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Automatic control System

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**Performance specifications in the frequency domain
**

For the closed loop systems

The general frequency response of a closed loop system is shown in Fig.

(1) Resonant frequency ωr:

Assume :

A( ) ( j )

r satisfy :

A(ω)

G ( j )

1 G ( j ) H ( j )

d

A( )

0

d

r

Mr

A(0)

0.707A(0)

(2) Resonant peak Mr :

M r A( )

0

r

(3) Bandwidth ωb:

b satisfy :

A( )

b

2

A(0) 0.707 A(0)

2

ωr

ωb

ω

**Performance specifications in the frequency domain
**

For the open loop systems

(1) Gain crossover frequency ωc: c satisfy :

G( jω) H ( jω)

(2) Gain margin h:

h

1

G( j ) H ( j )

;

Lh (dB) 20 log G( j ) H ( j )

g

Here g satisfies :

G( j ) H ( j ) 1800

g

(3) Phase margin γ:

1800 G( j ) H ( j )

Here c satisfies :

c

G( j ) H ( j ) 1

c

g

ωωc

1

**Relationship of the performance specifications
**

between the frequency and time domain

performance specifications in the time domain

Overshoot

Setting time

%

ts

Steady-state error

ess

**performance specifications in the frequency domain
**

Closed-loop

Open-loop

Resonant peak M r

Gain-crossover frequency

Resonant frequency

Bandwidth

b

r

Gain margin

h / Lh

Phase margin

c

**Relationship of the performance specifications
**

between the frequency and time domain

(1) Bandwidth ωb(or Crossover frequency ωc )

Generally ωb(or ωc )↑—— ts ↓

Setting time ts

**because of ωc≈ ωb .(higher order system)
**

(2) Resonance peak Mr

Overshoot σ%

Normally Mr ↑ — σ% ↑

h and γ ↓ — σ% ↑

Some experiential formulas:

Overshoot % [0.16 0.4( M r 1)] 100%

and

Mr

(1.1 M r 1.8)

1

sin

k

1

1

Settling time t s

, k 2 1.5

1 2.5

1

c

sin

sin

2

35

0

900

For most design problem, an optimum valueof M r : 1.1 M r 1.5

**Relationship of the performance specifications
**

between the frequency and time domain

For the typical first-order system:

G( s)

1

1

( s )

Ts

Ts 1

t s 3T

b 1 / T

-3 dB

**The bandwidth is the frequency b , at which the frequency response
**

Has declined 3 dB from its low-frequency value.

**Relationship of the performance specifications
**

between the frequency and time domain

For the typical 2th-order system:

n 2

n 2

G( s)

( s ) 2

2

s( s 2 n )

s 2 n s n

We have:

b n (1 2 2 ) 2 4 2 4 4

r n 1 2 2 (0

Mr

1

2 1 2

c n

tg 1

h

1 4 4 2 2

2

1 4 4 2 2

2

)

2

, n % , t s , t r ...

, n % , t s , t r ...

**“three frequency band” theorem
**

Open loop transfer function

Gs H s

s T s 1T

2 T s 1

K j s 1 l2 s 2 2 l l s 1

v

2 2

k

i

s

K open loop gain

k k

(db) 20lg G

[-20]

[40or60]

[-20]

0

1/ T1

0.1c

c

(2 10)c

[- 40]

low freqency

middlefreqency

band

band

10c

high freqency

band

[-60]

**“three frequency band” theorem
**

The performance analysis of the closed-loop system according

to the open-loop frequency response.

1. For the low frequency band

the low frequency band is mainly concerned with the control accuracy of the system.

** The more negative the slope of L(ω) is , the higher the control accuracy
**

of the system.

The bigger the magnitude of L(ω) is, the smaller the steady-state error ess is.

2. For the middle frequency band

The middle frequency band is mainly concerned with the transient performance of

the systems.

ωc↑— ts ↓;

h and γ ↓— σ% ↑

**The slope of L(ω) in the middle frequency band should be the –20dB/dec
**

and with a certain width .

**“three frequency band” theorem
**

3. For the high frequency band

The high frequency band is mainly concerned with the ability of the system

restraining the high frequency noise.

The smaller the magnitude of L(ω) is, the stronger the ability of the system

restraining the high frequency noise is.

Example 1: compare the performances between the system Ⅰ and system Ⅱ

Solution :

essⅠ > essⅡ

tsⅠ > tsⅡ

L( ) 20 log G( j ) H ( j )

－40

σ Ⅰ % = σⅡ %

**The ability of the system Ⅰ
**

restraining the high frequency

noise is stronger than system Ⅱ

0dB

ω

－20

－40

Ⅰ

Ⅱ

**Frequency response of the closed-loop system
**

How to obtain the closed-loop frequency response in terms

of the open-loop frequency response.

s

j

G s

1 G s

G j

1 G j

G j G e jG

j M e

j

G e j

1 G e j

M ( ) f1 G , G

( ) f 2 G , G

**Frequency response of the closed-loop system
**

M ( ) f1 G , G

( ) f 2 G , G

**The constant M circles: How to obtain the magnitude frequency response of
**

the closed-loop system in terms of the open-loop frequency response……

(refer to text book)

The constant N circles: How to obtain the phase frequency characteristic of

the closed-loop system in terms of the open-loop frequency response……

(refer to text book)

N.B.Nichols transformed the constant M and N circles to

the log-magnitude―phase diagram, and the resulting chart is called

the Nichols chart.

The Nichols chart: How to obtain the closed-loop frequency response in

terms of the open-loop frequency response……

(refer to text book)

The Nichols chart

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