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Bode diagram of the open loop system

Plotting methods of the Bode diagram of the open-loop system
R

G3

G2

G1

c

Gn

Gs   G1 s G2 s G3 s Gn s 

open-loop transfer function

 j  Gi 
G  j    Gi  e i1 


i 1


n

s replaced by j

n

magnitude characteristic
phase characteristic

n

G  j    Gi
i 1

G  j    Gi
n

i 1

Logarithmic magnitude characteristic

n

n

i 1

i 1

20 lg G  20 lg  Gi   20 lg Gi

That is, Bode diagram of a open loop system is the superposition of the
Bode diagrams of the typical elements.

Example
10
G1 (s)  10
s(0.5s  1)
Constant gain K =10 (20lg10=20dB)
A pole at origin
First break frequency: 2 rad/s
G( s) 



G2 ( s) 

1
s

G3 ( s) 

1
0.5s  1

Example
G( s) 

10
s(0.5s  1)

-20dB/dec
-40dB/dec

Facility method to plot the magnitude response
of the Bode diagram
Summarizing example, we have:
1) Mark all break frequencies in the ω-axis of the Bode diagram.
2) Determine the slope of the L(ω) of the lowest frequency band (before
the first break frequency) according to the number of the integrating
elements:
[-20] dB/dec for 1 integrating element
[-40] dB/dec for 2 integrating elements …
3) Continue the L(ω) of the lowest frequency band until to the first break
frequency, afterwards change the the slope of the L(ω)
The slope of the L(ω) should be increased 20dB/dec for the break frequency
of the 1th-order differentiating element .
The slope of the L(ω) should be decreased 20dB/dec for the break frequency
of the Inertial element …

Facility method to plot the magnitude response
of the Bode diagram
Example: Plot the L(ω) of the G(s)
G( s) 

10( s  1)
s(0.1s  1)(0.012 s2  0.01s  1)

 ( )  90o  tg 1  tg 1 (0.1 )  tg 1

0.01
1  (0.01 ) 2

  51.3o   1

 ( )   56.5o   10
  174.9o   100

There is a resonant peak Mr at:
  r  n 1  2 2  100 1  2  0.52  70.7
Mr 

1
2 1  

2

 1.154  1.25 dB

L( ),  ( )
40dB

-20dB/dec

-20dB/dec

1.25dB

20dB

0dB, 0o

0.1

1

10

100

-45o
-90o

r

-60dB/dec

-135o
-180o

-225o
-270o

The Bode diagram

Minimum-phase transfer function
 A transfer function is called a minimum phase transfer

function if its zeros and poles all lie in the left hand of s-plane.
 A transfer function is called a non-minimum phase transfer
function if it has any zero or pole lie in the right hand of s-plane.
For the minimum phase systems we can affirmatively
determine the relevant transfer function only from the magnitude
response of the Bode diagram.
 For the non-minimum phase system we must combine the
magnitude response and phase response together to determine
the transfer function.

Minimum phase transfer function versus
Non-minimum phase transfer function
1
minimum phase
Ts  1
1
(2)
non - minimum phase
Ts  1
(1)

(3) s  1 minimum phase
(4) s  1 non - minimum phase
L( )

L( )

[+20]
1/T
(1)(2)

1/

[-20]
 ( )

 ( )

1/T
(1)

 900

(3)(4)

(4)

900
(3)

(2)

1/

The magnitude responses are the same.
But the phase responses are different when ω vary from 0 to infinite.

Determine the transfer function of the minimum phase
systems from the magnitude response of the Bode diagram
L( )

Example 1#

-40dB/dec
-20dB/dec
0dB

0.1

1 2

10 20100 200

-40dB/dec

we can get the G(s) from the Bode diagram :
G( s) 

K (0.5s  1)
s 2 (0.005s  1)

L( )  20 log K  20 log  2  20 log( 0.5 )
 K  40

  20

0

Determine the transfer function of the minimum phase
systems from the magnitude response of the Bode diagram
L( )

Example 2#

20dB
20dB/dec

-20dB/dec

0.5

200

0dB
0.1

1

10

100

we can get the G(s) from the Bode diagram :
G( s) 

Ks
(T1s  1)(T2 s  1)

and :
L( )  20 log K  20 log   0.5  0 

K 2

L(ω)  20 log 2  20 log   1/ T  20 dB  T1  0.2
1

L( )  20 log 2  20 log   20 log( 0.2 )  20 log( T2 )   200  0  T2  0.05

Determine the transfer function of the minimum phase
systems from the magnitude response of the Bode diagram

Example 3#
we can get the G(s) from the Bode diagram :

K (0.01s  1) 2
G( s) 
s(T 2 s  2Ts  1)

1
 10  T  0.1
T
L( )  20 log K  20 log   10  20 dB  K  100
20 log

1
2ζ 1  

2

L( )

 8.136    0.2
-20dB/dec

100(0.01s  1) 2
then : G(s) 
s(0.01s  0.04s  1)

8.136 dB
20 dB

0dB
0.1

1

10

100

-60dB/dec
-20dB/dec