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THE INTEGRATION OF DISASTER RISK REDUCTION IN SCHOOL

CURRICULA IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS
IN LEGAZPI CITY DIVISION

A Dissertation
Presented to
The Faculty of the Graduate School
Bicol University
Legazpi City

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

by

ROMMEL R. REGALA
March 2014

Republic of the Philippines
Bicol University
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Legazpi City

RECOMMENDATION FOR DISSERTATION ORAL EXAMINATION
This dissertation entitled, THE INTEGRATION OF DISASTER RISK
REDUCTION IN SCHOOL CURRICULA IN SELECTED SECONDARY
SCHOOLS IN LEGAZPI CITY DIVISION, prepared and submitted by
ROMMEL R. REGALA, M.A.P.A., in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Public Administration is hereby submitted to the
Dissertation Committee for consideration and approval.

ATTY. ALEX B. NEPOMUCENO, Ph. D.
Adviser

______________________________
Date

Dissertation Committee
This dissertation entitled, THE INTEGRATION OF DISASTER RISK
REDUCTION IN SCHOOL CURRICULA IN SELECTED SECONDARY
SCHOOLS IN LEGAZPI CITY DIVISION, prepared and submitted by
ROMMEL R. REGALA, M.A.P.A., in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Public Administration is hereby recommended for oral
examination.

MELINDA D. DE GUZMAN, Ed. D.
Chairman

RAMESIS M. LORINO, Ph. D.
Member

JOSEPH L. BARTOLATA, Ph. D.
Member

CEDRIC D. DAEP, Ph. D.
External Member

ROWENA L. ONDIZ, Ph. D.
External Member

ii

Republic of the Philippines
Bicol University
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Legazpi City

RESULT OF THE ORAL EXAMINATION
Result of the Oral Examination for ROMMEL R. REGALA, M.A.P.A.,
candidate for the degree, Doctor of Philosophy in Public Administration.
Dissertation

:

THE INTEGRATION OF DISASTER RISK REDUCTION IN
SCHOOL CURRICULA IN SELECTED SECONDARY
SCHOOLS IN LEGAZPI CITY DIVISION

Date

: January 18, 2014

Place

: Bicol University, CBEM Office

Time

: 8:00 – 11:00 A.M.

This is to certify that ROMMEL R. REGALA, M.A.P.A. has passed the oral
examination with a final rating of ______________.

PANEL MEMBERS

ACTION TAKEN

MELINDA D. DE GUZMAN, Ed. D.

_____________________________

RAMESIS M. LORINO, Ph. D.

_____________________________

JOSEPH L. BARTOLATA, Ph. D.

_____________________________

CEDRIC D. DAEP, Ph. D.

_____________________________

ROWENA L. ONDIZ, Ph. D.

_____________________________

iii

Republic of the Philippines
Bicol University
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Legazpi City

APPROVAL SHEET
Upon recommendation of the Oral Examination Committee, this dissertation
entitled, THE INTEGRATION OF DISASTER RISK REDUCTION IN SCHOOL
CURRICULA IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LEGAZPI CITY
DIVISION, prepared and
submitted by ROMMEL R. REGALA, M.A.P.A., is
hereby approved in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy in Public Administration.

NORA L. LICUP, Ed. D.
Dean

HELEN M. LLENARESAS, Ed. D.
Vice President for Academic Affairs

FAY LEA PATRIA M. LAURAYA, Ph. D.
SUC President IV

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DEDICATION

This study is unconditionally and sincerely dedicated to my parents, relatives,
friends, and above all, God Almighty, our Master Teacher, the Source of the true wisdom
and knowledge and with whom nothing is impossible.

R.R.R.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The researcher would like to express his sincere appreciation and gratitude to the
following individuals who in one way or another contributed in making this study
possible:
Atty. Alex B. Nepomuceno, Ph.D., the researcher’s adviser, for his guidance, his
scholarly suggestions and ideas, which led to the betterment of this research;
Dr. Melinda D. De Guzman, Dr. Ramesis M. Loreno, Dr. Joseph L. Bartolata, Dr.
Cedric D. Daep, and Dr. Rowena L. Ondiz for sharing their educational inputs based on
experience;
Dr. Agnes J. Nepomuceno, for her willingness and generosity to help the
researcher in recording and editing his thesis;
Ms. Josefa V. Losañes for her motherly care and unselfish support given to the
researcher;
Ms. Begonia R. Argamosa-Buella, Ms. Annie B. Balbin and Ms. Erlinda M.
Malmis and Mr. Alfredo M. Narito for believing that the researcher could move on with
the study;
Ms. Vanessa D. Banico, Ms. Shane B. Llabore, Ms. Sally L. Din and Mr. Asset B.
Balin for their motivation and thought-nourishing suggestions, which inspired the
researcher to pursue this study;
Mr. Joseph F. Lopez and Miel Jhoance T. Lopez for the encouragement given to
the researcher;
The librarians of Bicol University for their willingness to help the researcher
particularly in searching for the appropriate references for the study;

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The DepEd personnel, particularly Dr. Cesar H. Medina, Ms. Fatima D. Buen,
Dr. Ricardo Ll. Llaneta, Ms. Erma Theresa G. Tabuena and Ms. Maria Teresa M.
Ruivivar for the support and coordination they have extended to the researcher during
the data gathering essential for the accomplishment of this study;
Ms. Liezl S. Bitancur, for inspiring the researcher as he goes on with the study;
To his close friends and classmates, Ms. Lisa P. Opeña, Ms. Amy R. Bello,
Ms. Carmelita L. Collada, Mr. Alden Galan, Ms. Nera Galan, Mr. Jeric Glenn Carrascal,
Ms. Ylanie Zuniga, Ms. Eda Paje, Ms. Erlinda Cabanela and other classmates, truly his
post graduate study would not be the same without you.
To his late biological parents, Minerva and Rodrigo, uncles and aunts, Papa Pons,
Papa Jun Rios, Mama Azun and Papa Jun Ursua, for the virtues they have taught when he
was younger. Their memories will stay forever in his heart;
To his Family, Mama Cit, Mama Ghie, Manoy Entong, Manay Eden, Manay
Siony, other cousins and relatives for their love and moral support that served as
inspirations in writing this study;
And most of all, God Almighty, who provides a better place on earth to enjoy and
explore each one’s life.

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ABSTRACT

Regala, Rommel Rios “The Integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in School
Curricula in Selected Secondary Schools in Legazpi City
Division”
Summary
This research determined the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in the School
Curricula in selected secondary schools in Legazpi City Division. Specifically, the study
sought answers to the following sub-problems: 1. What is the status of the integration of
Disaster Risk Reduction in the schools’ curricula?; 2. What are the factors that influence
the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in school curricula along the following:
a. Policies; b. Teachers’ Learning Program; c. Instructional Materials; and d. Facilities?;
3. What are the school policies and practices adopted for the integration of Disaster
Risk Reduction in terms of: a. Manpower; b. Funding; andc. Technical?; and 4. What
recommendations may be advanced to improve the Disaster Risk Reduction integration in
the school curricula?
The study highlighted concerns about the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction
into school curricula recognizing the role of education in addressing disaster problems:
(a) to evaluate in a reflective way, policies, methods and strategies for ensuring the
integration of disaster risk reduction focus within the context of the Philippine laws
concerning environmental issues; (b) to evaluate the opportunities for the implementation
of disaster risk reduction transformation initiatives within Legazpi City and as well to the
province of Albay; and (c) to evaluate the opportunities for the implementation of disaster
risk reduction transformation initiatives within the schools in the City Division of
Legazpi. Three complementary theories in the literature explore disaster risk and

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vulnerability and are taken into account in this study such as the Risk-Hazard (RH)
Model, Disaster Pressure and Release (PAR) Model, and Access Model.
The descriptive – evaluative methods of research was used in this study.
Questionnaire and analytical tool for documents were the instruments used in this study.
The statistical tools used were weighted mean and percentage techniques. A total
enumeration of 165 teacher respondents from the three schools selected including the
respective school heads constitute the main source of data.
Findings
Based on the analyses and interpretation of the data, the following are the
findings:
1. On the status of integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in the schools’ curricula.
The integration of DRR foci in English, Filipino and Mathematics were all found
to be very low indicating that it was not integrated in the selected secondary schools in
Legazpi City Division. Meanwhile, the integration of DRR concepts in the Sciences was
moderate demonstrating that mainstreaming DRR in the selected schools are moderately
integrated. In the subject, Araling Panlipunan, integration of DRR was low indicating that
it was partially integrated in the curricula of the three selected schools. Mainstreaming
DRR topics in MAPEH was moderate signifying that in the selected secondary schools in
Legazpi City it was moderately integrated. Consequently, most of the teachers percieved
that the integration of DRR in Values Education was very low revealing that it was not
integrated in their respective schools. On the otherhand, the respondent-teachers agreed
that the integration of DRR in T.L.E. was very low indicating that it was not integrated.
The same result for the DRR integration in the Citizens Advancement Training, the CAT

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Officials and Cadettes being incharge with the Organization of School Disater Risk
Reduction Management Group, was perceived very low by the teachers stating that in
their schools it was not integrated.
2. On the factors that influence the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in school
curricula.
a. Along Policies. The policies for the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in
the school curricula particularly the DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007 was institutionalized
and been disseminated in the three respective schools surveyed, however the same policy
statements were found to be unclear. Incidentally, it was found out that more than half of
the respondents were not aware of the Republic Act No. 10121 stating that it was not
institutionalized and not been disseminated. Most of the respondents perceived that the
policy objectives were unclear to them. However,

measures were undertaken by

Department of Education in the implementation of DRR Management Project as
identified by the teachers in the selected secondary schools in Legazpi City Division.
b. Along Teachers’ Learning Program. Most of the teachers, as part of DRR
integration in school curricula, are required to make lesson plan everyday. Earthquake
and fire drills were the method used to discuss DRR that is apparent in the learning
program. However, most of the teachers did not put into application the knowledge
gained from the teachers’ training on how to integrate DRR in their learning program.
c. Along Instructional Materials. The factors influencing the integration of DRR
in school curricula in terms of instructional materials are assessed through the use of the
DRR Manual, availability and accessibility of the instructional materials, and the
discussion of contents of the manual in respective subjects assigned for mainstreaming.

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d. Along Facilities. DepEd standards for disaster resilience must be considered in
designing and and constructing school buildings. Safety and risk reduction measures
should always be considered.
3. On the school policies and practices adopted for the integration of Disaster Risk
Reduction.
a. In Terms of Manpower. For the school level, to ensure the mainstreaming of
DRR Concepts provided in the Resource Manual, the duties and responsibilities as are
specified provided in DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007 for particular authorities such as
school head or principal, head teachers, CAT facilitators, teachers and other school
personnel in order to protect the lives of the members of the school community and
property.
b. In Terms of Funding. The funds were used for various activities, through
coordination with the Technical Working Group (TWG) and the Education Working
Group (EWG), to effectively implement the mainstreaming of Disaster Risk Reduction in
the Education Sector (MDRD-EDU).
c. In Terms of Technical. The Technical Working Group (TWG) undertakes
various techniques for Priority Implementation Partnerships (PIPs) in the mainstreaming
of Disaster Risk Reduction into school curricula.
4. On the recommendations that may be advanced to improve the Disaster Risk
Reduction integration in the school curricula.
The teachers who are at the forefront of the implementation of DRR in various
subjects recommended that DRR integration in the school curricula should be fully
institutionalized and be disseminated in all schools nationwide. According to the

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teachers, the DRR Resource Manual should be made accessible to all teachers, students,
vis-à-vis to effectively integrate DRR, the Technical Working Group and DepEd need to
institutionalize training and program on the DRR Manual.
Conclusions
Based on the foregoing findings, the following conclusions are drawn:
1. On the status of integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in the school curricula,
because of lack of political will in the enforcement and institutionalization of DRR by
DepEd personnel, who are supposed to monitor and evaluate the integration, it resulted to
very weak integration of DRR foci by teachers in their lesson. The results pose a big
threat not only to the students but also to the entire community that lack the awareness
and preparedness about disasters and its risks to the community being vulnerable to the
hazards of disasters.
2. On the factors influencing the integration of DRR in school curricula along
policies, since DepEd Order No. 55, s, 2007 and Republic Act No. 10121 were found not
to be fully institutionalized in the selected secondary schools in Legazpi City Division;
therefore the policy objectives, measures and statements were not clear to the majority of
the respondents.
Along teachers’ learning program, the teachers are all required to make daily
lesson plans. Supposedly, it was imposed that DRR foci were integrated in the teachers’
lesson plans on the respective learning areas they are assigned for mainstreaming, but
since the integration was very weak it can be construed that there is no integration of
DRR foci on teachers learning program. Unluckily, most of the teachers fail to put into
application the knowledge they have gained from the training concerning the integration

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of DRR, or worst there is no training at all concerning DRR integration.
Along instructional materials, the uses of DRR manual had been identified and
enumerated. With the DRR manual available online in the official website of DepEd. But
the same document, the DRR manual was not available and not accessible for use by the
teachers and students in their respective schools. Aside from Sciences, MAPEH and
Social Sudies; DRR topics in other subjects were not discussed because of the absence of
integration of DRR.
Along facilities, there is a need for DepEd to conform to the disaster standards for
resilience in designing and constructing school buildings in giving due considerations to
the ergonomics, anthropometrics, thermal comfort, illumination, acoustics and colors and
most importantly the safety and risk reduction measures.
3. On school policies and practices adopted for the integration of DRR in terms of
manpower, in order to ensure mainstreaming of DRR Concepts, DepEd Order No. 55, s.
2007 provides the duties and responsibilities to be assumed by particular persons in the
school level such as the school head or principal, the head teachers, the CAT facilitators,
and the teachers.
In terms of funding, the DRR budget was spent on various activieties to
effectively implement the Mainstreaming of Disaster Risk Reduction in the Education
Sector (MDRD-EDU) undertaken by Technical Working Group (TWG) together with the
Education Working Group (EWG) in order to improve the integration of DRR foci in the
school curricula.
In terms of technical, the individual member of Technical Working Group assume
definite roles to perform in thintegration of DRR in school curricula. Evidently based

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from data it was DepdEd together with NDRRMC that occupies most of the functions
throughout the process of integration.
4. The teachers recommended that in order improve the integration of DRR in the
school curricula, the Technical Working Group especially DepEd should fully
institutionalize and disseminate the existing policies about DRR integration in the school
curricul, ensure the availability and accessibility of the DRR Resource Manual for the
teachers, students and other school personnel, and training of teachers and other persons
concerned is a must.
Recommendations
In the light of the foregoing findings and conclusions, the following
recommendations are hereby forwarded, to wit:
1. The implementation of DepEd Oder, Republic Act and other existing laws
should be intensified and enforced extensively for the integration of DRR in the school
curricula throughout the country. Monitoring by DepEd officials should be done
religiously in all schools through evaluation checklist to conform if they enforced the
mainstreaming of Disater Risk Reduction.
2. The policies concerning DRR integration in the school curricula should be
thoroughly institutionalized and disseminated. Learning program should be done by
teachers everyday concerning DRR foci. The knowledge gained from trainings, seminars
and workshops attended, if there is, should be put into application by teachers. The
availability and accessibility of the DRR Manual in DepEd Division Offices, in all
schools and in the bookstores nationwide should be ensured. The public should be
informed about the availability of the DRR Manual to be downloaded in the official

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website of the Department of Education. Designing and constructing school buildings
should be done in accordance to the safety and risk reduction measures.
3. The duties and responsibilities to be assumed by the head of school/principal, head
teachers, teachers, CAT facilitators and other school personnel as provided in the Implementing Rules
and Regulations of the DepEd Order and other laws concerning DRR integration in the school
curricula should be clearly identified and defined, and be delegated to concerned personnel .
The funds should be allocated through linkages in order to undertake all activities

concerning the integration of DRR in the school curricula. The techniques for
undertaking Priority Implementation Partnerships (PIPs) for mainstreaming DRR should
be familiarized by every school personnel, teachers and students.
4. The recommendations by teachers in the respective schools surveyed for this
study particularly intensifying the institutionalization and dissemination of DepEd Odrer
and other existing laws concerning the integration of DRR in school curricula should be
considered. According to the teachers, the availability and acessibility of the DRR
Resource Manual should be ensured. Also, teachers and other personnel concern should
be trained regarding the mainstreaming of Disaster Risk Reduction.
5. There should be a need to put up an office for Disaster Risk Reduction in every
school to ensure that integration is implemented, monitored, and evaluated.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
Title Page…………………………….…………………………………………………….i
Recommendation for the Oral Examination…....................................................................ii
Result of the Oral Examination..........................................................................................iii
Approval Sheet……….………………………...…………………….…………………..iv
Dedication…………………………………….…………………………………….……..v
Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………………..vi
Abstract………………….……………….………………………………………….......viii
Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………….….xvi
List of Tables……………………………………………………….……………….…..xix
List of Figures…………………………………………………………...……….…....…xx
CHAPTER
1. THE PROBLEM
Introduction……………………...………………………….………………..……1
Statement of the Problem………………...………………….…………………...11
Scope and Delimitation………………………………….……………………….12
Significance of the Study…………………………….…………………..….…...12
Notes………………………………..………………...………………………….15
2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
Related Literature…………….…………….……………………………………17
Related Studies……………….……………………….…………………………39
Synthesis of the State-of-the-Art………….……….………....………….………62

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PAGE
Gap Bridged by the Study………………….…..……………..…………………63
Theoretical Framework…………..….…………………………………………...63
Conceptual Framework…………..….…………………………………………...72
Definition of Terms………………………….…………………..………………74
Notes…………...………………………..…………………………….…..……..79
3. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
Research Methods……….…………...…….…..………………………………..85
Sources of Data…………..…..….…….…..…………………………...………..86
Respondents………………………..……………………………………………87
Instruments Used……..………..…….…..………..…………….….……………88
Data Collection Procedure………………..…..………………….………………90
Statistical Treatment of Data……….……………………………………………91
Notes………………………………………….………………………….………93
4. THE INTEGRATION OF DISASTER RISK REDUCTION IN SCHOOL
CURRICULA IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LEGAZPI
CITY DIVISION
Status of the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in the Schools’ curricula….95
Factors Influencing the Integration of DRR in School Curricula
Policies……………………………………………………………….…107
Teachers’ Learning Program……………………………………………113
Instructional Materials……………………………………………...…..114
Facilities……………...…………………………………………………124

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PAGE
School Policies and Practices Adopted for the Integration of DRR
Manpower……………...…….…………………………………………129
Funding……………...…………………………………………………133
Technical………………...………………………………………….….136
Recommendation that may be Advanced to Improve the Integration of DRR
in the School Curricula…………………………………………………………143
5. SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary………………………………………………………………………..146
Findings…………………………………………………….............…………..147
Conclusions…………………………………………………………..…………154
Recommendations……………………………………………………..………..156
BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………………………………………..……....159
APPENDICES
A

Questionnaire………………………………….……………..…………166

B

Letters to the Schools Division Superintendent and Principals to
Conduct the study……………………..……………………………….178

C

Certification from the Editor…….………..………………..……….….182

D

DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007……………..………………..……….….183

E

Monitoring and Evaluation Tools…………………………………...….198

F

Curriculum Vitae……………………………………………………….207

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LIST OF TABLES
Table

Page

1

Countries with hazards teaching in primary or secondary schools………30

2

Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 (HFA)-Five Priority Areas
and Key Activities………………………………………………………..66

3

Distribution of Respondents……………………………………………..88

4

Status of Integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in School Curricula…..96

5

Factors Influencing the Integration of DRR in School Curricula along
Policies…….……………………………………………………………110

6

Factors Influencing the Integration of DRR in School Curricula along
Teachers’ Learning Program……………………………………………114

7

Factors Influencing the Integration of DRR in School Curricula along
Instructional Materials………………………………………………….116

8

Factors Influencing the Integration of DRR in School Curricula along
Facilities….………………………………………………………….….125

9

School Policies and Practices Adopted for the Integration of DRR
in Terms of Manpower…………………………………………………131

10

School Policies and Practices Adopted for the Integration of DRR
in Terms of Funding……………………………………………………134

11

School Policies and Practices Adopted for the Integration of DRR
in Terms of Technical………………………………………………….137

12

Recommendation to Improve the DRR Integration in the School
Curricula…………………………………………………………….…144

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure

Page

1

The Number of Natural Disaster Recorded Worldwide in 1900-2010…..18

2

Economic Damage Caused by Natural Disaster in 1900-2010………......19

3

Mortality Risk for Tropical Cyclones in Two Countries
with Similar Exposure: Japan and Philippines…………………………...21

4

Risk-Hazard (RH) Model………………………………………………...64

5

Disaster Pressure and Release (PAR) Model…………………………….65

6

Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR)………………………...67

7

Paradigm of Theoretical Framework…………………………………….71

8

Paradigm of the Conceptual Framework......………………..…………...73

9

Graph Showing the Status of Integration of DRR in English……………97

10

Graph Showing the Status of Integration of DRR in Filipino…………...98

11

Graph Showing the Status of Integration of DRR in Mathematics……...99

12

Graph Showing the Status of Integration of DRR in Science………….100

13

Graph Showing the Status of Integration of DRR in AP……………....101

14

Graph Showing the Status of Integration of DRR in MAPEH…………103

15

Graph Showing the Status of Integration of DRR in ESP...…………...104

16

Graph Showing the Status of Integration of DRR in TLE…………..…105

17

Graph Showing the Status of Integration of DRR in CAT.…………….106

18

Suggested Activities for Disaster Risk Reduction Integration.….……..140

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Chapter 1
THE PROBLEM
Introduction
Disaster, natural or man-made, has always been the consequence of interactions
between human and nature, technology and other living entities. Etymologically, disaster
is derived from the Middle French word désastre and from Old Italian disastro, which in
turn comes from the Greek pejorative prefix (dus) “bad,” (aster) “star,” which means
“bad star” in Greek. The root word of disaster comes from an astrological theme in which
the ancient people used to refer to the destruction or deconstruction of a star as a disaster.
A disaster is a hazard resulting in an event of considerable degree that triggers significant
physical damage or destruction, loss of life, or drastic change to the environment.
Disasters being inevitable and recurring very frequently continuously affecting the way
man live his daily life.1
A sudden calamitous event, a disaster seriously unsettles the way of life of the
society and causes, human, material, and economic or environmental losses that is
beyond the ability of the society to cope using their own resources. Disaster is oftentimes
caused by nature, sometimes by human origin. A disaster occurs when a hazard impacts
on vulnerable people. The combination of hazards, vulnerability and inability to reduce
the potential negative consequences of risk results in disaster that can be best illustrated
through this formula: (Vulnerability + Hazard) / Capacity = Disaster.2 In this context,
vulnerability can be defined as weakened capacity of an individual or group of society to
anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impact of a natural or man-made
hazard. Oftentimes vulnerability is related to poverty, but vulnerability also arises when

2
people are isolated, insecure and defenseless in the face of risk, shock or stress. Risk
Exposure differs on various group of society as a result of their ethnicity, gender, age,
and other factors. Vulnerability also varies on its forms: poverty, for an instance, may
imply that housing is unable to endure an earthquake or a hurricane, or lack of
preparedness may result in a slower response to a disaster, leading to greater loss of life
or prolonged suffering. On the other hand is capacity, which can be described as the
resources available to individuals, households and communities in order to cope with the
danger that they may encounter and or to resist the impacts of a hazard. Resources can be
physical or material in form, but they can also be found in a way the community is
organized or through the skills or attributes of individuals and organizations in the
community.
In order to determine the people’s vulnerability, there are two question need to be
asked: (a) To what threat or hazard are they vulnerable? (b) What makes them
vulnerable to that threat or hazard? Counteracting vulnerability requires: (a) Reducing the
impact of the hazard itself where possible through mitigation, prediction, warning and
preparedness; (b) Building capacities to withstand and cope with hazards; (c) Tackling
the root causes of vulnerability, such as poverty, poor governance, discrimination,
inequality and inadequate access to resources and livelihood. People’s level of
vulnerability and the extent of their capacity to resist, cope with and recover from hazards
are determined by physical, economic, social and political factors. Evidently, poverty
contributes much to vulnerability. Poor people are more likely to live and work in an
areas exposed to potential hazards, while they are less likely to have the resources to cope
with disaster when it strikes.3

3
Oftentimes caused by nature, disasters are sometimes instigated by human origins.
Triggered either by rapid or slow onset events, natural hazards are naturally occurring
physical phenomena which can be geophysical, hydrological, climatological, and
biological. Geophysical disasters are earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis and volcanic
activities. Avalanches and floods are hydrological disasters. Climatological disasters are
the following: extreme temperatures, drought, wildfires, and cyclones, storms, wave
surges which are characterized meteorologically. Disease epidemics and insect or animal
plagues are examples of biological disasters. These phenomena causes damage to life,
property and destroy the economic, social and cultural life of people. Technological or
man-made hazards are the events caused by humans and occur in or close to human
settlements. This includes environmental degradation, pollution, conflicts or complex
emergencies, famine, displaced populations, industrial and transport accidents. There are
a range of challenges that will shape humanitarian assistance in the future. These
aggravating factors include climate change, unplanned urbanization, under-development
or poverty as well as the threat of pandemics that will result in increased frequency,
complexity and severity of disasters.4
In a modern academic world, disasters are seen as consequences of inappropriate
risk management. Disaster Risk Management, What is it anyway? What is Disaster Risk
Reduction? Aimed to reduce the socio-economic vulnerabilities to disaster as well as
dealing with the environmental and other hazard that triggers them, Disaster Risk
Reduction is a systematic approach to identify, assess and reduce the risk of a disaster.
Disaster Risk Reduction aims to reduce the damaged caused by natural hazards like
earthquakes, floods, droughts and cyclones through an ethic of prevention. Frequently

4
following natural hazards, disaster’s severity depends on how much impact a hazard has
on society and the environment. In turn, the scale of impact of disaster depends on the
choices we made for our lives and for our environment. Wherein , these choices relates
on how we grow our food, where and how we build houses, what kind of government we
have, how our financial systems work and even what we teach in schools.
The decision and action that we make lead us to be more vulnerable to disasters or
more resilient to them. So therefore, disaster risk reduction is about choices, the choices
that we made. The concept and practice of reducing disaster risk is disaster risk
management, which is through the systematic efforts to analyze and reduce the factors
causing disasters. Examples of disaster risk reduction are the following: (a) reducing
exposure to hazards; (b) lessening vulnerability of people and property; (c) wise
management of land and the environment; and (d) improving preparedness for adverse
events. Since Disaster has always been the consequences of interactions between human
and nature, technology and other living entities, therefore, disaster risk reduction is
everyone’s business. Although part of sustainable development, Disaster Risk Reduction
includes disciplines like disaster management, disaster mitigation and disaster
preparedness. In order for development activities to be sustainable they must also reduce
disaster risk. Conversely, unsound development policies will increase disaster risk and
disaster losses. Thus, disaster risk reduction involves every part of society, every part of
government, and every part of the professional and private sector.5
The Republic of the Philippines is a member country of the Regional Consultative
Committee on Disaster Management (RCC) under its program on Mainstreaming
Disaster Risk Reduction into Development (MDRD), with other 25 member Asian

5
countries. Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction in the Education Sector was in support
to the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action through mainstreaming of
DRR into Development Planning and Implementation by the United Nations –
International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UN-ISDR). The roles of the RCC were the
following: (a) Identification of disaster-related needs and priorities of Asia and Pacific
countries, (b) Promotion of regional and

sub-regional cooperative programs, and

(c) Development of regional action strategies for disaster reduction.6
The Department of Education took a lead through the issuance of DepEd Order
No. 55, s. 2007 prioritizing the mainstreaming of Disaster Risk Reduction Management
in the School System and implementation of programs and projects relative to it. The
issuance of the memorandum was in support in building schools, nations and
communities resilient to disaster as one of the objectives of the Hyogo Framework for
Action 2005-2015 which is now considered as priority policy for implementation by the
Department. The Hyogo Framework for Action is a global blue print for disaster risk
reduction efforts which aims to reduce disaster loses in lives, properties, social, economic
and environmental assets of communities and countries by year 2015.
One of the activities undertaken by DepEd under the Non-Structural component
of the Safe Schools Program is the preparation of the Disaster Risk Reduction Resource
Manual (DRRRM) which will serve as a source of information to be used by school
administrators, school heads/principals, supervisors, and teachers relative to the
implementation of disaster risk reduction management projects. Integration of Disaster
Risk Reduction Focus on the lessons was done through the existing subjects, which are

6
already taught thinking it would be more effective than creating a new subject. It was felt
that this approach would make it easier for the children to understand the subject. 7
On May 27, 2010 after President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo had signed Republic
Act No. 10121, the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction Education into the School
Curricula was strengthened. Provisions under Section 14 of the said law indicated that the
Department of Education (DepEd), the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), and
the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), in coordination
with the other agencies shall integrate Disaster Risk Reduction and Management
Education in the school curricula of secondary and tertiary level education, including the
National Service Training Program (NSTP), whether private or public, including formal
and non-formal, technical-vocational, indigenous learning, and out-of-school youth
courses and programs.8
The status of mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in the education
sector in the Philippines in some extent, DRR concepts can be found in existing subjects
but there was no formal curriculum related to DRR. The DRR module, developed under
MDRD-Education Project in 2007, is for Grade 7. The Department of Education (DepEd)
has refined the lessons exemplar on the basis of the inputs made by the other agencies of
the government, which has expertise on the field, in order to develop the DRR module.
The chapters on Civil Disorder and Civil Unrest have been removed. Climate change and
Global warming has been added. The final DRR module was integrated into (3) chapters
with (12) lessons in Science-I and (4) chapters with (16) lessons in Social Studies of 1st
year of secondary school (Grade 7). The units cover:

Natural Hazards, Climate

Change/Global Change, Family Disaster Plan, Volcanoes, Heat Wave, Tornado, and Fire.

7
Each unit shows the chapter into which the lesson is to be integrated. This tells the
teacher the topics that have to be covered while teaching the lesson and chapter. The
lesson includes group activities that are to be coordinated by the teacher in the class
room. It also includes questions to be asked to the students, the topics that the teacher
should cover in the lecture, an application of the knowledge that the teacher will conduct
with the students (learning activity) and methodology for evaluation of learning by the
students. Each lesson has similar components.9
Albay, the place we call home, is among the provinces in the Philippines which
are often beat by typhoons. Albay is prone to calamities like volcanic eruptions,
typhoons, floods, landslides, storm surges, droughts and earthquakes where millions of
pesos worth of damages to both economic and social infrastructures have most often
reported during such calamities. Naturally, when the place we call home is prone to
disaster, we are compelled to undertake precautionary measures to be prepared when the
next disaster strikes. Such is the situation of Albay taking measures to reduce the impact
of natural disasters on its community. In 1995, the Province of Albay institutionalized the
Albay Public Safety and Emergency management Office (APSEMO) which was tasked
to design and implements a disaster risk management and reduction program. APSEMO’s
main objective was to developed more pro-active and disaster resilient communities. The
institution was able to attain its objective by pursuing a community based disaster risk
management approach. The program involves the local communities in formulating early
warning markers and by disseminating alarm information and advisories in order to avoid
or reduced the impact of disaster. Also, they are involved in planning activities which are
essential in disaster management before, during and after an emergency. The institution

8
also undertakes family disaster preparedness activities so that people will be more aware
of what to do before, during and after a disaster. To make evacuation more organized,
there are assigned roles for everyone and designated pick up points have been identified.
There is empowerment upon the people to decide when to undertake pre-emptive
evacuation because they are properly equipped with early warning devices and tools. The
Barangay Disaster Coordinating Councils with the help of the evacuees assumes the
management of evacuation centers during the initial onset of a disaster. Drills and
exercises are conducted quarterly by the communities. The program enabled the province
to chalk-up almost zero casualties from typhoons and volcanic eruptions.10
Albay Public Safety and Emergency management Office acknowledged that
evacuating and rebuilding affected communities is costly and that they remain at risk. In
order to solve the issue APSEMO devices a better solution which it refers to as
geostrategic intervention (GUICADALE), wherein it identified communities and areas
that are prone to disasters through risk mapping and identified safe areas and drew up
comprehensive land use plans. Through relocation of the disaster prone communities and
commercial centers to safe areas, Albay Province hopes to reduce the impact of natural
disasters on its people. Since there is community involvement in the planning and
implementation of the program, the families willingly rendered their labor as their
counterpart in the construction of their relocation homes. With this program, Albay
managed to integrate disaster preparedness with economic development and had been
enticed more entrepreneurs to invest around the area. The Department of the Interior and
Local Government recognizes the success of the Province of Albay in institutionalizing
the APSEMO for them to be included in the DILG’s Good Practices in Local

9
Governance. Today, the Province ensured the Albayanos to be well ahead in guaranteeing
climate-proofed and disaster prepared communities.11
The province of Albay, in partnership with the Department of Education had set
the integration of DRR lessons in the curricula of public education institutions where
over 6,000 public school teachers undergo Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) training.
According to Governor Joey Salceda, the inclusion of DRR in the curricula is important
as the province is always under recurrent threats from Mount Mayon, lahar and flash
floods and inundations brought by torrential rains due to the adverse impact of climate
change and weather disturbances. The Albay Provincial Government and the Department
of Education – Region V initiated climate change adaptation as part of the major subjects.
Its objective is for the students to be fully aware of DRR and climate change adaptation
strategies. Climate change was finally added into major subjects through the partnership
of Albay and DepEd from Grade 4 pupils in the elementary to secondary levels under the
K to 12 Curriculum. The Governor wants to make sure that school children grasp their
Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation strategies out of their lessons
from English, Science, Social Studies, Arts and even Mathematics so that they become
fully aware of our zero casualty goals every time there is a disaster. Cedric Daep, Albay
Public Safety and Emergency Management Office (APSEMO) chief and concurrent head
of Center for Initiatives and Research on Climate Adaptation (CIRCA) said the training
of more than 6,000 public school teachers across the province was done at Climate
Change Academy. The climate change adaptation strategies will be integrated to public
school syllabus in English, Science, Social Studies, Arts and even Mathematics. This new
scheme and strategy in all public school levels are in consonance with Salceda's "zero

10
casualty goal" every time a disaster happens. The governor also expressed hope that the
new curriculum exemplars for public schools in Albay on DRR could be integrated
throughout the region and in the country as a whole as the adverse impact of climate
change is getting extreme. Bicol Region specifically Albay province, is considered as the
"one-stop-shop" of disasters due to its geographical location that makes it prone not only
to volcanic eruption, but also to flash floods, typhoons, landslide, earthquakes and
tsunami threats.12
This study assessed the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction into school
curricula recognizing the role of education in addressing disaster problems. Specifically,
the research is guided by the objective of evaluating in a reflective way, policies, methods
and strategies for ensuring the infusion of disaster risk reduction focus within the context
of the Philippine laws concerning environmental issues; the opportunities for the
implementation of disaster risk reduction transformation initiatives within Legazpi City
and as well

to the province of Albay; and evaluating the opportunities for the

implementation of disaster risk reduction transformation initiatives within the schools in
the City Division of Legazpi.
Disaster risk reduction begins at school wherein all places of learning, especially
on the basic education, must integrate disaster management into their curriculum across
all subject matters and ensure that they have educators with relevant training to discuss
disaster management topics. The researcher believes that educating the public concerning
disaster risk reduction would contribute helping build a future where Filipinos live in
harmony with nature.

11
Statement of the Problem
This study determined the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in the School
Curricula in selected secondary schools in Legazpi City Division addressing the local
community’s disaster issues.
Specifically, the study sought answers to the following sub-problems:
1. What is the status of the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in the schools’
curricula?
2. What are the factors that influence the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in
schools’ curricula along the following:
a. Policies;
b. Teachers’ Learning Program;
c. Instructional Materials; and
d. Facilities?
3. What are the school policies and practices adopted for the integration of Disaster Risk
Reduction in terms of:
e. Manpower;
f. Funding; and
g. Technical?
4. What recommendations may be advanced to improve the Disaster Risk Reduction
integration in the school curricula?

12
Scope and Delimitation
The time and financial constraints prevented the researcher from conducting an
extensive study. Hence, the study was only focused on the three secondary schools within
and nearby the metropolis of Legazpi City, such as: Pag-Asa National High School, Oro
Site High School, and Taysan Resettlement Integrated School – High School Department.
A total enumeration of 165 teacher respondents from the three schools selected including
the respective school heads constitute the main source of data.The locale of the study was
made on the basis that the three secondary schools within Legazpi City Division are
frequently affected by floods and soil erosion during heavy rains and typhoons, and even
exposed to the risk of shack fires during the hotter months.
The time frame of the study is within the first semester of School Year 20132014. Moreover, the schools were selected due to the vulnerability of the same to natural
disasters. However, the risks faced by each school differ based on the geophysical
characteristics of each site, to wit; Pag-Asa National High school poses danger towards
shack fire, flood and volcanic eruption; Oro Site High School is prone to extensive
flooding and shack fires; and Taysan Resettlement Integrated School, on the other hand,
faces flash flood, soil erosion and earth quake.
Significance of the Study
This study is deemed important for it would benefit the following people and
agencies:
The Government. The results of this study will provide the administrators and
personnel of the city of Legazpi, the province of Albay and other local government units
across the Philippines together with the national government, with additional information

13
and insights regarding the importance of education among the public concerning disaster
risk reduction management by reviewing the current policies and programs of the
government and the promulgation of the amendments on disaster management policies.
The government should learn to manage and maintain a true response to disasters caused
by natural hazards and make most effective use of its resources. The more the
government and people understand risk and vulnerability, the better equipped they will be
to mitigate disasters when they strike, and thus, saving more lives. The idea
The Department of Education. The study will supplement the Department by
strengthening the disaster risk reduction in the school curriculum to develop future adults
who are responsible and able to identify hazardous situations within their own
community and ways of reducing disaster risk through proper application of sustainable
development practices.
The Community. For the local community and as well the whole nation, this
study will help them realize and address the risk and vulnerability they confront being
exposed to unsafe conditions under the circumstances of calamities. This study asserts the
development of a world population that is aware of, and concerned about disasters and
their associated problems, and which has the knowledge, skills, attitudes, motivations and
commitment to work individually and collectively toward solutions of current disaster
problems and prevention of new ones. The study opens opportunities to improve the
living standards of the communities by granting social groups and individuals an
opportunity to be actively involved at all levels in working towards the resolution of any
localized problems like disaster risk management.

14
The Academe. Recognizing the role of education in protecting and conserving
nature and as well managing the disaster risk reduction, this study will be contributory for
the schools, being the better place of institution, to address environmental concerns
through the development of education that can maintain and improve the quality of life
and prevent future disaster problems, a type of education striving towards sustaining
future generations.
The Researchers and Readers. To the researcher himself, being a public
administration student as well other social researchers, this study will give them insights
about the nature of disaster risk-related problems as well as to give meaning to the
complexities and dynamics around disaster issues brought about by the interaction of
socio-economic and political factors to which peoples’ vulnerabilities are attributed.
Furthermore, this will also indicate key opportunities and options provided by both
education and disaster management policies respectively, with particular emphasis on
inclusion of a disaster risk reduction focus and disaster risk management into teachers’
lesson planning. The researcher will enlighten the mind of the readers and inculcate the
wisdom that he had learned along the way while doing this research.
The Field of Public Administration. This study provides for public
administration researchers and practitioners, the data on the efforts of the government
regarding disaster risk management and the education reform through the promulgation
of disaster management legislation and its related policies.

15
NOTES
1

WIKEPEDIA The Free Encyclopedia. Disaster.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disaster (accessed 2013, May 27).

Retrieved

from:

2

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. What is a
disaster?
Retrieved
from:
http://www.ifrc.org/en/what-we-do/disastermanagement/about-disasters/what-is-a-disaster/ (accessed 2013, June 2).
3

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. What is
vulnerability?
Retrieved
from:
http://www.ifrc.org/en/what-we-do/disastermanagement/about-disasters/what-is-a-disaster/what-is-vulnerability/ (accessed 2013,
June 2).
4

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Types of
disasters: Definition of hazard. Retrieved from: http://www.ifrc.org/en/what-wedo/disaster-management/about-disasters/definition-of-hazard/ (accessed 2013, June 2).
5

UNISDR-The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction. What is
Disaster risk reduction? Retrieved from: http://www.unisdr.org/who-we-are/what-is-drr
(accessed 2013, June 4).
6

Regional Consultative Committee on Disaster Management (RCC). February
2010
Brochure.
Retrieved
from:
http://www.adpc.net/v2007/Downloads/2010/Feb/RCCBrochure.pdf (accessed 2013, July
25).
7

DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007. Prioritizing the Mainstreaming of Disaster Risk
Reduction Management in the School System and Implementation of Programs and
Projects Relative Thereof. Republic of the Philippines, Department of Education, August
10, 2007.
8

Republic Act No. 10121. An Act Strengthening the Philippine Disaster Risk
Reduction and Management System, Providing for the National Disaster Risk Reduction
and Management Framework and Institutionalizing the National Disaster risk Reduction
and management Plan, Appropriating funds Thereof and for other Purposes, Republic of
the Philippines, Congress of the Philippines, May 27, 2010.
9

Luna, Emmanuel M. et al., April 2008. Mainstreaming disaster risk reduction in
the
education
sector
in
the
Philippines.
Retrieved
from:
http://www.adpc.net/v2007/programs/dms/PROGRAMS/Mainstreaming%20DRR/Downl
oads/Philippines.pdf (accessed 2013, September 9).

16
10

Galing Pook. Albay Disaster Risk Reduction. Retrieved from:
http://www.galingpook.org/main/component/content/article/132-albay (accessed 2013,
June 4).
11

Ibid.
12

Science.ph. 6,000 public school teachers in Albay set to undergo disaster risk
reduction
training
Retrieved
from:
http://www.science.ph/full_story.php?type=News&key=6960:6000-public-schoolteachers-in-albay-set-to-undergo-disaster-risk-reduction-training
(accessed
2013,
September 9).

Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies. The researcher
gathered pertinent documents published on print and online, locally and abroad, in order
to provide a theoretical background and comprehensive review on the extent of disasters
globally and on how the world addresses disaster risk reduction through education.
Related Literature
Why teach Disaster Risk Reduction in School? Compared to adults, children
are more vulnerable to disasters, yet these children can be influential and effective
communicators of disaster problems and disaster risk reduction. In this instance,
whatever the students have learned at school are later transmitted to their parents and
siblings at home. There are many instances that had been documented when the safety of
a family, or the protection of an important element of the household, had been traced
back to a “safety lesson” learned at school. In Thailand, young Tilly Smith, whereby
seeing the receding water before the tsunami was able to save the lives of 100 tourists
from a beach in December 2004, by mere remembering her lessons on geography
concerning tsunami. Another example is in Indonesia, highlighting the value of children,
teaching their parents about what to do in case of an earthquake. To foster better
understanding among the children and the teachers about the immediate environment
wherein they and their families live, disaster awareness and risk reduction education
should be introduced in the school curriculum that would help reduce the risk faced by
the community.1

18
On the contemporary time, natural disasters’ risk is reaching an increasingly
global nature as shown in Figure 1. The risk in one region which is the formation and
occurrence of such may easily impact another region and vice-versa. The world’s future
economy, population and sustainable progress of developing countries may endangered
by unplanned urbanization, environmental degradation, global climatic changes and a
deficit of resources.2
Figure 1
The Number of Natural Disaster Recorded Worldwide in 1900-2010

(Source: National Curriculum and
Assessment Centre. Teaching
Disaster Risk Reduction with
Interactive Methods-Book for Head of
Class Teachers, Grade V-IX, 2011)

During the last decade, statistically, about 240 million people had suffered from
natural disasters annually as shown on Figure 2. The economic losses caused by these
natural disasters have tripled over the last 30 years where the economic damages that
resulted from these disasters have reached US $ 90 billion.3

19
Figure 2
Economic Damage caused by Natural Disasters in 1900-2010 (in billion USD)

(Source: National Curriculum and
Assessment Centre. Teaching
Disaster Risk Reduction with
Interactive Methods-Book for Head of
Class Teachers, Grade V-IX, 2011)

Natural disaster risks occur when the following factors such as physical, social,
economic, and environmental vulnerability are affected by hydro-meteorological,
geological and other dangers. About nine-tenths of the world’s natural disasters that arise
belongs to four categories – floods (40%), tropical cyclones (20%), earthquakes (15%),
and droughts (15%). Based on two main features, the classifications of disasters are the
following: causes, and scale of propagation and damages. Disasters are caused by natural
phenomena such as: climate conditions, geological processes, soil, and relief or by
anthropogenic factors such as human activities. Negatively, the main consequences of
disaster of any type are the loss of human lives, mass resettlement of populations,
collapse of mountain slopes, block-up of canyons, reduction of useful land area,
epidemics, death of cattle, destruction of crops, increase of underground water level,
destruction of communications, destruction of residential houses and other buildings, and
contamination of soil, water and air. The main factors that caused natural disasters are the

20
degradation of the environment, uneven distribution of the infrastructure, global climate
changes, densely populated territories and territories prone to natural disasters, irrational
distribution of the economy, violation of land use rules, lack of information and
knowledge, construction of cities and big engineering structures, development of new
territories, selection of inappropriate areas for residence, unsustainable extraction of
mineral resources, and economic development. In parallel to scientific and technical
achievements, population growth and complicated social structure, mankind becomes
more and more vulnerable to natural disasters with extreme-subsequent damages of
which depend not only on their propagation area but also the unexpectedness. Human
activity has changed the environment much more than during the whole history of
mankind over the last 50 years, in which the primary reason is population growth. In
2050, by approximation, the total number of the world’s population will reach 8.9 billion.
Naturally, growth of population increases the demand for natural resources like food,
water, timber, fuel, etc. On the one hand, the intensive and frequent uncontrolled impact
on the environment has promoted economic welfare, but on the other hand, it leads to
degradation of mostly irreversible environmental processes that pose a real threat to
people’s social and economic welfare.4
In terms of vulnerability, people living in developing countries are more
susceptible to natural disasters risk and carry the biggest losses in human lives and
livelihood as shown in Figure 3. Currently, the number of deaths resulting from natural
disasters in the third world countries is 13 times higher compared with the first world
countries. On the Richter scale, the fact that a 6.7 points earthquake causes the deaths of
2 people in the United States, while 20,000 people die in India as a result of the same

21
earthquake, demonstrates unequal distribution of the risks and correlation between a
country’s development level and its disaster consequences.5

Figure 3
Mortality Risk for Tropical Cyclones in Two Countries with Similar Exposure: Japan and Philippines

(Source: National
Curriculum and
Assessment
Centre. Teaching
Disaster Risk
Reduction with
Interactive
Methods-Book for
Head of Class
Teachers, Grade
V-IX, 2011)

Unfortunately, we cannot fully prevent natural disasters to happen, however, we
can reduce the effects of them by undertaking relevant mitigation measures. This is why
it is important to carryout relevant mitigation measures which significantly reduce natural
hazards and their associated damages. Everyone is vulnerable to disasters. Nevertheless,
damages and significant economic losses can be avoided with the development and
implementation of proper risk reduction measures. For this reason, many states initiated
the management of the disaster risk reduction and have adopted the Hyogo Framework
for Action. Objectively, the program aims to achieve by the year 2015, a significant
reduction of damages caused by natural disasters – namely to reduce considerably the
risk of deaths and the destruction of social, economic and environmental resources. Out
of five priority actions within the Hyogo Framework for Action, one of the most

22
important is the “Use of knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety
and resilience at all levels” program. “Education provides the best instrument for
disseminating the information necessary to reduce disaster risks and to facilitate the
development of strong social values”. 6
One of the most urgent challenges of modern society is the development of
Disaster Risk Reduction among children and adult. Children, being the most vulnerable
members of the population, especially during the occurrence of disasters, are often do not
have an access to information and lack knowledge and skills that would enable them to
protect themselves and make correct decisions during these difficult situations.
Significantly, being a center of community life, schools can play a very important role in
Disaster Risk Reduction. The school environment can determine the student’s future,
since the majority of the children’s time is spent in school.
Therefore, schools have a direct impact not only to the lives of teachers, students,
parents and their relatives, but also to the community as a whole. Being the most
effective Disaster Risk reduction tool, changing human behavior through dissemination
of knowledge and obtainment of necessary skills for personal and collective safety is the
best way to avoid disaster risk. In order to achieve this goal, some very important
pointers must be considered such as: (a) to disseminate Disaster Risk Reduction
information at all levels, especially among populations living in the high risk zones; (b)
to develop educational programs in Disaster Risk Reduction; and (c) to develop a safe
behavior model and skills among students. Society, as well as schools, has a great moral
responsibility to create a safe environment for their students and teachers. The greater the
level of self-organization that exists within society, the greater its potential becomes to

23
avoid or mitigate the negative consequences of disasters. The school administrators,
teachers and student in close cooperation with the emergency management authorities
implemented all initiatives targeted to increase the level of safety and disaster
preparedness. It is necessary to understand the responsibility the school has for the
students’ lives. It is mandatory to take initiative to reduce the risk posed to the students.
Due to psychological and age-specific features, it is true that students are usually passive
in seeking out information about disaster risk reduction and do not fully grasp the gravity
of the problem entirely. However, even the youngest ones can become important
messengers of critical information to their families around them as result of proper
efforts. During the teaching process, the students do not only perceive the essence of the
potential dangers posed to them from disasters, but also realize that Disaster Risk
Reduction is a collective responsibility and most importantly, a way of saving their own
lives. In an easily understandable format, one of the biggest challenges that the society
face today is providing the children with information about the complex cause and effect
relationship between mankind and the environment. The main goal is to help students’
develop vitally important skills and enable to make correct decisions in critical
situations.7
On January 18-22, 2005 in Kobe, Hyogo, Japan,

the World Conference on

Disaster Reduction was held and the gathering able to come up with the present
Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities
to Disasters, wherein, here after referred to as the “Framework for Action”. The
Conference provided a unique opportunity to promote a strategic and systematic
approach to reducing vulnerabilities and risks to hazards. It underscored the need for, and

24
identified ways of, building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters. The
World Conference identified challenges posed by disasters. Disaster loss is on the rise
with grave consequences for the survival, dignity and livelihood of individuals,
particularly the poor and hard-won development gains.
Increasingly of global concern, disaster risk and its impact in one region can have
an impact on risks in another, and vice versa. Disaster risk is compounded by increasing
vulnerabilities related to changing demographic, technological and socio-economic
conditions, unplanned urbanization, development within high-risk zones, underdevelopment, environmental degradation, climate variability, climate change, geological
hazards, competition for scarce resources, and the impact of epidemics such as
HIV/AIDS, points to a future where disasters could increasingly threaten the world’s
economy, and its population and the sustainable development of developing countries.
On the average of more than 200 million, people have been affected every year by
disasters in the past two decades. Disaster risk arises when hazards interact with physical,
social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities. What constitute the large majority of
disasters were the events of hydro-meteorological origin. Despite the growing
understanding and acceptance of the importance of disaster risk reduction and increased
disaster response capacities, disasters and in particular the management and reduction of
risk continue to pose a global challenge. Internationally acknowledged, efforts to reduce
disaster risks must be systematically integrated into policies, plans and programs for
sustainable development and poverty reduction, and supported through bilateral, regional
and international cooperation, including partnerships. Sustainable development, poverty
reduction, good governance and disaster risk reduction are mutually supportive

25
objectives, and in order to meet the challenges ahead, accelerated efforts must be made to
build the necessary capacities at the community and national levels to manage and reduce
risk. Such an approach is to be recognized as an important element for the achievement of
internationally agreed development goals, including those contained in the Millennium
Declaration. In the past few years, the importance of promoting disaster risk reduction
efforts on the international and regional levels as well as the national and local levels has
been recognized in a number of key multilateral frameworks and declarations. 8
The Regional Consultative Committee on Disaster Management (RCC), an
institution affiliated to the Republic of the Philippines, works with persons in key
Government positions in the national disaster management systems of countries of the
Asia and the Pacific region and was established at the initiative of the Asian Disaster
Preparedness Center (ADPC) in 2000. Its role as a consultative mechanism for regional
cooperation is recognized and affirmed by the Charter of ADPC. The roles of the RCC
were the following: (a) identification of disaster-related needs and priorities of Asia and
the Pacific countries, (b) promotion of regional and sub-regional cooperative programs,
and (c) development of regional action strategies for disaster reduction. The RCC’s
meetings are convened annually by the Government of a host member country in
collaboration with ADPC, wherein, the meetings are attended by more than 50 RCC
delegates comprising of heads of national disaster management offices from 26 countries
in Asia and Pacific region and observers from UN Agencies, donors and ADPC partners.
At present, all RCC meetings have been supported by the Government of Australia.
ADPC serves as the secretariat to the RCC. Each meeting of the RCC has a special theme
as selected by the host country. In this theme session, presentations are made by selected

26
member countries, on achievements, challenges, good practices in the countries on the
said theme. The meeting also has a separate session showcasing the achievements,
practices on disaster risk reduction (DRR) of the host country. In terms of providing
response as well as planning for recovery and reconstruction, lessons learned by the
member countries from the recent disasters in the region are presented at the meeting. In
the context of strengthening regional cooperation, RCC also has been organizing a
special session on progress on the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action
(HFA) in Asia. Group discussions are also held on various issues related to regional
cooperation for disaster risk reduction apart from the presentations by the countries.9
Disaster risk reduction should be systematically treated across the curriculum and
through the grade levels, wherein, treatment must extend beyond the basic science of
hazards and safety measures to consider prevention, mitigation, vulnerability and
resilience building. To integrate disaster risk reduction in the curriculum, there are a
range of different approaches, each with its own merits and each with its own downsides.
Creating a hybrid approach out of the several approaches has much to commend it.
Disaster risk reduction curriculum delivery calls for active, interactive and actionoriented learning that places a premium on in-community learning experience and
rescues emotional learning from the marginal position it presently occupies. Assessing
learning brings curricular status but assessment of disaster risk reduction learning is, so
far, an incomplete project. Imaginative forms of assessment that match with active,
action-oriented and competency-based learning are largely notable by their absence.
Upskilling teachers for effective delivery of disaster risk reduction curriculum involves a
combination of training in hazard- and disaster-related content and training in facilitation

27
of active forms of learning. This is happening in some cases. However, thus far such
training happens as a one-off event with no follow-up or teacher aftercare. The global
picture of disaster risk reduction curriculum provision reveals a failure to engage
comprehensively with the question of learning outcomes. Learning outcomes are heavily
weighted towards knowledge with little attention given to skills and attitudes. A
prerequisite of quality DRR education is a comprehensive enumeration of learning
outcomes. Proponents of disaster risk reduction education need to be clearer about the
roadmap they will follow in movement to scale. To start a journey without thinking
through the route to follow and the obstacles to avoid can be exciting, but carries the risk
of the journey never being completed.10
The curriculum and teaching practice is the key elements of a complex system.
There is much interest in curriculum and teaching practice as vehicles for transmitting
disaster-related knowledge. Wisner report explores both in some detail. But first, a
caveat: curriculum does not exist in a vacuum. The primary and secondary systems of
education in the world today are precisely that: systems, where such depend on the
strength and functionality of every component part. Therefore, the overall condition of
education systems must be taken into account if recommendations to promote risk
reduction education are to be realistic and feasible. For instance, there must be teachers in
order to use the curriculum. And these teachers need to be trained, paid a decent salary,
respected and supported. The teaching and learning materials must also be available and
affordable – which is not a given. One study found that key text-books in southern Africa
cost up to four times what they do in the UK or the US. Physical infrastructure is also
vital. Some of the most innovative curricula available worldwide are computer-based.

28
Does the school have a computer? Is there an internet connection? Is there a reliable
electricity supply? Are there enough desks for the students? Above all, is the school itself
a safe place to be? For example, one expert interviewed for this review remarked: …in
some Latin American countries the consequences of marginalization, poverty and
inequity are reflected at the school level. In many cases, schools (a single classroom
school) with a single teacher have to provide the training curriculum to students that are
between first to six grades. All of them receiving education at the same time by one
teacher... [An] other common condition is overcrowding of the classrooms. In some
cases, public schools host more than 50students per classroom. In some other cases,
mostly private sector, schools are functioning in houses that were transformed into
schools. Additionally, the systems of administration, supervision, evaluation and
promotion must be consistent with the goal of using education for risk reduction. In
educational systems with standardized examinations, for instance, it may be difficult for
teachers to innovate and take class time for valuable, hazard-related experiential learning
exercises. This review will not explore most of these prerequisites in depth. Here, the
emphasis will be on curriculum and its use.11
Pedagogy, the art of teaching, is crucial. Arguably, a well-trained or highlymotivated teacher can do a good deal with a mediocre curriculum, and a poorly-trained or
unmotivated teacher will make little impact even with a good curriculum. Therefore,
initial teacher training and in-service training are essential if education is to result in
increased hazard knowledge and changed risk behavior that ripples from the classroom
into the community. As a rule, hands-on, experiential learning is the most effective way
to educate. Therefore, ideally, a disaster relevant curriculum would not only impart

29
knowledge of the natural hazards themselves, but also would involve students in
inspecting the school buildings, going outside to map the surroundings, and even
interviewing elders about extreme natural events in the past. Such learning could be done
in ways that reinforce basic skills in listening, writing, reporting and mapping. It could be
integrated into the study of history, geography and natural science. Age-appropriate math,
from simple arithmetic to statistics, geometry and trigonometry, could be used. The reallife teaching and curricula reviewed here vary greatly. Few approximate this ideal. Some
examples provide excellent training in earth and climate science, but do not focus on
locally experienced hazards. In other cases, like generals who tend to re-fight the last
war, education planners have focused exclusively on one recent disaster. Turkey, for
example, within its all hazards school curriculum, has an impressive program of
earthquake-risk awareness that has reached perhaps five million students. On the tsunami
affected coast of Thailand, there are new curricula that focus exclusively on tsunami –
even though the most common hazards in the region are coastal storms, floods and forest
fire.12
Currently, children and youth in primary and secondary schools around the globe
benefited from a wide variety of treatments of natural hazards, disaster preparedness and
prevention. Curricula and teaching practices vary greatly in approach, intensity and
quality. Taken as a whole, these diverse efforts raise the possibility of a rapid spread of
good practice. To realize this possibility, however, relevant actors must devote focused
attention and resources to sharing experience, translating and adapting curricula, and
networking the most effective pedagogical practices. One can get an impression of the
range of existing activities by examining the numbers brought to light at the World

30
Conference on Disaster Reduction (WCDR). Slightly more than half of the countries
reporting on disaster reduction in advance of the WCDR confirmed that their education
systems included some form of disaster related teaching. The type of effort varies.
Overall, 113 countries sent information for the WCDR. Some 33 countries reporting (40
per cent) claimed to have national efforts to teach disaster-related subjects in primary
and/or secondary school. The distribution of these countries breaks down as shown table
1 below:13

Table 1
Countries with hazards teaching in primary or secondary schools
Asia and the
Pacific

Bangladesh
Iran
India
Mongolia
Philippines
Tonga
Tonga

Latin America
and the
Carribean
Bolivia
Br. Virgin
Islands
Colombia
Costa Rica El
Salvador
El Salvador
Montserrat

Africa

OECD

Algeria
Kenya

France
Greece

Central and
EASTERN
Europe, and
CIS
Czech Rep.
Hungary

Madagascar
Mauritius

Japan
New Zealand

Lithuana
Macedonia

Senegal
Uganda

Portugal
Sweden

Romania
Russian Fed.,

Other UN
Members

Monaco

USA

Abbreviations: Br. Virgin Isl., British Virgin Islands; CIS, Commonwealth of Independent States; Czech Rep., the Czech Republic;
OECD, Organization for
Economic Co-operation and Development; Russian Fed., the Russian Federation
(ISDR System Thematic Cluster/Platform on Knowledge and Education, July 2006)

Other countries, such as Brazil and Venezuela, reported significant primary and
secondary teaching at municipal or state level. Others, in advance of the WCDR,
mentioned plans underway to begin teaching in schools (specifically Haiti, Nicaragua,
Zimbabwe and Israel). Still other nations reported either teaching without support of a
curriculum (Papua New Guinea, Canada and Austria); teaching integrated into other
subjects (Cote d’Ivoire); or narrowly-focused teaching (e.g., fire safety in Germany,

31
practical preparedness exercises in Ecuador). In addition, Mexico, Romania and New
Zealand mandate by law the teaching of disaster-related subjects in their schools. In the
year and a half since these reports were collected by the ISDR secretariat, South Africa
and Mexico have begun some pilot teaching programs, and have put considerable energy
into the development of teaching materials. One hundred and sixty eight nations were
represented at the WCDR. Information from those whose reports were not summarized in
the preconference study review shows primary and secondary schools teaching on a large
scale in Cuba, the UK and China, among others. Much effective disaster-related teaching
is taking place in many parts of the world. It is estimated that half the world’s nations
provide some form of teaching about natural hazards and safety in at least some of their
schools. A good deal of additional practice exists beyond what is revealed in table 1; this
review explores some, but has uncovered only the tip of the iceberg. Additionally, a great
deal of important activity happens below the national level. In many places, educational
policy and the commission and supply of teaching materials is decentralized to the subnational stage. In addition, NGOs, international organizations and agencies of the UN
system provide teaching material that is accessible electronically, which may well be
used in individual schools at the initiative of a keen teacher. In other cases, parents come
into class to supplement and enrich teaching with their own experiences and material.
The challenge is to build on all these laudable practices, to promote them in neighboring
schools, and to encourage such teaching in nations where it is rare or absent. These
practices provide a starting place from which to build.14
Children are among the most vulnerable population group when a natural hazard
strikes, especially those attending school in times of disaster. Disasters such as the

32
October 2005 earthquake in Pakistan, where over 16,000 children died in schools that
collapsed, or the recent mudslide on Leyte Island in the Philippines, where more than 200
school children were buried alive, are just a few tragic examples of why more needs to be
done to protect our children before disasters strikes. In all societies, children represent
hope for the future. By extension, schools, because of their direct link to youths, are
universally regarded as institutions of learning, for instilling cultural values and passing
on both traditional and conventional knowledge to younger generations. Protecting our
children during natural hazards, therefore, requires two distinct yet inseparable priorities
for action: disaster risk education and school safety. Making disaster risk education part
of national primary and secondary school curricula fosters awareness and better
understanding of the immediate environment in which children and their families live and
work. We know from past experience that children who are taught about natural hazard
risks play an important role in saving lives and protecting members of the community in
times of crisis. On a beach in Thailand, when the December 2004 Tsunami struck, British
schoolgirl Tilly Smith saved many lives by urging people to flee the shore: her geography
class in Britain had enabled her to recognize the first signs of a tsunami. At the same
time, Anto, a young boy on the Indonesian island of Simeulue had learned from his
grandfather what to do when an earthquake strikes. He and all the other islanders ran to
higher ground before the tsunami struck, sparing all but eight members of the
community. In most societies, in addition to their essential role in formal education,
schools also serve as a community’s central location for meetings and group activities, in
normal times, and as makeshift hospitals, vaccination centers or places of refuge and
shelter in times of disaster. Yet, several hundred million children across the developed

33
and developing world attend schools in buildings that are unable to withstand the forces
of nature. To inform and insure the future of our communities, the UN/ISDR secretariat
and its partners have made disaster risk education and safer school facilities the two key
themes of the 2006-2007 World Disaster Reduction Campaign. The campaign, entitled
“Disaster risk reduction begins at school”, aims to inform and mobilize Governments,
communities and individuals to ensure that disaster risk reduction is fully integrated into
school curricula in high risk countries and that school buildings are built or retrofitted to
withstand natural hazards. As disaster risk reduction is everybody’s business and in
everybody’s interest. Together, we can help children build - with us and for all of us - a
safer world. Schools make the difference between despair and hope. They can also make
the difference between life and death.15
In Nepal, as climate changes effects are more and more frequent and visible, the
need to educate young people about the risks of natural disasters increases. In order to
mainstream Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) into Nepal’s school curricula, the UNESCO
Office in Kathmandu jointly with the Nepal National Commission for UNESCO and the
Curriculum Development Centre of the Ministry of Education, are organizing a national
workshop on ‘Integrating Disaster Risk Reduction into the School Curriculum’ in
Kathmandu on Sunday, 26 May 2013. The workshop is based on UNESCO guidelines
entitled “Towards the Learning culture of safety and resilience, a Technical Guidance for
Integrating DRR in the School Curriculum”, which has been piloted in several countries
including Nepal. The event aims at presenting the guidelines and providing suggestions
for their adaptation to the specific Nepali context. Participants of the workshop will also
present a draft review report of school and teacher training curriculum by using

34
“Technical Guidance for Integrating DRR in the School Curriculum” for its further
improvement. The workshop will bring all together around 45 participants, including
curriculum developers, teacher trainers and teachers, education policy makers and
programme implementers including representatives from UN agencies and INGOs. In
addition to presenting the technical guidelines, the participants will also discuss the
activities of the Education Cluster, a group of representatives of national institutions and
development partners addressing the role of education in humanitarian crises, and the
national framework for Education for Sustainable Development. The recommendations of
the workshop will be used for the further improvement of the technical guidelines and
draft review report.16
In Lesotho, as part of mainstreaming DRR into Education Sector, Integrating
Disaster Risk Reduction into School Curriculum in Lesotho Workshop (IDRR
Workshop) was held on September 05-09, 2011 in Maseru, Lesotho. Disaster risk
reduction begins at home, in schools, and at communities. Education is a vital in
nurturing a culture of disaster resilience among students and in societies. Thus, the
central theme of the workshop was providing shared understanding among curriculum
developers, in Lesotho, on the concept of DRR and facilitating the integration of DRR
into school curriculum, particularly in the primary and secondary levels. A common and
shared understanding of the subject, with structured approach, could be extremely helpful
in guiding integrating disaster risk reduction efforts into national curriculum at different
levels in the schools, wherein such understanding would provide sound basis for the
teams representing different learning areas and learning aspects. The workshop aimed to
provide conceptual clarity on DRR and child centered learning methodologies in

35
mainstreaming process of education sector as well as identify key DRR topic, learning
outcomes, skills and abilities that are needed to build the disaster resilient culture at an
early schooling age children in order to translating vulnerabilities into capacities. The
content, proposed here, is more meaningful and aimed at providing skills of resolution
oriented for the students and teachers to prepare and mitigate the potential impact of
disasters and to build their confidence and ability in dealing with life threatening
situation.17
The Philippines has been committed to mainstreaming disaster risk reduction
(DRR) into the education sector. In 2007, the Secretary of the Department of Education
(DepEd) issued an order memo (DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007) to the undersecretaries,
assistant secretaries, bureau directors, directors of services/centers and heads of units,
regional directors, schools city/division superintendents, and heads of public and private
schools to prioritize the mainstreaming of disaster risk reduction management in the
school system and ensure implementation of programs and projects related to DRR, and
so the program worked from this strong foundation and commitment. There are total of
7,683 secondary schools in the Philippines but unfortunately there has been no systematic
documentation on how disasters have affected schools in the past and so there is no data
on the number of schools in the Philippines which are at risk from natural hazards.
However, data on damages and losses from earthquakes and volcanic eruptions have been
collected and show that between 2000 and 2006 the total cost of damage to school
buildings as a result of these disasters was 1,279 million US$. Some DRR concepts can
be found in existing subjects but there was no formal curriculum related to DRR before
this program. There are good examples of safer school construction in the Philippines;

36
LAPUS (The Learning and Public Use School) Building and UNICEF’s Building Safe
Learning Environment (BSLE) for Children which are both project oriented. The
Principalled School Building Program (PL-SBP) introduced by the DepEd decentralizes
construction management with active participation of the community. There are two
types of plans for designs and specifications of public schools under the PL-SBP;
Standard Building Plan, and Special Building Plan. The Special Building Plans are
designed specifically for a particular school that poses danger for the occupants in cases
of calamities and hazards. Soil stability, wind forces, and floods are considered in these
designs. However, school site selection is usually dependent on land or lot donations
from local individuals, regardless of hazards, and so there is a need to review this system,
and to introduce hazard resilient structures for school buildings. The DepEd also needs to
improve construction methods and materials. With DepEd, mandated as the agency
responsible for providing evacuation centers through school facilities in the Philippines,
public schools are primarily used as evacuation centers during disasters. Schools often
suffer damage as their usage as emergency shelters is not factored into their design and so
their use as such puts a strain on them; facilities are left unclean, and school activities are
disrupted. Classes are often suspended temporarily during disasters and some teaching is
held in tents when the school is being used as an evacuation center. Teachers are also
affected by disasters; they are mandated to assist during emergencies and therefore might
be tired and emotionally affected as well as struggling to teach children with lower
concentration levels in uncomfortable temporary classrooms. Following a disaster,
teachers and students often spend longer hours at school such as at weekends or
extending class hours to complete the lessons that have been missed. Relevant

37
stakeholders; ministries, UN agencies and NGOs were consulted during the development
of the drafts and their feedback incorporated into the final output. 18
The Bureau of Secondary Education (BSE) has a Curriculum Development
Division that is responsible in enhancing and revising the secondary curriculum. Every
five years, they are conducting review for curriculum revision every five years, after a
batch of students graduate from an existing curriculum. However, within the five-year
period, the division conducts monitoring and reviews for enhancing the curriculum.
Curriculum reviews starts in the Division, with the Division Specialists initiating the
review. They also engage other expert teachers from the regions in writing the modules.
The draft module is validated by experts from the academe or teachers in big schools not
involved in writing the module. After all the comments and suggestions are inputted, the
module is piloted in schools representing both public and private schools from the
regions of the country. After the pilot testing, the final Module is approved by the
Instruction Materials Secretariat that is under the Office of the Department Secretary. The
module is returned to the Bureau for mass printing. This is followed by the training and
orientation of teachers who would teach the new module. While the Bureau has a well
established procedures and expertise in curriculum development, the process entails
adequate funding support to train the more than 200,000 high school teachers to handle
the new module. Coming out with additional subject for high school is difficult because
of the required number of hours for the various subjects. Thus, what can be done, just like
in the integration of the DRR, is the enhancement of the curriculum where the DRR
concepts are integrated in existing subjects. Even then, as already cited, this requires
funds to train all the teachers nationwide to become familiar with the module. A more

38
effective way of integrating the concept is by having a DRR subject in the teachers’
training at the tertiary level. This means that DRR subject will become a requirement in
the BS Elementary and Higher Education in all colleges and universities. Thus, all
teachers would then be familiar with the DRR and would have the capability to teach it
among high school or elementary students.19
In Quezon City, Philippines – City councilor Jose Mario Don De Leon is pushing
for a measure that would require school teachers, both in public and private schools, in
the city to undergo disaster risk reduction training and ensure the safety of students in
their charge. This alderman has proposed an ordinance making it mandatory for faculty
members of public and private schools to undergo risk reduction training as provided by
Republic Act 10121 or the “Philippine Risk Reduction Management Act on 2010” so
they could provide additional manpower in times of disaster. This law underscores the
necessity of being prepared for any disaster, natural or man-made, in order to prevent or
lessen its effect. In seeking the measure, the alderman noted how a number of schools are
often used as evacuation center in times of calamities such as flashfloods, earthquakes,
and fire. With all barangays required to organize their respective barangay emergency
response teams to respond to cases of immediate risk to life and health, the councilor
said, “the same training and seminar should be conducted for the faculty members of
private and public schools, since majority of the children and youth are likewise to be
inside campuses during daytime, should any disaster or emergency occur”. “Parents will
‘feel a lot better’ knowing that teachers are properly trained to provide immediate
medical response in emergency situations”.20

39
Related Studies
The study in South Africa, entitled “Teachers Perceptions about Lesson Planning
to include a Disaster Risk Reduction Focus,” is a multiple case study limited to the three
primary schools in the Central Region of the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality.
The City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality plays a significant role in the economy
of the Gauteng Province in terms of the Integrated Development Plan of the City of
Tshwane. The Metropolitan needs to be priority points in areas of quality education,
access to work and economic opportunities and social infrastructure, however, these areas
was characterized by high density of disadvantaged zones, which include a number of
informal settlements with high levels of poverty and poor access to opportunities. Of
which some are located on environmentally sensitive locations, there are urban, semiurban and rural areas that consequently need attention and a strategic development
approach in areas of rural development, food security and land reform as well as in areas
of environmental development and spatial planning.

The City of Tshwane Central

Region – the inner city and areas of Atteridgeville Township, Sunnyside, Elandspoort,
Fort West and Danville – are areas characterized by the massive flow of immigrants who
mostly live in informal dwellings without formal supply of basic services such as road
infrastructure, transport, water and electricity. In terms of “Optimize service delivery to
all communities in the Region and strive to capacitate the communities to its full extent
as allowed by the resources of the City of Tshwane, the Central Region, like the other
four Regions within the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality is also expected to
discharge its roles and responsibilities. However, there is no official and formalized
strategy for the development of Atteridgeville, where the focus of this study will be.

40
Pending the outcome of the geotechnical study currently going on, a decision has still to
be taken on where to relocate the informal settlements.

Within the framework of

sustainable development, the City of Tshwane has its Disaster Management Division that
is focused on “creating safer and resilient City of Tshwane communities through
coordination of all-hazard prevention, preparedness and mitigation, response and
recovery activities”. To provide fire and rescue services to the city, there is the Fire
Brigade Division, in which also deals with issues of incidents involving hazardous
substances. Specifically, the Central region has four Fire Stations providing the region
with most of the medical emergency services.21 This study has the same aim with the
current study in terms of integrating risk reduction in lesson planning so as to educate
students and edify the community as a whole.
Lekalakala, emphasizes the need for the realization that education processes
fostering the implementation of programs to better the lives of communities can best be
applied in formal schooling through a more focused policy approach and an interactive
process of mutual learning at school levels. Her study sees the government of the
Republic of South Africa to have shown its commitment and political will for both
disaster management and risk reduction and educational policy reform in an attempt to
build the culture of safety and resilience as well as making a behavioural change at a
household level as required by the principles of disaster risk reduction. The holistic,
strategic and integrative curriculum development and implementation opportunities and
initiatives were put in place through the policy reform processes. It is through these
initiatives that South African schools must be able to develop the full potential of each
learner as a citizen of a democratic country, must be able to make them acquire a high

41
level of skills and knowledge through an integration and linkage of learning areas, as well
as ensuring that educators are able to fulfil the various roles such as becoming mediators
of learning, interpreters and designers of Learning Programs and materials. In order to
determine what and how to teach, there is a room for creativity and innovation wherein
teachers are on their own. With specific reference to the inclusion of disaster risk
reduction focus into the school curricula, the Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs)
may visit schools and talk to the administrators, teachers and their students about their
preparedness initiatives. Teachers may choose to introduce in their lessons, particular
aspects that are relevant to the communities. Children are believed to be more amenable
to new ideas than adults, and it is also believed that they may influence their peers and
their parents. Due to lack of resources, skills and capacities, there might be some
limitations for the developing countries to incorporate disaster risk reduction activities
into formal education. It is recapitulated that due to the limited flexibility within the
school curricula, most educational programs are unable to adapt to accommodate the
incorporation and integration of all the aspects of disaster risk reduction, but may focus
only on single issues such hazards, limiting children from dealing with the entire aspect
of disaster preparedness across a number of Learning Areas such as “mathematics,
science, history, geography and citizenship”. In this way, it “may be easier to teach about
hazards only (which fit with standard science or geography teaching) than socioeconomic vulnerability or disaster management”, which also caters for risk education
leading to an accurate perception and a better understanding of protective measures.22
Lekalakala’s study presented the tripartite efforts of the African government , its NGOs
and schools in order to instill good citizenship to their young generation through disaster

42
risk reduction awareness. The said study is related to this one in being aligned with the
national and local governments’ thrusts in disaster risk reduction awareness.
The Department of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs in its
National Education, Training and Research Needs and Resources Analysis (NETaRNRA)
consolidated report has indicated that in South Africa, the directives within the National
Curriculum Statement show a convincing alignment between schools’ curriculum and the
requirements as stipulated in the National Disaster Management Framework about the
integration of disaster risk reduction into schools’ curriculum planning, especially in the
Social Sciences and the Life Orientation Learning Areas for both primary and secondary
schools. However, there is the scepticism still in this report that because of Learning
Areas choices and high secondary school dropout rates, the likelihood of disaster risk
management education not reaching out to all senior secondary school children becomes
very high. However, looking at the positive developments of policy reform recorded by
South Africa in the fields of disaster management and education respectively,
Lekalakala’s study therefore takes it further to investigate the possible impacts of these
initiatives on formal education at primary school level. While NGOs are supposedly to be
stepping in to assist schools that cannot see the holistic picture of disaster risk reduction
planning, Lekalaka, argues that due to an enabling regulatory environment created by the
government of South Africa, it is expected that the primary school teachers will be in a
position to adapt their localized curricula to incorporate different perspectives on
disasters. The Regional Consultative Committee on Disaster Management (RCC) has
indicated that many RCC members’ countries such as Bangladesh, Cambodia, India,
Indonesia, Iran, etcetera, have managed, depending on their policy decisions, to integrate

43
disaster risk reduction into their school curricula. This was done either through having
disaster risk reduction as an independent subject or by having disaster risk reduction
concepts being taught by combining with portions and specific chapters of other subjects
such as environmental studies, geography and science. An interview was administered
with the teachers from the three primary schools within the Central Region of the City of
Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, to find out exactly what their perceptions and
practices are regarding the integration of a disaster risk reduction focus in their actual
situation and local settings. The Integrated Development Plan of the City of Tshwane
Metropolitan Municipality does not elaborate much on the nature and the extent of the
integrative approach to disaster risk reduction of the City within the formal school
curriculum. Through its obligations and regulatory measures, the government of the
Republic of South Africa has ensured some guarantee towards building the resilience of
its communities through protection of their rights and those of its individuals, institutions
and communities to safe environments. It is hoped that through an investigation to be
conducted through Lekalaka’s study, the Central Region of the City of Tshwane
Metropolitan Municipality will also be found to be complying with the policy
requirements that ensure that the learners in this city are also empowered to exercise
responsibility for their own lives and for life on earth.23 This study is in line with the
researcher’s work as the former encompasses the integration of disaster risk reduction in
school’s curriculum planning whereas the current study also recommends the
implementation of the same.
In the Province of Albay, a study about the implementation of the Disaster Risk
Reduction Management Program was conducted. The study attempted to document the

44
implementation of the DRR in terms of the mandate and objectives, organization and
structures, budget and funding, implementing rules and regulations, review and
evaluation of the different City and Municipal Disaster Risk Reduction and Management
Councils, with the Albay Public Safety and Emergency Management Office as the model
or standard of implementation, with the aim of recommending a model for organizational
sustainability in terms of local disaster risk reduction and management. According to
Daep, it cannot be denied that there are positive results as outcomes of the provisions of
RA 10121, especially in terms of institutional capacity development, budget allocation
and fund utilization. These are in terms of professionalization of disaster readiness,
capability and resiliency of the Albayanos, and humanitarian assistance through
international donors of material, financial and technical support. The perceived strengths
of the said law was in the aspect of sustainability, use of LDRRM fund for pre-disaster
activities and opportunity to become an integral part of planning and programming at the
local levels. The perceived weaknesses focused on LGU’s readiness to create an office in
terms of budget for the office space requirement, furniture, operation center and
equipment, and availability of competent manpower. The recommended organizational
structure is a functional organization by division.24 While the former study dealt with the
status of the implementation of the RA 10121, its strengths and weaknesses, the present
study only dealt with Section 14 of RA 10121, concerning the integration of Disaster
Risk Reduction Education into the School Curricula. Just like the current study, this one
from the local government of Albay aimed to see the implementing rules and regulations.
Ondiz, in her study about the flood disaster preparedness and mitigation program
implementation centered in Quinali “A” River System, found out that flooding affects a

45
very significant portion of the Province of Albay, both in terms of land area and
population. A research on Flood Disaster Preparedness and Mitigation Program
Implementation, which is based on the provisions set forth in P.D. 1566, is very
important to the flood-prone areas of the province, wherein, the death toll claimed by
floods needs to be reduced if not minimized. Her study revealed that the top ranked
objectives are saving and protecting lives and properties and, minimize loss of properties
and least in rank is to prevent needless suffering. Providing safety of vulnerable
population is the top priority.

25

In relation to the former study that recognized

opportunities in the training and education, and establishment of community based flood
forecasting and warning system, the present study identified the role of education in
administering disaster problems.
A study about crisis preparedness was done in Bicol University in order to
determine the capability of the institution concerning crisis preparedness through its
existing policies, structure and resources available. Seminars and workshops were
conducted on disaster and hazard preparedness mainly in the college level. On the
capability of crisis preparedness along policy, structure and resources, Frias, concluded
that though there are existing crisis policies in the university, a codified crisis plan
reflecting all such policies can facilitate the action and response during crisis. The
creation of the crisis teams indicates that the university is serious in its aim to ensure the
safety and security of its constituents.26 The former and the present study both aim to
uphold safety, only that they differ in the means of attaining this goal. In the former
study, seminars and workshops about disasters were conducted among the college
students while the present study was concentrated on the education among the secondary

46
school students about disaster risk reduction through the integration of which in the
school curriculum.
During the 2006 Mayon eruption, the disaster management activities in the high
risk zone of Mayon Volcano have in a way contributed much to the risk reduction
particularly on lives and properties. While disaster management activities were felt,
however, there is a need to enhance all the disaster activities along the five components
of local disaster managers. Enhancement of the said activities may lead to a better level
of effectiveness of the activities.27 This study is relevant to the present study in terms of
disaster preparedness. Zuniga gave emphasis on the enhancement of the level of
community awareness on disaster preparedness as the present study recognized the role
of education in addressing the local community’s problems on disaster.
One of the keys to survive an emergency or a disaster is being properly prepared.
In order to be prepared, people need appropriate education in preparedness, which
includes elements of prevention and planning. In order for the people to safely respond in
times of a disaster, there is a definite need to better prepare them. It also seems likely that
the earlier concepts and skills are learned, the easier those concepts and skills would be to
remember and the more proficient one would become in implementing them. Therefore,
it seems appropriate to teach emergency preparedness concepts and skills early on in the
educational process. This means that significant efforts need to be directed toward
learning, what impediments currently exist, what is helpful, and how preparedness
concepts and skills can be taught to our children. Christensen, distributed surveys to third,
fourth, and fifth grade teachers, asking them questions about emergency preparedness
lessons in the classroom. Results indicated that the majority of teachers would be willing

47
to teach emergency preparedness if the curriculum met current academic standards and
they were given adequate resources to teach this subject. Her study provides ideas,
concepts and motivation for teachers to use in a cross-curricular approach to teaching
emergency preparedness in the classroom. This is accomplished by presenting examples
of newly developed curriculum and lesson plans that meet state academic standards,
based on the current Community Emergency Response Team program and on children’s
fiction literature for the appropriate age group.28 This study is related to the present study
as it recognized the great need in implementing disaster risk reduction in the school
curriculum to effectively train and teach the students concerning disaster preparedness.
In Turkey, certain study explore about how different community institutions like
government, education, healthcare, business and grassroots organizations engages in
disaster risk reduction (DRR) strategies and how each institution fosters a culture of
resilience. The Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) is the framework used to assess
DRR engagement, which is the structure of resilience and preparedness created by the
United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR). Schillperoot’s
goal of the research is to understand the ways that DRR is integrated into social
institutions in turkey, using the cities of Istanbul and Antakya as the primary case study
communities. The analyses of 21 interviews, as well as supplemental respondent surveys,
highlight primary themes informing how the five community institutions address seismic
risk in Turkey. The current social organization of Turkey has key characteristics found in
‘fatalistic’ societies, or societies that are characteristically reactive. However, the ways
community institutions engage in DRR illustrates that Turkey is determined to shift its
DRR strategies from reactive to proactive. “A current state of unpreparedness” is how a

48
respondent described the risk culture in Turkey today. Still, an examination of the data
verifies that, despite the barriers, Turkey is beginning to develop a strong culture of
resilience and gradually shifting toward a more ‘self-reliant’, proactive society.29 This
study is related to the present study since it also gave emphasis on the engagement of
different community institutions in disaster risk reduction. The present study aimed to
establish disaster risk reduction in school as vital component of the community.
In South Africa, the informal settlement communities are faced with
infrastructural challenges such as: lack of proper housing, poor sanitation, poor electrical
connections, if any, poor medical facilities and various social health risks such as
HIV/Aids, TB and other STDs, as well as high levels of violence and crime. Young girls
form a portion of the demographics of such informal settlements. Most adolescent girls,
between the ages of 13 and 18 years are at an increased risk merely because they are
physically smaller than their male peers, are able to become pregnant and have to
compete with multiple siblings and family members. Most of these young girls have to
leave school to act as heads of households, to provide an income or because they have
become pregnant. These factors form the root of disaster risk reduction initiatives as such
initiatives focus on building up the resiliency of those who are most vulnerable in society.
Maartens, focuses on the aspects of disaster risk, risk reduction and community-based
disaster risk awareness. The study is unique in that combines the fields of development
communication and disaster risk reduction and the principles of participative
development communication form the guidelines throughout the study. Her study
highlighted the importance of participation in community, based disaster risk reduction
initiatives and places young adolescent girls in the spotlight. Development

49
communication is an important aspect to consider and this study outlines its role in the
disaster risk reduction environment.30 This study is associated with the present study in
terms of promoting disaster risk reduction through development communication.
Implementing disaster risk reduction in schools curricula would be the most effective
way to address the need of the young people to be informed about various hazards as well
as the ways to cope with them.
During the early 1970s increase in disaster events lead to the emergence of a “new
concept” within the field of disaster management. This concept was called the Disaster
Management Cycle. The cycle was designed to illustrate the ongoing process by which
governments, businesses, and civil society plan for and reduce the impact of disasters,
react during and immediately following a disaster, and take steps to recover after a
disaster has occurred. The Disaster Management Cycle concept has not remained static
over the past 40 years and some changes and variations have occurred in how the cycle is
illustrated, and how it is applied in different organizations. Furthermore, it is also not
clear how the concept of managing disasters and their impacts in a cyclical fashion
originated. Coetzee, in his study, determine how the cycle originated, what changes
occurred in the cycle concept, and how Disaster Management Cycles were applied in
different contexts. To answer the research questions posed for the study two tools were
used. A review of literature was undertaken in order to provide a base from which further
analysis could be conducted. In this regard, a wide spectrum of literature was reviewed
which included training material, policies, international organization documentation, peer
reviewed articles, research reports and case studies. Semi-structured interviews with
knowledgeable individuals in the field of disaster and risk management were also used to

50
triangulate the finding of the literature review. The data gathered from the literature
review process was than analyzed by the application of general systems theory concepts
such as equi-finality, open systems, feedback arrangements and isomorphism. Through
the application of these general systems theory concepts the interaction between the
Disaster Management Cycle and the environment in which it was created or applied was
explored, which in turn provided insight into the origins and differing applications of the
cycle.31 Similar to the present study, it tapped managing disasters and reducing their
impacts. The study recognized that there is an immense necessity to learn disaster risk
reduction.
According to the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, the main
responsibility of the South African Police Service’s (SAPS) is to protect and safeguard
the inhabitants of South Africa. The Act 57 of 1996 had changed the face of South
Africa’s Government. The new dispensation brought on after 1994 was that every person
in South Africa has the right to receive service from National, Provincial and Local
Government. The change from the old dispensation to the new caused a vacuum between
the different Government departments in terms of disaster risk reduction. To bridge this
gap, the Cabinet in 1997 established the Inter Ministerial Committee on Disaster
Management (IMC). This resulted in a Cabinet resolution to follow international trends
and take a new look at the whole concept of civil protection. The Inter-Ministerial
processes consulted a wide array of stakeholders in South Africa and this led to the
publishing of the Green Paper on Disaster Management in February 1998. The Green
Paper, which highlighted the need for a holistic mechanism for the management of
disasters in South Africa, was followed in the following year by the White Paper process

51
and in January 1999, for the first time, South Africa had a national policy on the
management of disasters. The newly elected democratic government resolved to move
away from traditional thinking that nothing could be done to prevent disasters. They
developed strategies in line with global trends by integrating risk reduction
methodologies into development initiatives, to build resilience in households,
communities and areas known to be at risk. Brazer’s purpose of the study was to explore
what is expected from the SAPS in terms of disaster risk management, and to compare it
with what is actually happening at the frontline. The SAPS can only fully participate in
disaster risk management functions if the SAPS understand its own role and functions
itself. Disaster risk reduction and institutional capacity development for disaster risk
management will become part of the SAPS‟ duties in its daily activities. Structures and
policies are needed in the SAPS to achieve such success. The research recommends that
if the SAPS wants to establish itself as a role-player in the disaster risk management
realm, attention must be given to the development and establishment of structures and
policies. Structures and policies will bring all the SAPS disaster risk management roleplayers into line with the requirements of the disaster risk management legislation and
policy, and will lead to a uniform approach to disaster risk management in the SAPS
within the Dr Kenneth Kaunda District Municipality. Disaster Risk Management in the
SAPS can be seen as one of these processes which never will be for finalized, but needs
constant focus and effort to be successful.32 The present study similarly aimed to
assemble resilience in communities known to be at risk by integrating disaster risk
reduction.

52
Dlamini, in his research focuses on the disaster risk reduction phenomenon and
major or international initiatives and forums aimed at improving or raising the disaster
risk reduction profile. In 2005, many governments around the world committed
themselves to take action to reduce disaster risk, and thereby adopted a guiding document
to reduce vulnerabilities to natural hazards, called the Hyogo Framework for Action
(HFA). The HFA was adopted in January 2005 at the World Conference on Disaster
Reduction, in Kobe Hyogo, Japan by 168 States. The aim of the HFA is to assist the
efforts of nations and communities to become more resilient to, and cope better, with the
hazards that threaten their development gains with the overriding goal of achieving a
substantial reduction in global disaster risk. The Global Network of Civil Society
Organization for Disaster Risk Reduction (GNDR) which was launched in 2007 in
Geneva, is a major international network of civil society organizations working to
influence and implement disaster risk reduction policies and practice around the world.
The Views from the Frontline (VFL) is the first independent assessment project
undertaken towards the implementation of the HFA at the local level and is led by the
Global Network. The aim of this project is to measure the gap between policy
formulations at international level with the realities of policy execution at local level and
to deepen the communication and coordination between different stakeholders on disaster
risk reduction by involving government organization and communities at the local level.
Dlamini’s main objective of this research was to provide an overview of progress made in
the implementation of the HFA at local level particularly in the Kabokweni Location. The
approach adopted in this study is called ―the Views from the Frontline, and explores the
extent of the actual progress made toward the implementation and impact of the HFA

53
priorities at local level, namely the Kabokweni community in the Mbombela Local
Municipality (MLM) situated in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa.33 Dlamini’s
study is relevant to the present study as both of these aspired in making communities
become more supple and conversant in coping with the hazards caused by different
disasters.
Developing more efficient disaster reduction strategies will not only save
substantial amount of money but also lives as well. In seeking new ways to implement
new disaster risk reduction strategies, it became increasingly apparent that children have
a vital role to play within disaster risk reduction strategies. Children are excellent
conduits of disaster risk information and can therefore create significant disaster risk
awareness within their communities. It is therefore imperative that disaster risk reduction
strategies should include the promotion of disaster risk awareness aimed at children. To
this end, a number of disaster risk reduction educational materials have been developed
and implemented in countries around the world. However there seems to be a general
lack of evidence showing the effectiveness of these interventions and whether they have
contributed to the overall enhancement of community resilience and ultimately to disaster
risk reduction. To be effective, disaster risk reduction school educational programs must
result in greater disaster resilience in communities. Coles, in her research aimed at
critically analyzing the disaster risk reduction educational program for primary schools in
the City of Tshwane in order to determine its effectiveness as a tool for disaster risk
reduction. In addition, this research sought to draw a comparison in terms of disaster risk
awareness, preparedness, mitigation and response knowledge among learners in the
schools which implemented this program against those schools which have not as yet

54
implemented the program. The South African disaster risk reduction legislative
requirements were scrutinized in order to ascertain legislative requirements in terms of
governing disaster risk management in South Africa. After conducting a literature review
and conducting focus groups and semi–structured interviews it was concluded that there
is evidence that the school guide pack intervention instilled confidence in the learners
about their knowledge of disaster risk reduction. In addition learners who had been taught
from the school guide pack had a good understanding that they should specifically be
aware of risks and hazards. The song was a feature in the school guide pack which
received a very favorable response from all the learners. Learners who had been taught
from the school guide pack had the knowledge that to be prepared they need to tell the
community how to be safe, to tell their friends to be aware of risks and hazards and to
know the emergency number. Learners in schools where the school guide pack was
implemented all knew their local emergency number. Three unexpected finding also
came to the fore, namely evidence emerged that School B struggled with the
implementation of the school guide pack. Secondly learners in School C displayed a good
understanding of disaster risk reduction, despite the fact that School C had not
implemented the school guide pack. Finally, learners from School D exhibited strong,
underlying emotions when participating in the focus group. Lastly, a number of
recommendations were made as to components and aspects which should be considered
when developing disaster risk reduction educational material in order for it to be an
effective method of disaster risk reduction and mitigation. It was concluded that when
implemented in isolation from additional disaster risk reduction activities, the City of
Tshwane's Metropolitan Municipality primary schools program, was not a sufficient tool

55
for reducing disaster risk in the City of Tshwane. However if the disaster risk reduction
primary school program was combined with a well planned, Metropolitan wide, disaster
risk reduction campaign which incorporated all spheres of the community, there is a
much greater likelihood that disaster risk reduction would be achieved.34 This study is
relevant to the present study because it realized that children are the excellent medium of
disaster risk information. The present study gave emphasis on the integration of disaster
risk reduction in school curricula. It shows apparently that children have a vital role to
play within disaster risk reduction so they have to be well educated.
The risk posed by natural disasters is escalating. As a result, the amount of work
in the field of disaster management has been increasing, particularly in disaster risk
reduction (DRR). DRR focuses on pre-disaster activities including prevention, mitigation
and preparedness. Local, national, regional and international organizations have shifted
their approach to DRR in recent years, away from technology-focused activities (such as
advanced surveillance systems, technical warning systems, and stronger infrastructure)
and toward an emphasis on reducing vulnerability which involves affected communities
in the process. These shifts have recently led DRR experts and practitioners to consider
indigenous knowledge in DRR policy and practice. Indigenous knowledge refers to
approaches and practices of a culture which develop from an advanced understanding of
its specific environment which has formed over numerous generations of habitation.
Baumwoll, in her research had concluded that indigenous knowledge is valuable to DRR
in both a narrow sense (specific DRR strategies which translate to similar communities),
and in a general sense (empowering the community, improving project implementation,
and successfully using non-formal methods of information dissemination). This suggests

56
the existence of an intermediate value, by which specific categories of indigenous
knowledge can be identified as valuable to DRR and applied to a community, regardless
of its unique characteristics. This research aims to identify these universally applicable
categories of knowledge by reviewing literature from the indigenous knowledge
discourse. It will extract four primary categories which prove to have the most value for
DRR. These four categories all relate to environmental sustainability, strengthening the
linkages between sustainable development and DRR. They include ecological
knowledge, an environmental ethic, cultural traditions associated with disasters, and a
connection to place. The four categories are examined and supported by examples of
communities that have successfully used indigenous knowledge to survive, cope or
reduce risk from disasters. The four categories are then organized into an assessment tool
which can be used in affected communities to determine and reduce their vulnerability.
Finally, the tool is validated by applying it to the case of Simeulue, Indonesia, an island
community that successfully reduced negative consequences during the 2004 Indian
Ocean tsunami.35 Baumwoll’s study is related to the present study as it also gave
emphasis on reducing vulnerability which involves affected communities through disaster
risk reduction.
The dynamic nature of vulnerability coupled with increasing volatility of climatic
and environmental conditions, characterized by more frequent and extreme hazards,
disaster management practitioners, decision makers and communities, especially those at
risk, need to take action to protect vulnerable people and environment. In recent years,
poor communities have had to bear the brunt of the hazards. The area of this study, the
Gutu district in Masvingo Province of Zimbabwe was in recent times experienced more

57
frequent droughts and floods. Shamano aimed to determine the Disaster Risk Reduction
activities, particularly Early Warning, existing and being implemented in Gutu District.
From the findings, the research then ascertained if the utilization of more and varied EW
can improve DRR efforts in Gutu. The study established that the drought hazard remains
the biggest hazard threatening the lives and livelihoods of the Gutu community. Other
notable hazards include the HIV and AIDS pandemic, flooding which sometimes
alternate with drought, diarrheal and water-borne diseases, crop and livestock diseases
and environmental degradation.

36

Shamano’s study is relevant to the present study

because it showed the need to take action to protect vulnerable people and environment.
This action must be addressed to disasters. The present study recognized the role of
education in addressing these various disasters.
Faced with an increasing frequency of droughts, the local communities of Buhera
and Chikomba are constantly at risk of food insecurity and water stress due to their
dependence upon rain-fed agriculture. Mutasa conducted a study in order to assess the
people‘s degrees of vulnerability to drought impacts, and to review their survival
mechanisms and adaptive strategies. The introductory chapter briefly reviews the
country‘s agricultural sector and the internationally politicized land question so as to
contextualize the study, and introduces the vulnerability concepts and theoretical
approaches used in the research. Some state policies were found to have actually
contributed to the vulnerability of the people in the communities. The country has not
maintained a national strategic grain reserve since the late 1990s and its focus on cash
crops created a near monoculture of maize, a crop variety that is vulnerable to moisture
fluctuations. The economic challenges and the violent political environment of 2008

58
contributed to food shortages and the closure of a majority of rural shops. Some
humanitarian organizations inadvertently worsened households’ vulnerability to drought
impacts through ill-informed screening methods and flawed relief aid targeting. Increased
morbidity and school dropouts, the lowering of the water table and an upsurge in
livestock and grain thefts were among the effects of droughts experienced in Buhera and
Chikomba. Wild fruits and relief aid became alternative food sources. The study revealed
that the people in these communities were not passive victims in the face of a disaster;
instead, they were enterprising and innovative, and employed their indigenous knowledge
systems to predict weather patterns in the absence of conventional modern weather
predictions. The local communities developed mitigation strategies to protect themselves
against the climatic exigencies, despite their difficult conditions.37 Mutasa’s study
showed the results and possible disasters caused by indigenous knowledge systems. It is
relevant to the present study wherein it aimed to address the lack of knowledge in coping
with different disasters through edifying the whole community about disaster risk
reduction.
For many people, Sri Lanka has been placed on the map because of the December
2004 Tsunami Disaster. As a result, numerous articles have been written about what
happened on that day. Besides the tsunami, the country has continually experienced a
multitude of weather-related hazards both before and after 26th December, 2004. This
has resulted in seasonal floods, landslides, cyclones and droughts. After the Tsunami Sri
Lanka and the international community revisited disaster management protocols. The
National Disaster Management Centre recognized that the country was within a disaster
prone area. Because of the tsunami, the Ministry of Education (MoE) felt there was an

59
urgent need for educational course offers especially tailored to deal with the catastrophe
for war and tsunami traumatized children and youth. The fact that the country suffers
from numerous disasters, the question of whether Disaster Management Education
(DME) could be incorporated into the school curriculum evolved. Such education
includes, but is not limited to, the learning of First Aid/CPR, evacuation measures and
disaster definitions. As more material was reviewed it became apparent that, because Sri
Lankan children were highly educated but continually at risk, such an education could
and should be seen as a useful tool. While visiting Sri Lankan schools, it was learned that
teachers had not received information nor adequate training on DME subjects, even
though these are activities that can be quickly learned and which save lives. Since there
has been no prior knowledge of these skills there was never any thought about
introducing them into the curriculum ~ that is, until 2005. From this time onward, special
educational advisors have been commissioned to collect and review disaster preparedness
subjects which will gradually be incorporated into different grades within the school
curriculum over time. However, while some topics suggest that grades 8 and 9 students
‘should develop the capacity to cope with disasters and to respond quickly with relief and
remedial measures’, these subjects do not include DME topics (MoE Curriculum Reform
2006). Until they do it will not be possible to introduce disaster response teams within
school settings, which was one of the aims of this research. Pia, in her study, paid
attention to international

non-government

organizations

(INGOs)

since these

organizations are usually the ones who offer both humanitarian and financial assistance
after a disaster. While many do support a wide variety of programs, less than half were
unprepared if a disaster were to occur. This has bought home the message that more

60
training needs to be done in this area if sustainable development is to affect change.
Teaching children about the response and demands of a disaster at an early age may well
help to influence their thinking and attitudes when they become adults. In any disaster,
children can and will be affected in different ways. Sri Lanka is an amazing country
whose citizens are quick to learn and accept change. While they have undoubtedly
experienced one of the worst disasters of the century they do continue to smile and move
forward.38 This study is relevant to the present study because it realized the role of
education in reducing disaster risks. Moreover, it showed the necessity in integrating
disaster risk reduction in school curricula.
Haulle, in his study establishes existing knowledge on earthquakes and coping
mechanisms employed in reducing the severity of adverse impacts caused by an
earthquake disaster in a specific locality. His purpose was to recommend useful measures
for disaster risk management. It also more particularly aimed at assessing mechanisms
employed in reducing the disaster risk and integrating knowledge of disasters and hazards
in primary and secondary school curricula. The study was carried out in Rungwe
Volcanic Province in Rungwe District, Tanzania, and included recording people’s
attitudes towards earthquake disaster and locations of schools. It employed focus group
discussions, public hearings and interviews in order to capture the actual situation
relating to risk and vulnerability assessments by the community. He revealed high levels
of risk and vulnerability to the impact of earthquakes on the part of the community, who
accepted earthquakes as a normal phenomenon and therefore did not employ special
measures to reduce the impact. The study showed that the community’s coping
mechanisms and the extent to which disaster management knowledge has been integrated

61
in school curricula are inadequate in addressing earthquake disasters. It is thus
recommended that traditional and modern technologies be integrated in curricula and
later in sustainable practices; such technologies include the belief in ‘Nyifwila’,
traditional housing style and wooden housing, and non-structural planning for disaster
risk management.39 Haulle’s study is relevant to the present study because it also
recognized how important education is in terms of reducing disaster risks. Besides, it
explained the necessity in integrating disaster risk reduction in school curricula.
In 2006, the ISDR (International Strategy for Disaster Reduction) initiated a
campaign called Disaster Risk Reduction Begins at School to encourage the integration
of disaster risk education into school curricula in countries vulnerable to disasters. A
study was initiated to determine how education, in particular curriculum development and
teaching, contributes to South African learners’ hazard awareness and disaster
preparedness. Mixed method research (consisting of questionnaires, interviews and
document reviews) was done to collect data. 150 educators from Gauteng, the Western
Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, North West and the Eastern Cape completed questionnaires. Five
curriculum coordinators, three disaster specialists and two disaster lecturers were
interviewed to record their perspectives. The first finding of the study was that the
majority of educators, disaster specialists and curriculum coordinators identified floods,
fire, droughts, epidemics, road accidents and storms as the most prevalent disasters in the
country. The second finding from the literature and empirical data collection revealed
that South African communities, particularly people residing in informal settlements and
other poor areas, are more vulnerable to disasters than their counterparts in more affluent
areas. The third finding of the study was that teaching learners about hazards and

62
disasters is vital and must be expanded.40 This study is relevant to the present study
because both aimed to promote and contribute hazard awareness and disaster
preparedness through education. The present study also realized that integrating disaster
risk reduction to school curricula is a big step in achieving well-informed learners who
are capable to cope with different disasters.
Synthesis of the State of the Art
The various related literature and studies provided the researcher useful insights
and perspectives in the undertaking and improvement of the present study. They served
as a modified guidelines and support backed-up in determining the integration of disaster
risk reduction in the school curricula and in the teachers’ learning program within the
selected secondary schools of Legazpi City Division.
The cited literature and studies, specifically of the Regional Consultative
Committee on Disaster Management (RCC) and Lekalakala, M.J. of the University of the
Free State, South Africa, show the significance of the integration of the Disaster Risk
Reduction Focus on the School Curriculum and on the teacher’s Learning Program.
Emphasis was given on the importance of teaching Disaster risk reduction in School,
simply with the belief that children are more vulnerable to disasters, and that at the same
time they can be influential and effective communicators about disasters, as they often
transmit to their parents and siblings what they have learned in school.
Vulnerability of Human to disasters increased over the past several decades.
Natural disasters have become frequently occurring as the world experiences a global
climate change where people affected by disasters are following a similar and increasing
trend. This is the very reason, why the researcher went to this study, to enhance the

63
understanding of people about the severity of disasters; depending on how much impact a
hazard has on society and the environment, depending on the choices the people make for
their lives and for the environment, depending on the measures of preparation the society
undertakes specially on the education of the children about the nature of disasters and
disaster risk reduction.
Gap Bridged by the Study
As a whole, there are already many studies undertaken about the implementation
of disaster risk reduction management. However, there are very few that dealt specifically
with the education sector addressing disaster problems.
To be particular, in Albay, most of the studies done in this place were about the
implementation of the disaster risk reduction executed by Albay Public Safety and
Emergency Management Office. The lack of studies concerning the role of education in
administering disaster problems, particularly the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction
in the school curricula was the identified gap bridged by the study.
Theoretical Framework
Social vulnerability pertains to the inability of the society and government to
withstand adverse impacts from multiple stressors to which they are exposed. These
impacts are due in part to characteristics inherent in social interactions, institutions, and
systems of cultural values.

Three complementary theories in the literature explore

disaster risk and vulnerability and are taken into account in this study. The first theory is
Risk-Hazard (RH) Model by Dr. Billie L. Turner II et al. Initially, his theory sought to
understand the impact of a hazard as a function of exposure to the hazardous event and
the sensitivity of the entity exposed. Applications of this model in environmental and

64
climate impact assessments generally emphasized exposure and sensitivity to
perturbations and stressors and worked from the hazard to the impacts. However, several
insufficiencies became evident. Primarily, it does not treat the ways in which the systems
in question amplify or attenuate the impacts of the hazard. Neither does the model
address the distinction among exposed subsystems and components that lead to
significant variations in the consequences of the hazards, or the role of political economy
in shaping differential exposure and consequences. Illustration of the theory was shown
on Figure 4 below. This led to the development of the PAR model.41
Figure 4
Risk-Hazard (RH) Model

Risk-Hazard (RH) model (diagram after Turner et al., 2003) showing the impact of a hazard as a function of exposure
and sensitivity. The chain sequence begins with the hazard, and the concept of vulnerability is noted implicitly as
represented by white arrows.
(Source: WIKIPEDIA The Free Encyclopedia)

The second theory was the Disaster Pressure and Release (PAR) Model
developed by Dr. Piers Blaikie et al. who explains disaster risks from a macro
perspective. According to the PAR model, disasters occur at the tangent between two
opposing forces, those of natural hazards and the processes that generate vulnerability. It

65
is when these two forces coincide that a disaster happens. Vulnerability was explained by
PAR model as a process that starts from what it calls root causes, wherein, these are
political or economical systems, establish a distribution of power within a society, which
determines access to resources. Through dynamic pressures, a series of processes, these
root causes can be channeled and transformed into unsafe conditions, wherein, the entire
process is called the progress of vulnerability. When unsafe conditions are combined
with physical exposure to hazards, disasters occur as shown on Figure 5 below.42
Figure 5
Disaster Pressure and Release (PAR) Model

(Source: Schilderinck, Gerard, 2009)

The third theory adopted in this study was the Access Model by Dr. Benjamin
Wisner et al. who explains how unsafe conditions at household level emerge as a result of
processes that allocate resources. A household’s level of access to resources strongly

66
influences its capacity to respond to the impact of hazards, wherein, resources can be
economic, health related, infrastructure, communication and most importantly education
particularly of the students under primary and secondary school. The Access model
considers how the relationship between households’ access to various resources and the
choices made within a set of structural constraints impacts on their ability to withstand
shocks. Access to resources specially education is the key to households improving their
livelihoods, making them sustainable, increasing their resilience against shocks and
having the capacity to restore their livelihoods after a disaster occurs.43
Table 2
Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 (HFA) –
Five Priority Areas and Key Activities
Priority Areas

Key Activities

Ensure that DRR is a national and local priority
with a strong institutional basis for implementation.

National, institutional and legislative frameworks.
Resources
Community participation.

Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and
enhance early warning.

National and local risk assessments.
Early warning.
Capacity.
Regional and emerging risks.

Use knowledge, innovation and education to build
a culture of safety and resilience at all levels.

Information management and exchange.
Education and training.
Research.
Public awareness.

Reduce the underlying risk factors.

Environmental and natural resource management.
Social and economic development practices.
Land-use planning and other technical measures.

Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective
response at all levels.
Compiled from UN (2005)
(Source: Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR): Reducing Human Vulnerabilities to Natural Disasters, 2010)

Reducing human vulnerabilities to natural disasters will always be the aim of
Disaster Risk Reduction. As widely used by the International Community, United
Nations adopted the definition of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) as: the conceptual
framework of elements considered with the purpose of minimizing vulnerabilities and

67
disaster risks throughout a society in order to avoid (prevention) or to limit (mitigation
and preparedness) the adverse impact of hazards, and facilitate sustainable development.
Epitomized by this study was the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the
resilience of nations and communities to disasters. The Hyogo Framework for Action
(HFA) has since become the point of reference for DRR implementation globally, in
which it offers five areas of priorities for action as shown in Table 2. It represent guiding
principles and practical means for DRR implementation with a medium-term goal of
achieving substantive reduction of disaster losses by 2015.44
Figure 6
Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR)

UNISDR (2004:5)
Source: Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR): Reducing Human Vulnerabilities to Natural Disasters, 2010)

68
Comprehensive disaster management encompasses the aspect of preparedness,
early warning, mitigation, relief, recovery and rehabilitation. It can be seen that DRR was
focused on the preparedness, early warning and mitigation aspects of this disaster
management cycle. DRR’s aim was to reduce vulnerabilities and increase the
preparedness of states and communities to natural hazards in long run (see Figure 6).45
Disaster, a result of the combination of hazards, vulnerability and inability to
reduce the potential negative consequences of risk, which can be best illustrated in this
formula: (Vulnerability + Hazard) / Capacity = Disaster.46 Vulnerability may mean as
weakened capacity of an individual or a community to anticipate, cope with, resist and
recover from the impact of a disaster, natural or man-made. In this context, the researcher
theorizes that vulnerability to hazards can be cope by awareness and knowledge
development. Awareness through systematic efforts to analyze and manage the factors
causing disasters that includes reduced exposure to hazards, lessened vulnerability of
people and of their properties, wise management of land and the environment, and
improved preparedness for adverse events. Disaster Risk Reduction encompasses the
concepts of prevention, mitigation and preparedness of the community to disasters, in
which should be viewed as developmental activities that minimizes the probability of
disastrous occurrences by reducing the vulnerability of those at risk. As an important
element for the achievement of development goals, these concepts should be considered
to build the necessary capacities of the local communities to manage and reduce risk of
disasters. Henceforth, it is always important that disaster risk reduction be promoted at all
levels, internationally and locally, in which, the only way to achieve this goal is by
ensuring that there is a systematic integration of disaster risk reduction concepts into

69
government policies and programs for sustainable development and poverty reduction
through education. And so therefore, teaching disaster risk reduction in school is a must.
The government, upon implementation of the integration of disaster risk reduction
focus in the school curricula and in the learning program of teachers must consider
measures that might be the following: (a) review the current school curricula and plan the
integration of DRR in the Learning Program; (b) develop a module about DRR for
specific subjects; (c) train teachers to handle DRR in their respective subjects; (d) test and
develop the module through actual

teaching

and

training of students; and

(e) consider all feedbacks and recommendations to improve the teaching of DRR and
revise the curriculum (the measures for the undertaking of the integration of Disaster
Risk Reduction in the school curricula was modified from the Suggested steps for
undertaking Priority Implementation Partnerships – PIPs for mainstreaming DRR into
School Curriculum Year 1 and 2 by the Regional Consultative Committee on Disaster
Management – RCC).47 Upon learning from the discussion and actual trainings done in
school, these children might transmit this knowledge to their parents and other relatives.
The theory developed by the researcher will be known as Awareness and Preparedness
Enhancing Capacity to Cope with Disasters Impact (A+P = +CCDI) Model as shown on
Figure 7.
The theoretical framework particularly the theory “Awareness and Preparedness
Enhancing Capacity to Cope with Disasters Impact (A+P = +CCDI) Model” developed
for the study “Integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in School Curricula in Selected
Secondary Schools in Legazpi City Division” was chiefly connected to the concepts of
the study. Specifically, the status of the integration of DRR in the schools’ curricula; the

70
factors influencing the integration; the schools’ policies and practices adopted for the
integration of DRR; and the recommendations that can be advanced to improve the DRR
integration in the schools’ curricula. Vulnerability or the capacity of the people to cope
with the impact of disasters is relevant to the status of the integration of Disaster Risk
Reduction in school curricula. If integration of DRR foci were high, vulnerability of the
community to hazards would be low. On the other hand, if the integration were low, it
would mean high vulnerability of the people to cope with the impact of hazards.
Awareness and knowledge development, specifically teaching DRR in school, are
significant to the factors influencing the integration, and the school policies and practices
adopted for the integration of DRR in schools’ curricula. The factors influencing the
integration of DRR particularly along with policies, teachers’ learning program,
instructional materials, and facilities; parallel to the schools’ policies and practices
adopted for the integration of DRR in terms of manpower, funding, and technical; are
pertinent factors to be considered devising measures for the implementation of
integration of DRR foci in school curricula. The current school curricula should be
review and should thoroughly plan the integration of DRR in accordance to factors that
might influence the implementation. Develop modules about DRR for specific topics or
subjects. Training of teachers to handle DRR in their respective subjects should be train.
The feedbacks and recommendations by teachers of respective schools surveyed and by
the researcher himself should be consider for the advancement of DRR integration. The
researcher believes that “Preparedness to respond and cope with the effect of disasters
begins with a better Education in School”.

71

Figure 7. Paradigm of Theoretical Framework

72
Conceptual Framework
The study discusses the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) into
schools’ curricula recognizing the role of education in addressing disaster problems.
Specifically, the study commences with determining the status of the integration of DRR
in the schools’ curricula; then next, it proceeded with the factors that influence the
integration of DRR; schools’ policies and practices adopted for the infusion of DRR; and
the recommendations that can be advanced to improve the DRR integration in the
schools’ curricula. The aforementioned variables are the factors in the actualization of
this research.
The research focused on the status of the integration of the DRR in the schools’
curricula after the issuance of DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007 prioritizing the
mainstreaming of Disaster Risk Reduction Management in the School System and
implementation of programs and projects relative to it. The study was conducted to
identify the factors within the school communities that influence the integration of DRR
into the schools’ curricula along the following: (a) policies, (b) teachers’ learning
program, (c) instructional materials, and (d) facilities. The schools’ policies and practices
adopted for the integration of DRR in terms of: (a) manpower, (b) funding, and (c)
technical were look into. Finally, this study ought recommendations to improve the DRR
integration in the schools’ curricula. The feedback received from the school
administrators and teachers may lead to the improvement the disaster risk reduction
integration in the schools’ curricula. The interrelationships of concepts discussed are
variables of the study, which are illustrated in the conceptual paradigm as shown in
Figure 8.

73

Figure 8. Paradigm of Conceptual Framework

74
Definition of Terms
The following terms used in the study are defined conceptually and operationally
for better understanding.
Capability. This refers the qualitative assessment of human and material
resources such as ability, competence, and authority. The natural capability some people
seem to cope or resist with the impact of disasters. 48
Capacity. This refers to the total amount that can be contained or produced. In
this study, it may mean as “the combination of all the strengths, attributes and resources
available within a community, society or organization that can be used to achieve agreed
goals”. It is a quantitative assessment of human and material resources.

Example:

number, volume, size. The capacity of an individual or group to cope or resist with the
impact of a disaster.49
Curriculum. It refers to planned interactions, opportunities and experiences that
occur between learners and teachers in schools, utilizing instructional content, materials,
resources, and processes for evaluating the attainment of educational objectives. It is also
referred to as the sum of all learning experiences provided by school, including the
content of the course syllabus, the method and strategies employed, and other aspects like
norms and values, which directly or indirectly influence the learning process.50
Disaster. It is a natural or man-made emergencies that cannot be handled by
affected communities who experience severe danger and incur loss of lives and properties
causing disruption in its social structure and prevention of the fulfi llment of all or some
of the affected community’s essential functions. A phenomenon that can cause damage to
life and property and destroy the economic, social and cultural life of people.51

75
Disaster preparedness. It is a state in which individuals and groups of a
community have developed plans, allocated resources, and established procedures for an
efficient and effective implementation of the plans for the purpose of saving lives and
preventing further damage to property in the event of a disaster. Preparedness includes
plans or preparations made to save lives and to help response-and-rescue operations.
Evacuation plans and stocking food and water are both examples of preparedness.52
Disaster risk management. It is a systematic process of using administrative
decisions, organization, operational skills and capacities to implement policies, strategies
and coping capacities of the society and communities to lessen the impacts of natural
hazards and related environmental and technological disasters. It comprises all forms of
activities, including structural and non-structural measures to avoid (prevention) or to
limit (mitigation and preparedness) adverse effects of hazards.53
Disaster risk reduction. This refers to the concept and practice of reducing
disaster risks through systematic efforts to analyze and manage the causal factors of
disasters, including through reduced exposures to hazards, lessened vulnerability of
people and property, wise management of land and the environment, and improved
preparedness for adverse events. It is a systematic approach to identifying, assessing and
reducing the risks of disaster, which aims to reduce socio-economic vulnerabilities to
disaster as well as dealing with the environment and other hazards that trigger them. It is
the concept and practice of reducing disaster risks through systematic efforts to analyse
and manage the causal factors of disasters, including through reduced exposure to
hazards, lessened vulnerability of people and property, wise management of land and the
environment, and improved preparedness for adverse events.54

76
Hazard. It refers to any phenomenon that has the potential to cause disruption or
damage to humans and their environment, or an event or occurrence that has the potential
for causing injury to life, property and environment. It is a situation that poses a level of
threat to life, health, property, or environment. Such a

dangerous phenomenon,

substance, human activity or condition that may cause loss of life, injury or other health
impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic
disruption, or environmental damage.55
Integration. It refers to the mainstreaming of disaster risk reduction and climate
change in development processes such as policy formulation, socioeconomic
development planning, budgeting, and governance, particularly in the areas of
environment, agriculture, water, energy, health, education, poverty reduction, land-use
and urban planning, and public infrastructure and housing, among others. Example:
Integration of Disaster Risk Reduction Education into the School Curricula and
Sangguniang Kabataan (SK) Program and Mandatory Training for the Public Sector
Employees.56
Learning Program.

It refers to the plan of work which guides activities,

assessment and achievement of critical and learning outcomes of teaching and learning
within an outcomes-based framework.57
Outcomes-Based Education and Training (OBE) approach. It refers to the
educational system enabling formal education to produce skilled people for developing
markets and economic growth, through the use of learning programmes and processes
based on integrated outcomes.58

77
Policy. It is a principle or rule to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. It
is an statement of intent, and is implemented as a procedure or protocol.59
Preparedness. It refers to activities and measures taken in advance to ensure
effective response to the impact of hazards, including the issuance of timely and effective
early warnings and the temporary evacuation of people and property from threatened
locations. It is a developed knowledge and capacities to effectively anticipate, respond to,
and recover from, the impacts of likely, imminent or current hazard events or
conditions.60
Recovery. This refers to the decisions and actions taken after a disaster with a
view to restoring or improving the pre-disaster living conditions of the stricken
community, while encouraging and facilitating necessary adjustments to reduce disaster
risks. It is the restoration and improvement where appropriate, of facilities, livelihoods
and living conditions of disaster-affected communities, including efforts to reduce
disaster risk factors.61
Response. This refers to the act of implementing or translating into actions what
are called for by the preparedness plans. Response includes actions taken to save lives
and prevent further damage in a disaster or emergency situation. Seeking shelter from
strong winds accompanying a typhoon and evacuating to higher grounds due to an
impending fl ood are examples of response. The provision of emergency services and
public assistance during or immediately after a disaster in order to save lives, reduces
health impacts, ensure public safety and meet the basic subsistence needs of the people
affected.62

78
Risk. This refers to the expected number of lives lost, persons injured, damage to
property and disruption of economic activity due to natural phenomenon, and
consequently the product of specific risk and elements at risk. Specific risk means the
expected degree of loss due to a particular phenomenon. Elements at risk means the
population, buildings and civil engineering works, economic activities, public services,
utilities and infrastructure, etc., at risk in a given area. It is a potential of loss resulting
from a given action, activity and or inaction. It is the combination of the probability of an
event and its negative consequences.63
Status of Implementation. This refers to the extent of carrying out or fulfilling
something. In this study it refers to the extent of integration of the Disaster Risk
Reduction in the school curricula.64
Vulnerability. This refers to the factors of the community that allow a hazard to
cause a disaster. Or the result of a number of factors that increase the chances of a
community being unable to cope with an emergency. It is a weakened capacity of an
individual or group of society to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impact
of a natural or man-made hazard.65

79
NOTES
1

Regional Consultative Committee on Disaster Management (RCC). Integrating
Disaster Risk Reduction into School Curriculum: Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction
into
Education.
Retrieved
from:
http://www.preventionweb.net/files/4006_ADPCEducGuidelineConsultationVersion3.1.pd
f (accessed 2013, June 25).
2

National Curriculum and Assessment Centre. Teaching Disaster Risk Reduction
with Interactive Methods: Book for Head of Class Teachers (Grade V – IX), p.6. Retrieved
from:
http://www.preventionweb.net/files/22730_22730headteachersguideengncac1.pdf
(accessed 2013, June 26).
3

Ibid.

4

Ibid., p. 7.

5

Ibid., p. 8.

6

Ibid.

7

Ibid., p. 11.

8

International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR). Hyogo Framework for
Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of nations and Communities to Disasters.
World Conference on Disaster Reduction, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan, January 18-22, 2005.
Retrieved from: http://www.unisdr.org/2005/wcdr/intergover/official-doc/L-docs/Hyogoframework-for-action-english.pdf (accessed 2013, July 27).
9

Regional Consultative Committee on Disaster Management (RCC). February
2010
Brochure.
Retrieved
from:
http://www.adpc.net/v2007/Downloads/2010/Feb/RCCBrochure.pdf (accessed 2013, July
25).
10

United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF). Disaster Risk Reduction in School
Curricula:
Case
Studies
from
Thirty
Countries.
Retrieved
from:
http://www.unicef.org/education/files/DRRinCurricula-Mapping30countriesFINAL.pdf
(accessed 2013, July 28).
11

Wisner, Ben. Let our Children Teach Us! – A Review of the Role of Education
and Knowledge in Disaster Risk Reduction. ISDR System thematic Cluster/Platform on
Knowledge
and
Education.
p.
10.
Retrieved
from:
http://www.unisdr.org/files/609_10030.pdf (accessed 2013, July 28).
12

Ibid. pp. 10-11.

80
13

Ibid. p. 11.

14

Ibid. pp. 11-12.

15

Briceño, Salavano. Disaster Risk Reduction Begins at School. 2006-2007 World
Disaster Reduction Campaign. United Nations – International Strategy for Disaster
Reduction. Retrieved from: http://www.unisdr.org/2007/campaign/pdf/WDRC-2006-2007English-fullversion.pdf (accessed 2013, July 28).
16

UNESCO-Kathmandu. Towards a Learning Culture of Safety and ResilienceIntegrating Disaster Risk Reduction into School Curricula. Retrieved from:
http://www.unesco.org/new/en/kathmandu/about-this-office/singleview/news/towards_a_learning_culture_of_safety_and_resilience_integrating_disaster_risk
_reduction_into_school_curricula/ (accessed 2013, July 28).
17

UNICEF Lesotho. Disaster Risk reduction: Integrating into School Curriculum in
Lesotho.
September
2011.
Retrieved
from:
http://www.preventionweb.net/files/23844_unicef.pdf (accessed 2013, July 28).
18

DepEd. Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction in the Education Sector in the
Philippines.
Retrieved
from:
http://www.ndcc.gov.ph/attachments/042_MDRReducation_Philippines.pdf
(accessed
2013, July 28).
19

Luna, Emmanuel M. et al. Impact of Disasters on the Education Sector in the
Philippines. Center for Disaster Preparedness (CDP). Retrieved from:
http://www.adpc.net/v2007/programs/dms/PROGRAMS/Mainstreaming%20DRR/Downlo
ads/Philippines.pdf (accessed 2013, July 28).
20

Andrade, Jeannette I. Training on what to do during disasters pushed for QC
teachers. Published by: Philippine Daily Inquirer, February 25, 2013.
21

Lekalakala, M.J. 2011. Teachers’ perception about lesson planning to include a
Disaster Risk Reduction Focus. (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). University of the Free
State,
South
Africa.
pp.
31

32.
Retrieved
from:
http://natagri.ufs.ac.za/dl/userfiles/Documents/00002/2288_eng.pdf (accessed 2013, May
27).
22

Ibid. pp. 37 – 38.

23

Ibid. pp. 38 – 40.

24

Daep, Cedric D. The Implementation of the Disaster Risk Reduction Management
Program in the Province of Albay, (Unpublished Dissertation), Bicol University. Legazpi
City, Philippines. 2011.

81
25

Ondiz, Rowena L. Flood Disaster Preparedness and Mitigation Program
Implementation in Quinali “A” River System, (Unpublished Dissertation), Bicol
University. Legazpi City, Philippines, 2006.
26

Frias, Rosemarie T. Crisis Preparedness in Bicol University, (Unpublished
Dissertation), Bicol University. Legazpi City, Philippines, 2007.
27

Zuñiga, Roman Chamberlane VI G. Disaster Risk Reduction in the High Risk
Zone of Mayon Volcano. (Unpublished Dissertation), Bicol University, Legazpi City,
Philippines. 2008.
28

Christensen, Christian B. 2011. Preliminary Concepts for Developing Childhood
Education in Emergency Preparedness. (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Arizona State
University,
United
States
of
America.
Retrieved
from:
http://repository.asu.edu/attachments/56865/content/Christensen_asu_0010N_10832.pdf
(accessed 2013, June 28).
29

Shilperoort, Liezel Mary. 2012. How Community Institutions in Turkey Engage in
Disaster Risk Reduction: A Case Study of Istanbul and Antakya. (Unpublished Master’s
Thesis). Colorado State University, United States of America. Retrieved from:
http://disaster.colostate.edu/Data/Sites/1/cdra-research/cdrathesesanddissertations/schilperoortthesis.pdf (accessed 2013, July 29).
30

Maartens. Y. 2011. Development Communication in Disaster Risk Reduction: The
G.I.R.R.L. (Girls in Risk Reduction Leadership) Project. (Unpublished Master’s Thesis).
Potchefstroom Campus of the North-West University. South Africa. Retrieved from:
http://acds.co.za/uploads/thesis/yolandamaartens_m.pdf (accessed 2013, July 29).
31

Coetzee, Christo. 2009. The development, implementation and transformation of
the Disaster Management Cycle. (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Potchefstroom Campus
of
the
North-West
University.
South
Africa.
Retrieved
from:
http://acds.co.za/uploads/thesis/christocoetzee_m.pdf (accessed 2013, July 29).
32

Brazer, Peter Jacobus. 2009. Institutional Capacity of the South African Police
Service for Disaster Risk Reduction in the Dr Kenneth Kaunda District Municipality.
(Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Potchefstroom Campus of the North-West University.
South
Africa.
Retrieved
from:
http://dspace.nwu.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10394/6985/Brazer_%20P_%20J.pdf?sequence=
2 (accessed 2013, July 29).
33

Dlamini, Prudence P. 2011. Evaluating the Implementation of the Hyogo
Framework for Action in the Kabokweni Location: Views from the Frontline Perspective.
(Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Potchefstroom Campus of the North-West University.
South
Africa.
Retrieved
from:
http://dspace.nwu.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10394/4871/Dllamini_PP.pdf?sequence=2
(accessed 2013, July 29).

82
34

Coles, Jennifer Robyn. 2011. The disaster risk reduction educational programme
for primary schools in the City of Tshwane: A critical analysis. (Unpublished Master’s
Thesis). Potchefstroom Campus of the North-West University. South Africa. Retrieved
from: (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Potchefstroom Campus of the North-West
University. Retrieved from: http://dspace.nwu.ac.za/handle/10394/8071 (accessed 2013,
July 29).
35

Baumwoll, Jennifer. 2008. The Value of Indigenous Knowledge for Disaster Risk
Reduction: A Unique Tool for Reducing Community Vulnerability to Natural Disasters.
(Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Webster University, Vienna, Austria. Retrieved from:
Retrieved from: http://www.islandvulnerability.org/m/baumwollm.pdf (accessed 2013,
July 29).
36

Shamano, Nicholas. 2010. An Investigation into the Disaster Risk reduction
(DRR) Efforts in Gutu District (Zimbabwe): A Focus on Drought Early Warning Systems.
(Unpublished Master’s Thesis). University of the Free State, South Africa . Retrieved
from: http://natagri.ufs.ac.za/dl/userfiles/Documents/00002/2275_eng.pdf (accessed 2013,
July 29).
37

Mutasa, Mukundi. 2010. Zimbabwe’s Drought Conundrum: vulnerability and
coping in Buhera Chikomba districts. (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Norwegian
University
of
Life
Science.
Norway.
Retrieved
from:
http://brage.bibsys.no/umb/bitstream/URN:NBN:nobibsys_brage_14491/1/Mukundi%20Mutasa%20Final%20Thesis.pdf (accessed 2013, July
29).
38

Rea, Deborah. 2007. Preparing for the future: Incorporating Disaster
Management Education into Sri Lankan Schools. (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Coventry
University
Sri
Lanka.
Retrieved
from:
http://www.ineesite.org/uploads/files/resources/doc_1_87_Thesis_Sri_Lanka_Deborah_Re
a.pdf (accessed 2013, July 29).
39

Haulle, Evaristo. 2012. Evaluating earthquake disaster risk management in
schools in Rungwe Volcanic province in Tanzania. University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Retrieved
from:
http://www.jamba.org.za/index.php/jamba/article/viewFile/44/46
(accessed 2013, July 29).
40

Takalani, Rambau S. et al. Disaster Risk Reduction through school learners’
awareness and preparedness. University of Pretoria, South Africa. Retrieved from:
http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/21370/Rambau_Disaster(2012).pdf?seque
nce=1 (accessed 2013, July 29).
41

WIKEPEDIA The Free Encyclopedia. Social Vulnerability. Retrieved from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_vulnerability#Vulnerability_within_society (accessed
2013, July 23).

83
42

Schilderinck, Gerard. Drought Cycle Management in arid and semi-arid Kenya:
A relevant disaster risk reduction model? pp. 9 & 27. Retrieved from
www.alnap.org/pool/files/100-10035b-final-drr-research-report.pdf (accessed 2013, July
22).
43

Ibid. pp. 27-29.

44

The Centre for the Non-Traditional Security (NTS) – NTS ALERT September
2010 (Issue 1). Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR): Reducing Human Vulnerabilities to
Natural Disasters. Retrieved from: http://www.rsis.edu.sg/nts/html-newsletter/alert/NTSalert-sep-1001.html (accessed 2013, July 22).
45

Ibid.

46

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. What is a
disaster?
Retrieved
from:
http://www.ifrc.org/en/what-we-do/disastermanagement/about-disasters/what-is-a-disaster/ (accessed 2013, June 2).
47

Ibid. 1, pp. 9-12.

48

Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual, Department of Education, Republic
of the Philippines, p. 5, c. 2008.
49

Ibid.

50

WIKEPEDIA The Free Encyclopedia. Curriculum.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curriculum (accessed 2013, July 9).
51

Ibid. 48, p. 6.

52

Ibid.

53

Retrieved

from:

Ibid.

54

Republic Act No. 10121. An Act Strengthening the Philippine Disaster Risk
Reduction and Management System, Providing for the National Disaster Risk Reduction
and Management Framework and Institutionalizing the National Disaster risk Reduction
and management Plan, Appropriating funds Thererefor and for other Purposes. Republic
of the Philippines, Congress of the Philippines. May 27, 2010.
55

Ibid. 48, p. 7.

56

Ibid. 54.

57

Ibid. 8, p. 14.

84

58

Ibid.

59

WIKEPEDIA The Free Encyclopedia. Policy.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Policy (accessed 2013, July 9).
60

Ibid. 48, p. 8.

61

Ibid. 48, p. 9.

62

Ibid.

63

Ibid.

64

Retrieved

from:

WIKEPEDIA The Free Encyclopedia. Status of Implementation. Retrieved
from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Status _of Implementation (accessed 2013, July 8).
65

.

Ibid. 48, p. 10.

Chapter 3
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
This chapter discusses the research design, the methods and procedures employed
in conducting the study. This also includes the research methods, sources of data,
respondents, instruments used, the data collection procedure, and statistical treatment of
data.
Research Methods
Based on the problems stated and objectives sought by the study, the descriptive
– evaluative research approach was used. This design was used to appraise carefully the
worthiness of the current study.
The study is primarily a descriptive research, which focused on investigating and
mapping out (describing) problems, processes, relationships (especially causal
relationships), or other existing phenomena. Descriptive research is a design which aims
to describe systematically a situation, problem, phenomenon, service or program, or
provides information about, says the living conditions of a community, or describes
attitudes towards an issue. Thus, it describes the nature of a situation as it exists at the
time of the study and explores the causes of particular phenomena. It is used to identify
and obtain information on the characteristics of a particular problem or issue. Descriptive
research goes further in examining a problem than exploratory research, as it is
undertaken to ascertain and describe the characteristics of the pertinent issues. A
descriptive study determines and reports the way things are, as it has no control over what
is, and it can only measure what already exists. Research questions for theses involving
descriptive research usually ask what happened, what the relationship is between one

86
thing and another, or what we know about something. Think of this paradigm as a
camera, taking snapshots or video of something that hasn’t been studied before. On the
other hand, Evaluative research is concerned with the assessment of policies, programs or
institutional frameworks. Evaluative research evaluates: it judges, assesses, or measures
something in relation to outcomes or requirements. If you want to know how well a
policy has worked, or how well a program is performing, or whether a practice is
effective or successful, or what the outcomes of a given policy are, you’re doing
Evaluative research. Think of this paradigm as a scale or calculator, measuring
something’s characteristics, growth, or performance. 1
In this study, descriptive – evaluative research design was employed which
carefully appraised the worthiness of the current study. The researcher devised a
questionnaire which evaluates the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in the School
Curricula in selected secondary schools in Legazpi City Division in order to address the
local community’s disaster issues and requested that principals and teachers of the 3
selected schools as subject of the study to respond on it. Specifically, to evaluate the
DRR status of integration; the factors that influence such integration in terms of policies,
teacher’s learning program, and facilities; school policies and practices in the integration
of DRR in terms of manpower, funding, and technical; and the recommendations that
may be advanced to improve the DRR integration in the school curricula.
Sources of Data
The data in the study were derived from two sources. First, primary data were
sought from the answers of the respondents. In this study, it included the perception of
the teacher-respondents from three major sources such as Pag-Asa National High School,

87
Oro Site High School, and Taysan Resettlement Integrated School – High School
Department. All three schools are located within and nearby the metropolis of Legazpi
under Legazpi City Division. These schools were chosen due to the vulnerability of the
same to natural disasters. However, the risks faced by each school differ based on the
geophysical characteristics of each site, to wit; Pag-Asa National High school poses
danger towards shack fire, flood and volcanic eruption; Oro Site High School is prone to
extensive flooding and shack fires; and Taysan Resettlement Integrated School, on the
other hand, faces flash flood, soil erosion, strong wind and earth quake. In addition,
secondary data included books, journals, thesis, dissertation, online materials and
documents gathered from the respective schools, division office and other agencies which
are subjected to analytical tool.
Respondents
This study on the Integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in School Curricula in
Selected Secondary Schools in Legazpi City Division involved the following: (a) school
head and teachers from Pag-Asa National High School; (b) school head and teachers
from Oro Site High School; and (c) school head and teachers from Taysan Resettlement
Integrated School – High School Department, which said schools are frequently affected
by floods and soil erosion during heavy rains and typhoons, volcanic eruptions,
earthquake and even exposed to the risk of shack fires during the hotter months. The total
number of the respondents is 165, which is a total enumeration equivalent to the exact
number of teachers from the 3 schools selected including the respective school heads as
shown in table 3 below.

88
Table 3
Distribution of the Respondents

RESPONDENTS

TOTAL NUMBER

School Heads

3

Teachers from Pag-Asa National High School

94

Teachers from Oro Site High School

53

Teachers from Taysan Resettlement Integrated School
– High School Department

15
Total

165

The principals of the 3 selected high schools were the direct respondents as they
are the top implementers in their respective institution concerning the integration of
Disaster Risk Reduction in the school curricula. The 162 teachers were totally
enumerated, which represented the 3 selected secondary schools under Legazpi City
Division, which has diverse vulnerabilities due to the geophysical characteristics of its
location.
Instrument Used
The following research instruments were employed in seeking answers to the
problems of the study.
Survey. Using Questionnaire, survey research was used to answer questions that
have been raised, to solve problems that have been posed or observed, to assess needs
and set goals, to determine whether or not specific objectives have been met, to establish
baselines against which future comparisons can be made, to analyze trends across time,
and generally, to describe what exists, in what amount, and in what context. Simply a

89
data collection tool for carrying out survey research, survey is defined as a means for
gathering information about the characteristics, actions, or opinions of a large group of
people. Survey can also be used to asses needs, evaluate demands, and examine impact. 2
Questionnaire was used to obtain information regarding the integration of Disaster
Risk Reduction in the School Curricula. Specifically to assess the status of integration;
the factors that influences such integration in terms of policies, teacher’s learning
program, and facilities; school policies and practices in the integration of DRR in terms
of manpower, funding, and technical; and the recommendations that may be advanced to
improve the DRR integration in the school curricula.
Document Review. A wide variety of written materials may serve as a valuable
source of data. Documents include but are not limited to institutional documents (clinical,
programmatic, or organizational records), personal documents (diaries, letters, artistic
expressions),

and

public

historical

documents

(legislative

testimony,

legal

documents). One method of systematic document review is content analysis, a strategy
that generates inferences through objective and systematic identification of core elements
of written communication. Content analysis involves the categorization and classification
of data to make inferences about the antecedents of a communication, describe and make
inferences about characteristics of a communication, and make inferences about the
effects of a communication.3
In this study, the documents like books, encyclopedia, magazines, journals, thesis
or dissertation, and other documents online were consulted and used that provided a
substantial information on the problem studied. The documents available in the schools
where this study is conducted will be thoroughly analyzed based on its content.

90
Data Collection Procedure
This study adhered to strict standard operating procedure in collecting data. It has
respect for autonomy, justice, fair selection of the study population, informed consent,
social value, validity and independent ethical view. The responsibility towards the
respondents of the survey conducted is considered. The rights of participants to have a
voluntary and free participating choice as well as their confidentiality are respected.
Thus, in the study, a request to conduct surveys and interviews at the schools and with the
teachers is made through letters that are approved by the study institution where the
researcher is registered as the student. Prior to the formal presentation of the survey
instrument to the respondents, validation and approval were made, necessary revisions
were done, and appointments are made with the respondents at the time suitable to them.
Before the commencement of the interviews, each participant signs an informed consent
contained in an information sheet that clearly outlines the purpose and the procedures of
the study, as well as explaining the detail of the study and the likely duration of the
interview. Participants were also given the space to discontinue with the survey at any
point in the study should they wish to do so or should any emotional distress during the
survey be noticed. While data were stored in a secured manner in order to reduce identity
risks, as well as removing the names of the participating schools, the research findings
will be communicated to the respondents and the funding body of this project with the
purpose of replicating the project for human resource development and capacity building
purposes. The respondents were allowed to answer freely their concept and perception of
the subject matter, after which the tabulation, analysis and interpretation of the data were
made.

91
Statistical Treatment of Data
The data gathered from the respondents were presented in visual devices, tables
and graphs. Descriptive statistics were used to describe, analyze and interpret the data
gathered. Total enumeration was a method used in selecting the sample size for the study,
where all members of the population are measured.
The data were analyzed and interpreted using the following statistical tools:
Frequency is the rate of repetitive event. Frequency was used to determine the
number of times the respondents answered the same sequence of values on the
questionnaire at a given time the survey was conducted.4
Percentage was used to determine the extent the status of the integration of
Disaster Risk Reduction in the school’s curricula.
In computing the percentage, any of the following formula was utilized.5
f
P (%) =

x 100
N

Where:
P = percentage
f = frequency of responses falling under particular category
N = total number of respondents
Rank is a relationship between a set of items such that, for any two items, the
first is either ‘ranked higher than’, ’ranked lower than’ or ranked equal to’ the second.
Rank was used to determine the level of the answers of the respondents from highest to
lowest.6

92
Weighted Mean takes into consideration the proper weights assigned to the
observed values according to their relative importance. This was used to find the level of
importance of the responses, as shown in the scales of value.
The formula for computing the mean is given below.7

__
X=

n
i = 1 Wi Xi
 Wi

Where:
Wi = weight of each item
Xi = value of each item
X = mean
 = means the sum of
These weighted means were interpreted based on the scale concept of the
boundary of numerals prepared arbitrarily as follows.
Mean Value

Weight

Verbal Interpretation

4.51-5.00

5

Fully Integrated/Very High

3.51-4.50

4

Almost Fully Integrated /High

2.51-3.50

3

Moderately Integrated /Moderate

1.51-2.50

2

Partially Integrated /Low

1.00-1.50

1

Not Integrated /Very Low

93
Notes
1

Wollman,
Lauren
F.
Research
Paradigms
Retrieved
https://www.chds.us/coursefiles/research/lectures/research_paradigms/script.pdf
(accessed 2013, August 28).

from:

2

Glasow, Priscilla A. 2005. Fundamentals of Survey Research Methodolgy.
Retrieved
from:
http://www.mitre.org/work/tech_papers/tech_papers_05/05_0638/05_0638.pdf (accessed
2013, August 28).
3

Curry, Leslie A. Key Issues in Outcomes Research: Qualitative and Mixed
Methods Provide Unique Contributions to Outcomes Research. Retrieved from:
http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/119/10/1442.full (accessed 2013, June 20).
4

Lombardi, Michael A. “Fundamentals of Time and Frequency.”National
Institute of Standards and Technology.
C. 2002. Retrieved from:
http://tf.nist.gov/general/pdf/1498.pdf (accessed 2013, December 16).
5

Jaccard, James and Becker, Michael A. “Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences,
Third Edition,” United States of America: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, c. 1997.
6

WIKEPEDIA The Free Encyclopedia. Ranking.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ranking (accessed 2014, January 20).
7

Retrieved

from:

Mercado del Rosario, Asuncion C. “Business Statistics,” Manila: ISBN, c. 1996.

Chapter 4
THE INTEGRATION OF DISASTER RISK REDUCTION IN SCHOOL
CURRICULA IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS
IN LEGAZPI CITY DIVISION
The integration of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) Management in the School
System had been initiated by the Department of Education (DepEd) in “building schools,
nations and communities resilient to disaster” through the issuance of DepEd Order No.
55, s. 2007. The Republic of the Philippines was a member country of the Regional
Consultative Committee (RCC) on Disaster Management along with other 29 members
from 26 countries who are working in key government positions in the National Disaster
Management systems of countries of the Asian region.
Within the education sector, the RCC’s objective to initiate mainstreaming of
DRR was: a.) Integrating DRR modules into school curriculum, b.) Promoting hazard
resilient construction of new schools, and c.) Introducing features into school for their use
as emergency shelters. Realizing the importance of mainstreaming of DRR in the
Education Sector was to support the implementation of Hyogo Framework for Action
(HFA) through Mainstreaming of DRR into Development Planning, Policy and
Implementation in Asia. The HFA which has been considered as a priority policy for
implementation by the Department of Education aims to reduce disaster losses in lives,
properties, social, economic and environmental assets of communities and countries that
become the policy objectives of the DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007 particularly the
mainstreaming of Disaster Risk Reduction Management in the School System.

95
The Status of the Integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in Schools’ Curricula
For the Secondary Education, the integration was done by distributing the topics
provided in the Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual in all subject areas in all year
levels. The topics in DRR Manual are distributed according to the relevance per subject
area as shown below:
SUBJECTS
1. English I-IV
2. Filipino I
3. Mathematics IV
4. Science I-IV
5. Araling Panlipunan I-IV
(Social Studies)
6. MAPEH
Health and Physical Education
7. Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao
(Values Education)
8. Technology and Livelihood
Education (TLE)
a. Home Economics
b. Industrial Arts
9. Citizens Advancement
Training (CAT)

TOPICS
Chap. 1. The Philippine Risk Profile
Chap. 2. The Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction
Management System
Chap. 3. Natural Hazards
(Hydro-meteorological Hazards)
Chap. 3. Natural Hazards
(Geological Hazards)
Chap. 4. Technological Hazards
Chap. 4. Environmental Hazards
Chap. 5. Ensuring Continuity of Instruction
Chap. 6. Ensuring Safety of DepEd Properties

Organization of School Disaster Risk Reduction
Management Group (c/o CAT Facilitator,
Public Safety and Community Service )

In compliance to the Orientation Guidelines and Mechanics provided for the
DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007, a one-week schedule which is equivalent to forty-one (41)
hours is allowed for discussion of contents of the DRR Resource Manual to be taken up
simultaneously in all subject areas and in all grade and year level with due respect to the
Time on Task Policy. The integration was represented per subject area evaluated and
presented on Table 4.

96
Table 4
Status of Integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in School Curricula
n = 165
Status of Integration of DRR in School Curricula

Subject Areas
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

FI

AFI

MI

PI

NI

WM

QD

73.94

1.49

NI

125

75.76

1.46

NI

9.70

125

75.76

1.50

NI

28

16.97

15

9.09

3.10

MI

22.42

67

40.61

30

18.18

2.48

PI

70

42.42

29

17.58

25

15.15

2.88

MI

4.24

12

7.27

15

9.09

127

76.97

1.46

NI

7

4.24

10

6.06

16

9.70

127

76.97

1.47

NI

8

4.85

11

6.67

18

10.91

124

75.15

1.48

NI

F

%

F

%

F

%

F

%

F

%

English I – IV

4

2.42

7

4.24

12

7.27

20

12.12

122

Filipino I – IV

3

1.82

8

4.85

11

6.67

18

10.91

Mathematics I – IV

5

3.03

9

5.45

10

6.06

16

Science I – IV

18

10.91

38

23.03

66

40.00

Araling Panlipunan I - IV

11

6.67

20

12.12

37

MAPEH I - IV

18

10.91

23

13.94

Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao I – IV

4

2.42

7

Technology and Livelihood Economics I-IV

5

3.03

Citizens Advancement Training

4

2.42

Legend:
FI
AFI
MI
PI
NI

- Fully Integrated/Very High
- Almost Fully Integrated/High
- Moderately Integrated/Moderate
- Partially Integrated/Low
- Not Integrated/Very Low

F
%
WM
QD
n

- Frequency
- Percentage
- Weighted Mean
- Qualitative Description
- Total Respondent

Aside from Science and Araling Panlipunan, where mainstreaming of Disaster
Risk Reduction were moderately integrated, and MAPEH, which has partial integration,
most of the subjects in the secondary curriculum did not integrate DRR. Because of lack
of political will in the enforcement and institutionalization of DRR by DepEd personnel,
who are supposed to monitor and evaluate the integration, it resulted to very weak
integration of DRR foci by teachers in their lesson. The results pose a big threat not only
to the students but also to the entire community lacking the awareness and preparedness
about disasters and its risks to the community being vulnerable to the hazards of
disasters. Hence, it was a challenge to the academe to educate the community about the
nature of disasters, its risks to the environment and the community, in order to be more
resilient with the impact of disasters.

97
Integration of DRR on English I-IV Subjects. The data revealed that
mainstreaming DRR concepts in English particularly the Philippine Risk Profile was not
integrated. The majority or seventy-five percent (75%) of the total respondents agreed
that the integration of DRR in English was very low in their respective schools having the
weighted mean of 1.49 indicating it is not integrated. DRR Concepts that should be
integrated in teaching English include the risks that the Philippines is vulnerable into,
considering the country’s geographical location, said to be situated along the Western
Pacific Basin, the world’s busiest typhoon belt. Recent tragedies experienced by the
country must also be discussed. The figure below shows the status of the integration of
DRR Concepts in English I-IV subjects.

Figure 9
Graph Showing the Status of Integration of Disaster
Risk Reduction in English I-IV Subjects

98
Integration of DRR on Filipino I-IV Subjects. Mainstreaming DRR concepts in
Filipino include the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction Management System discussing
the salient provisions of PD 1566 (1978), NDRRMC comprehensive disaster
management framework, declaration of principles, the cluster approach on humanitarian
response, the role of DepEd in the Philippine disaster risk management system, Disaster
Risk Reduction Management Office (DRRMO), and standard operation procedures for
mitigation and prevention. The majority or seventy-five percent (75%) of the total
respondents from the selected schools in Legazpi City Division agreed that the
integration of DRR in Filipino was very low having the weighted mean of 1.46 indicating
it is not integrated. The figure below shows the status of the integration of DRR Concepts
in Filipino I-IV subjects.

Figure 10
Graph Showing the Status of Integration of Disaster
Risk Reduction in Filipino I-IV Subjects

99
Integration of DRR on Mathematics I-IV Subjects. For mathematics subjects,
DRR concepts that must be integrated are the hydro-meteorological phenomena and
hazards topics such as: cyclone or typhoon, tornado, thunderstorm, global warming extreme
climatic variability, cold front, southwest monsoon, northeast monsoon, active low pressure
area, inter-tropical convergence zone, and other associated hazards to weather system
including flood, storm surge, landslide, storm wind and debris flow. Unfortunately in all three
selected schools surveyed, the majority or seventy-six percent (76%) of the total
respondents agreed that the integration of DRR in Mathematics was very low having the
weighted mean of 1.50 indicating it is not integrated. The figure below shows the status
of the integration of DRR Concepts in Mathematics I-IV subjects.

Figure 11
Graph Showing the Status of Integration of Disaster
Risk Reduction in Mathematics I-IV Subjects

100
Integration of DRR in Science I-IV Subjects. In the science subjects, the
integration of DRR focus on the lesson was moderate. The topics integrated in the
sciences were the natural hazards particularly the geological phenomena and hazards that
includes topics on earthquake and volcanic eruption. Astronomical Hazards is also included.
From the data, it shows that Science is among the three (3) subject-areas that integrates
DRR in the lesson. The majority or forty percent (40%) of the total respondents agreed
that the integration of DRR in Science was moderate in their respective schools having
the weighted mean of 3.10 indicating it is moderately integrated. The figure below shows
the status of the integration of DRR Concepts in Science I-IV subjects.

Figure 12
Graph Showing the Status of Integration of Disaster
Risk Reduction in Science I-IV Subjects

101
Integration of DRR in Araling Panlipunan I-IV Subjects. The forty-one
percent (41%) of the respondents perceived that the integration of DRR in Social Studies
(Araling Panlipunan) was low having the weighted mean of 2.4 indicating it is partially
integrated in the curricula of three selected schools in Legazpi City Division. The DRR
topics for the Social Studies were the Human Induced Hazards including the
technological hazards and socio-economic, political, security hazards. The topics under
Technological Hazards were: the structure collapse, fire, vehicular accident, chemical
spill, food poisoning, pest infestation, epidemic, and oil spill. Socio-Economic, Political,
Security Hazards covers the following topics: bomb threats, kidnapping threats, hostage
taking, and civil disorder. The figure below shows the status of the integration of DRR
Concepts in Araling Panlipunan I-IV subjects.

Figure 13
Graph Showing the Status of Integration of Disaster
Risk Reduction in Araling Panlipunan I-IV Subjects

102
On a report made by the Center for Disaster Preparedness concerning the Impact
of Disasters on the Education Sector in the Philippines, the status of mainstreaming
Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in the education sector in the Philippines in some extent,
DRR concepts can be found in existing subjects but there was no formal curriculum
related to DRR. There is a module for teaching DRR developed under MDRD-Education
Project in 2007 intended for Grade 7. The Department of Education (DepEd) had refined
the module where the chapters on Civil Disorder and Civil Unrest had been removed
while topics on Climate Change and Global Warming were added. The developed DRR
module includes (3) chapters with (12) lessons in Science-I and (4) chapters with (16)
lessons in Social Studies of 1st year of secondary school (Grade 7). The module covers
the following units: Natural Hazards, Climate Change/Global Change, Family Disaster
Plan, Volcanoes, Heat Wave, Tornado, and Fire. Each unit shows the chapter into which
the lesson is to be integrated. Group activities are incorporated in the lessons that are to
be coordinated by the teacher in the class room. The module encompasses questions to be
asked to the students, the topics that the teacher should cover in the lecture, an
application of the knowledge that the teacher will conduct with the students and
methodology for evaluation of learning by the students.
Integration of DRR in Music, Arts, Physical Education and Health (MAPEH)
I-IV Subjects. Specifically for Health and Physical Education, the DRR topics included
in MAPEH were the following environmental hazards: red tide, water pollution, air
pollution and soil pollution. The majority or forty-two percent (42%) of the total
respondents agreed that the integration of DRR in MAPEH was moderate having the
weighted mean of 2.88 indicating it is moderately integrated. Of three selected schools

103
surveyed, two schools have their DRR coordinator coming from the MAPEH Department.
Considering that calamity may come without warning, the coordinator ensure that DRR
topics were discussed in the lesson by teachers in their respective subjects bearing in mind
that awareness, preparedness and action are important. The figure below shows the status
of the integration of DRR Concepts in MAPEH I-IV subjects.

Figure 14
Graph Showing the Status of Integration of Disaster
Risk Reduction in MAPEH I-IV Subjects

Integration of DRR in Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao (Values Education) I-IV
Subjects. The seventy-seven percent (77%) of the respondents indicated that the
integration of DRR in Values Education was very low having a weighted mean of 2.88
stating the non-integration of DRR in their respective schools. Ensuring Continuity of
Instruction was the supposed topic that should be integrated in Values Education, which

104
covers the legal basis, the school improvement plan, alternative delivery of formal
instruction, recommended actions to ensure continuity of instruction during disasters,
minimum standards for education in emergencies (MSSE), and emergency procurement
system for rehabilitation/replacement of school buildings, equipment and fixtures. The
figure below shows the status of the integration of DRR Concepts in Edukasyon sa
Pagpapakatao subjects.

Figure 15
Graph Showing the Status of Integration of Disaster
Risk Reduction in Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao I-IV Subjects

Integration of DRR on Technology and Livelihood Economics I-IV Subjects.
Mainstreaming DRR Focus in Home Economics and Industrial Arts include the Ensuring
Safety of Deped Properties discussing the school sites and buildings, records
management and fixtures. The majority or seventy-seven percent (77%) of the total

105
respondents from the selected schools in Legazpi City Division agreed that the
integration of DRR in T.L.E. was very low as evidenced by the weighted mean of 1.47
indicating it is not integrated. The figure below shows the status of the integration of
DRR Concepts in Technology and Livelihood Education I-IV Subjects.

Figure 16
Graph Showing the Status of Integration of Disaster
Risk Reduction in Technology and Livelihood Economics I-IV Subjects

Integration of DRR on Citizens Advancement Training. CAT Facilitator shall
be in charge with the Organization of School Disaster Risk Reduction Management
Group. For the Monitoring and Evaluation of the Disaster Risk Management
Implementation, the concepts that must be integrated in the Citizens Advancement
Training were the following: Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction Management in the
School System, Monitoring and Evaluation Guidelines, Disaster Risk Reduction Program

106
Implementation Assessment Checklist, Checklist on the Disaster Risk Reduction Preparation
Undertaken by the School, Checklist on Ensuring the Safety of DepEd Properties, Data
Gathering Forms During Calamity or Disasters, Rapid Disaster Assessment Report
(RA.D.A.R.), Contingency Plan (Engineering Evacuation Plan), Capacity and Vulnerability
Assessment. In the three selected schools that had been surveyed, seventy-five percent
(75%) of the total respondents ascertain that the integration of DRR in the Citizens
Advancement Training was very low having the weighted mean of 1.48 indicating it is
not integrated. The figure below shows the status of the integration of DRR Concepts in
Citizens Advancement Training.

Figure 17
Graph Showing the Status of Integration of Disaster
Risk Reduction in Citizens Advancement Training

107
Factors Influencing the Integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in School Curricula
The factors that influence the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in school
curricula are assessed through policies implemented, teachers’ learning program,
instructional materials, and facilities.
Along Policies. The Department of Education (DepEd) had prioritized the
mainstreaming of Disaster Risk Reduction Management in the School System, through
the issuance of DepEd Order no. 55, s. 2007, to support the objectives of the Hyogo
Framework for Action in “building schools, nations and communities resilient to
disaster”. The Hyogo Framework for Action, which is considered as a priority policy for
implementation by DepEd, is a global blue print for disaster risk reduction efforts which
aims to reduce disaster losses in lives, properties, social economic and environmental
assets of communities and countries by year 2015.
On May 27, 2010, Pres. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo had signed the Republic Act
No. 10121, an act strengthening the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management
System, providing for the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Framework
and institutionalizing the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan.
Section 14 of the RA 10121 strengthens the “Integration of Disaster Risk Reduction
Education into the School Curricula…” wherein the Department of Education (DepEd),
the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and Skills Development Authority
(TESDA), in coordination with Office of Civil Defense (OCD), the National Youth
Commission (NYC), the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), the
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), the Department of Interior
and Local Government – Bureau of Fire (DILG-BFP), the Department of Health (DOH),

108
the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) and other relevant
agencies, shall integrate Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Education in the
school curricula of secondary and tertiary level education, including the National Service
Training Program (NSTP), whether private or public, including formal and non-formal,
technical-vocational, indigenous learning, and out-of-school youth courses and programs.
The factors that influence the integration of DRR in school curricula along
policies are assessed through the following indicators: 1. Institutionalization of existing
policies about the integration of DRR in the school curricula; 2. Dissemination of existing
policies about the integration of DRR in the school curricula; 3. Clear policy objectives;
4. Policy measures undertaken by DepEd in the implementation of DRR Management
Project; 5. Clear policy statement in the implementation of Safe Schools Programs
relative to DRR efforts concerning non-structural components; and 6. Clear policy
statement in the structural components relative to the construction of hazards resilient
school buildings.
The measures undertaken by DepED, clarity of the policy objectives and
statements are centered in DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007. The policies for the integration
of Disaster Risk Reduction in the school curricula particularly the DepEd Order No. 55,
s. 2007 was institutionalized in the respective schools surveyed. Most of the teachers
responded that the said policy was institutionalized and been disseminated in their school.
Unfortunately more than half of the respondents are not aware of the Republic Act No.
10121 saying it wasn’t institutionalized and not been disseminated.
Based from the Hyogo Framework for Action, which is considered as a priority
policy for implementation by the Department of Education, the policy objectives were the

109
following: a. To update the guiding framework on disaster reduction for the twenty-first
century; b. To identify specific activities aimed at ensuring the implementation of
Sustainable Development on vulnerability, risk assessment and disaster management;
c. To share good practices and lessons learned to further disaster reduction within the
context of attaining sustainable development, and to identify gaps and challenges; d. To
increase awareness of the importance of disaster reduction policies, thereby facilitating
and promoting the implementation of those policies; e. To increase the reliability and
availability of appropriate disaster-related information to the public and disaster
management agencies in all regions; f. To build schools, nations and communities
resilient to disaster; and g. To reduce disaster losses in lives, properties, social, economic
and environmental assets of communities and courtiers by year 2015.
The study, however found out that most of the respondents perceived that the
policy objectives are unclear to them as indicated by twenty-one percent (21%) to fortyfour percent (44%) who answered that policy objectives were unclear to them. Solely, the
reliability and availability of appropriate disaster-related information to the public and
disaster management agencies in all regions got higher rank, which is sixty-five percent
(65%). This means that the institutionalization and dissemination of the policies
concerning the integration of DRR in school curricula should be strengthened and be
expanded. In addition, the objectives, measures and statements of policies for the
mainstreaming of DRR must be cleared to the school community and stakeholders. The
factors influencing the integration of DRR in school curricula along policies are shown in
Table 5.

110
Table 5
Factors Influencing the Integration of Disaster Risk
Reduction in School Curricula Along Policies

Factors Influencing the Mainstreaming of DRR

F

Percentage

Rank

118
77

71.52
46.67

1
2

85
59

51.52
35.76

1
2

34

20.61

7

71

43.03

3

46

27.88

6

68

41.21

4

107
53

64.85
32.12

1
5

72

43.64

2

Utilization of DRR Manual

23

13.94

4

Implementation of Safe Schools Programs relative to disaster risk reduction efforts

102

61.82

1

75

45.45

2

43

26.06

3

77
44
90

46.67
26.67
54.55

3
5
2

Preparation of Disater Preparedness Modules Through Multi-Media

30

18.18

6

Quarterly Conduct of earthquake and Fire Drills

140

84.85

1

Road Safety Education for Children

56

33.94

4

Clear Policy Statement in the structural components (DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007)
Learning and public use of school building
Be better, build better international design competition
Assessment of school buildings’ structural integrity and stability

103
79
135

62.42
47.88
81.82

2
3
1

Along Policies
1.)

2.)

3.)

4.)

Institutionalization of existing policy/ies about the integration of DRR in the school
curricula
DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007
Republic Act No. 10121
Dissemination of existing policy/ies about the integration of DRR in the school
curricula
DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007
Republic Act No. 10121
Clear Policy Objectives (DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007)
To update the guiding framework on disaster reduction for the twenty-first century
To identify specific activities aimed at ensuring the implementation of Sustainable
Development on vulnerability, risk assessment and disaster management
To share good practices and lessons learned to further disaster reduction within the
context of attaining sustainable development, and to identify gaps and challenges
To increase awareness of the importance of disaster reduction policies, thereby
facilitating and promoting the implementation of those policies
To increase the reliability and availability of appropriate disaster-related information to
the public and disaster management agencies in all regions
To build schools, nations and communities resilient to disaster
To reduce disaster losses in lives, properties, social, economic and environmental assets
of communities and courtiers by year 2015
Policy measures undertaken by DepEd in the implementation of DRR Management
Project (DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007)

Information Dissemination Campaign for Energy and Water Conservation Flyers on
water and energy conservation
Monitoring of the implementation of the disaster risk reduction projects and other
activities
5.)

6.)

Clear Policy Statement in the non-structural components (DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007)
Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction Concepts in the Elementary and Secondary
School Curricula
School Mapping Exercise
Schools Water and Electrical Facilities assessment Project

111
In view of the policy in the mainstreaming of DRR Management in the school
system under DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007, the measures undertaken by the Department
of Education in the implementation of disaster risk reduction management project were
the following: Utilization of Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual, Implementation
of Safe Schools Programs relative to disaster risk reduction efforts, Information
Dissemination Campaign for Energy and Water Conservation Flyers on water and energy
conservation, and Monitoring of the implementation of the disaster risk reduction projects
and other activities. Around half of the respondents identified the said measures of
implementation in the mainstreaming of DRR management in the school system.
The DRR manual was prepared by the Technical Working Group which was
created through DepEd memorandum No. 175, s. 2007. The guidelines of its utilization
are enclosed in the DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007 as Enclosure No. 1 which contains
suggested activities and duties of each stakeholder. An orientation on the utilization of
the DRR Manual is conducted by the Technical Working Group. Information
Dissemination Campaign for Energy and Water Conservation Flyers on water and energy
conservation are distributed to the schools and all concerned individual are enjoined to
use the flyers as advocacy and information dissemination campaign materials. The
National

Disaster

Coordinating

Council

(NDCC)

and

DepEd

developed

a

Communication Plan using an acronym TUBIG POWER with the “Sampung Hakbang”
on water and energy conservation. It provides tips and ways to conserve these important
resources. Its objectives are to create heightened awareness among the schoolchildren,
teachers and the general public on the impending dry spell and in preparation for the
rainy season. Monitoring of the implementation of the disaster risk reduction projects and

112
other activities under DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007 was done by the Central Office
particularly the Calamity/Disaster and Fire Control Group (CDFCG) care of the Office of
the Director for Administrative Service.
The policy statement in the implementation of Safe Schools Programs relative to
DRR efforts concerning non-structural components under DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007
were the following: 1. Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction Concepts in the
Elementary and Secondary School Curricula; 2. School Mapping Exercise; 3. Schools
Water and Electrical Facilities assessment Project; 4. Preparation of Disaster
Preparedness Modules through Multi-Media; and 5. Quarterly Conduct of earthquake and
Fire Drills; and 6. Road Safety Education for Children.
The policy statement in the structural components relative to the construction of
hazards resilient school buildings under DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007 were as follows:
1. Learning and public use of school building; 2. Be better, build better international
design competition; and 3. Assessment of school buildings’ structural integrity and
stability.
The study further revealed that the DRR Manual has not been fully utilized.
Having only fourteen percent (14%) of the total respondents perceived that DRR Manual
was utilized in their respective schools. About fifty percent (50%) of the respondents
identified the measures involving implementation of the safe schools programs,
information dissemination campaign for energy and water conservation, and monitoring
of the implementation of DRR projects and activities.

113
Along Teachers’ Learning Program. In terms of teachers’ learning program, it was
found out that the factors that influence the inclusion of Disaster Risk Reduction on the
teachers’ Lesson Planning were the following: 1. Teachers are required to make daily
Learning Program for their lesson; 2. Disaster topics and Disaster Risk Reduction Focus are
imposed to be integrated in the respective Learning Areas they are assigned for
mainstreaming provided in the DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007; 3. The purpose of the learning
areas is apparently related to Disaster Risk Reduction; 4. The substance of the lessons
requires the subject knowledge, understanding, and skills concerning real life situations on
how to cope with disasters; 5. Activities such as earthquake and fire drills and other
practicum are methods conducted in teaching disaster risk reduction; 6. The subject matter
associated with Disaster Risk Reduction calls for evaluation; and 7. Putting into application
the knowledge gained from the teachers’ trainings on how to integrate DRR in their Learning
Program.
The survey shows that most of the teachers perceived that all of them are required to
make daily lesson plan. Although it is a regular requirement, DRR foci are not integrated in
the daily lesson planning even if it is supposedly imposed to be integrated in the respective
learning areas they are assigned for mainstreaming due to weak integration of DRR in the
school curricula. Earthquake and fire drills were the method used to discuss Disaster Risk
Reduction that is apparent in the learning program. More than half of the teachers did not put
into application the knowledge gained from the teachers’ training on how to integrate DRR in
their learning program. The factors influencing the integration of DRR in school curricula
along teachers’ learning program are shown in Table 6 below.

114
Table 6
Factors Influencing the Integration of Disaster Risk Reduction
in School Curricula Along Teachers’ Learning Program

Factors Influencing the Mainstreaming of DRR

F

Percentage

Rank

145

87.88

2

87

52.73

54

32.73

4
7

92

55.76

3

154
67

93.33
40.61

1
6

78

47.27

5

Along Teachers' Learning Program
Factors that influence the inclusion of DRR in the learning program/lesson planning
Teachers are required to make Learning Program for their lesson daily
Disaster topics and Disaster Risk Reduction Focus are imposed to be integrated in the
respective Learning Areas they are assigned for mainstreaming provided in the DepEd
Order No. 55, s. 2007
The purpose of the learning areas are apparently related to Disaster Risk Reduction
The substance of the lessons requires the subject knowledge, understanding, and skills
concerning real life situations on how to cope with disasters
Activities such as earthquake and fire drills and other practicum are methods conducted
in teaching disaster risk reduction
The subject matter associated with Disaster Risk Reduction calls for evaluation
Putting into application the knowledge gained from the teachers’ trainings on how to
integrate DRR in their Learning Program

Along Instructional Materials. The factors influencing the integration of DRR in
school curricula are assessed through the following: 1. Uses of the Disaster Risk Reduction
Manual, 2. Availability of the instructional materials (DRR Manual), 3. Accessibility of the
instructional materials (DRR Manual), and 4. Discussion of the contents of the DRR Manual
in the respective subject areas assigned for mainstreaming. The Disaster Risk Reduction
(DRR) Manual provides for the school administrators, supervisors and school teachers with
information needed to reduce risk and make school safer. Through the Technical Working
Group, the Department of Education promotes hazard/disaster awareness, to manage
impacts, and to help all school communities to reduce the risk of threats from natural and
human-made/induced disasters. The DRR manual provides procedures based on the policy
statement of the Department of Education for the empowerment of DepEd personnel. It
outlines legal bases of the program and spells out the role of the Department’s Central Office,

115
Regional Offices, Division Offices, down to the school level. The manual also illustrates the
basic procedures that a school may employ before, during and after the occurrence of a
disaster through the adopted 4-phase strategy: mitigation, preparedness, response and
rehabilitation. It offers safeguarding mechanisms to protect and preserve personnel and
students, DepEd property, school facilities, equipment, fixtures instructional materials and
school records. To ensure continuity of instruction, alternative leaning system as well as
rehabilitation of learning venues is further predetermined in order to carry out the duties and
responsibilities of the school to deliver instruction even in times of emergencies or
calamities. Since sustainability of a program has always been an issue, the provision of the
monitoring, evaluation, and proper reporting procedures ensures the continuity and
effectiveness of the implementation of the Disaster Risk Management Program. Ultimately,
the main goal of this manual is to protect the lives of the members of the school community
and property.
Thus, in order to effectively achieve the expected response in times of emergency and
calamity, the school officials and other personnel should take time to understand the contents
of this Safer Schools Resource Manual. Making it as a practice and internalization of the risk
reduction measures would eventually make a habit of being prepared before, during and after
the disaster strikes, be it natural or human induced hazards. Although the respondents
perceived that the DRR Manual was available in the DepEd division offices, while most of
the respondents say that DRR Manual in their respective schools are inadequate.
Surprisingly, obtaining the rate of ninety-one percent (91%), the respondents perceived that
the manual was available in the official website of the Department of Education. However,

116
despite of the fact that it can be downloaded from the internet and have it printed, most of the
respondents rated poorly the accessibility of the DRR manual in terms of stocks in their
school where teachers can use and students may borrow. This was revealed by an average of
thirty-three percent (33%) rating. These factors influencing the integration of DRR in
school curricula along instructional materials are shown in Table 7 below.
Table 7
Factors Influencing the Integration of Disaster Risk Reduction
in School Curricula along Instructional Materials
Factors Influencing the Mainstreaming of DRR

F

Percentage Rank

Along Instructional Materials
1.)

2.)

3.)

4.)

Uses of the Disaster Risk Reduction Manual
To provide the school administrators, supervisors and school teachers with information needed
to reduce risk and make school safer
To promote hazard/disaster awareness, to manage impacts, and to help all school communities
to reduce the risk of threats from natural and human-made/induced disasters
Provides procedures based on the policy statement of the Department of Education for the
empowerment of DepEd personnel
Outlines legal bases of the program and spells out the role of the Department’s Central Office,
Regional Offices, Division Offices, down to the school level
Illustrates the basic procedures that a school may employ before, during and after the
occurrence of a disaster through the adopted 4-phase strategy: mitigation, preparedness,
response and rehabilitation
It offers safeguarding mechanisms to protect and preserve personnel and students, DepEd
property, school facilities, equipment, fixtures instructional materials and school records
To protect the lives of the members of the school community and property
Availability of the instructional materials (DRR Manual)
The DRR Manual is available in DepEd division offices
The DRR Manual is available in the schools
The DRR Manual is available in the official website of the Department of Education
The DRR Manual is available in bookstores
Accessibility of the instructional materials (DRR Manual)
There are stocks in the school where the teachers can use and students may borrow
The teachers can request for a copy in the school administrators
The students can ask for a copy from the school
The school may request for a copy from the DepEd Division Office
Anyone can download it from the internet and have it printed
Discussion of the contents of the DRR Manual in the respective subject areas assigned for
mainstreaming
I. Overview of Disaster Risk Reduction
Understanding Disaster
Disaster Preparedness, Prevention and Mitigation
Overview of Policies and Principles of Disaster Risk Reduction
II. Natural Hazards
A. Hydro-Meteorological Phenomena and Hazards
Cyclone or Typhoon
Tornado

78

47.27

5

91

55.15

3

47

28.48

7

51

30.91

6

120

72.73

2

86
143

52.12
86.67

4
1

111
44
150
108

67.27
26.67
90.91
65.45

2
4
1
3

50
41
12
113
155

30.30
24.85
7.27
68.48
93.94

3
4
5
2
1

116
92
53

70.30
55.76
32.12

1
2
3

95
58

57.58
35.15

2
6

117
Table Continuation: Hydro-Meteorological Phenomena and Hazards
Thunderstorm
Global Warming
Extreme Climatic Variability
Cold Front
South-West Monsoon
North-East Monsoon
Active Low Pressure Area
Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone
Other Associated Hazards to Weather System
Flood
Storm Surge
Landslide
Storm Wind
Debris Flow
II. Natural Hazards
B. Geological Phenomena and Hazards
Earthquake
Ground Motion
Tsunami
Landslide
Structural Failure
Flash Flood
Fire
Volcanic Eruption
Ash Fall
Pyroclastic Flow
Lava Flow
Lava Fountaining
Volcanic Quakes
Volcanic Avalanche
Astronomical Hazards
III. Human Induced Hazards
A. Technological Hazards
Structure Collapse
Fire
Vehicular Accident
Chemical Spill (Laboratory)
Food Poisoning
Pest Infestation
Epidemic
Oil Spill
B. Environmental Hazards
Red Tide
Water Pollution
Air Pollution
Soil Pollution
C. Socio-Economic, Political, Security Hazards
Bomb Threats
Kidnapping Threats
Hostage Taking
Civil Disorder
IV. Risk Profile of the Philippines
The Risks
Recent Tragedies Experienced by the Country
V. The Philippine Disaster Risk Management System
Salient Provisions of PD 1566 (1978)
NDRRMC Comprehensive Disaster Management Framework
Declaration of Principles

F

Percentage Rank

79
112
54
66
46
40
61
49

47.88
67.88
32.73
40.00
27.88
24.24
36.97
29.70

3
1
7
4
9
10
5
8

110
58
97
78
56

66.67
35.15
58.79
47.27
33.94

1
4
2
3
5

157
108
123
137
112
132
145
160
122
105
121
135
144
120
94

95.15
65.45
74.55
83.03
67.88
80.00
87.88
96.97
73.94
63.64
73.33
81.82
87.27
72.73
56.97

2
13
8
5
12
7
3
1
9
14
10
6
4
11
15

100
145
106
88
128
101
123
113

60.61
87.88
64.24
53.33
77.58
61.21
74.55
68.48

7
1
5
8
2
6
3
4

135
150
141
129

81.82
90.91
85.45
78.18

3
1
2
4

100
134
112
139

60.61
81.21
67.88
84.24

4
2
3
1

62
78

37.58
47.27

2
1

22
48
18

13.33
29.09
10.91

2
1
3

118
Table Continuation: The Philippine Disaster Risk Management System
The Cluster Approach on Humanitarian Response
The Role of DepEd in the Philippine Disaster Risk Management System
Disaster Risk Reduction Management Office (DRRMO)
Standard Operation Procedures for Mitigation and Prevention
VI. Ensuring Continuity of Instruction
Legal Basis
The School Improvement Plan
Alternative Delivery of Formal Instruction
Recommended Actions to Ensure Continuity of Instruction during Disasters
Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies (MSEE)
Emergency Procurement System for Rehabilitation/Replacement of School Buildings,
Equipment and Fixtures
VII. Ensuring Safety of DepEd Properties
School Sites and Buildings
Records Management
Fixtures and Equipment
VIII. Monitoring & Evaluation of the Disaster Risk Management Implementation
Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction Management in the School System
Monitoring and Evaluation Guidelines
Disaster Risk Reduction Program Implementation Assessment Checklist
Checklist on the Disaster Risk Reduction Preparation Undertaken by the School
Checklist on Ensuring the Safety of DepEd Properties
Data Gathering Forms During Calamity or Disasters
Rapid Disaster Assessment Report (RA.D.A.R.)
Contingency Plan (Engineering Evacuation Plan)
Capacity and Vulnerability Assessment

F

Percentage Rank

12
15
10
8

7.27
9.09
6.06
4.85

5
4
6
7

12
30
10
7
7

7.27
18.18
6.06
4.24
4.24

3
1
4
5
5

14

8.48

2

68
31
45

41.21
18.79
27.27

1
3
2

81
42
32
21
58
13
9
11
17

49.09
25.45
19.39
12.73
35.15
7.88
5.45
6.67
10.30

1
3
4
5
2
7
9
8
6

The overview of the Disaster Risk Reduction includes understanding of disaster;
disaster preparedness, prevention and mitigation; and overview of policies and principles
of disaster risk reduction. Disaster risk management involves a whole range of elements
that need attention depending on the nature of hazards in the particular location. These
include risk reduction and risk management. Essential components in determining risk
are included in the discussion such as the following: hazard occurrence probability,
elements at risk, and vulnerability of the elements at risk. The topics concerning loss
management involves pre-disaster loss management and post-disaster loss management.
Topics under control of events, equity of assistance, resource management and impact
reduction are also included. Disaster prevention and mitigation emphasizes actions taken
to make sure that the impact of a hazard is lessened. The overview of policies and
principle of disaster risk reduction involves discussion on the legal basis and guiding

119
principles. The guiding principles in disaster risk reduction management in 2005 were
adopted by DepEd to implement the Hyogo Framework for Action. These are: making
disaster risk reduction a priority, knowing the risk and taking actions, reducing risk,
being prepared and ready to act, and organization of a disaster control group. The DepEd
Calamity, Disaster and Fire Control Group (CDFCG) is supported by eight Committees
including: 1. Intelligence/Disaster Analysis Committee; 2. Plans and Operation
Committee; 3. Rescue, Engineering and Evacuation Committee; 4. Physical Security
Committee; 5. Documentation and Investigation Committee; 6. Fire Fighting Committee;
and 7. Action Group.
Hydro-meteorological phenomena and hazards include topics on: cyclone or
typhoon, tornado, thunderstorm, global warming extreme climatic variability, cold front,
south-west monsoon, north-east monsoon, active low pressure area, inter-tropical
convergence zone, and other associated hazards to weather system including flood, storm
surge, landslide, storm wind and debris flow. Unfortunately the DRR Manual did not include
the topics on cold front, south-west monsoon, north-east monsoon, active low pressure area,
and inter-tropical convergence zone. Storm wind and debris flow are not also included.
The majority or seventy percent (70%) of the respondents understand the concept and
nature of disasters and had been able to discuss the topic in their lessons. While fifty percent
(50%) of the teachers discuss disaster preparedness, prevention and mitigation, and only
thirty-two percent (32%) of them are aware and able to discuss the policies and principles of
Disaster Risk Reduction. Less than half of the teachers in the three (3) respective schools
perceived that topics in Hydro-Meteorological Phenomena and Hazards are discussed in their
classes. Therefore, indicating very low integration of the DRR topics in the Mathematics I-IV

120
subjects. The Geological Phenomena and Hazards include topics on earthquake, volcanic
eruption and astronomical hazards. In terms of astronomical hazards, the Philippine
Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) considers
some specific astronomical phenomena as one of the natural hazards that could occur on
earth and affect people. Generally, the manual covers topic on earthquake, tsunami and
volcanic eruptions. But unfortunately, the DRR Manual fails to include specific topics on
earthquake such as: ground motion, tsunami, landslide, structural failure, flash flood and fire.
Also not included in the manual are topics on volcanic eruptions such as ash fall, pyroclastic
flow, lava flow, lava fountaining, volcanic quakes and volcanic avalanches. Most of the
respondents rated above average the discussion of the Geological Phenomena and
Hazards. The data showed that ninety-five percent (95%) of the teachers discussed the
topics concerning earthquake in their classes, also, ninety-seven percent (97%) of them
integrated the topics on volcanic eruption, while fifty-seven percent (57%) discuss
astronomical hazards in their lessons. The results revealed moderate integration in the
Science I-IV subjects, which means that in the respective schools surveyed, the teachers
integrated DRR foci in their lessons. These teachers valued the importance of the
awareness of students concerning DRR so that these students would be more resilient to
the impact of disasters.
Meanwhile, human induced hazards include the following on technological;
environmental; and socio-economic, political, security hazards. On the other hand, the topics
under technological hazards were the structure collapse, fire, vehicular accident, chemical
spill, food poisoning, pest infestation, epidemic, and oil spill. Socio-Economic, Political,
Security Hazards covers the following topics: bomb threats, kidnapping threats, hostage

121
taking, and civil disorder. It can also be noted that more than half of the teachers believed
that Technological Hazards and Socio-Economic, Political, Security Hazards are partially
integrated in the Araling Panlipunan subjects. Based on the data, the topic about fire
under technological hazards got the highest percentage of the total respondents, which is
eighty-eight percent (88%) while the topic in chemical spill (laboratory) got the lowest
percentage garnering fifty-three percent (53%). Under Socio-Economic, Political,
Security Hazards the topics concerning civil disorder got the highest percentage having
eighty-four percent (84%) of the teacher-respondents while topics on bomb threats got
the lowest percentage of the respondents with sixty-one percent (61%). In MAPEH
subjects, particularly Health and Physical Education integrate topics on Environmental
hazards including red tide, water pollution, air pollution and soil pollution. Majority or
the ninety-one percent (91%) of the teachers had integrated the topics on water pollution
in their lesson while soil pollution got only seventy-eight percent (78%). The data
indicate moderate integration of DRR topics in MAPEH I-IV subjects.
Discussions about the Risk Profile of the Philippines, the Philippine Disaster Risk
Management System, and ensuring continuity of instruction are included in the manual. Risk
profile of the Philippines identifies the risk present in the area and the recent tragedies
experienced by the country, causing damage to lives and property. The topics on risk got
thirty-eight percent (38%), on the other hand, topics on the recent tragedies experienced by
the Philippines got forty-seven percent (47%) indicating very low integration of DRR topics
on English I-IV subjects. This shows that the integration on these foci were very low, which
means that there is an urgent need for the teachers to consider the present climatic changes
that the world is experiencing today. The Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction Management

122
System include topics on the salient provisions of PD 1566 (1978), NDRRMC
comprehensive disaster management framework, declaration of principles, the cluster
approach on humanitarian response, the role of DepEd in the Philippine disaster risk
management system, Disaster Risk Reduction Management Office (DRRMO), and standard
operation procedures for mitigation and prevention. The government developed a Natural
Disaster and Calamities Plan to be able to cope with the worsening effects of hazards
impacting the country. Its guiding principle was to use all available government resources,
and encourage all concerned agencies to work together in addressing the issue of disasters
and calamities. The topics on NDRRMC Comprehensive Disaster Risk Management System
got the highest percentage of the teachers having twenty-nine percent (29%) while Standard
Operation Procedures for Mitigation and Prevention got the lowest percentage gathering five
percent (5%) of the teachers. Furthermore, the data indicated very low integration of DRR
topics on Filipino I-IV subjects. Ensuring continuity of instruction includes the legal basis,
the school improvement plan, alternative delivery of formal instruction, recommended
actions to ensure continuity of instruction during disasters, minimum standards for education
in emergencies (MSSE), and emergency procurement system for rehabilitation/replacement
of school buildings, equipment and fixtures. Based from the survey, unfortunately it seems
that these topics are not been discussed in Values Education I-IV subjects. The topics on the
School Improvement Plan got the highest percentage obtaining eighteen percent (18%) while
the lowest percentage was obtained both by Recommended Actions to Ensure Continuity of
Instruction during Disasters and Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies (MSEE)
having four percent (4%). The data indicated very low integration of DRR topics in Values
Education I-IV subjects.

123
Ensuring Safety of DepEd Properties includes topics on the school sites and
buildings, records management and fixtures and equipment. The essential components of
the learning environment includes educational facilities like school buildings,
laboratories, equipment, instructional and non-instructional materials, supplies, and other
properties, where all these educational facilities can be instrumental in raising the quality
of education as well as continuing educational services during emergency situations. The
topics concerning the safety of the school sites and buildings got the highest percentage
of respondents obtaining forty-one percent (41%) while topics on records management
got the lowest percentage gathering nineteen percent (19%). The data indicated very low
integration of DRR topics in Technology in Livelihood and Economics.
For the Monitoring and Evaluation of the Disaster Risk Management
Implementation, the concepts that must be integrated in the Citizens Advancement
Training include among others the Mainstreaming DRR Management in the School
System, Monitoring and Evaluation Guidelines, DRR Program Implementation Assessment
Checklist, Checklist on the DRR Preparation Undertaken by the School, Checklist on
Ensuring the Safety of DepEd Properties, Data Gathering Forms During Calamity or
Disasters, Rapid Disaster Assessment Report (RA.D.A.R.), Contingency Plan (Engineering
Evacuation Plan), Capacity and Vulnerability Assessment. Development that is implemented
without mainstreaming DRR into all its aspects may result in disasters with varying degrees
of damage to socio-economic aspects. Unless DRR becomes part of the Department of
Education’s development plans and programs at all levels, progress in social and economic
development will continue to be eroded by recurring disasters. Like any program in DepEd,
in order to ensure proper application, efficiency, and corrective measures/interventions, the

124
implementation of the Disaster Risk Reduction Program (DRRP) has to be assessed and
monitored. Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction Management in the School System got
the highest percentage of the teachers having forty-nine percent (49%) while Rapid Disaster
Assessment Report (RA.D.A.R.) got the lowest percentage garnering five percent (5%) of the
total respondents. The data indicated very low integration of DRR topics in the Citizens
Advancement training.
Along Facilities. To ensure safety of DepEd properties particularly the schools sites
and buildings, facilities, equipment, fixtures, records, and other properties some information
and practical tips should be considered. The measures indicating that main entrance shall be
located preferably on a secondary road got the highest percentage obtaining seventy-eight
percent (78%) while the measures signifying to provide separate service entrance for the
public/students got the lowest percentage having fourteen percent (14%) of the total
respondents. For electrical fixtures, hanging curtains in the classrooms away from wallmounted fans got the highest percentage gathering eighty-one percent (81%) while installing
a fire alarm system that is affordable got the lowest percentage garnering twenty-seven
percent (27%). Concerning stairs and handrails, always providing a landing with railing
between a doorway and stairways, and for abrupt changes in floor elevation, preferably
providing a ramp to avoid freak accidents both got the highest percentage obtaining seventythree percent (73%) while measures indicating step treads should not less than 0.25 m deep
and rise not more than 0.20 m per step got the lowest score having fifty-five percent (55%) of
all the teachers in the three selected schools. This shows that educational facilities like school
buildings, laboratories, equipment, instructional materials, supplies, and other properties are
essential components of the learning environment. All these can be instrumental in raising

125
the quality of education as well as continuing educational services during emergency
situations. To maximize teaching and learning process in schools, it is necessary to have an
adequate and conducive shelter for instructional activities. The school buildings shall be
designed and constructed in accordance with DepEd standards, including standards for
resilience. There are guidelines that are intended to complement accepted architectural and
engineering principles, and the provisions of the National Building Code of the Philippines,
and other relevant rules, regulations and ordinances promulgated by the national and local
agencies. It is also important to give due considerations to the ergonomics, anthropometrics,
thermal comfort, illumination, acoustics and colors. In designing and constructing school
buildings, safety and risk reduction measures should always be considered. The factors
influencing the integration of DRR in school curricula along facilities are shown in Table
8 below.
Table 8
Factors Influencing the Integration of Disaster Risk
Reduction in School Curricula Along Facilities

Factors Influencing the Mainstreaming of DRR

F

Percentage

Rank

129
78
23
45

78.18
47.27
13.94
27.27

1
2
4
3

116
45
130
104
134
120

70.30
27.27
78.79
63.03
81.21
72.73

4
6
2
5
1
3

118

71.52

3

Along Facilities
Safety and Security of the Educational Facilities in the 3 Selected Schools from Hazards
School Sites and Buildings
Main Entrance:
The main entrance shall be located preferably on a secondary road.
Gates must be designed to swing in to the school property.
Provide separate service entrance for the public/students.
Main entrance shall provide enough clearance for fire trucks and medical vehicles.
Electrical Fixtures:
Require protective covering for all electrical wirings and fixtures.
Install a fire alarm system that is affordable.
Provide environment-friendly fire extinguishers.
Report any defective electrical wiring fixtures to experts.
Hang curtains in the classrooms away from wall-mounted fans.
Conduct periodic assessments of electric load capacity.
Stairs/Handrails:
Avoid smooth or polished step and floor surfaces and provide non-slips nosing to minimize the
chance of slipping on stairs.

126
F

Percentage

Rank

90
120

54.55
72.73

5
1

117
120

70.91
72.73

4
1

78

47.27

1

20

12.12

1

129
98

78.18
59.39

1
2

92

55.76

1

56

33.94

2

82

49.70

1

103

62.42

6

120
143

72.73
86.67

4
2

Eight (8) meters between one story building positioned side by side.

76

46.06

10

Ten (10) meters between two-story academic building side by side.
Ten (10) meters between non-academic buildings.
At least ten (10) meters is suggested from a main building to the front gate.
Greater distance than the minimum between school buildings allows for adequate free space to
be utilized for many school-related activities.
Strengthen, retrofit, or upgrade poorly built school buildings to withstand any possible
calamity.
Implement DepEd Project A.S.S.I.S.T. (Assessment of Schoolbuildings’ Structural integrity,
and Stability).
Recommend to appropriate authorities the provision of structures to protect the school from
mudflows, landslides and the like.
Provide evacuation/exit plan to be posted in a strategic place in the building.
Make funds available for insurance of newly completed school buildings and other insurable
DepEd properties.
Undertake regular repair and maintenance of all school facilities and utilities.
Record Management
Paper Record:
Prepare vital records with long retention periods or which are generated in high volumes in
microfilm form.

71
68
73

43.03
41.21
44.24

13
14
12

80

48.48

9

76

46.06

10

100

60.61

7

133
97

80.61
58.79

3
8

120
145

72.73
87.88

4
1

109

66.06

3

134
145

81.21
87.88

2
1

89

53.94

1

Table Continuation: Stairs/Handrails
Step treads should not be less than 0.25m deep and rise not more than 0.20m per step. They
should be regular.
Always provide a landing with railings between a doorway and stairways.
Distance between railings shall be not more than 100 mm. (4 inches) so that pupils/students
cannot squeeze through.
For abrupt changes in floor elevation, preferably provide a ramp to avoid freak accidents.
Windows:
Windows shall be provided with security grills and an emergency exit.
Door/Exits:
Classrooms shall always be provided with at least two swing-outdoors at the opposite sides of
the classroom.
Walls:
Walls shall be smooth finished to prevent injury to highly active, playful, and mobile students.
Space for safe evacuation without obstruction.
Condemned/Unfinished Construction:
Condemned or unfinished building structures an on-going construction, must be cordoned off
with an “Off Limits” sign.
Sanitary Facilities:
Drainage canals shall be wide enough, covered, and provided with manholes for safety and
sanitation purposes. Drain floors should be V shaped for good drainage.
Location of the septic tank must be at least two (2) meters away from the building it serves. It
shall be properly vented for proper release of gases. It must be at least 30 meters away from
any source of water supply to avoid contamination.
Other Building Risk Reduction Requirements:
Conduct school mapping exercise at the school level.
Undertake site appraisal including soil testing to determine appropriate building design and
foundation.
Review the Program of works for the construction of school buildings by proper authorities.
Ensure structural stability by following the requirements of the National Building Code on
distances between buildings such as:

Photocopy in plain paper vital facsmile transmissions.
File paper records in cabinets or drawers when not in use.
Microforms:
Store in separate cabinets and boxes microforms (film, fiche) created through different
processes, e.g. silver halide, diazo and vesicular. Different types of films interact with each
other and produce dangerous gases that destroy the microfilm images.

127
Table Continuation: Microforms
Store off site security copies of microfilm.
Handle the film by the edges to prevent fingerprint smudges.
Magnetic Media:
Back up computer information on a regular basis. Store back up information off site.
Protect media and equipment with plastic covers to minimize water damage.
Keep magnetic media away from all sources of risk.
Re-wind data catridges to beginning before removing them from the tape drive.
Store data cartridges securely in their protective plastic cases.
Clean regularly the tape drive to enhance its abilities to accurately read data but never attempt
to clean a data cartridge by touching the tape or the tape drive rollers with fingers or other
objects.
Store back-up data on external hard drive, USB flash drive, CD’s and DVD’s.
If afford, store your data on a cloud drive, a Web-based service that provides storage space on
a remote server which are accessed over the Internet with client-side software that are useful
for backing up files.

F

Percentage

Rank

45
67

27.27
40.61

3
2

120
137
116
68
84

72.73
83.03
70.30
41.21
50.91

3
1
4
7
6

94

56.97

5

135

81.82

2

23

13.94

8

Concerning windows, it shall be provided with security grills and an emergency
exit, the data shows that forty-seven percent (47%) of the teachers agreed that windows
in their respective schools are provided with security grills and an emergency exit. The
twelve percent (12%) of the respondents said that classrooms should always be provided
with at least two swing-outdoors at the opposite sides of the classroom. Concerning
walls, the seventy-eight percent (78%) of the teachers articulated that it should always be
smooth finished to prevent injury to highly active, playful, and mobile students. While
the fifty-nine percent (59%) agreed that there must be space for safe evacuation without
obstruction. The condemned or unfinished building structures and on-going construction,
according to the fifty-six percent (56%) of the teachers, must be cordoned off with an
“Off Limit” sign. In terms of sanitary facilities, the half or the fifty percent (50%) of the
teacher-respondents specify that location of septic tank must be at least two meters away
from the building it serves. For other building risk reduction requirements, the tips
concerning the undertaking of regular repair and maintenance of all school facilities and
utilities got the highest percentage obtaining eighty-eight percent (88%) while ensuring
structural stability particularly the ten (10) meters between non-academic buildings got

128
the lowest percentage having forty-one percent (41%) of the teachers. On Records
Management as a systematic and secured safekeeping of important records that may
contain pieces of information that serve as management tools for decision making and in
the formulation of policies and programs by proper authorities. Salvage maybe defined as
the rescue of property from fire, flood, falling buildings, or other danger. Records
Salvage Priorities refers to the identification of records which need to be saved first from
any risks. For paper records, filing paper records in cabinet or drawers when not in use
got the highest percentage garnering eighty-eight percent (88%) while preparing vital
records with long retention periods or which are generated in high volumes in microfilm
form got the lowest percentage obtaining sixty-six percent (66%) of the teachers in the
selected secondary schools in Legazpi City Division. For microforms, storing in a
separate cabinets and boxes the microforms created through different processes got the
highest percentage having fifty-four percent (54%) while storing the copies of microfilm
off site security got the lowest percentage gathering twenty-seven percent (27%) of the
total respondents. And in terms of magnetic media, protecting media and equipment with
plastic covers to minimize water damage got the highest percentage acquiring eightythree percent (83%) while storing data on a cloud drive, a web-based service that
provides storage space on a remote server which are accessed over the internet with
client-side software that are useful for backing up files got the lowest percentage attaining
fourteen percent (14%) of the teacher-respondents. It is implied that record management
was considered the lifeblood of an effective and efficient management of a school
system. The school records may contain important information about the profile and the
performance of students, teachers, employees and the school as a whole which are

129
necessary and indispensable for past, present and future references. For this reason, it is
important to ensure the safety of all school records. Likewise, it has to be assured to
reduce, if not to eliminate, the risk factors that will endanger any document in the school.
School Policies and Practices Adopted for the Integration of Disaster Risk Reduction
The school policies and practices adapted for the integration of DRR in the school
curricula are determined through: manpower, funding and technical. Manpower includes
duties and responsibilities by every school personnel. Funding pertains to the allocation of
budget, and technical refers to various techniques undertaken for mainstreaming DRR.
On Manpower. For the school level, the duties and responsibilities of every school
personnel to ensure the mainstreaming of the DRR Concepts provided in the DRR Resource
Manual based on DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007 are the following: 1. School Head/Principal
shall: (a) Suspend (per School Division Superintendent instruction) the regular delivery of
Learning Competencies to give way to the simultaneous mainstreaming of Disaster Risk
Reduction concepts and plan for makeup classes; (b) Initiate the organization of schools
Disaster Risk Reduction Management Group; (c) Invite DPWH, BFP and Local Government
Office (Municipal Engineering Office) representative to conduct site, building inspection to
include water and electrical facilities, structural integrity and stability of school buildings,
and act on their recommendations and suggestions; (d) Conduct school level seminar
symposium, program and involve resource speaker from DOH, Red Cross on First Aid and
Basic Life Support System; (e) Involve the Student Government Organization, Boy and Girl
Scouts in the orientation of Disaster Risk Reduction concepts in the school and community;
(f) Call a GPTA meeting as part of Info-dissemination campaign; and (g) Other activities
she/he may conduct relative to the DRR. 2. Head Teachers shall: (a) Monitor the topic

130
integration by the classroom teachers; (b) Suggest effective teaching strategies to carry out
the topic; (c) Evaluate the mainstreaming/integration process; and (d) Report the progress to
the principal. 3. CAT Facilitators shall: (a) Provide assistance to the school head/principal on
the conduct of activities as required in the CAT curriculum; (b) Conduct information
dissemination through the CAT program; and (c) Take charge in the establishment of the
Schools DRR Management Group. 4. Teachers shall: (a) Read and study carefully the
contents of the DRRM and mainstream disaster risk reduction concepts in the subject areas.
Continuously integrate the concepts if these points of entries are met in the Learning
Competencies. Ex. In Science, the topic is Environment; integrate the environmental hazards
in a form of review, reminder or commitment; (b) Use appropriate/effective teaching
strategies; (c) Evaluate learning (cognitive, affective and psychomotor); (d) Include in the
bulletin board concepts on disaster risk reduction; and (e) Let students prepare a collage,
poster, jingle, poem, rap or slogan on disaster risk reduction as part of the evaluation
measures. Other roles of every school personnel in order to protect the lives of the members
of the school community and property include the following: (a) Analyze the condition of the
school or conduct situational analysis; (b) Identify possible hazards/threats faced by the
school; (c) Follow and strictly act according to the disaster management strategies especially
in times of emergencies, calamity/disaster; (d) Provide feedback to the authorities for policy
formulation; and (e) Request the DepEd Division/Regional/Central Offices/other local and
international GOs, NGOs and stakeholder for any assistance. School policies and practices
adopted for the integration of DRR in terms of manpower are shown in Table 9 below.

131
Table 9
School Policies and Practices Adopted for the Integration of
Disaster Risk Reduction in Terms of Manpower

School Policies and Practices
In Terms of Manpower
Duties and Responsibilities of the school head/principal based from DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007
1.)
which are adopted in your school
Suspend (per SDS instruction) the regular delivery of Learning Competencies to give way to the
simultaneous mainstreaming of Disaster Risk Reduction concepts and plan for make up classes.
Initiate the organization of schools Disaster Risk Reduction Management Group.
Invite DPWH, BFP and Local Government Office (Municipal Engineering Office) representative
to conduct site, building inspection to include water and electrical facilities, structural integrity and
stability of school buildings, and act on their recommendations and suggestions.
Conduct school level seminar symposium, program and involve resource speaker from DOH, Red
Cross on First Aid and Basic Life Support System.
Involve the Student Government Organization, Boy and Girl Scouts in the orientation of Disaster
Risk Reduction concepts in the school and community.
Call a GPTA meeting as part of Info-dissemination campaign.
Other activities he/she may conduct relative to the DRR.
Duties and Responsibilities of the head teachers based from DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007 which
2.)
are adopted in your school
Monitor the topic integration by the classroom teachers.
Suggest effective teaching strategies to carry out the topic.
Evaluate the mainstreaming/integration process.
Report the progress to the principal.
Duties and Responsibilities of the CAT facilitators based from DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007 which
3.)
are adopted in your school
Provide assistance to the school head/principal on the conduct of activities as required in the CAT
curriculum
Conduct information dissemination through the CAT program.
Take charge in the establishment of the Schools Disaster Risk Reduction Management Group.
Duties and Responsibilities of the teachers facilitators based from DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007
4.)
which are adopted in your school
Read, study carefully the contents of the DRRM and mainstream disaster risk reduction concepts
in the subject areas. Continuously integrate the concepts if these point of entries are met in the
Learning Competencies. Ex. In Science, the topic is Environment, integrate the environmental
hazards in a form of review, reminder or commitment
Use appropriate/effective teaching strategies
Evaluate learning (cognitive, affective and psychomotor)
Include in the bulletin board concepts on disaster risk reduction.
Let students prepare a collage, poster, jingle, poem, rap or slogan on disaster risk reduction as part
of the evaluation measures.
Roles of every school personnel in order to protect the lives of the members of the school
5.)
community and property
Analyze the condition of the school or conduct situational analysis
Identify possible hazards/threats faced by the school.
Follow and strictly act according to the disaster management strategies especially in times of
emergencies, calamity/disaster
Provide feedback to the authorities for policy formulation
Request the DepEd Division/Regional/Central Offices/other local and international GOs, NGOs
and stakeholder for any assistance

F

Percentage Rank

89
102

53.94
61.82

6
4

136

82.42

2

110

66.67

3

93
144
87

56.36
87.27
52.73

5
1
7

107
87
112
121

64.85
52.73
67.88
73.33

3
4
2
1

145
89
77

87.88
53.94
46.67

1
2
3

134
140
133
87

81.21
84.85
80.61
52.73

2
1
3
5

103

62.42

4

94
142

56.97
86.06

5
1

127
136

76.97
82.42

4
3

140

84.85

2

132
Concerning the duties and responsibilities of the school head or the principal, to
call for a GPTA meeting got the highest percentage obtaining eighty-seven percent (87%)
while to suspend the regular delivery of Learning Competency to give way to the
simultaneous mainstreaming of Disaster Risk Reduction Concepts and plan for makeup
class got the lowest percentage having fifty-four percent (54%) of all the teachers. For the
duties and responsibilities of the head teachers, reporting the progress to the principal got
the highest percentage gathering seventy-three percent (73%) while suggesting effective
teaching strategies to carry out the topic got the highest percentage garnering fifty-three
percent (53%) of the total respondents in the selected secondary schools in Legazpi City
Division.
In terms of the duties and responsibilities, the Citizens Advancement Training
(CAT) facilitator, providing assistance to the school head or principal on the conduct of
activities as required in the CAT curriculum got the highest percentage acquiring eightyeight percent (88%) while taking charge in the establishment of the Schools Disaster Risk
Reduction Management Group got the lowest percentage attaining fifty-four percent
(54%) of all the teachers. With regards to the duties and responsibilities of the teachers,
using appropriate or effective teaching strategies got the highest percentage having
eighty-five percent (85%) while including in the bulletin board the concepts on disaster
risk reduction got the lowest percentage obtaining fifty-three percent (53%) of the
respondents. Concerning the other roles of every school personnel in order to protect the
lives of the members of the school community and property, identifying the possible
hazards or threats faced by the school got the highest percentage gathering eighty-six
percent (86%) while analyzing the condition of the school or conduct situational analysis

133
got the lowest percentage garnering fifty-seven percent (57%) of the teacher-respondents.
The data implies that school heads, head teachers, teacher, CAT facilitator and other
school personnel assumed the duties and responsibilities in order to ensure mainstreaming
of the DRR in the school curricula.
On Funding. The source of fund for the integration of DRR in the school curriculum
comes from the following institutions that finance the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction:
National Government (by Department); Local Government Unit (LGU); Non-Governmental
Organizations (NGO’s) and Private Organization (PO’s); The School Maintenance and Other
Operating Expenses (MOOE); General Parent Teacher Association (GPTA); Homeroom
Parent Teacher Association (HRPTA); Alumni Association; and Solicitation. The funds for
mainstreaming DRR into school curriculum are allocated to the following activities
undertaken: Institutionalization within the Education Sector; Development of DRR
curriculum materials; Training of teachers and trainers and pilot testing; Development of
Curriculum Framework Plan for integrating DRR in all grades; and Integrating hazards
resilient school construction features. In terms of sources of fund for the mainstreaming of
DRR, the Local Government Unit (LGU) got the highest percentage obtaining eighty-eight
percent (88%) while the Homeroom Parent Teacher Association (HRPTA) got the lowest
percentage garnering twenty-six percent (26%) rating from the respondents. Meanwhile, for
the allocation of funds for mainstreaming DRR into school curriculum, training of teachers
and trainers and pilot testing got the highest percentage having eighty-eight percent (88%)
while institutionalization within the education sector got the lowest percentage gathering
sixty-five percent (65%) of all the teachers. These school policies and practices adopted for
the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in terms of funding are shown in Table 10.

134
Table 10
School Policies and Practices Adopted for the Integration of Disaster
Risk Reduction in Terms of Funding

School Policies and Practices
In Terms of Funding
1.) Sources of fund for the integration of DRR in the school curriculum
National Government (by Department)
Local Government Unit (LGU)
Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO’s) and Private Organization (PO’s)
The School Maintenance and Other Operating Expenses (MOOE)
General Parent Teacher Association (GPTA)
Homeroom Parent Teacher Association (HRPTA)
Alumni Association
Solicitations
2.) Allocations of funds for mainstreaming DRR into school curriculum
Institutionalization within the Education Sector
Development of DRR curriculum materials
Training of teachers and trainers and pilot testing
Development of Curriculum Framework Plan for integrating DRR in all grades
Integrating hazards resilient school construction features

F

Percentage Rank

131
146
87
136
89
43
77
138

79.39
88.48
52.73
82.42
53.94
26.06
46.67
83.64

4
1
6
3
5
8
7
2

108
137
145
109
117

65.45
83.03
87.88
66.06
70.91

5
2
1
4
3

The funds for the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction was spent on the activities
done by the Technical Working Group (TWG) with the Education Working Group (EWG) to
effectively implement the Mainstreaming of Disaster Risk Reduction in the Education Sector
(MDRD-EDU) in order improve the mainstreaming of DRR focus in the school curricula.
With the serious occurrence of disasters in the country ensures the need for the integration of
DRR into the education sector. Significant development has already been undertaken by the
Department of Education on mainstreaming DRR in the school curricula. DepEd
demonstrated its commitment on the integration of DRR in the school curricula through its
issuance of DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007 prioritizing DRR mainstreaming in education. The
partnership of TWG and EWG is vital to ensure the full institutionalization of DRR in the
broader education agenda.

135
The DepEd and the TWG decided that integration of DRR topics into subjects
already taught would be more effective than creating a new subject; it was felt that this
approach would make it easier for the children to understand the subject. DRR Resource
manual, a student/teacher module for Grade 7, was developed in the subjects Science and
Social Studies. To guide the teachers in the delivery of the modules, lesson exemplars for
each subject were also developed. Each lesson exemplar includes group activities to motivate
students, questions to be asked by the teacher, and methodologies to evaluate student
learning. The Instructional Materials Council-Secretariat (IMCS) of DepEd has approved and
endorsed the DRR curriculum materials like the modules, lesson exemplars, teaching aids as
official teaching materials for national use.
Likewise, to orient the teachers on how to use the DRR curriculum materials, training
to the teachers and education supervisors (ToT) was done. Teaching of the curriculum
material on DRR has been carried out with a range of teaching methods, including the use of
songs, competitions, poster and plays. Teaching of the DRR modules was monitored by the
curriculum specialists from DepEd, NDCC focal point, and TWG members visiting the pilot
schools. DedEd had developed an observation forms to evaluate teacher.
To guide the full integration of DRR in the school curriculum in the Philippines, it
was recognized that there was a need to develop an overall framework plan. The project
helped to analyze the National Curriculum for all grades and identify opportunities for
integration of DRR topics in the future. The Curriculum Framework Plan has been finalized
by the bureaus of DepEd as one integrated document.
Thus, recognizing the need for improved hazard resilience of school building, the
Physical Facilities and Schools Engineering Division (PFSED) of DepEd had led two

136
workshops to enhance the current school construction guidelines of the country known as the
Educational Facilities Handbook. During the workshop, climate change adaptation was
integrated in the enhanced guidelines. Validation activity was done. After which, the
Educational Facilities Handbook was later recommended to be called a manual.
On Technical. The members of the expanded Technical Working Group (TWG)
in the Philippines constitute to integrate the Disaster Risk Reduction into School
Curricula. The TWG was expanded to enhance the mainstreaming of DRR focus in
school system. The constitution of the Technical Working Groups includes the following:
Office of the Undersecretary for Teachers’ Welfare, DepED; Bureau of Secondary and
Elementary Education, DepEd; Bureau of Alternative Learning System, DepEd; Physical
Facilities and Schools Engineering Division, DepEd; Basic Education Support and
Reform Agenda Secretariat, DepEd; National Economic Development Authority
(NEDA); Department of Finance (DoF), DepEd; National Disaster Coordinating Council
– Office of Civil Defense (NDCC-OCD); Philippine Institute of Volcanology and
Seismology

(PHIVOLCS),

DOST;

Philippine

Atmospheric,

Geophysical

and

Astronomical Service (PAGASA), DOST; National Mapping and Resources Information
Authority (NAMRIA), DENR; Mines and Geosciences Bureau, DENR; Office of the
Presidential Advisor on Climate Change (OPACC); Department of Public Works and
Highways; Philippine Information Agency (PIA); Public Safety and Emergency
Management Office e.g. Albay Safety and Emergency Management Office (APSEMO);
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP-Philippines); and Asian Disaster
Preparedness Center (ADPC). The Technical Working Group (TWG) and the various
techniques undertaken by them are shown in Table 11 below.

137
Table 11
School Policies and Practices Adopted for the Integration of Disaster Risk Reduction
In Terms of Technical
Constitution of the Technical
Working Groups
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

11
12
13
14
15
16

17
18

Office of the Undersecretary for
Teachers’ Welfare, DepED
Bureau of Secondary and Elementary
Education, DepEd
Bureau of Alternative Learning System,
DepEd
Physical Facilities and Schools
Engineering Division, DepEd
Basic Education Support and Reform
Agenda Secretariat, DepEd
National Economic Development
Authority (NEDA)
Department of Finance (DoF), DepEd
National Disaster Coordinating Council
– Office of Civil Defense (NDCC-OCD)
Philippine Institute of Volcanology and
Seismology (PHIVOLCS), DOST
Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical
and Astronomical Service (PAGASA),
DOST
National Mapping and Resources
Information Authority (NAMRIA),
DENR
Mines and Geosciences Bureau, DENR
Office of the Presidential Advisor on
Climate Change (OPACC)
Department of Public Works and
Highways
Philippine Information Agency (PIA)
Public Safety and Emergency
Management Office e.g. Albay Safety
and Emergency Management Office
(APSEMO)
United Nations Development
Programme (UNDP-Philippines)
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center
(ADPC)

Various Techniques Undertaken for Priority Implementation Partnerships
(PIPs) in the Mainstreaming DRR into School Curriculum
1

2

3

4

5

%

F

%

F

%

F

%

F

%

F

%

134

81.21

119

72.12

120

72.73

140

84.85

149

90.30

153

92.73

130

78.79

127

76.97

128

77.58

150

90.91

156

94.55

155

93.94

90

54.55

103

62.42

121

73.33

120

72.73

98

59.39

97

58.79

45

27.27

120

72.73

108

65.45

120

72.73

112

67.88

128

77.58

52

31.52

112

67.88

107

64.85

118

71.52

123

74.55

99

60.00

65

39.39

98

59.39

90

54.55

82

49.70

100

60.61

75

45.45

100

60.61

107

64.85

120

72.73

138

83.64

142

86.06

103

62.42

130

78.79

139

84.24

142

86.06

148

89.70

156

94.55

147

89.09

108

65.45

125

75.76

128

77.58

101

61.21

123

74.55

107

64.85

114

69.09

132

80.00

125

75.76

110

66.67

118

71.52

110

66.67

120

72.73

133

80.61

139

84.24

128

77.58

132

80.00

129

78.18

129

78.18

142

86.06

143

86.67

135

81.82

139

84.24

120

72.73

139

84.24

147

89.09

140

84.85

140

84.85

149

90.30

140

84.85

111

67.27

120

72.73

125

75.76

134

81.21

117

70.91

108

65.45

103

62.42

119

72.12

122

73.94

127

76.97

129

78.18

97

58.79

135

81.82

149

90.30

150

90.91

142

86.06

150

90.91

155

93.94

128

77.58

127

76.97

130

78.79

120

72.73

135

81.82

138

83.64

130

78.79

132

80.00

137

83.03

123

74.55

143

86.67

147

89.09

Legend:
1–
2–
3–
4–
5–
6–
F–
%–

6

F

Initiating Dialogue between NDRRMC and DepEd
Formation of Working Group and Advisory Group
Kick off Meeting of the Technical Working Group as well as the Advisory Group
Develop and test the draft curriculum
Work with the curriculum developer and review committee
Integration of the DRR subject/module into the national curriculum
Frequency
Percentage

138
The Technical Working Group (TWG) undertakes various techniques for Priority
Implementation Partnerships (PIPs) in the mainstreaming of Disaster Risk Reduction into
school curricula. Those are techniques for a successful mainstreaming of DRR. The
process draws on lessons learned from past experiences of the members of the Regional
Consultative Committee on Disaster Management (RCC) member countries who have
successfully integrated DRR into school curricula under the PIPs on Mainstreaming DRR
into Education, being implemented under RCC on Mainstreaming Disaster Risk
Reduction into Development (MDRD).
The various techniques suggested for undertaking Priority Implementation
Partnerships for Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction as discussed in the RCC
Guidelines include the following: 1. Initiating Dialogue between National Disaster Risk
Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC) and Department

of Education;

2. Formation of Working Group and Advisory Group; 3. Kick off Meeting of the
Technical Working Group as well as the Advisory Group (Priority Implementation
Partnership PIP); 4. Develop and test the draft curriculum such as review existing
secondary school curriculum, develop new DRR subject/module, training of teachers,
pilot test of the DRR subject/module, work with the curriculum developer and review
committee, and 6. Integration of the DRR subject/module into the national curriculum
Technique 1. Initiating Dialogue between National Disaster Risk Reduction and
Management Council (NDRRMC) and Department of Education
The National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council should
established communication with the Department of Education particularly its offices
responsible for the development of school curriculum. Under the leadership of the
NDRRMC, a workshop could be organized for the officials from DepEd to introduce the

139
topic and get their consensus on the process. A memorandum of agreement (MOA) could
be an outcome of the workshop so as to: a. set out the objectives, scope and expected
outcomes of the partnership between the NDRRMC and DepEd; and b. name the
members of the technical working group (TWG).
Technique 2. Formation of Working Group and Advisory Group
Based on the MOA between the NDRRMC and DepEd, it is worthwhile to set up
a TWG with members from the DepEd particularly its office responsible for the
curriculum development, NDRRMC and other concerned agencies primarily involved in
curriculum development.
It is advisable to organize an Advisory Group, headed by senior representative
from DepEd to supervise and guide the process. The advisory group should be
represented by staff from all concerned government agencies like NDRRMC, National
Economic Development (NEDA), Department of Finance (DoF), Department of Science
and Technology (DOST), Department of Environmental and Natural Resources (DENR),
Office of the Presidential Advisor on Climate Change (OPACC), Department of public
Works and Highways (DPWH), Philippine Information Agency (PIA) and other
stakeholders involved in education sector. It could be an education focus subcommittee
of NDRRMC or a disaster related subcommittee of the Education Sector Working Group.
Technique 3. Kick off Meeting of the Technical Working Group as well as the
Advisory Group (Priority Implementation Partnership PIP)
To start the process, a kick off meeting between the technical working group and
advisory group could be organized to provide guidance in detailing out the work plan of
the working group, assign responsibilities for agreed actions and proposed target dates for
their achievements. At this stage, it is important to map out the various past initiatives in

140
DRR in the country to avoid duplication and learning from the experience. The regular
business of the advisory group would be the review of the action plan, analysis of
successes and failures, and adjustments of targets in the light of lessons learned.
Technique 4. Develop and test the draft curriculum
In accordance with the work plan, the technical working group would carry out
the activities to achieve the objective of the integration. The suggested activities are
illustrated in the figure below.

(Source: RCC Guideline 6.1, September 2007)

Figure 18
Suggested Activities for Disaster Risk Reduction Integration

141
Technique 4.a. Review existing secondary school curriculum
To integrate DDR in school curricula, it would include reviewing the existing
curriculum and arriving at a consensus on which grade and subjects the integration would
be in place.
Technique 4.b. Develop new DRR subject/module
Considering the review, the project working group would develop either the new
DRR subject or a module for the integration of DRR in different subjects. Throughout the
duration of this stage, it would be helpful to consult with other Regional Consultative
Committee on Disaster Management (RCC) member countries that have successfully
carried out such integration and review their curriculum material.
Technique 4.c. Training of teachers
Selected number of teachers from various parts of the country should be trained in
teaching the new subject or module once the draft of subject or module is developed. For
training the teachers, the teacher’s manual should be developed. The participating
teachers for the training could be from selected pilot schools for testing of the curriculum,
and also from the other school where the latter could be trained as master trainers. Aside
from the teachers, it also important to train relevant officials from various bureaus of the
Department of Education and other concerned agencies. To be aware of the school
calendar would be the key point to be remembered while planning training for the
teachers. School vacation should be targeted for organizing such training for the reasons
that teachers are most busy during regular semester particularly during examinations.

142
Technique 4.d. Pilot test of the DRR subject/module
The draft subject or module developed should be tested in a cross section of
schools where the teachers have been trained. The testing should be synchronized with
the school annual calendar. Giving enough time for the students to understand the
content, the testing of the draft subject or module should be done over a few months. It
would also allow the teachers to analyze the gaps in the subject or module, related to
contents, structure, and effectiveness in reaching out the message to the children, as well
as practical problems in terms of teaching hours, textbook and others. The teachers can
also develop activities for the students in the available time. There should be an
evaluation of the draft curriculum and the teaching by the teachers at the end of the
testing. To evaluate how the students have understood the lessons about DRR, there
should be a quiz, story writing, essay writing, painting competition and other activities
where the teachers can develop in an available time.
Technique 5. Work with the curriculum developer and review committee
It can be suggested that the technical working group could work closely with the
curriculum developer and the national curriculum review committee so that by next
curriculum revision cycle the new DRR subject or module could be taken up for
integration.
Technique 6. Integration of the DRR subject/module into the national curriculum
In order to achieve the final leg of integration, the primary task would be to attain
the approval of the advisory group concerning the revised subject or module. There is a
need to ensure the budgetary provision that has been made for the adoption of the new

143
subject or module and all related approvals from concerned bureaus of the Department of
Education, Local Government and NDRRMC be obtained.
The individual member of Technical Working Group assume definite roles to
perform in the integration of DRR in school curricula, evidently based from data it was
DepdEd together with NDRRMC that occupies most of the functions throughout the process
of integration.
Recommendations to Improve the DRR Integration in the School Curricula
The implementation of the mainstreaming of Disaster Risk Reduction in school
curricula, in order to be more realizable and effective needs some improvements in its
measures and enforcement. Upon recommendations made by teachers in the selected
secondary schools in Legazpi City Division, most of them uttered that the existing policies
about the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in the school curricula must be disseminated
garnering the highest percentage of ninety-seven percent (97%) while suggestion to design
safeguarding mechanisms in order to protect and preserve personnel and students, DepEd
property, school facilities, equipment, fixtures instructional materials and school records got
the lowest percentage of fifty-seven percent (57%) from the teacher-respondents. The
recommendations that may be advanced to improve the Disaster Risk Reduction integration
in the school curricula are shown in Table 12.
The recommendations offered by teachers in the selected secondary schools in
Legazpi City Division should be considered by the technical working group particularly
by DepEd for it would perhaps be helpful to fully institutionalize and integrate the DRR
Foci in the school curricula.

144
Table 12
Recommendations to Improve the Disaster Risk Reduction
Integration in the School Curricula
Recommendations by Teachers in the Selected Secondary Schools
in Legazpi City Division
The integration of Disater Risk Reduction in the school curricula must be intensified by
mainstreaming DRR Concepts provided in the resource manual distributed per topic in all
subject areas for all year levels.
The school must institutionalize the existing policies about the integration of DRR in the
School Curricula
The existing policies about the integration of the DRR in the School Curricula must be
disseminated
There must be trainings for the teachers on how to successfully integrate the DRR concepts
in their Learning Program
Design interactive activities such as earthquake and fire drill and other practicum in teaching
DRR
Provide the school administrators, supervisors and school teachers with information needed
to reduce risk and make school safer
Promote hazard/disaster awareness to manage impacts and to help all school communities to
reduce the risk of threats from natural and human-made/induced disasters
Provide procedures based on the policy statement of the Department of Education for the
empowerment of DepEd personnel
Train teachers and other school personnel on the basic procedures that a school may employ
before, during and after the occurrence of a disaster through the adopted 4-phase strategy:
mitigation, preparedness, response and rehabilitation
Design safeguarding mechanisms in order to protect and preserve personnel and students,
DepEd property, school facilities, equipment, fixtures instructional materials and school
records
Ensure the availability and accessibility of DRR Manual to teachers, students and other
school personnel
The contents of the DRR Resource Manual must be religiously discussed in the respective
subject areas assigned for mainstreaming
Ensure that facilities in your school are safe and secured from hazards
The duties and responsibilities of the school head/principal, head teachers, teachers and CAT
facilitators defined in the DepEd Order must be definitely assumed to successfully integrate
DRR in the school system
There must be fund allocated to undertake the activities in the mainstreaming DRR in the
school curricula
Ensure to carry out the various techniques undertaken by Technical Working Groups for
Priority Implementation Partnership (PIPs) in the mainstreaming of Disaster Risk Reduction
into school curriculum

F

Percentage

Rank

144

87.27

9

150

90.91

4

160

96.97

1

149

90.30

7

140

84.85

10

120

72.73

13

150

90.91

4

105

63.64

15

150

90.91

4

98

59.39

16

155

93.94

2

153
120

92.73
72.73

3
13

137

83.03

11

149

90.30

7

132

80.00

12

The recommendations by the teachers that may be advanced to improve the
Disaster Risk Reduction integration include the following: 1. The integration of Disaster
Risk Reduction in the school curricula must be intensified by mainstreaming DRR
Concepts provided in the resource manual distributed per topic in all subject areas for all
year levels; 2. The school must institutionalize the existing policies about the integration
of DRR in the School Curricula; 3. The existing policies about the integration of the DRR

145
in the School Curricula must be disseminated; 4. There must be trainings for the teachers
on how to successfully integrate the DRR concepts in their Learning Program; 5.Design
interactive activities such as earthquake and fire drill and other practicum in teaching
DRR; 6. Provide the school administrators, supervisors and school teachers with
information needed to reduce risk and make school safer; 7. Promote hazard/disaster
awareness to manage impacts and to help all school communities to reduce the risk of
threats from natural and human-made/induced disasters; 8. Provide procedures based on
the policy statement of the Department of Education for the empowerment of DepEd
personnel; 9. Train teachers and other school personnel on the basic procedures that a
school may employ before, during and after the occurrence of a disaster through the
adopted 4-phase strategy: mitigation, preparedness, response and rehabilitation; 10.
Design safeguarding mechanisms in order to protect and preserve personnel and students,
DepEd property, school facilities, equipment, fixtures instructional materials and school
records;

11. Ensure the availability and accessibility of DRR Manual to teachers,

students and other school personnel; 12. The contents of the DRR Resource Manual must
be religiously discussed in the respective subject areas assigned for mainstreaming;
13. Ensure that facilities in your school are safe and secured from hazards; 14. The duties
and responsibilities of the school head/principal, head teachers, teachers and CAT
facilitators defined in the DepEd Order must be definitely assumed to successfully
integrate DRR in the school system; 15. There must be fund allocated to undertake the
activities in the mainstreaming DRR in the school curricula; and 16. Ensure to carry out
the various techniques undertaken by Technical Working Groups for Priority
Implementation Partnership (PIPs) in the mainstreaming of DRR into school curriculum.

Chapter 5
SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter provides the summary, conclusions and recommendations of the
study. It recapitulates the problems of the study and the sumary of findings.
Summary
This research determined the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in the School
Curricula in selected secondary schools in Legazpi City Division.
Specifically, the study sought answers to the following sub-problems:
1. What is the status of the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in the schools’
curricula?
2. What are the factors that influence the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in
school curricula along the following:
a. Policies;
b. Teachers’ Learning Program;
c. Instructional Materials; and
d. Facilities?
3. What are the school policies and practices adopted for the integration of
Disaster Risk Reduction in terms of:
a. Manpower;
b. Funding; and
c. Technical?
4. What recommendations may be advanced to improve the Disaster Risk
Reduction integration in the school curricula?

147
The descriptive – evaluative method of research was used in this study.
Questionnaire and document for review were the instruments used in the study. The
statistical tools used were weighted mean and percentage techniques. The total
respondents in this study was 165, which is a total enumeration equivalent to the exact
number of teachers from the three schools selected including the respective school heads.
Findings
Based on the analyses and interpretation of the data, the following are the
findings:
1. On the status of integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in the schools’ curricula
The status of the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in the school curricula are
weighed in terms of the extent of mainstreaming DRR Concepts provided in the Resource
Manual distributed per topic in all subject areas for all year levels in the secondary. The
integration is represented per subject discussed below.
Integration of DRR on English I-IV Subjects. The integration of DRR foci in
English particularly the Philippine Risk Profile was very low indicating that it was not
integrated in the curricula of the selected secondary schools in Legazpi City Division.
Integration of DRR on Filipino I-IV Subjects. The majority of the teachers
percieved that the integration of DRR in Filipino particularly the Philippine Disaster Risk
Reduction Management was very low signifying that it was not integrated in the subjects.
Integration of DRR on Mathematics I-IV Subjects. For Mathematics subjects,
DRR concepts that should be integrated are the Hydro-Meteorological Phenomena and
Hazards topics. However, in the schools surveyed, most of the respondents agreed that
mainstreaming DRR foci was very low stating that it was not integrated.

148
Integration of DRR in Science I-IV Subjects. The integration of DRR concepts
about Geological Phenomena and Hazards in the Sciences was moderate demonstrating
that mainstreaming DRR in the curricula of selected schools are moderately integrated.
Integration of DRR in Araling Panlipunan I-IV Subjects. On the mainstreaming of
DRR topics about Human Induced Hazards particularly Technological Hazards, fifty
percent of the teacher-respondents observed that integration of DRR in Social Studies
was low indicating that it was partially integrated in the curricula of the three selected
schools.
Integration of DRR in Music, Arts, Physical Education and Health (MAPEH) I-IV
Subjects. For Health and Physical Education subjects, the mainstreaming of DRR topics
particularly Environmental Hazards was found to be moderate signifying that in the
selected secondary schools in Legazpi City it was moderately integrated. Of three schools
surveyed, two schools have their DRR Coordinator coming from MAPEH Department.
Integration of DRR in Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao (Values Education) I-IV
Subjects. Most of the teachers are certain that the integration of DRR in Values Education
particularly Ensuring Continuity of Instruction was very low revealing that it was not
integrated in their respective schools.
Integration of DRR on Technology and Livelihood Economics (T.L.E.) I-IV
Subjects.

Mainstreaming DRR Focus in Home Economics and Industrial Arts

particularly in ensuring safety of Deped properties, most of the the teachers agreed that
the integration of DRR in T.L.E. was very low indicating that it was not integrated.
Integration of DRR on Citizens Advancement Training. On the DRR integration of
the topics, Monitoring and Evaluation of Disaster Risk Management Implementation, the

149
respondents percieved that the performance of the CAT Officials and Cadettes being
incharge with the Organization of School Disater Risk Reduction Management Group, on
the integration of DRR in the school curricula was very low.
2. On the factors that influence the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in school
curricula
The factors that influence the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in school
curricula are assessed through policies implemented, teachers’ learning program,
instructional materials, and facilities.
a. Along Policies. The policies for the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in
the school curricula particularly the DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007 was institutionalized in
the respective schools surveyed. Most of the teachers responded that the said policy was
institutionalized and had been disseminated in their school. This was contrary to the
result showing that more than half of the respondents were not aware of the Republic Act
No. 10121 saying that it was not institutionalized and has not been disseminated. Most of
the respondents perceived that the policy objectives were unclear to them. However, the
measures undertaken by the Department of Education in the implementation of disaster
risk reduction management project as identified by the teachers were the utilization of
DRR manual; Implementation of Safe Schools Programs relative to disaster risk
reduction efforts; Information Dissemination Campaign for Energy and Water
Conservation Flyers on water and energy conservation; and Monitoring of the
implementation of the disaster risk reduction projects and other activities. According to
the teachers, DRR manual has not been utilized in their respective schools. The policy
statement in the implementation of Safe Schools Programs relative to DRR efforts

150
concerning non-structural components under DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007 were the
following: 1. Mainstreaming DRR Concepts in the Elementary and

Secondary

School Curricula; 2. School Mapping Exercise; 3. Schools Water and Electrical
Facilities Assessment Project; 4. Preparation of Disaster Preparedness Modules through
Multi-Media; and 5. Quarterly Conduct of Earthquake and Fire Drills; and 6. Road Safety
Education for Children. The policy statement in the structural components relative to the
construction of hazards resilient school buildings under DepEd Order No. 55, s.
2007 were the following: 1. Learning and public use of school building; 2. Be better,
build better international design competition; and 3. Assessment of school buildings’
structural integrity and stability.
b. Along Teachers’ Learning Program. Most of the teachers perceived that all of
them are required to make daily lesson plan. Hence, as a daily requirement, DRR Foci are
imposed to be integrated in the preparation of lesson plan in the respective learning areas
they are assigned for mainstreaming.
c. Along Instructional Materials. The factors influencing the integration of DRR
in school curricula in terms of instructional materials are assessed through the following:
1. Uses of the Disaster Risk Reduction Manual; 2. Availability of the instructional
materials

(DRR Manual); 3. Accessibility of the instructional materials (DRR

Manual); and 4. Discussion of the contents of the DRR Manual in the respective subject
areas assigned for mainstreaming.
d. Along Facilities. The key instruments in raising quality education as well as
continuing educational services during emergency situations, educational facilities such
as school buildings, laboratories, equipment, instructional materials, supplies, and other

151
properties are essential components of the learning environment. DepEd standards and
standards for resilience must be considered in designing and constructing school
buildings. There are guidelines that are intended to complement accepted architectural
and engineering principles, and the provisions of the National Building Code of the
Philippines, and other relevant rules, regulations and ordinances promulgated by the
national and local agencies. It is also important to give due considerations to the
ergonomics, anthropometrics, thermal comfort, illumination, acoustics and colors. In
designing and constructing school buildings, safety and risk reduction measures shall
always be considered.
3. On the school policies and practices adopted for the integration of Disaster Risk
Reduction
The school policies and practices adapted for the integration of DRR in the school
curricula are determined through: manpower, funding and technical. Manpower includes
duties and responsibilities by every school personnel. Funding pertains to the allocation
of budget and technical refers to various techniques undertaken for mainstreaming DRR.
a. On Manpower. For the school level, to ensure the mainstreaming of DRR
Concepts provided in the Resource Manual, the duties and responsibilities should be
adhered to as provided in DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007 intended for particular persons
such as for school head or principal, head teachers, CAT facilitators, and teachers. Other
roles of every school personnel in order to protect the lives of the members of the school
community and property include the following: a. Analyze the condition of the school or
conduct situational analysis;

b. Identify possible

hazards/threats faced by the

school; c. Follow and strictly act according to the disaster management strategies

152
especially in times of emergencies, calamity/disaster; d. Provide feedback to the
authorities for policy formulation; and e. Request the DepEd Division/Regional/Central
Offices/other local and international GOs, NGOs and stakeholder for any assistance.
b. On Funding. In coordination with the Technical Working Group (TWG) and
the Education Working Group (EWG) for the purpose of implementing effectively the
mainstreaming of Disaster Risk Reduction in the Education Sector (MDRD-EDU) and in
order to improve the integration of DRR foci in the school curricula, the funds was spent
on the following activities such as: 1. Institutionalization within the Education Sector; 2.
Development of DRR curriculum materials; 3. Training of teachers and trainers and pilot
testing; 4. Development of Curriculum Framework Plan for integrating DRR in all
grades; and 5. Integrating hazards resilient school construction features.
c. On

Technical. The Technical Working Group (TWG) undertakes various

techniques for Priority Implementation Partnerships (PIPs) in the mainstreaming of DRR
into school curricula. The various techniques suggested for undertaking Priority
Implementation Partnerships for Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction as discussed in
the RCC Guidelines include the following: 1. Initiating Dialogue between National
Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC) and Department of
Education; 2. Formation of Working Group and Advisory Group; 3. Kick-off Meeting of
the TWG as well as the AdvisoryGroup (Priority Implementation partnership); 4.
Develop and test the draft curriculum including review of existing secondary school
curriculum, developing new DRR subject/module, training of teachers, and pilot testing
of the DRR subject/module; 5. Work with the curriculum developer and review
committee; and 6. Integration of the DRR subject/module into the national curriculum.

153
4. On the recommendations that may be advanced to improve the Disaster Risk
Reduction integration in the school curricula
The teacher-respondents of the study recommended that in the realization and
effective Disaster Risk Reduction integration in the school curricula, the following should
be considered: 1. The integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in the school curricula must
be intensified by mainstreaming DRR Concepts provided in the resource manual
distributed per topic in all subject areas for all year levels; 2. The school must
institutionalize the existing policies about the integration of DRR in the School Curricula;
3. The existing policies about the integration of the DRR in the School Curricula must be
disseminated; 4. There must be trainings for the teachers on how to successfully integrate
the DRR concepts in their Learning Program; 5. Design interactive activities such as
earthquake and fire drill and other practicum in teaching DRR; 6. Provide the school
administrators, supervisors and school teachers with information needed to reduce risk
and make school safer; 7. Promote hazard/disaster awareness to manage impacts and to
help all school communities to reduce the risk of threats from natural and humanmade/induced disasters; 8. Provide procedures based on the policy statement of the
Department of Education for the empowerment of DepEd personnel; 9. Train teachers
and other school personnel on the basic procedures that a school may employ before,
during and after the occurrence of a disaster through the adopted 4-phase strategy:
mitigation, preparedness, response and rehabilitation; 10. Design safeguarding
mechanisms in order to protect and preserve personnel and students, DepEd property,
school

facilities,

equipment, fixtures instructional materials and school records;

11. Ensure the availability and accessibility of DRR Manual to teachers, students and

154
other school personnel; 12. The contents of the DRR Resource Manual must be
religiously discussed in the respective subject areas assigned for mainstreaming; 13.
Ensure that facilities in your school are safe and secured from hazards; 14. The duties and
responsibilities of the school head/principal, head teachers, teachers and CAT facilitators
defined in the DepEd Order must be definitely assumed to successfully integrate DRR in
the school system; 15. There must be fund allocated to undertake the activities in the
mainstreaming DRR in the school curricula; and 16. Ensure to carry out the various
techniques undertaken by Technical Working Groups for Priority Implementation
Partnership (PIPs) in the mainstreaming of Disaster Risk Reduction into school
curriculum.
Conclusions
Based on the foregoing findings, the following conclusions were drawn:
1. On the status of integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in the school curricula,
because of lack of political will in the enforcement and institutionalization of DRR by
DepEd personnel, who are supposed to monitor and evaluate the integration, it resulted to
very weak integration of DRR foci by teachers in their lesson. The results pose a big
threat not only to the students but also to the entire community lacking the awareness and
preparedness about disasters and its risks to the community being vulnerable to the
hazards of disasters. Hence, it was a challenge to the academe to educate the community
about the nature of disasters, its risks to the environment and the community, in order to
be more resilient with the impact of disasters.
2. With regard to the factors influencing integraton of DRR in school curricula
along policies, since DepEd Order No. 55, s, 2007 and Republic Act No. 10121 were not

155
been been fully institutionalized in the selected secondary schools in Legazpi City
Division, it can be concluded that its policy objectives, measures and statements are not
clear to the majority of the respondents.
Along teachers’ learning program, the teachers are all required to make daily
lesson plans. Supposedly, it was imposed that DRR foci were integrated in the teachers’
lesson plans on the respective learning areas they are assigned for mainstreaming, but
since the integration was very weak it can be construed that there no integration of DRR
foci on teachers learning program. Unluckily, most of the teachers fail to put into
application the knowledge they have gained from the training concerning the integration
of DRR, or worst there is no training at all concerning DRR integration.
Along instructional materials, the uses of DRR manual had been identified and
enumerated. Except that DRR manual was available online in the official website of
DepEd, it was noticeable that in division office and in schools, the availability of DRR
manual were insufficient and therefore less accessible for use by the teachers and
students. Aside from Sciences, MAPEH and Social Sudies; DRR topics in other subjects
were not discussed.
Along facilities, DepEd should conform to the standards for resilience in
designing and constructing school buildings, giving due considerations to the
ergonomics, anthropometrics, thermal comfort, illumination, acoustics, colors and most
importantly the safety and risk reduction measures.
3. The school policies and practices adopted for the integration of DRR in terms
of manpower, DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007 provides for the duties and responsibilities to
be assumed by particular persons in the school level. The school head or principal, the

156
head teachers, the CAT facilitators, and the teachers need to ensure mainstreaming of
DRR Concepts in the school curricula.
In terms of funding, effective implementation of the funds for Mainstreaming of
Disaster Risk Reduction in the Education Sector (MDRD-EDU) was spent along the
Technical Working Group (TWG) together with the Education Working Group (EWG).
In terms of technical, the individual member of Technical Working Group
assumed definite roles in performing the integration of

DRR in school curricula.

Evidently based from data it was DepdEd together with NDRRMC that occupies most of
the functions throughout the process of integration.
4. The teacher-respondents recommendations on the integration of DRR in the
school curricula in order to make the integration more realizable and effective was to
fully institutionalize and disseminate the existing policies about DRR integration in the
school curricula. The DRR Resource Manual should be made accessible to the teachers,
students, vis-à-vis to effectively integrate DRR, the Technical Working Group and
DepEd need to institutionalize training and program on the DRR Manual.
Recommendations
In the light of the foregoing findings and conclusions, the following
recommendations are forwarded, to wit:
1. The implementation of DepEd Oder, Republic Act and other existing laws
should be intensified and enforced extensively the integration of DRR in the school
curricula throughout the country. Monitoring by DepEd officials should be done
religiously in all schools through evaluation checklist if they conformed and enforced
the mainstreaming of Disater Risk Reduction.

157
2. The policies concerning DRR integration in the school curricula should be
thoroughly institutionalized and disseminated. Learning program should be done by
teachers everyday concerning DRR foci. Interactive activities for the topics especially not
found in the DRR Resource Manual should be designed for practicum as methods in
teaching DRR topics as indicated in the learning program. Unfortunately, the Manual did
not include the topics on cold front, southwest monsoon, northeast monsoon, active lowpressure area, intertropical convergence zone, storm wind and debris flow, and other specific
topics on earthquake including ground motion, tsunami, landslide, structural failure, flash
flood and fire. Also not included in the manual are topics on volcanic eruptions such as ash
fall, pyroclastic flow, lava flow, lava fountaining, volcanic quakes and volcanic avalanches.
Scheming of activities for evaluation like quizzes, recitation and other project output
should be presented in the learning program. The knowledge gained from trainings,
seminars and workshops attended, if there is, should be put into application by teachers to
be reflected in their learning program. The availability of the Resource Manual in DepEd
Division Offices, in all schools and in the bookstores nationwide should be ensured. The
public should be informed about the availability of the Manual to be downloaded in the
official website of the DepEd. The use of the Manual being an important instructional
materials in teaching DRR foci should be made accessible to all teachers, students,
school personnel and other stakeholders. The topics concerning DRR as included in the
Manual should be thoroughly discussed. Designing and constructing buildings and other
facilities in the schools should conformed to the guidelines concerning the standards of
DepEd and the standards for resilience. Designing and constructing school buildings
should be done in accordance to the safety and risk reduction measures.

158
3. The duties and responsibilities to be assumed by the head of school/principal,
head teachers, teachers, CAT facilitators and other school personnel as provided in the
Implementing Rules and Regulations of the DepEd Order and other laws concerning DRR
integration in the school curricula should be clearly identified and defined, and be delegated
to concerned personnel. The funds should be allocated through linkages in order to
undertake all activities concerning the integration of DRR in the school curricula. The
techniques

for

undertaking

Priority

Implementation

Partnerships

(PIPs)

for

mainstreaming DRR should be familiarized by every school personnel, teachers and
students.
4. The recommendations by teachers in the respective schools surveyed for this
study particularly intensifying the institutionalization and dissemination of DepEd Odrer
and other existing laws concerning the integration of DRR in school curricula should be
considered. According to the teachers, the availability and acessibility of the DRR
Resource Manual should be ensured. Also, teachers and other personnel concern should
be trained regarding the mainstreaming of Disaster Risk Reduction.
5. There should be a need to put up an office for Disaster Risk Reduction in every
school to ensure that integration is implemented, monitored, and evaluated.

159
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APPENDICES

166
Appendix A
Republic of the Philippines
BICOL UNIVERSITY
Graduate School
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS, ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT
Doctor of Philosophy in Public Administration Program
Daraga Campus, Daraga, Albay

QUESTIONNAIRE

Name: _______________________________________________ Sex: _____________
School: ______________________________________________ Age: _____________
Designation: __________________________________________ Years in Service: ___
Subject (s) Taught: ________________________________________________________
Part I. Status of the Integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in the Schools’
Curricula
The items listed below are the Disaster Risk Reduction Concepts provided in the
Resource Manual distributed per topic in all subject areas for all year levels in the
Secondary. Please rate the extent of integration of Disaster Risk Reduction corresponding
to the subject areas you are concerned with. Kindly encircle the number that matches
your rating for each item. The rating scale means:
5 – Fully Integrated/Very High
4 – Almost Fully Integrated/High
3 – Moderately Integrated/Moderate
SUBJECTS
10. English I-IV
11. Filipino I
12.
13.
14.
15.

Mathematics IV
Science I-IV
Araling Panlipunan I-IV
MAPEH
(Health and Physical Education)
16. Edukasyong Pagpapahalaga
(Values Education)
17. Technology and Livelihood
Education (TLE)
18. Citizens Advancement
Training

2 – Partially Integrated/Low
1 – Not Integrated/Very Low
TOPICS

RATING SCALE

Chap. 1. The Philippine Risk Profile
54321
Chap. 2. The Philippine Disaster
54321
Risk Reduction Management
Chap. 3. Natural Hazards (Hydro-meteorological) 5 4 3 2 1
Chap. 3. Natural Hazards (Geological)
54321
Chap. 4. Technological Hazards
54321
Chap. 4. Environmental Hazards
54321
Chap. 5. Ensuring Continuity of Instruction

54321

Chap. 6. Ensuring Safety of DepEd Properties

54321

Organization of School Disaster risk Reduction 5 4 3 2 1
Management Group

167
Part II. Factors that Influence the Integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in the School
Curricula
A. In terms of Policies
1. Did your school institutionalize the existing policy/ies about the integration of DRR in the
school curricula?
[Yes] or [No]
If yes, please check which policy/ies were institutionalized.
DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007
Republic Act No. 10121
Others
Please specify: _____________________________________________________________
If no, state briefly why: _______________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
2. Were the existing policy/ies about the integration of DRR in the school curricula
disseminated?
[Yes] or [No]
If yes, please check which policy/ies were disseminated.
DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007
Republic Act No. 10121
Others
Please specify: _____________________________________________________________
If no, state briefly why: _______________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
3. Does DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007 have a clear policy objectives based from the Hyogo
Framework for Action 2005-2015, a global blue print for disaster risk reduction, which is
considered as a priority policy for implementation by the Department of Education?
[Yes] or [No]
If yes, please check which policy objectives are clear to you.
To update the guiding framework on disaster reduction for the twenty-first century
To identify specific activities aimed at ensuring the implementation of Sustainable
Development on vulnerability, risk assessment and disaster management
To share good practices and lessons learned to further disaster reduction within the context of
attaining sustainable development, and to identify gaps and challenges
To increase awareness of the importance of disaster reduction policies, thereby facilitating and
promoting the implementation of those policies
To increase the reliability and availability of appropriate disaster-related information to the
public and disaster management agencies in all regions
To build schools, nations and communities resilient to disaster
To reduce disaster losses in lives, properties, social, economic and environmental assets of
communities and courtiers by year 2015
Others
Please specify: _____________________________________________________________

168
If no, state briefly why: _______________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
4. In view of the policy in the mainstreaming of DRR Management in the school system under
DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007 , what are the measures undertaken by the Department in the
implementation of disaster risk reduction management project?
Please check which policy measures are undertaken by DepEd.
Utilization of DRR manual
Implementation of Safe Schools Programs relative to disaster risk reduction efforts
Information Dissemination Campaign for Energy and Water Conservation Flyers on water
and energy conservation
Monitoring of the implementation of the disaster risk reduction projects and other activities
Others
Please specify: _____________________________________________________________
5. Was the policy statement in the non-structural components under DepEd Order No. 55, s.
2007 clear to you?
[Yes] or [No]
If yes, please check which component (s).
Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction Concepts in the Elementary and Secondary School
Curricula
School Mapping Exercise
Schools Water and Electrical Facilities assessment Project
Preparation of Disater Preparedness Modules Through Multi-Media
Quarterly Conduct of earthquake and Fire Drills
Road Safety Education for Children
Others
Please specify: _____________________________________________________________
If no, state briefly why: _______________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
6. Was the policy statement in the structural components relative to the construction of hazards
resilient school buildings under DepEd Order No. 55, s. 2007 clear to you?
[Yes] or [No]
If yes, please check which component (s).
Learning and public use of school building
Be better, build better international design competition
Assessment of school buildings’ structural integrity and stability
Others
Please specify: _____________________________________________________________
If no, state briefly why: _______________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

169
B. In Terms of Teachers’ Learning Program
1. What are the factors that influence the inclusion of Disaster Risk Reduction on the teachers’
Learning Program/Lesson Planning?
Please check the following factors that influence the inclusion of Disaster Risk Reduction in
the Learning Program/Lesson Planning
Teachers are required to make Learning Program for their lesson daily
Disaster topics and Disaster Risk Reduction Focus are imposed to be integrated in the
respective Learning Areas they are assigned for mainstreaming provided in the DepEd Order
No. 55, s. 2007
The purpose of the learning areas are apparently related to Disaster Risk Reduction
The substance of the lessons requires the subject knowledge, understanding, and skills
concerning real life situations on how to cope with disasters
Activities such as earthquake and fire drills and other practicum are methods conducted in
teaching disaster risk reduction
The subject matter associated with Disaster Risk Reduction calls for evaluation
Putting into application the knowledge gained from the teachers’ trainings on how to integrate
DRR in their Learning Program
Others
Please specify: _____________________________________________________________
C. In Terms of Instructional Materials
1. What are the uses of the Disaster Risk Reduction Manual?
Please check the following use (s) of DRR Manual.
To provide the school administrators, supervisors and school teachers with information
needed to reduce risk and make school safer
To promote hazard/disaster awareness, to manage impacts, and to help all school
communities to reduce the risk of threats from natural and human-made/induced disasters
Provides procedures based on the policy statement of the Department of Education for the
empowerment of DepEd personnel
Outlines legal bases of the program and spells out the role of the Department’s Central Office,
Regional Offices, Division Offices, down to the school level
Illustrates the basic procedures that a school may employ before, during and after the
occurrence of a disaster through the adopted 4-phase strategy: mitigation, preparedness,
response and rehabilitation
It offers safeguarding mechanisms to protect and preserve personnel and students, DepEd
property, school facilities, equipment, fixtures instructional materials and school records.
To protect the lives of the members of the school community and property
Others
Please specify: _____________________________________________________________
2. Was the Instructional Materials particularly the DRR Manual available?
Please check the following means of availability of DRR Manual.
The DRR Manual is available in DepEd division offices
The DRR Manual is available in the schools
The DRR Manual is available in the official website of the Department of Education
The DRR Manual is available in bookstores

170
Others
Please specify: _____________________________________________________________
3. Was the Instructional Materials particularly the DRR Manual accessible?
Please check the following means of accessibility of DRR Manual.
There are stocks in the school where the teachers can use and students may borrow
The teachers can request for a copy in the school administrators
The students can ask for a copy from the school
The school may request for a copy from the DepEd Division Office
Anyone can download it from the internet and have it printed
Others
Please specify: _____________________________________________________________
4. Are the contents of the DRR Resource Manual discussed in the respective subject areas
assigned for mainstreaming?
[Yes] or [No]
If yes, please check the following contents discussed in the respective subject areas.
Overview of Disaster RiskReduction
Understanding Disaster
Disaster Prevention and Mitigation
Overview of Policies and Principles of Disaster Risk Reduction
Natural Hazards
Hydro-Meteorological Phenomena and Hazards
Cyclone
Typhoon
Tornado
Thunderstorm
Flood
Storm Surge
Landslide
Global Warming
Extreme Climatic Variability
Geological Phenomena and Hazards
Earthquake
Tsunami
Volcanic Eruption
Astronomical Hazards
Human Induced Hazards
Technological Hazards
Structure Collapse
Fire
Vehicular Accident
Chemical Spill (Laboratory)
Electrical Blackout
Food Poisoning
Environmental Hazards
Red Tide
Water Pollution

171
Socio-Economic, Political, Security Hazards
Bomb Threats
Kidnapping Threats
Hostage Taking
Civil Disorder
Risk Profile of the Philippines
The Risks
Recent Tragedies Experienced by the Country
The Philippine Disaster Risk Management System
Salient Provisions of PD 1566 (1978)
NDCC Comprehensive Disaster Management Framework
Declaration of Principles
The Cluster Approach on Humanitarian Response
The Role of DepEd in the Philippine Disaster Risk Management System
Disaster Risk Reduction Management Office (DRRMO)
Standard Operation Procedures for Mitigation and Prevention
Ensuring Continuity of Instruction
Legal Basis
The School Improvement Plan
Alternative Delivery of Formal Instruction
Recommended Actions to Ensure Continuity of Instruction during Disasters
Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies (MSEE)
Emergency Procurement System for Rehabilitation/Replacement of School Buildings,
Equipment and Fixtures
Ensuring Safety of DepEd Properties
School Sites and Buildings
Records Management
Fixtures and Equipment
Monitoring & Evaluation of the Disaster Risk Management Implementation
Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction management in the School System
Monitoring and Evaluation Guidelines
Disaster Risk Reduction Program implementation Assessment Checklist
Checklist on the Disaster Risk Reduction Preparation Undertaken by the School
Checklist on Ensuring the Safety of DepEd Properties
Data Gathering Forms During Calamity or Disasters
Rapid Disaster Assessment Report (RA.D.A.R.)
If no, state briefly why: _______________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
D. In Terms of Facilities
1. Are the educational facilities in your school safe and secured from hazards?
[Yes] or [No]
If yes, please check which safety and risk reduction measures are present and utilized in order
to ensure that educational facilities are safe and secured in your school.
School Sites and Buildings
Main Entrance:
The main entrance shall be located preferably on a secondary road.
Gates must be designed to swing in to the school property.

172
Provide separate service entrance for the public/students.
Main entrance shall provide enough clearance for fire trucks and medical vehicles.
Electrical Fixtures:
Require protective covering for all electrical wirings and fixtures.
Install a fire alarm system that is affordable.
Provide environment-friendly fire extinguishers.
Report any defective electrical wiring fixtures to experts.
Hang curtains in the classrooms away from wall-mounted fans.
Conduct periodic assessments of electric load capacity.
Stairs/Handrails:
Avoid smooth or polished step and floor surfaces and provide non-slips nosing to minimize
the chance of slipping on stairs.
Step treads should not be less than 0.25m deep and rise not more than 0.20m per step. They
should be regular.
Always provide a landing with railings between a doorway and stairways.
Distance between railings shall be not more than 100 mm. (4 inches) so that pupils/students
cannot squeeze through.
For abrupt changes in floor elevation, preferably provide a ramp to avoid freak accidents.
Windows:
Windows shall be provided with security grills and an emergency exit.
Door/Exits:
Classrooms shall always be provided with at least two swing-outdoors at the opposite sides of
the classroom.
Walls:
Walls shall be smooth finished to prevent injury to highly active, playful, and mobile
students.
Condemned/Unfinished Construction:
Condemned or unfinished building structures an on-going construction, must be cordoned off
with an “Off Limits” sign.
Sanitary Facilities:
Drainage canals shall be wide enough, covered, and provided with manholes for safety and
sanitation purposes. Drain floors should be V shaped for good drainage.
Location of the septic tanc must be at least two (2) meters away from the building it serves. It
shall be properly vented for proper release of gases. It must be at least 30 meters away from
any source of water supply to avoid contamination.
Other Building Risk Reduction Requirements:
Conduct school mapping exercise at the school level.
Undertake site appraisal including soil testing to determine appropriate building design and
foundation.
Review the Program of works for the construction of school buildings by proper authorities.
Ensure structural stability by following the requirements of the National Building Code on
distances between buildings such as:
Eight (8) meters between one story buildingd positioned side by side.
Ten (10) meters between two-story academic building side by side.
Ten (10) meters between non-academic buildings.
At least ten (10) meters is suggested from a main building to the front gate.
Greater distance than the minimum between school buildings allows for adequate free space
to be utilized for many school-related activities.
Strengthen, retrofit, or upgrade poorly built school buildings to withstand any possible
calamity.

173
Implement DepEd Project A.S.S.I.S.T. (Assessment of Schoolbuildings’ Structural integrity,
and Stability).
Recommend to appropriate authorities the provision of structures to protect the school from
mudflows, landslides and the like.
Provide evacuation/exit plan to be posted in a strategic place in the building.
Make funds available for insurance of newly completed school buildings and other insurable
DepEd properties.
Undertake regular repair and maintenance of all school facilities and utilities.
Record Management
Paper Record:
Prepare vital records with long retention periods or which are generated in high volumes in
microfilm form.
Photocopy in plain paper vital facsmile transmissions.
File paper records in cabinets or drawers when not in use.
Microforms:
Store in separate cabinets and boxes microforms (film, fiche) created through different
processes, e.g. silver halide, diazo and vesicular. Different types of films interact with each
other and produce dangerous gases that destroy the micofilm images.
Store off site security copies of microfilm.
Handle the film by the edges to prevent fingerprint smudges.
Magnetic Media:
Back up computer information on a regular basis. Store back up information off site.
Protect media and equipment with plastic covers to minimize water damage.
Keep magnetic media away from all sources of risk.
Re-wind data catridges to beginning before removing them from the tape drive.
Store data cartridges securely in their protective plastic cases.
Clean regularly the tape drive to enhance its abilities to accurately read data but never attempt
to clean a data cartridge by touching the tape or the tape drive rollers with fingers or other
objects.
Store back-up data on external hard drive, USB flash drive, CD’s and DVD’s.
If afford, store your data on a cloud drive, a Web-based service that provides storage space on
a remote server which are accessed over the Internet with client-side software that are useful
for backing up files.
Others
Please specify: _____________________________________________________________
If no, state briefly why: _______________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
Part III. School Policies and Practices Adopted for the Integration of Disaster Risk Reduction
A. In terms of Manpower
1. What are the duties and responsibilities of the school head/principal based from DepEd Order
No. 55, s. 2007 which are adopted in your school?
Please check which duties and responsibilities are executed in your school.
Suspend (per SDS instruction) the regular delivery of Learning Competencies to give
way to the simultaneous mainstreaming of Disaster Risk Reduction concepts and plan for
make up classes.
Initiate the organization of schools Disaster Risk Reduction Management Group.

174
Invite DPWH, BFP and Local Government Office (Municipal Engineering Office)
representative to conduct site, building inspection to include water and electrical facilities,
structural integrity and stability of school buildings, and act on their recommendations and
suggestions.
Conduct school level seminar symposium, program and involve resource speaker from DOH,
Red Cross on First Aid and Basic Life Support System.
Involve the Student Government Organization, Boy and Girl Scouts in the orientation of
Disaster Risk Reduction concepts in the school and community.
Call a GPTA meeting as part of Info-dissemination campaign.
Other activities he/she may conduct relative to the DRR.
Please specify: _____________________________________________________________
2. What are the duties and responsibilities of the head teachers based from DepEd Order No. 55,
s. 2007 which are adopted in your school?
Please check which duties and responsibilities are executed in your school.
Monitor the topic integration by the classroom teachers.
Suggest effective teaching strategies to carry out the topic.
Evaluate the mainstreaming/integration process.
Report the progress to the principal.
Others
Please specify: _____________________________________________________________
3. What are the duties and responsibilities of the CAT Facilitators based from DepEd Order No.
55, s. 2007 which are adopted in your school?
Please check which duties and responsibilities are executed in your school.
Provide assistance to the school head/principal on the conduct of activities as required in the
CAT curriculum.
Conduct information dissemination through the CAT program.
Take charge in the establishment of the Schools Disaster Risk Reduction Management Group.
Others
Please specify: _____________________________________________________________
4. What are the duties and responsibilities of the teachers based from DepEd Order No. 55, s.
2007 which are adopted in your school?
Please check which duties and responsibilities are executed in your school.
Read, study carefully the contents of the DRRM and mainstream disaster risk reduction
concepts in the subject areas. Continously integrate the concepts if these point of entries are
met in the Learning Competencies. Ex. In Science, the topic is Environment, integrate the
environmental hazards in a form of review, reminder or commitment.
Use appropriate/effective teaching strategies..
Evaluate learning (cognitive, affective and psychomotor).
Include in the bulletin board concepts on disaster risk reduction.
Let students prepare a collage, poster, jingle, poem, rap or slogan on disaster risk reduction as
part of the evaluation measures.
Others
Please specify: _____________________________________________________________

175
5. What are the other roles of every school personnel in order to protect the lives of the members
of the school community and property?
Please check the following roles that must be executed by every school personnel.
Analyze the condition of the school or conduct situational analysis.
Identify possible hazards/threats feaced by the school.
Follow and strictly act according to the disaster management strategies especially in times of
emergencies, calamity/disaster.
Provide feedback to the authorities for policy formulation.
Request the DepEd Division/Regional/Central Offices/other local and international GOs,
NGOs and stakeholder for any assistance.
Others
Please specify: _____________________________________________________________
B. In Terms of Funding
1. What are the sources of fund for the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in the school
curriculum?
Please check the institutions that finance the integration of DRR.
National Government (by Department)
Local Government Unit (LGU)
Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO’s) and Private Organization (PO’s)
The School Maintenance and Other Operating Expenses (MOOE)
General Parent Teacher Association (GPTA)
Homeroom Parent Teacher Association (HRPTA)
Alumni Association
Solicitations
Others
Please specify: _____________________________________________________________
2. Where are the funds for mainstreaming DRR into school curriculum allocated?
Please check the activities undertaken for mainstreaming DRR into school curriculum where
the funds are allocated.
Institutionalization within the Education Sector
Development of DRR curriculum materials
Training of teachers and trainers and pilot testing
Development of Curriculum Framework Plan for integrating DRR in all grades
Integrating hazards resilient school construction features
Others
Please specify: _____________________________________________________________

176
C. In Terms of Technical
The following technical working groups in the Philippines constitute to integrate the DRR
into School Curriculum. Please check the boxes beside them that correspond to the various techniques
they undertake for Priority Implementation Partnership (PIPs) in the mainstreaming of Disaster Risk
Reduction into school curriculum. The boxes stand for:
1–
2–
3–
4–

5–
6–

Initiating Dialogue between NDMO and National Institute of Education and its
Curriculum Development Department, Department of Education
Formation of Working Group and Advisory Group
Kick off Meeting of the Technical Working Group as well as the Advisory Group
(Priority Implementation Partnership PIP)
Develop and test the draft curriculum
a. Review existing secondary school curriculum
b. Develop new DRR subject/module
c. Training of teachers
d. Pilot test of the DRR subject/module
Work with the curriculum developer and review committee
Integration of the DRR subject/module into the national curriculum

Constitution of the Technical Working Groups
1
Office of the Undersecretary for Teachers’ Welfare, DepED
Bureau of Secondary and Elementary Education, DepEd
Bureau of Alternative Learning System, DepEd
Physical Facilities and Schools Engineering Division, DepEd
Basic Education Support and Reform Agenda Secretariat, DepEd
National Economic Development Authority (NEDA)
Department of Finance (DoF), DepEd
National Disaster Coordinating Council – Office of Civil Defense
(NDCC-OCD)
Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS),
DOST
Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Service
(PAGASA), DOST
National Mapping and Resources Information Authority (NAMRIA),
DENR
Mines and Geosciences Bureau, DENR
Office of the Presidential Advisor on Climate Change (OPACC)
Department of Public Works and Highways
Philippine Information Agency (PIA)
Public Safety and Emergency Management Office e.g. Albay Safety
and Emergency Management Office (APSEMO)
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP-Philippines)
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC)

2

3

4

5

6

177
Part IV. Recommendations to Improve the Disaster Risk Reduction Integration in the School
Curricula
1. What are the recommendations that may be advanced to improve DRR integration in the
school curricula?
Please check some recommendations to improve DRR integration in the school curricula.
The integration of Disater Risk Reduction in the school curricula must be intensified by
mainstreaming DRR Concepts provided in the resource manual distributed per topic in all
subject areas for all year levels.
The school must institutionalize the existing policies about the integration of DRR in the
School Curricula
The existing policies about the integration of the DRR in the School Curricula must be
disseminated
There must be trainings for the teachers on how to successfully integrate the DRR concepts in
their Learning Program
Design interactive activities such as earthquake and fire drill and other practicum in teaching
DRR
Provide the school administrators, supervisors and school teachers with information needed to
reduce risk and make school safer
Promote hazard/disaster awareness to manage impacts and to help all school communities to
reduce the risk of threats from natural and human-made/induced disasters
Provide procedures based on the policy statement of the Department of Education for the
empowerment of DepEd personnel
Train teachers and other school personnel on the basic procedures that a school may employ
before, during and after the occurrence of a disaster through the adopted 4-phase strategy:
mitigation, preparedness, response and rehabilitation
Design safeguarding mechanisms in order to protect and preserve personnel and students,
DepEd property, school facilities, equipment, fixtures instructional materials and school
records
Ensure the availability and accessibility of DRR Manual to teachers, students and other
school personnel
The contents of the DRR Resource Manual must be religiously discussed in the respective
subject areas assigned for mainstreaming
Ensure that facilities in your school are safe and secured from hazards
The duties and responsibilities of the school head/principal, head teachers, teachers and CAT
facilitators defined in the DepEd Order must be definitely assumed to successfully integrate
DRR in the school system
There must be fund allocated to undertake the activities in the mainstreaming DRR in the
school curricula
Ensure to carry out the various techniques undertaken by Technical Working Groups for
Priority Implementation Partnership (PIPs) in the mainstreaming of Disaster Risk Reduction
into school curriculum
Others
Please specify: ______________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

178
Appendix B
Bicol University
Graduate School
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS, ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT
Doctor of Philosophy in Public Administration Program
Daraga Campus, Daraga, Albay

September 27, 2013

DR. CESAR H. MEDINA
Schools Division Superintendent
Legazpi City Division
Legazpi City

Dear Sir:

The undersigned is a student of Bicol University Graduate School taking up Doctor of Philosophy
in Public Administration and is currently writing a dissertation entitled “The Integration of
Disaster Risk Reduction in School Curricula in Selected Secondary Schools in Legazpi City
Division”.
In view of this, specific schools have been enumerated wherein relevant figures for the study can
be taken from, that is under your prestigious Division where data for the abovementioned study
shall be drawn so as the researcher may be able to pursue with the study. These chosen schools
are the following:
1. Pag-Asa National High School;
2. Oro Site High School; and
3. Taysan Resettlement Integrated School – High School Department.
In this regard, may I request to conduct surveys and interviews among the faculty members and
school heads in order to obtain the data and figures needed in my dissertation.
Thank you and God bless!
Sincerely yours,

ROMMEL R. REGALA, MAPA
Ph.D. Public Administration Student
Noted by:

ATTY. ALEX B. NEPOMUCENO, Ph. D.
Adviser

179
Bicol University
Graduate School
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS, ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT
Doctor of Philosophy in Public Administration Program
Daraga Campus, Daraga, Albay

September 27, 2013

DR. RICARDO LL. LLANETA
Principal III
Pag-Asa National High School
Rawis, Legazpi City

Dear Sir:

The undersigned is a student of Bicol University Graduate School taking up Doctor of Philosophy
in Public Administration and is currently writing a dissertation entitled “The Integration of
Disaster Risk Reduction in School Curricula in Selected Secondary Schools in Legazpi City
Division”.
In view of this, specific schools have been enumerated wherein relevant figures for the study can
be taken from, your prestigious school has been chosen to be one of the locales where data for the
abovementioned study shall be drawn so as the researcher may be able to pursue with the study.
In this regard, may I request to conduct surveys and interviews among the faculty and your good
self in order to obtain the data and figures needed in my dissertation.
Thank you and God bless!

Sincerely yours,

ROMMEL R. REGALA, MAPA
Ph.D. Public Administration Student

Noted by:

ATTY. ALEX B. NEPOMUCENO, Ph. D.
Adviser

180
Bicol University
Graduate School
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS, ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT
Doctor of Philosophy in Public Administration Program
Daraga Campus, Daraga, Albay

September 27, 2013

ERMA THERESA G. TABUENA
Principal I
Oro Site High School
Oro Site, Legazpi City

Dear Madam:

The undersigned is a student of Bicol University Graduate School taking up Doctor of Philosophy
in Public Administration and is currently writing a dissertation entitled “The Integration of
Disaster Risk Reduction in School Curricula in Selected Secondary Schools in Legazpi City
Division”.
In view of this, specific schools have been enumerated wherein relevant figures for the study can
be taken from, your prestigious school has been chosen to be one of the locales where data for the
abovementioned study shall be drawn so as the researcher may be able to pursue with the study.
In this regard, may I request to conduct surveys and interviews among the faculty and your good
self in order to obtain the data and figures needed in my dissertation.
Thank you and God bless!

Sincerely yours,

ROMMEL R. REGALA, MAPA
Ph.D. Public Administration Student

Noted by:

ATTY. ALEX B. NEPOMUCENO, Ph. D.
Adviser

181
Bicol University
Graduate School
COLLEGE OF BUSINESS, ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT
Doctor of Philosophy in Public Administration Program
Daraga Campus, Daraga, Albay

September 27, 2013

MARIA TERESA M. RUIVIVAR
Head Teacher III
Taysan Resettlement Integrated School
Taysan, Legazpi City

Dear Madam:

The undersigned is a student of Bicol University Graduate School taking up Doctor of Philosophy
in Public Administration and is currently writing a dissertation entitled “The Integration of
Disaster Risk Reduction in School Curricula in Selected Secondary Schools in Legazpi City
Division”.
In view of this, specific schools have been enumerated wherein relevant figures for the study can
be taken from, your prestigious school has been chosen to be one of the locales where data for the
abovementioned study shall be drawn so as the researcher may be able to pursue with the study.
In this regard, may I request to conduct surveys and interviews among the faculty and your good
self in order to obtain the data and figures needed in my dissertation.
Thank you and God bless!

Sincerely yours,

ROMMEL R. REGALA, MAPA
Ph.D. Public Administration Student

Noted by:

ATTY. ALEX B. NEPOMUCENO, Ph. D.
Adviser

182
Appendix C
Republic of the Philippines
Bicol University
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Legazpi City

CERTIFICATION

TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN:
This is to certify that this dissertation entitled THE INTEGRATION OF
DISASTER RISK REDUCTION IN SCHOOL CURRICULA IN SELECTED
SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LEGAZPI CITY DIVISION, prepared and
submitted by ROMMEL R. REGALA, M.A.P.A., was edited by the undersigned.
Issued upon request of the interested party for reference purposes.

AGNES JACOB-NEPOMUCENO, Ph.D.
Editor

Appendix D

183

184

185

186

187

188

189

190

191

192

193

194

195

196

197

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8

Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual

checklist a
Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual

2. Disaster Risk Reduction Plan

1. Disaster Risk Reduction Group Organization

A. On Preparedness

Basic Program Component

Check if the item is observed or provided for:

(For Regional and Division Offices)

Disaster Risk Reduction Program
Implementation Assessment Checklist

119

198

m&e guidelines

118

Anyone can produce data and try to impress people with them. But as managers, our
duty and responsibility is to provide the citizens of the Philippines with the best information
possible. Credibility with the public is essential. Monitoring data that are collected using the
best scientific knowledge, have known precision, are of highest quality, and are as objective
as possible will be viewed as most credible. This is a tall order to fill, yet provides a most
worthy goal. Proper monitoring and evaluation are the way that managers can regain public
trust that seems to have been lost in recent years in many areas.

Need for Credibility and Flexibility

Managers need to understand that the design, development, and maintenance of
monitoring and evaluation programs requires commitment and long term vision. In the
short term, monitoring and evaluation often represents an additional cost and is particularly
difficult to maintain when budgets are tight and where personnel are temporary or
insufficient.Yet we must be clear that lack of consistent support for long term monitoring
and evaluation will hinder progressive project/program management.

Evaluation and monitoring go hand in hand. Monitoring provides the raw data to answer
questions. But in and of itself, it is a useless and expensive exercise. Evaluation is putting
those data to use and thus giving them value. Evaluation is where the learning occurs,
questions answered, recommendations made, and improvements suggested. Yet without
monitoring, evaluation would have no foundation, have no raw material to work with, and
be limited to the realm of speculation. As the old song says, “you can’t have one without
the other.” A monitoring program should not be designed without clearly knowing how
the data and information will be evaluated and put to use. We can not afford to collect
and store data that are not used. Monitoring for monitoring’s sake is monitoring that
should never be done.

Need for Monitoring and Evaluation

8

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Appendix E

Monitoring and Evaluation Tools

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120

2. Search and Rescue
3. Fire Suppression
4. Emergency Medical Services

Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual

1. Damage Assessment and Needs Analysis (DANA)

B. On Response Effectiveness

4. Disaster Operation Center

checklist a
Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual

3. Disaster Risk Reduction Trainings Conducted

121

199

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checklist a

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checklist a

122

General Remarks

C. On Relief and Rehabilitation

5. Evacuation

Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual

Location:

checklist b
Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual

A. On the Preparation of the Disaster Risk Reduction Plan

Check if such preparation was observed or done.

Name of School:

(For Elementary and Secondary Schools)

Checklist on the Disaster Risk Reduction Preparations
Undertaken by the School

123

200

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124

Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual

B. On Organization of the School Disaster Risk Reduction Group

checklist b
Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual

C. On the Implementation of the Disaster Risk Reduction Measures

125

201

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checklist b

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126

Location:

Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual

2. For secondary school students (secondary teachers)

1. For elementary pupils (elementary teachers)

Provided the following:

B. Alternative Delivery of Formal Education
(for elementary/ secondary teachers)

Provided available instructional venues such as:

A. Alternative Learning Venue
(for school heads/ physical facilities coordinators)

Name of School:
Check if the item is complied or provided for:

(For Elementary and Secondary Schools)

Checklist on the Disaster Risk Reduction Preparations
Undertaken by the School

checklist c
Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual

3. Rehabilitation

2. Response

1. Preparedness and Mitigation

C. Implementation (Elementary or Secondary Teachers)

127

202

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checklist c

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128

A. On School Site and Building

Name of School:
Check if the item is observed or provided for:

Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual

Location:

(For Division/Schools Physical Facilities Coordinators/Prop. Custodians)

Checklists on Ensuring the Safety of DepED Properties

checklist d
Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual

(continued...)

129

203

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130

B. On Records and Records Keeping

Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual

checklist d
Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual

Checklists on Ensuring the Safety of DepED Properties

131

204

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checklist d

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data gathering

132

205

Report on Damages Brought by:
As of:

Prepared by:

(Industrial Arts Teacher / Property Custodian)

Noted By:

(School Head)

133

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Data Gathering Forms During Calamity or Disaster
There are three forms to be used in gathering data on the extent of
damages brought by a calamity or disaster. These are called the Rapid Damage
Assessment Reports (RADAR) which is to be filled up by personnel concerned in
the regions, divisions and schools.
At the Regional level, the RADAR shall be prepared by the Regional Facilities
Coordinator, signed by the Assistant Regional Director or the Chairman of the Disaster
Risk Reduction Management Office (DRRMO), and shall be noted by the Regional Director.
At the Division level the RADAR shall be prepared by the Division Physical Facilities
Coordinator, signed by the Assistant Schools Division Superintendent or the Chairman
of the DRRMO and noted by the Schools Division Superintendent.

DepED Disaster Risk Reduction Management Office
RApid Disaster Assessment Report
(RA.D.A.R.)

Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual

No

Is the school used as an Evacuation Center? Yes

Division:
Address:

Region:
School:

At the school level, the RADAR shall be prepared by the Industrial Arts Teacher or
the Property Custodian and shall be certified by the School Head/Principal. The District
Supervisor shall be provided with a copy of the report. It is important that contact numbers
are written at the lower portion of the forms for validation and confirmation of data.
In the following pages are sample RADAR forms for the region, division and school
levels.

Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual

radar form for schools

8

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134

206

radar form for divisions
DepED Disaster Risk Reduction Management Office
RApid Disaster Assessment Report
(RA.D.A.R.)
Report on Damages Brought by:
As of:
Region:

Division:

Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual

Summary of school used as an Evacuation Center? Yes

No
Prepared by:
(DPFC)

Noted By:
(Asst. SDS/Chairman
DRRMO)

Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual

radar form for regions
DepED Disaster Risk Reduction Management Office
RApid Disaster Assessment Report
(RA.D.A.R.)
Report on Damages Brought by:
As of:
Region:

Summary of school used as an Evacuation Center? Yes

No
Prepared by:
(RPFC)

Noted By:
(Asst. Reg. Dir./Chairman
DRRMO)

135

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207
Appendix F

CURRICULUM VITAE

Rommel R. Regala
Responsible, motivated and productive individual seeking
opportunity for professional growth and advancement.

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCES
Teacher

:

Department of Education
Sto. Domingo National High School
Sto. Domingo, Albay
February 2011 – Present

Professor

:

Bicol College
Daraga, Albay
June 2010 – March 2011

Professor

:

Aquinas University of Legazpi
Legazpi City
June 2008 – October 2009

Professor

:

Divine Word College of Legazpi
Legazpi City
November 2007 – October 2008

Professor

:

Computer Arts and Technological College
Legazpi City
June 2005 – October 2007

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
Doctoral Degree

:

Doctor of Philosophy in Public Administration
Bicol University, Legazpi City, Philippines
November 2008 – Present

Masters Degree

:

Master of Arts in Public Administration
Bicol University, Legazpi City, Philippines
November 2003 – March 2008

Special Studies

:

Certificate in College Teaching
Bicol University, Legazpi City, Philippines
June 2005 – March 2007

College Degree

:

Bachelor of Arts in Political Science
Adamson University, Manila, Philippines
June 1998 – March 2002

208

SCHOLARSHIP
Ozanam Study Grant Program, Adamson University
July 1999 – March 2002
ELIGIBILITIES
Licensure Examination for Teachers, Secondary Major in Social Studies
Professional Regulation Commission V – Legazpi City, Philippines
August 26, 2007
Career Service Professional
Civil Service Commission – Metro Manila, Philippines
May 25, 2002
CERTIFICATE OF AWARDS AND APPRECIATIONS
October 5, 2013

Paper Presenter, Research Forum
Bicol University College of Education, Daraga, Albay

June 22, 2009

Awardee, College Orientation and Recognition Rites
Aquinas University of Legazpi, Rawis, Legazpi City

November 10, 2008

Awardee, Outstanding Performance (1.17) Average Rating
Performance Evaluation for Teachers (1st Semester SY 2008-2009)
Divine Word College of Legazpi, Legazpi City

August 22, 2007

Guest Lecturer, Philippine Government & Constitution Subjects
Philippine Public Safety College, Regional Training School 5,
Legazpi City

SEMINARS & ACTIVITIES ATTENDED
May 21-25, 2013

OWWA I.T. Computer Training Courses
Overseas Workers Welfare Administration, Region V, Legazpi City

May 24-28, 2012

Regional Mass Training for K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum
Department of Education and Bicol University, Legazpi City

February 18, 2012

Symposium on Human Resource Development Management
People’s Management Association of the Philippines-Bicol and
Bicol University, Legazpi City

October 13-16, 2011

Basic Training Course in Coaching All Sports Events
Department of Education, Region V, Legazpi City

June 11, 18, 25, and
July 2, 2011

Division Mass Training (2010 Secondary Education Curriculum)
Department of Education, Region V, Legazpi City

209

July 24, 2010

2nd Regional Forum on Best Practices in Local Governance
Bicol Consortium for Development Initiatives, Galing Pook
Foundation, and Bicol University, Legazpi City

October 8, 2009

Harampangan 09: A Leadership Forum
Bicol University College of Social Sciences and Philosophy
Daraga, Albay

October 1, 2009

ASEAN Human Rights Roadshow
Aquinas University of Legazpi, Rawis, Legazpi City

August 3, 2009

Critical Analyses on Political Behavior and Responsible Voting
Bicol University College of Social Sciences and Philosophy
Daraga, Albay

June 8-10, 2009

PAGTAIS 2009: An In-house Seminar Workshop Series for AQ
Faculty
Aquinas University of Legazpi, Rawis, Legazpi City

January 28, 2009

Performance, Identity and Politics in the Highlands of Luzon
Aquinas University of Legazpi, Rawis, Legazpi City