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System analysis based on the frequency response

Performance specifications in the frequency domain
For the closed loop systems
The general frequency response of a closed loop system is shown in Fig.
(1) Resonant frequency ωr:
Assume :

A( )   ( j ) 

r satisfy :

A(ω)

G ( j )
1  G ( j ) H ( j )

d
A( )
0
d
 r

Mr
A(0)
0.707A(0)

(2) Resonant peak Mr :
M r  A( )  

0

r

(3) Bandwidth ωb:

b satisfy :

A( )   
b

2
A(0)  0.707 A(0)
2

ωr

ωb

ω

Performance specifications in the frequency domain
For the open loop systems
(1) Gain crossover frequency ωc: c satisfy :

G( jω) H ( jω)

(2) Gain margin h:
h

1
G( j ) H ( j )

;

Lh (dB)   20 log G( j ) H ( j )  

  g

Here g satisfies :

G( j ) H ( j )    1800
g

(3) Phase margin γ:

  1800  G( j ) H ( j )  
Here c satisfies :

c

G( j ) H ( j )    1
c

g

ωωc

1

Relationship of the performance specifications
between the frequency and time domain
performance specifications in the time domain
Overshoot
Setting time

%
ts

Steady-state error

ess

performance specifications in the frequency domain
Closed-loop

Open-loop

Resonant peak M r

Gain-crossover frequency

Resonant frequency
Bandwidth

b

r

Gain margin

h / Lh

Phase margin 

c

Relationship of the performance specifications
between the frequency and time domain
(1) Bandwidth ωb(or Crossover frequency ωc )
Generally ωb(or ωc )↑—— ts ↓

Setting time ts

because of ωc≈ ωb .(higher order system)
(2) Resonance peak Mr

Overshoot σ%

Normally Mr ↑ — σ% ↑
h and γ ↓ — σ% ↑
Some experiential formulas:
Overshoot  %  [0.16  0.4( M r  1)] 100%
and

Mr 

(1.1  M r  1.8)

1
sin 
k

 1

 1

Settling time t s 
, k  2  1.5
 1  2.5
 1
c
 sin  
 sin  

2

35

0

   900

For most design problem, an optimum valueof M r : 1.1  M r  1.5

Relationship of the performance specifications
between the frequency and time domain
For the typical first-order system:
G( s) 

1
1
 ( s ) 
Ts
Ts  1

t s  3T

b  1 / T
-3 dB

The bandwidth is the frequency b , at which the frequency response
Has declined 3 dB from its low-frequency value.

Relationship of the performance specifications
between the frequency and time domain
For the typical 2th-order system:

n 2
n 2
G( s) 
 ( s )  2
2
s( s  2 n )
s  2 n s  n
We have:
b  n (1  2 2 )  2  4 2  4 4

r  n 1  2 2 (0   
Mr 

1
2 1   2

c   n
  tg 1
h

1  4 4  2 2
2
1  4 4  2 2

2
)
2




   , n   % , t s , t r ...





   , n   % , t s , t r ...



“three frequency band” theorem
Open loop transfer function
Gs H s  


s T s  1T


 2 T s  1

K j s  1  l2 s 2  2 l l s  1
v

2 2
k

i

s

K  open loop gain

k k

(db) 20lg G
[-20]
[40or60]

[-20]
0

1/ T1

0.1c

c

(2 10)c
[- 40]

low freqency

middlefreqency

band

band

 10c

high freqency
band

[-60]

“three frequency band” theorem
The performance analysis of the closed-loop system according
to the open-loop frequency response.
1. For the low frequency band
the low frequency band is mainly concerned with the control accuracy of the system.

 The more negative the slope of L(ω) is , the higher the control accuracy
of the system.
 The bigger the magnitude of L(ω) is, the smaller the steady-state error ess is.
2. For the middle frequency band
The middle frequency band is mainly concerned with the transient performance of
the systems.
ωc↑— ts ↓;

h and γ ↓— σ% ↑

The slope of L(ω) in the middle frequency band should be the –20dB/dec
and with a certain width .

“three frequency band” theorem
3. For the high frequency band
The high frequency band is mainly concerned with the ability of the system
restraining the high frequency noise.
The smaller the magnitude of L(ω) is, the stronger the ability of the system
restraining the high frequency noise is.
Example 1: compare the performances between the system Ⅰ and system Ⅱ
Solution :
essⅠ > essⅡ
tsⅠ > tsⅡ

L( )  20 log G( j ) H ( j )
-40

σ Ⅰ % = σⅡ %

The ability of the system Ⅰ
restraining the high frequency
noise is stronger than system Ⅱ

0dB

ω

-20
-40

Frequency response of the closed-loop system
How to obtain the closed-loop frequency response in terms
of the open-loop frequency response.
 s  
 j  

G s 
1  G s 

G  j 
1  G  j 

G j   G e jG

 j   M  e

j  

G e j
1  G e j

M ( )  f1  G , G 

  ( )  f 2  G , G 

Frequency response of the closed-loop system
M ( )  f1  G , G 

  ( )  f 2  G , G 

The constant M circles: How to obtain the magnitude frequency response of
the closed-loop system in terms of the open-loop frequency response……
(refer to text book)
The constant N circles: How to obtain the phase frequency characteristic of
the closed-loop system in terms of the open-loop frequency response……
(refer to text book)
N.B.Nichols transformed the constant M and N circles to
the log-magnitude―phase diagram, and the resulting chart is called
the Nichols chart.
The Nichols chart: How to obtain the closed-loop frequency response in
terms of the open-loop frequency response……
(refer to text book)

The Nichols chart