

t
0

r t 

ct 

Ac1 sin(1t  1 )

t
0

system

t

t
0

0

At sin  2t

Ac 2 sin( 2t   2 )

Frequency Response
First-order system
Input
Uc

1
Ts  1

 s 

ur  Ar sin t

Ur

 s     s U r  s  

uc  t 

1

Ar T
T

e

2
2
 T 1

s 

Ar 
s2   2

A
1
 2 r
Ts  1 s   2

Ar

 T 1
2

Transient response

2

sin(t  arctan T )

If the system is stable, then the transient response→0 when t→∞
Ar

uc  t  
The steady state response lim
t 

Ac 

 T 1
2

Ar
T  1
2

2

2

sin(t  arctan T )

  arctg (T  )

Frequency Response
General system

m( s )
( s) 

n( s )

R(s)

m( s )
n

 (s  p )

(s)

r (t )  A sin t

C(s)

A
R( s )  2 2
s 

i

i 1

Where pi is assumed to be distinct poles (i=1,2,3…n).
Then, in partial fraction form, we have
C (s) 

m( s )
n

 (s  p )

A
 2
s 2

i

i 1

kn
k1
k2
a1
a2



s  p1 s  p2
s  p n s  j s  j 

Frequency Response
C ( s) 

k
k1
k
a1
a2
 2  n 

s  p1 s  p2
s  pn s  j s  j

Taking the inverse Laplace transform yields

c(t )  k1e

p1t

 k2e

p2t

   kn e

Transient response ct (t )

pn t

 a1
a2 
L 

s

j

s

j

1

Steady state response cs (t )

For the stable system all poles (pi) have negative real parts,
then the transient response
n

ct (t )   ki e pit  0
i 1

the steady state response:

 a
a2 
cs (t )  L1  1 

 s  j s  j 

Frequency Response
 a
a2 
cs (t )  L1  1 

 s  j s  j 
a1  ( s) 

a2  a 
*
1

A ( j ) j (  ( j ) 90o )
A
A
 ( s  j )
 ( j )

e
( s  j )( s  j )
2j
2
s  j

A ( j )
2

e  j (  ( j )90

o

Euler formula

)

e j  cos   j sin 

cs (t )  a1e jt  a2 e  jt
e
e

 A ( j )

2

 A ( j ) sin(t  ( j ))
j (t   ( j ) 90o )

 j (t   ( j ) 90o )

e j  e  j
cos  
2
e j  e  j
sin  
2j

Frequency Response
 a
a2 
cs (t )  L1  1 
  A ( j ) sin(t   )
 s  j s  j 

where   ( j )

Compare with the sinusoid input r (t )  A sint , we have:
The amplitude ratio of the steady-state output cs(t) versus sinusoid input r(t):
A ( j )
A

 (jω) 

C ( j )
R( j )

 magnitude character istic

The phase difference between the steady-state output and sinusoid input:

[t  ( j)]  t  ( j)  C( j)  R( j)  phase characteristic
Then we have :

( j ) 

C ( j )
 ( s) s  j
R( j )

Frequency Response
Definition : frequency response (or characteristic) —the ratio of
the complex vector of the steady-state output versus sinusoid
input for a linear system, that is:
( j ) 

C ( j )
 ( s) s  j
R( j )

Here: R( j)  the complex vector representation of the sinusoid input
C ( j )  the complex vector representa tion of the output

( j)  frequency response(or characteristic)
when

r (t )  Ar sin(t  r )

the steady - state output

cs (t )  ( j ) Ar sin[t  r  ( j  )]

Thus the steady-state response depends only on the magnitude
and phase of ( j ) , at a specific frequency  .

Example
A unity feedback control system, the open-loop transfer function:
G( s) 

1
0.5s

If : r (t )  10 sin(6.28t  60o )
Determine the steady-state response of the system.
Solution:
known :   6.28 Ar  10 T  0.5
The closed-loop transfer function :
( ) 

1
T 2 2  1

when   6.28

( ) 

1
C ( s)
G( s)
0.5s  1
( s ) 

R( s ) 1  G ( s ) 1  1
0.5s  1
0.5s
  arctg (T  )

1
(0.5  6.28)  1
2

 0.3

 ()  arctg (0.5  6.28)  72.40

cs (t )  ( j ) Ar sin[t  r  ( j  )]  0.3 10 sin(6.28t  600  72.40 )
 3sin(6.28t - 12.40 )

Frequency Response Plot
Graphic expression of the frequency response
1. Rectangular coordinates plot
2. Polar plot (Nyquist curve)
3. Bode diagram(logarithmic plot)

Frequency Response Plot
1. Rectangular coordinates plot
10
10
 G( j ) 

2s  1
j 2  1

Example

G( s ) 

G ( j )

 G ( j )

0

10

0o

0.5

7.07

 45 o

1

4.47

 63.435 o

2

2.4

 75.964 o

3

1.64

 80.538 o

4

1.24

 82.875 o

5

0 .995

 84 .29 o

10

  tg 1 (2 )

10
1  (2 ) 2

G ( j ) G( j )

5
1
0

-90o

0.5 1

2

3

4

5

Frequency Response Plot
2. Polar plot (Nyquist curve )
The polar plot is easily useful for investigating system stability.
It is done in polar coordinates as  varies from 0 to  .
G( j )  G(s) s  j  Re{G( )}  j Im{G( )}

Im

or G( j )  G( j ) e j ( j )  G( j ) G( j )
0

The magnitude and phase response:

r  G( j )

  

  G( j)

Calculate G( ) and G( ) for different ω.

10

G( j1 )

 0
  1

Frequency Response Plot
3. Bode diagram(logarithmic plot)
Plot the frequency characteristic in a semilog coordinate:

Magnitude response — Y-coordinate in decibels: 20 log10 G( j )
X-coordinate in logarithm of ω: log10 
Phase response — Y-coordinate in radian or degree: G( j )
X-coordinate in logarithm of ω: log10 
Note:

The logarithm of the magnitude is normally expressed in terms
of the logarithm to the base 10, multiplying by 20,where the units are
decibels (dB).
log10  A unit change in log10  in the rectangular coordinates is
equivalent to one decades of variation in ω ,that is from 1 to 10, 10 to 100,
,and so on.
20 log10 G( j )

Frequency Response Plot
L( ) (dB)

Bode Plot

60
L( )  20 lg G( j )

40
20
0

Note:

1

2

4

6 8 10

20

40 60 80 100

2



 (rad / s)

3
2

 ()  G( j)

The logarithm of the magnitude is normally expressed in terms
of the logarithm to the base 10, multiplying by 20,where the units are
decibels (dB).
log10  A unit change in log10  in the rectangular coordinates is
equivalent to one decades of variation in ω ,that is from 1 to 10, 10 to 100,
,and so on.
20 log10 G( j )

Frequency Response of The Typical Elements
1. Inertial element
G s  

G  j  

1
Ts  1

1
Tj  1

Rectangular coordinates plot
1

 G s  j 

T 2 2  1

 G   arctg (T )

G
1

0.707

Characteristic point

b

0

 G  0.707 
1

T

G

4

1

b 

T  b t s  3

 t s  3T

 b - bandwidth

1T

4

2

G

Frequency Response of The Typical Elements
1. Inertial element

G s  

G  j  

1
Ts  1

1
Tj  1

Polar plot (Nyquist curve )
G j  

1
T 2 2  1

e  j arg tgT  G e jG

Im

0
  

1
450

 0

  1/ T

Frequency Response of The Typical Elements
1. Inertial element

G s  

1
Ts  1

G  j  

Bode diagram(logarithmic plot)
G

1
T 2 2  1

20 lg G  20 lg T 2 2  1
G  arctgT

Characteristic point
1
 ,
T

20lg G  20 lg 0.707  3 db
G  arctgT  

4

  1 / T Break frequency or Corner frequency

1
Tj  1

Frequency Response of The Typical Elements
1. Inertial element
Asymptotic plot

a.   1

 T  1

T
1
b.    T  1
T

20 lg G  20 lg T 2 2  1

20 lg G  0 because (T)2 is neglected when compare with 1

20 lg G  20 lg T 2 2  20 lg T

[-20]
  1 T
   10 T

2
  10 T
  10 n T

 20 lg T  20 lg 1  0dB
 20 lg T  20 lg 10  20dB
 20 lg T  20 lg 10 2  40dB

 20 lg T  20 lg 10 n  n 20dB

Blue curve: exact plot
Red curve: asymptotic plot(corner plot)

Frequency Response of The Typical Elements
2. Oscillating element

 n2
Gs   2
s  2 n s   n2

 n2
G j  
 j 2  2 n  j    n2
G  j  

1
2

2
   2  


1       2
  n    n 

G  j   arctg

2

n

 
1   
 n 

2

Frequency Response of The Typical Elements
2. Oscillating element
   1  2 2
n
d G  j 
 m
1
0
G

d
 m 2 1   2

m  resonant frequency
G m  resonant peak

1

G

2
  n  
G   

2

  n 

1
Rectangular coordinates plot

G

|

0
.
707

 0.707
  0.707
2
b  n
 b - bandwidth

Polar plot

Frequency Response of The Typical Elements
2. Oscillating element
Bode diagram

Asymptotic plot
20 lg G  20 lg

 
1  
   n



2

2

2

 

   2


n 

n
G   arctg
2
  
1 
 

 n 
2

  n or
  n or

 1  20 lg | G | 0dB
n

 1  20 lg |G|  20 lg( ) 2  40 lg( )
n
n
n

  n Break frequency or Corner frequency

[-40]

Frequency Response of The Typical Elements
3. Proportional element
Transfer function: G( s)  K
 G( j )  K  L( )  20 lg G( j )  20 lg K
Frequency response: G( j )  K  
 ( )  G( j )  0o

L( ),  ( )

Im
0

K

Re

L( )

L( )  20 log K dB

 ( )  0o

0dB, 0o
0.1

Polar plot

1

10

100

Bode diagram

 (lg  )

Frequency Response of The Typical Elements
4. Integrating element
Transfer function:

G ( s) 

1
s

1

1
G
(
j

)

 L( )  20 lg G ( j )  20 lg 

Frequency response: G( j ) 


j

 ( )  G( j )  90o

 

L( ),  ( )

Im
0

 20dB / dec

Re
0dB, 0o

0.01 0.1

 0

Polar plot

1

10

Bode diagram

 (lg  )
 ( )  90o

Frequency Response of The Typical Elements
5. Differentiating element
Transfer function

s
differenti al

G( s)  
s  1
first  order differenti al
( s /  ) 2  2 ( s /  )  1 second  order differenti al
n
n

Im

Im

Im

Re

Re
1

differential

first-order differential

Polar plot

Re
1
second-order differential

Frequency Response of The Typical Elements
5. Differentiating element
Because of the transfer functions of the differentiating elements are
the reciprocal of the transfer functions of Integrating element, Inertial
element and Oscillating element respectively
inverse

s

1

s

s  1

inverse

1
Ts  1

( s / n )  2 ( s / n )  1

inverse

1 /[( s / n ) 2  2 ( s / n )  1]

2

Bode curves of the differentiating elements are symmetrical to the lgω-axis
with the Bode curves of the Integrating element, Inertial element and
Oscillating element respectively.

Then we have the Bode diagrams of the differentiating elements:

Frequency Response of The Typical Elements
L( ),  ( )

L( ),  ( )

 180o
 20dB / dec

 ( )  90o
 (lg  )

0dB, 0o

0.1

10

1

100

 20dB / dec

o

 (lg  )

0dB, 0o
10

 (lg  )
1

10

100

2th-order differential

90o

1

n
0.1

L( ),  ( )

0.1

 90o
0dB, 0o

differential

45

 40dB / dec

100

1th-order differential

Frequency Response of The Typical Elements
6. Delay element
Transfer function: G( s)  es

 G( j )  1  L( )  20 lg G( j )  0
G( j )  e  j   
 ( )  G( j )  

R=1

L( )

Im
0dB, 0o

Re
0

L( )

 (lg  )

0

 ( )
Polar plot

Bode diagram