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Automatic control System

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**Plotting methods of the Bode diagram of the open-loop system
**

R

G3

G2

G1

c

Gn

Gs G1 s G2 s G3 s Gn s

open-loop transfer function

j Gi

G j Gi e i1

i 1

n

s replaced by j

n

magnitude characteristic

phase characteristic

n

G j Gi

i 1

G j Gi

n

i 1

Logarithmic magnitude characteristic

n

n

i 1

i 1

20 lg G 20 lg Gi 20 lg Gi

**That is, Bode diagram of a open loop system is the superposition of the
**

Bode diagrams of the typical elements.

Example

10

G1 (s) 10

s(0.5s 1)

Constant gain K =10 (20lg10=20dB)

A pole at origin

First break frequency: 2 rad/s

G( s)

G2 ( s)

1

s

G3 ( s)

1

0.5s 1

Example

G( s)

10

s(0.5s 1)

-20dB/dec

-40dB/dec

**Facility method to plot the magnitude response
**

of the Bode diagram

Summarizing example, we have:

1) Mark all break frequencies in the ω-axis of the Bode diagram.

2) Determine the slope of the L(ω) of the lowest frequency band (before

the first break frequency) according to the number of the integrating

elements:

[-20] dB/dec for 1 integrating element

[-40] dB/dec for 2 integrating elements …

3) Continue the L(ω) of the lowest frequency band until to the first break

frequency, afterwards change the the slope of the L(ω)

The slope of the L(ω) should be increased 20dB/dec for the break frequency

of the 1th-order differentiating element .

The slope of the L(ω) should be decreased 20dB/dec for the break frequency

of the Inertial element …

**Facility method to plot the magnitude response
**

of the Bode diagram

Example: Plot the L(ω) of the G(s)

G( s)

10( s 1)

s(0.1s 1)(0.012 s2 0.01s 1)

( ) 90o tg 1 tg 1 (0.1 ) tg 1

0.01

1 (0.01 ) 2

51.3o 1

( ) 56.5o 10

174.9o 100

There is a resonant peak Mr at:

r n 1 2 2 100 1 2 0.52 70.7

Mr

1

2 1

2

1.154 1.25 dB

L( ), ( )

40dB

－20dB/dec

－20dB/dec

1.25dB

20dB

0dB, 0o

0.1

1

10

100

-45o

-90o

r

－60dB/dec

-135o

-180o

-225o

-270o

The Bode diagram

**Minimum-phase transfer function
**

A transfer function is called a minimum phase transfer

**function if its zeros and poles all lie in the left hand of s-plane.
**

A transfer function is called a non-minimum phase transfer

function if it has any zero or pole lie in the right hand of s-plane.

For the minimum phase systems we can affirmatively

determine the relevant transfer function only from the magnitude

response of the Bode diagram.

For the non-minimum phase system we must combine the

magnitude response and phase response together to determine

the transfer function.

**Minimum phase transfer function versus
**

Non-minimum phase transfer function

1

minimum phase

Ts 1

1

(2)

non - minimum phase

Ts 1

(1)

(3) s 1 minimum phase

(4) s 1 non - minimum phase

L( )

L( )

[+20]

1/T

(1)(2)

1/

[-20]

( )

( )

1/T

(1)

900

(3)(4)

(4)

900

(3)

(2)

1/

**The magnitude responses are the same.
**

But the phase responses are different when ω vary from 0 to infinite.

**Determine the transfer function of the minimum phase
**

systems from the magnitude response of the Bode diagram

L( )

Example 1#

－40dB/dec

－20dB/dec

0dB

0.1

1 2

10 20100 200

－40dB/dec

**we can get the G(s) from the Bode diagram :
**

G( s)

K (0.5s 1)

s 2 (0.005s 1)

**L( ) 20 log K 20 log 2 20 log( 0.5 )
**

K 40

20

0

**Determine the transfer function of the minimum phase
**

systems from the magnitude response of the Bode diagram

L( )

Example 2#

20dB

20dB/dec

－20dB/dec

0.5

200

0dB

0.1

1

10

100

**we can get the G(s) from the Bode diagram :
**

G( s)

Ks

(T1s 1)(T2 s 1)

and :

L( ) 20 log K 20 log 0.5 0

K 2

L(ω) 20 log 2 20 log 1/ T 20 dB T1 0.2

1

L( ) 20 log 2 20 log 20 log( 0.2 ) 20 log( T2 ) 200 0 T2 0.05

**Determine the transfer function of the minimum phase
**

systems from the magnitude response of the Bode diagram

Example 3#

we can get the G(s) from the Bode diagram :

K (0.01s 1) 2

G( s)

s(T 2 s 2Ts 1)

1

10 T 0.1

T

L( ) 20 log K 20 log 10 20 dB K 100

20 log

1

2ζ 1

2

L( )

8.136 0.2

－20dB/dec

100(0.01s 1) 2

then : G(s)

s(0.01s 0.04s 1)

8.136 dB

20 dB

0dB

0.1

1

10

100

－60dB/dec

－20dB/dec

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