Introduction
The performance of a feedback control system is
primary importance.
What is a suitable control system?
 It is stable.
 It results in an acceptable response to input commands.
 It is less sensitive to system parameter changes.
 It results in a minimum steadystate error for input.
 It is able to reduce the effect of undesirable disturbances.
Performance specifications
performance specifications in the time domain
Overshoot
Setting time
%
ts
Steadystate error
ess
y (t )
overshoot
0
t
tp
ts
Performance specifications
performance specifications in the frequency domain
Closedloop
Openloop
Resonant peak M r
Gaincrossover frequency
Resonant frequency
Bandwidth
b
r
Gain margin
c
h / Lh
Phase margin
20 lg G
Mr
G
r
b
c
0
0.707M (0)
h
Performance specifications
Typical complex domain indices are represented by the
location of the dominant poles
j
% e
1 2
100%
n
ts
3.5
n
or
t s 3T
1
T
n
o
Example
What is compensation or correction of a control system ?
For example :
G( s)
K
s(Ts 1)(s 1)
make this closed  loop systemcan be stable
Solution:
According to Routh  Hurwitz criterion, we can get : K T 1 1 1 (K 0 T 0)
T
But if : G ( s)
K
s 2 (Ts 1)
T
According to Routh  Hurwitz Criterion, this closed  loop
systemcan not be stable only varying K or T .
If we make : G( s)
K (s 1)
s 2 (Ts 1)
τ T
This closedloop system can be stable.
We make the system stable by increasing a component.
Compensation & Compensator
Increasing a component ,which makes the system’s
performance to be improved, other than only varying
the system’s parameters, this procedure is called
the compensation or correction of the system.
The compensating device may be electric,
mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, or some other
type of device or network and is often called
a compensator.
A compensator is an additional component that is
inserted into a control system to compensate for a
deficient performance.
Compensation & Compensator
K
, to increase component (s 1) ,
2
s (Ts 1)
the systemcan be stable, (s 1) is a compensator.
Example : G ( s)
The compensator can be placed in a suitable location within the
structure of the system.
The compensator placed in forward path is called a cascade (or
series) compensator.
R(s)
GC (s)
Controll
er
G(s)
controlled
process
Y (s)
Compensation & Compensator
Similarly, the other compensation schemes are called feedback,
output, input and disturbance compensation.
R(s)
Y (s)
R(s)
G(s)
GC (s)
R(s)
GC (s)
Y (s)
G(s)
H (s)
G(s)
H (s)
Gn (s)
Y (s)
N (s)
R(s)
GC (s)
H (s)
GC (s)
G(s)
Y (s)
Approaches to Compensation
In the following sections, we will assume that the process has been
improved as much as possible and that the G(s) representing the
process is unalterable.
For frequency response methods, we are concerned with altering the
system so that the frequency response of the compensated system will
satisfy the system specifications.
Alternatively the design of a control system can be accomplished in the
splane by root locus methods. For the case of the splane, the
designer wishes to alter and reshape the root locus so that the roots of
the system will lie in the desired position in the splane.
We shall consider the addition of socalled phaselead , phaselag and
phase laglead compensation network ,and describe the design of the
network by frequency response techniques.
Phaselead Compensation Network
Consider the firstorder compensator with the transfer function
Gc ( s)
Ts 1
Ts 1
( 1)
The design problem then becomes the selection of parameters and T ,
in order to provide a suitable performance.
Gc ( j) tan1 T tan1 T
1
The maximum value of the phase lead occurs at frequency m
T
1
The maximum phase lead is m arcsin
L
1
[+20]
The frequency m
is the geometric mean of
z 1 / T and p 1 / T.
20 lg G( jm ) 10 lg
10 lg
0
0
m
Gc
1
T
1
T
1
T
Phaselead Compensation Network
Gc ( s)
Ts 1
Ts 1
( 1)
00 m arcsin
1
900 ( 1)
1
The above equation is very useful for calculating a necessary ratio
between the pole and zero of a compensator in order to provide a required
maximum phase lead.
C
R1
V1
R2
Example : Phaselead electric network compensation
Gc ( s)
V2 ( s)
R2
V1 ( s) R1 R2
R1Cs 1
1 Ts 1
R2
R1Cs 1 Ts 1
R1 R2
R1 R2
R2
T
R1 R2
C
R1 R2
V2
Summary of Effects of Phaselead Compensation
Advantages and disadvantages of Phaselead controller on performance are :
1. Improving damping and reducing maximum overshoot.
2. Improving h(Lh) and γ.
3. Increasing Wc.
4. Reducing setting time because of increasing Wc
5. Possibly accentuating noise at higher frequencies.
Black curve 1 ― controlled process G(s) Bode plot
Red curve ― controller GC(s) Bode plot
Green curve 2 ― Compensated system GC(s)G(s) Bode plot
Example: A phaselead compensator design for
a secondorder system using the Bode diagram
Let us consider a singleloop feedback control system, where
G( s)
K
s(0.1s 1)
Y (s)
R(s)
GC (s)
G (s)
We want to have steadystate error ess=0.01 for an unit ramp input.
Furthermore, we desire that the phase margin of the system be at least
450 and the gain crossover frequency be at least 40 rad/s.
1
ess 0.01
K
K 100
Example: A phaselead compensator design for
a secondorder system using the Bode diagram
The first step is to plot the Bode diagram of the
uncompensated transfer function.
20 lg G
20dB / dec
40dB / dec
44
0
c 31 rad / s
10
17.90
c and don' t satisfy the specifications
22 31
88
6dB
Example: A phaselead compensator design for
a secondorder system using the Bode diagram
20 lg G
20dB / dec
100
G( s)
s(0.1s 1)
40dB / dec
Gc ( s)
0.04544s 1
0.01136s 1
Gc ( s)
Ts 1
Ts 1
44
0
10
22 31
88
6dB
( 1)
1
here T1
22,
T
1
T2
88
T
c 44rad / s
100(0.04544s 1)
G( s)Gc ( s)
0
s(0.1s 1)0.01136s 1
49.8
Black line : 20log G( j )
Green line : 20log G( j )Gc ( j)
Example: A phaselead compensator design for
a secondorder system using the Bode diagram
Blue line : controlled process Bode plot 20log G( j )
and G( j )
Green line : Compensated system Bode plot 20log G( j)Gc ( j) and G( j)Gc ( j)
Phaselag Compensation Network
Consider the firstorder compensator with the transfer function
1 Ts
Gc s
1 Ts
1
Y (s )
R(s )
GC (s )
G (s )
The design problem then becomes the selection of parameters and
T, in order to provide a suitable performance.
L
+
1/T
0

1/ T
20
0
0
L( ) 20 lg T
20 lg
T 1
T 1 ( T ) 1
( T ) 1
Gc ( j) tan 1 T tan1 T
<G
The phase of this compensator is always negative. Thus it is called a
phaselag compensator.
Phaselag Compensation Network
L
+
1/T
0

1/ T
20 lg
20
0
<G
The phaselag compensation transfer function can be obtained with the
network shown in the following Figure:
Gc ( s)
R1
vi
R2
C
v0
Vo ( s)
R2Cs 1
Vi ( s) ( R1 R2 )Cs 1
R2
R1 R2
Gc s
1 Ts
1 Ts
T ( R1 R2 )C
1
Summary of Effects of Phaselag Compensation
Advantages and disadvantages of Phaselag controller on performance are :
1. Improving damping and reducing maximum overshoot.
2. Improving h(Lh) and γ.
3. Filtering out highfrequency noise (lessening noise at higher frequencies).
4. Decreasing Wc.
5. Increasing settling time because of decreasing Wc .
1
T
Black curve 1 ― controlled process G(s) Bode plot
Red curve ― controller GC(s) Bode plot
Green curve 2 ― Compensated system GC(s)G(s) Bode plot
1
T
The phase laglead compensator
The phaselead compensator improves settling time,
phase margin and increase the bandwidth.
However, phaselag compensator when applied properly
improves phase margin but usually results in a longer
settling time.
Therefore, each of these control schemes has its
advantages, disadvantages,and limitations, and there are
many systems that cannot be satisfactorily compensated
by either scheme acting alone.
It is natural, therefore, whenever necessary, to consider
using a combination of the leadlag compensator, so
that the advantages of both schemes are utilized.
The phase laglead compensator
The transfer function of a laglead compensator can be written as
1 T1s 1 aT2 s
Gc ( s) Gc1 ( s)Gc 2 ( s)
1 T1s 1 T2 s
lag
( 1, 0 1)
lead
It is usually assumed that the two break frequencies of the lag portion are
lower than the two break frequencies of the lead portion.
L( ) 20 lg  G 
0
1
T1
1
T1
1
T2
1
T2
( ) G
The phase laglead compensator
Phase laglead electric network compensation
i
ei
R1
C1
R2
e0
C2
PID controllers in the frequency domain
The PID controller provides a proportional term, an integral term,
and a derivative term.
We have the PID controller transfer function as
KI
Gc ( s) K P
K D s Effects are similar to phase laglead compensation.
s
If we set K D 0 , we have the PI controller
Gc ( s) K P
KI
s
Effects are similar to phaselag compensation.
If we set K I 0 , we have the PD controller
Gc (s) K P K D s
Effects are similar to phaselead compensation.
PD controller
Effects are similar to phaselead compensation
transfer function : Gc (s) K p K D s
R (s ) ＋
－
Assuming :
G( s)
n
2
s( s 2 n )
＋
Kp
＋
K Ds
G (s )
C (s )
GC (s )
n 2 ( K P K D s )
The open  loop transfer function of the compensated systemis : Gc ( s)G( s)
s( s 2 n )
K
It shows that the PD controller is equivalent to adding a open loop zero at : s P
KD
Advantages and disadvantages of PD controller on the performance are :
1. Improving damping and reducing maximum overshoot.
2. Improving h(Lh) and γ.
3. Increasing Wc.
4. Reducing setting time because of increasing Wc .
5. Possibly accentuating noise at higher frequencies.
PI controller
Effects are similar to phaselag compensation
Transfer function : Gc ( s) K p K I
1
s
R(s)＋
－
n
s( s 2 n )
2
Assuming : G( s)
＋
Kp
＋
KI
1
s
G(s)
C(s)
GC (s)
The open loop transfer function of the compensated systemis :
Gc ( s)G ( s)
1
2
s n ( K P s K I )
s( s 2 n )
s 2 ( s 2 n )
n 2 ( K P K I )
PI controller is equivalent to adding a open loop zero at : s
KI
and a pole at : s 0
KP
Advantages and disadvantages of PI controller on the performance are :
1. Improving damping and reducing maximum overshoot.
2. Improving h(Lh) and γ.
3. Filtering out highfrequency noise (lessening noise at higher frequencies).
4. Decreasing Wc.
5. Increasing settling time because of decreasing Wc .
PID controller
Effects are similar to phase laglead compensation
1
Transfer function: Gc(s) K p K I K D s
s
R(s)

Kp
KI
+
G(s)
C(s)
1
s
K Ds
GC (s)
PID controller have advantages both of PI and PD.
Circuits of PI , PD and PID
R2
u
r
R1
C
U 0 ( s ) R2 (1 R C s)
1 1
UR (s) R
1
_
u0
+
u
r
R1
PI controller
C
R2
_
u0
+
PD controller
U 0 ( s ) R2 (1 1 )
UR (s) R
R2Cs
1
R2
ur
R1
C
1
C2
_
+
PID controller
u0
U0 (s) ?
UR (s)