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The Design of Feedback Control System

Introduction

The performance of a feedback control system is
primary importance.
What is a suitable control system?
-- It is stable.
-- It results in an acceptable response to input commands.
-- It is less sensitive to system parameter changes.
-- It results in a minimum steady-state error for input.
-- It is able to reduce the effect of undesirable disturbances.

Performance specifications
performance specifications in the time domain
Overshoot
Setting time

%
ts

ess

y (t )
overshoot

0

t

tp

ts

Performance specifications
performance specifications in the frequency domain
Closed-loop

Open-loop

Resonant peak M r

Gain-crossover frequency

Resonant frequency
Bandwidth

b

r

Gain margin

c

h / Lh

Phase margin 

20 lg G

Mr
G

r

b

c

0

0.707M (0)

h

Performance specifications
Typical complex domain indices are represented by the
location of the dominant poles
j

%  e



1 2

100%

n

ts 

3.5

 n

or
t s  3T

1
T

  n

o

Example
What is compensation or correction of a control system ?
For example :

G( s) 

K
s(Ts  1)(s  1)

make this closed - loop systemcan be stable

Solution:
According to Routh - Hurwitz criterion, we can get : K  T  1  1  1 (K  0 T  0)
T

But if : G ( s) 

K
s 2 (Ts  1)

T

According to Routh - Hurwitz Criterion, this closed - loop
systemcan not be stable only varying K or T .

If we make : G( s) 

K (s  1)
s 2 (Ts  1)

τ T

This closed-loop system can be stable.

We make the system stable by increasing a component.

Compensation & Compensator

Increasing a component ,which makes the system’s
performance to be improved, other than only varying
the system’s parameters, this procedure is called
the compensation or correction of the system.
The compensating device may be electric,
mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, or some other
type of device or network and is often called
a compensator.
A compensator is an additional component that is
inserted into a control system to compensate for a
deficient performance.

Compensation & Compensator
K
, to increase component (s  1) ,
2
s (Ts  1)
the systemcan be stable, (s  1) is a compensator.

Example : G ( s) 

The compensator can be placed in a suitable location within the
structure of the system.
The compensator placed in forward path is called a cascade (or
series) compensator.

R(s)

GC (s)
Controll
er

G(s)

controlled
process

Y (s)

Compensation & Compensator
Similarly, the other compensation schemes are called feedback,
output, input and disturbance compensation.

R(s)

Y (s)

R(s)

G(s)

GC (s)

R(s)

GC (s)

Y (s)

G(s)

H (s)

G(s)

H (s)

Gn (s)

Y (s)

N (s)

R(s)
GC (s)

H (s)

GC (s)

G(s)

Y (s)

Approaches to Compensation

In the following sections, we will assume that the process has been
improved as much as possible and that the G(s) representing the
process is unalterable.
For frequency response methods, we are concerned with altering the
system so that the frequency response of the compensated system will
satisfy the system specifications.
Alternatively the design of a control system can be accomplished in the
s-plane by root locus methods. For the case of the s-plane, the
designer wishes to alter and reshape the root locus so that the roots of
the system will lie in the desired position in the s-plane.
phase lag-lead compensation network ,and describe the design of the
network by frequency response techniques.

Consider the first-order compensator with the transfer function
Gc ( s) 

Ts  1
Ts  1

(  1)

The design problem then becomes the selection of parameters  and T ,
in order to provide a suitable performance.
  Gc ( j)  tan1 T  tan1 T
1

The maximum value of the phase lead occurs at frequency m
T 
 1
The maximum phase lead is  m  arcsin
L
 1
[+20]
The frequency  m

is the geometric mean of
z  1 / T and  p  1 / T.
20 lg G( jm )  10 lg 

10 lg 

0

0

m

Gc
1
T

1
T 

1
T

Gc ( s) 

Ts  1
Ts  1

(  1)

00  m  arcsin

 1
 900 (  1)
 1

The above equation is very useful for calculating a necessary  ratio
between the pole and zero of a compensator in order to provide a required
C

R1
V1

R2

Example : Phase-lead electric network compensation
Gc ( s) 

V2 ( s)
R2

V1 ( s) R1  R2

R1Cs  1
1 Ts  1
 
R2
R1Cs  1  Ts  1
R1  R2



R1  R2
R2

T

R1 R2
C
R1  R2

V2

Summary of Effects of Phase-lead Compensation
1. Improving damping and reducing maximum overshoot.
2. Improving h(Lh) and γ.
3. Increasing Wc.
4. Reducing setting time because of increasing Wc
5. Possibly accentuating noise at higher frequencies.

Black curve 1 ― controlled process G(s) Bode plot
Red curve ― controller GC(s) Bode plot
Green curve 2 ― Compensated system GC(s)G(s) Bode plot

Example: A phase-lead compensator design for
a second-order system using the Bode diagram
Let us consider a single-loop feedback control system, where

G( s) 

K
s(0.1s  1)

Y (s)

R(s)

GC (s)

G (s)

We want to have steady-state error ess=0.01 for an unit ramp input.
Furthermore, we desire that the phase margin of the system be at least
450 and the gain crossover frequency be at least 40 rad/s.

1
ess   0.01
K

K  100

Example: A phase-lead compensator design for
a second-order system using the Bode diagram
The first step is to plot the Bode diagram of the
uncompensated transfer function.
20 lg G

 20dB / dec

 40dB / dec

44

0

c  31 rad / s

10

  17.90

c and  don' t satisfy the specifications

22 31

88
 6dB

Example: A phase-lead compensator design for
a second-order system using the Bode diagram
20 lg G
 20dB / dec

100
G( s) 
s(0.1s  1)

 40dB / dec

Gc ( s) 

0.04544s  1
0.01136s  1

Gc ( s) 

Ts  1
Ts  1

44

0

10

22 31

88

 6dB

(  1)

1
here T1 
 22,
T

1
T2 
 88
T

100(0.04544s  1)
G( s)Gc ( s) 
 
0
s(0.1s  1)0.01136s  1
    49.8

Black line : 20log G( j )
Green line : 20log G( j )Gc ( j)

Example: A phase-lead compensator design for
a second-order system using the Bode diagram

Blue line : controlled process Bode plot 20log G( j )

and G( j )

Green line : Compensated system Bode plot 20log G( j)Gc ( j) and G( j)Gc ( j)

Phase-lag Compensation Network
Consider the first-order compensator with the transfer function
1   Ts
Gc  s  
1  Ts

   1

Y (s )

R(s )
GC (s )

G (s )

The design problem then becomes the selection of parameters  and
T, in order to provide a suitable performance.
L
+
1/T
0
-

1/ T

-20

0

0

L( )   20 lg T
20 lg 

  T 1
T 1    ( T ) 1

  ( T ) 1

  Gc ( j)  tan 1 T  tan1 T

<G

The phase of this compensator is always negative. Thus it is called a
phase-lag compensator.

Phase-lag Compensation Network
L
+
1/T
0
-

1/ T

20 lg 

-20

0
<G

The phase-lag compensation transfer function can be obtained with the
network shown in the following Figure:
Gc ( s) 

R1

vi

R2
C

v0



Vo ( s)
R2Cs  1

Vi ( s) ( R1  R2 )Cs  1

R2
R1  R2

Gc  s  

1   Ts
1  Ts

T  ( R1  R2 )C

   1

Summary of Effects of Phase-lag Compensation
1. Improving damping and reducing maximum overshoot.
2. Improving h(Lh) and γ.
3. Filtering out high-frequency noise (lessening noise at higher frequencies).
4. Decreasing Wc.
5. Increasing settling time because of decreasing Wc .

1
T

Black curve 1 ― controlled process G(s) Bode plot
Red curve ― controller GC(s) Bode plot
Green curve 2 ― Compensated system GC(s)G(s) Bode plot

1

T

The phase-lead compensator improves settling time,
phase margin and increase the bandwidth.
However, phase-lag compensator when applied properly
improves phase margin but usually results in a longer
settling time.
Therefore, each of these control schemes has its
many systems that cannot be satisfactorily compensated
by either scheme acting alone.
It is natural, therefore, whenever necessary, to consider
using a combination of the lead-lag compensator, so
that the advantages of both schemes are utilized.

The transfer function of a lag-lead compensator can be written as
 1  T1s  1  aT2 s 


Gc ( s)  Gc1 ( s)Gc 2 ( s)  
 1  T1s  1  T2 s 
lag

(  1, 0    1)

It is usually assumed that the two break frequencies of the lag portion are
lower than the two break frequencies of the lead portion.
L( )  20 lg | G |

0

1
T1

1
 T1

1
T2

1
T2

 ( )  G

i
ei

R1

C1

R2
e0
C2

PID controllers in the frequency domain
The PID controller provides a proportional term, an integral term,
and a derivative term.
We have the PID controller transfer function as
KI
Gc ( s)  K P 
 K D s Effects are similar to phase lag-lead compensation.
s

If we set K D  0 , we have the PI controller
Gc ( s)  K P 

KI
s

Effects are similar to phase-lag compensation.

If we set K I  0 , we have the PD controller
Gc (s)  K P  K D s

Effects are similar to phase-lead compensation.

PD controller
Effects are similar to phase-lead compensation
transfer function : Gc (s)  K p  K D s
R (s ) ＋

Assuming :

G( s) 

n

2

s( s  2 n )

Kp

K Ds

G (s )

C (s )

GC (s )

n 2 ( K P  K D s )
The open - loop transfer function of the compensated systemis : Gc ( s)G( s) 
s( s  2 n )
K
It shows that the PD controller is equivalent to adding a open  loop zero at : s   P
KD

1. Improving damping and reducing maximum overshoot.
2. Improving h(Lh) and γ.
3. Increasing Wc.
4. Reducing setting time because of increasing Wc .
5. Possibly accentuating noise at higher frequencies.

PI controller
Effects are similar to phase-lag compensation
Transfer function : Gc ( s)  K p  K I

1
s

R(s)＋

n
s( s  2 n )
2

Assuming : G( s) 

Kp

KI

1
s

G(s)

C(s)

GC (s)

The open  loop transfer function of the compensated systemis :
Gc ( s)G ( s) 

1
2
s  n ( K P s  K I )
s( s  2 n )
s 2 ( s  2 n )

n 2 ( K P  K I )

PI controller is equivalent to adding a open  loop zero at : s  

KI
and a pole at : s  0
KP

1. Improving damping and reducing maximum overshoot.
2. Improving h(Lh) and γ.
3. Filtering out high-frequency noise (lessening noise at higher frequencies).
4. Decreasing Wc.
5. Increasing settling time because of decreasing Wc .

PID controller
Effects are similar to phase lag-lead compensation
1
Transfer function: Gc(s)  K p  K I  K D s
s
R(s)

-

Kp
KI

+

G(s)

C(s)

1
s

K Ds

GC (s)

PID controller have advantages both of PI and PD.

Circuits of PI , PD and PID
R2

u
r

R1

C

U 0 ( s )  R2 (1  R C s)
1 1
UR (s) R
1

_

u0

+

u
r

R1

PI controller

C

R2

_

u0

+

PD controller

U 0 ( s )  R2 (1  1 )
UR (s) R
R2Cs
1
R2

ur

R1
C
1

C2

_
+
PID controller

u0

U0 (s)  ?
UR (s)