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effectiveness and efficiency in meeting user requirements. The Internal Schema maps the contents of the conceptual schema onto structures representing tuples. also known as Conceptual Schema. The database schema. Database Architecture Database architecture focuses on the design. taking into account application characteristics and restrictions of a given computer system. no single user department has responsibility over. a DBA has to analyse and assess the data requirements of all users and from these determine its logical structure (database schema). the DBA has to design a conceptual schema and a first variant of an internal schema. In such situations. Data Administration Functions of a DBA include: 1. protecting and maintaining the integrity of all data while addressing the interests of different present and future user communities. development. their restrictions. The architecture of a database system determines its capability. Data Abstraction To meet the requirements above. associated key organisations and indexes. agencies and institutions. a good database architecture should provide: a) Independence of data and programs b) Ease of system design c) Ease of programming d) Powerful query facilities e) Protection of data The features listed above become especially important in large organisations where corporate data are held centrally. all of the organisation’s data. .1. we abstract out details like computer storage structures. a DBA has to analyse and assess the requirements of the users and from these determine its logical structure. This becomes the job of a Database Administrator (DBA) who has a daunting range of responsibilities that include creating. To create a database. implementation and maintenance of computer programs that store and organize information for businesses. nor can they be expected to know about. In other words. a more sophisticated architecture is in fact used. But besides the visible functions seen through some data manipulation language. reliability. At this level. abstracting out all other details. etc. mentioned above represents an information model at the logical level of data definition. When the internal schema is ready.. expanding. An External Schema presents only those aspects of the conceptual schema that are relevant to the particular application at hand. providing a number of levels of data abstraction or data definition. or their operational efficiencies. Creation of the database To create a database. the DBA must load the database with actual data.

The DBA must also determine integrity constraints and arrange for appropriate data validation to ensure that such constraints are never violated. Relational databases with appropriate relational sub-languages have a high degree of data independence. uniquely identifies each row in a table. error recovery techniques. but not least. etc. Data Protection There are generally three types of data protection that any serious DBMS must provide: 1. natural disaster. and each data element (or field) within a row is stored in a column. Acting as intermediary between users and the database A DBA is responsible for all user facilities determined by external schemas. It will typically involve making periodic backup copies of the database. integrity and security In analysing user requirements. Operational Security This refers to maintaining the integrity of data. Ensuring data privacy.) Primary Keys A primary key (PK). Database System Concepts Overview The data in the Data Warehouse is stored using a relational database management system (or RDBMS) . . the DBA must make arrangements for data to be regularly backed up and stored in a safe place as a measure against unrecoverable data losses for one reason or another. without affecting other views. to meet new requirements and/or to optimise performance. 2. Physical Security This refers to procedures to protect the physical data against accidental loss or damage of storage equipment. transaction journalling. Data Independence Data independence refers to the independence of one user view (external schema) with respect to others. 3. etc. protecting the database from the introduction of data that would violate identified integrity constraints.2. (The two dimensions of a table are row and column. A high degree of independence is desirable as it will allow a DBA to change one view. consisting of one or more columns. the DBA is responsible for defining all external schemas or user views. etc. Last. ie. 2. Relational databases store their data in two-dimensional tables (rather like spreadsheets). 3. Authorisational Security This refers to protection against unauthorised access and includes measures such as user identification and password control. Tables Each record within a table is stored in a row. privacy keys. a DBA must determine who should have access to which data and subsequently arrange for appropriate privacy locks (passwords) for identified individuals and/or groups. theft. ie.

Data models and types of data models Data Model can be defined as an integrated collection of concepts for describing and manipulating data. SQL. Any column that is part of the primary key. Defining the types of operation that are allowed on the data (this includes the operations that are used or updating or retrieving data from the database and for changing the structure of the database). using the index (which happens to point to just 3 pages out of a 500 page book). or that has been specified as being Not Null. an optional clause that specifies the conditions for selecting specific rows to be retrieved  The ORDER BY clause. A data model comprises of three components: • A structural part. a column in a table may have a null value. which ensures that the data is accurate. may not contain a null value. you can do a sequential read and look at every page of a book to find the references to John Doe. Null Values Unless otherwise specified. • Possibly a set of integrity rules. The SQL for a query generally has four parts:  The SELECT clause. Query tools (such as Business Objects) automatically translate your query specifications into SQL. a required clause that specifies the column(s) to be retrieved  The FROM clause. an optional clause that specifies the sort order in which the retrieved rows are to be written to the query output 3. and constraints on the data in an organization. Structured Query Language (SQL) is the ANSI (American National Standards Institute) standard language for use with relational database management systems. consisting of a set of rules according to which databases can be constructed. relationships between data.Joining Tables Tables may be joined to each other. All other columns may contain null values. or you and find those references faster by doing an indexed read. For example. a required clause that specifies the table(s) from which the data is to be retrieved  The WHERE clause. Indexed Columns An index works just like the index in the back of a book. • A manipulative part. There are different types of data models and these include: • Flat model .

Its core idea is to describe a database as a collection of predicates over a finite set of predicate variables. Nigeria. Data Models for Nigeria In Nigeria. classes and inheritance are directly supported in database schemas and in the query language. The model uses a number of multilinear regression equations to predict the relationship between global solar radiations with combinations of different weather parameters for Iseyin. and all members of a row are assumed to be related to one another. so many data models have been proposed and some of those data models are listed below: One of the data models for Nigeria is the Spatial Conceptual Data Model for Public Health in Nigeria published by P. and a sort field to keep the records in a particular order in each same-level list. The Empirical models for the Correlation of Global Solar Radiation with Meteorological data for Iseyin. Star schema The simplest style of data warehouse schema. two-dimensional array of data elements. Another data model for Nigeria is the Model for Forecasting the Demand and Supply of Electricity in Nigeria developed by Benjamin Oyediran and Ademola Adedoyin. but objects. Idowu et al. This model addresses all the health problems and their causes and it could be used to develop any system such as national public health database system. Records contain fields. The star schema consists of a few "fact tables" (possibly only one. and sets define one-to-many relationships between records: one owner. 4.A. many members. and disease surveillance system. called records and sets. • • • • • Hierarchical model In this model data is organized into a tree-like structure. Relational model is a database model based on first-order predicate logic. The model is used to determine the market volatility in the demand and supply chains of electricity in Nigeria. Network model This model organizes data using two fundamental constructs. . is another data model for Nigeria. implying a single upward link in each record to describe the nesting. Object-relational model Similar to a relational database model. justifying the name) referencing any number of "dimension tables".This may not strictly qualify as a data model. of Obafemi Awolowo University. The flat (or table) model consists of a single. where all members of a given column are assumed to be similar values. Nigeria by Falayi et al. describing constraints on the possible values and combinations of values.

which is used to represent a collection of objects that is the union of objects of different entity types. it introduces the concept of a union type or category. used in the design of databases. It was developed to reflect more precisely the properties and constraints that are found in more complex databases. complex software systems and geographic information systems (GIS). Additionally it includes the concepts of a subclass and superclass (Is-a). along with the concepts of specialization and generalization. such as in engineering design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Furthermore. The EER model includes all of the concepts introduced by the ER model. This property is called the attribute and relationship inheritance. telecommunications. Enhanced Entity Relationship Model The enhanced entity–relationship (EER) model (or extended entity–relationship model) is a highlevel or conceptual data model incorporating extensions to the original entity–relationship (ER) model. Formal Definitions for the EER Model Concepts Class • Set or collection of entities • Includes any of the EER schema constructs of group entities Subclass • Class whose entities must always be a subset of the entities in another class Predicate-defined • Predicate on the attributes of is used to specify which entities in Care members of S User-defined • Subclass that is not defined by a predicate Category • Class that is a subset of the union of n defining superclasses Relationship type • Any class can participate in a relationship .5. Subclass and Superclass Entity type Y is a subtype (subclass) of an entity type X if and only if every Y is necessarily an X. A subclass entity inherits all attributes and relationships of its superclass entity. A subclass entity may have its own specific attributes and relationships (together with all the attributes and relationships it inherits from the superclass).

An example of Enhanced Entity-relationship model is a University EER Database The database includes: •  Students and their majors •  Transcripts. and registration •  University’s course offerings .

et al. Oyelami B.O. Science and Education Publishing . 3 (2014).A. and Adewumi A. International Journal of Research in Business and Technology Vol 4. A Spatial Conceptual Data Model For Public Health in Nigeria.REFERENCES Idowu P.A. Models For Forecasting the Demand and Supply of Electricity in Nigeria. No.

Nigeria .O. et al.Falayi E. Empirical Models for the Correlation of Global Solar Radiation with Meteorological Data for Iseyin.