Introduction to UPS

CP 01 Specification Seminar

Contents of the seminar
Part 1 Power problems
Part 2 Types of UPS
Part 3 Structures of UPS, main components
Part 4 Parallel UPS system
Part 5 Isolation Transformer
Part 6 Grounding
Part 7 Harmonics
Part 8 Surges
Part 9 Battery

2

Introduction to UPS
All rights reserved © Socomec 2013

Part 1 Power problems
 Causes
 Effects
 Solution

3

Introduction to UPS
All rights reserved © Socomec 2013

Part 1 Power problems The causes  Black-out events can arrived due to :      Lightning Accidental events Short-circuits Switching – on heavy loads Overloads  And impurities : 4 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 1 Power problems The effects  How frequent are the power quality problems ? 88% of the events Electrical noises & transients 63.7 events/month Sags & brownouts 14.0 events/month Spikes & surges 50. potentially destructive ! 5 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .5 events/month A typical server system can have more than 125 events/month.4 events/month Mains interruption 0.

000€ Financial with stock exchange 6.Part 1 Power problems The effects  The effects of a black-out on the installation could be :     Loss of data Disk crash Hardware damages Loss of production Example of cost per hour of the electrical breakdowns : Telecommunication 1.800.000.000€  And through impurities :     6 Data corruption Anomalies of operation Premature wear of electronics parts Irreparable failures to components Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .000€ Transaction per credit card 2.000€ Car industry 6.800.000.500.000€ Production semiconductor 3.

Part 1 Power problems The solution: implement the UPS protection 7 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

CONTINUITY OF THE SUPPLY 2 .Part 1 Power problems The solution: implement the UPS protection UPS 1 .PROTECTION OF THE LOAD 8 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 2 Types of UPS     9 Off-line UPS Line interactive UPS On line UPS Mix modes UPS Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

UPS are classified via :    10 Output quality Output waveshape Output transient performance Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .Part 2 Types of UPS What it is ?  According to the IEC 62040-3.

Part 2 Types of UPS Classification in deep 11 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 2 Types of UPS Off-line UPS. VFD classified Switch Filter Charger Inverter  Normal condition: The load is directly supplied by the mains The charger manages the battery charge 12 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 2 Types of UPS Off-line UPS. VFD classified  This UPS topology is a back-up solution Switch Filter Charger Advantages Inverter Disadvantages Very High efficiency (98-99%) Does not stabilize voltage and frequency Small size Does not protect the load against mains disturbances Low cost Does not condition the load current Battery stress highly linked to power quality Transfer times main to batteries = ± 10ms 13 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

VI classified  Normal mode Switch Auto Voltage Stabiliser Filter AVS Charger Inverter  The UPS stabilizes the output voltage  The battery is kept charged 14 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .Part 2 Types of UPS Line interactive UPS.

Part 2 Types of UPS Line interactive UPS. VI classified  When the input voltage is out of the tolerances Filter AVS Inverter Advantages Disadvantages High efficiency in normal mode Less efficient than VFD Some stabilization of the voltage variations compared to VFD Only partially protects the load against mains disturbances Low cost Bad compatibility with input power generators Transfer times main to batteries = ± 10ms 15 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

VFI classified  On-line UPS is the best load protection level to supply critical load. thanks to double conversion (ACDCAC) Switch Filter Rectifier Inverter Filter Charger 16 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .Part 2 Types of UPS On-line UPS.

Part 2 Types of UPS On-line UPS. VFI classified  The load is kept protected by double conversion even if the rectifier input voltage is out of tolerances. Energy storage provides the back-up until genset starts Switch Filter Rectifier Inverter Filter Charger  By-pass line is only used as auxiliary source or to transfer on maintenance by-pass 17 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

VFI classified Advantages Stabilizes voltage and frequency variations on mains More expensive Protects loads against all electrical disturbances Lower Efficiency thanVFD or VI Provides zero transfer time during transfer : mains/battery/by-pass Good compatibility with generators Conditions the load current avoiding the rejection to mains of non-linear load harmonics current By-pass separated from mains increases the fault tolerance (dual inputs) 18 Disadvantages Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .Part 2 Types of UPS On-line UPS.

Part 2 Types of UPS Mix-modes UPS  Mix-mode UPS priories the efficiency performances  It works in VFD till the bypass input is “acceptable” Switch Filter Rectifier Inverter Filter Charger 19 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 2 Types of UPS Mix-modes UPS  It means also that the load is only partially protected  The famous 88% of potentially destructive disturbances are passing through the UPS. even if the UPS can transfer quickly on VFI mode Switch Filter Rectifier Inverter Filter Charger 20 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 2 Types of UPS Mix-modes UPS  The UPS can transfer in double conversion if the mains is “too much disturbed”  Transfer time depends on the Technology (<6ms is good) but disturbances will anyway be applied to the load during this period Switch Rectifier Inverter Filter Charger 21 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 2 Types of UPS Summary. protection vs efficiency Off line VFD Line interactive VI Mix mode (*) VFD / VFI On line VFI Mains failures     Sags / brownouts     Surges     Spikes / transients     High frequency noise     Harmonic distortion     Frequency variation     Typical efficiency ≈ 98% 94 < ŋ < 97% 94 < ŋ < 98% 93 < ŋ < 96% Power problem 22 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

protection vs efficiency Off line VFD Line interactive VI Mix mode VFD/VI/VFI On line VFI Mains failures     Sags / brownouts     Surges     Spikes / transients     High frequency noise     Harmonic distortion     Frequency variation     ≈ 98% 94 < ŋ < 97% 94 < ŋ < 98% 93 < ŋ < 96% Power problem Typical efficiency LIMITED PROTECTION 23 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 FULL PROTECTION .Part 2 Types of UPS Summary.

Part 2 Types of UPS Summary. protection vs efficiency No UPS 98% 96% Line interactive (VI) EFFICIENCY 100% Bypass (VFD) Mix modes VFI Online 3 Level inside 2L technology 94% 92% LOAD PROTECTION 24 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

main components      25 Rectifier Energy storage management Inverter Static by pass Storage. battery scope Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .Part 3 Structures of UPS.

Part 3 Structure of UPS What it is ?  Description of a double conversion UPS composants. Maintenance Bypass to keep load supplied upon servicing Bypass input Static Switch Connect bypass or inverter to the output Filter Rectifier Convert AC to DC Output Inverter Convert DC to AC Rectifier input Filter Associate to the inverter To provide perfect sinewave Charger/Booster Energy storage Management 26 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 Energy storage Provides the energy if the rectifier input is not available .

Part 3 Structure of UPS How to evaluate it     Efficiency (energy consumption. . aircon sizing. mechanical robustness Acoustic noise.. weight. Ambient service conditions EMC (emission/immunity) Output Performances * on Inverter * on By-pass * transfer time Input performances Charger capacity 27 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 Energy storage *backup Time *life time *environmental stress resistance . dimensions.) Protection degree (IP).

9  100kVA /90kW on linear load UPS designed @ PF=1  100kVA /100kW on linear load without de-rating up to PF= 0.Part 3 Structures of UPS. main components UPS power sizing  The output power capability is defined by    28 S: Nominal apparent power (kVA) P: Nominal active power (kW) Q: Reactive power (leading / lagging) UPS designed @ PF=0.9 leading  Max = 90kVA/90kW without de-rating up to PF= 0.9 leading  Max = 90kVA/90kW Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

(performances depends on the technology) 29 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 . starting from the input sinusoidal voltage absorbing a current. scope RECTIFIER Input Voltage Current Voltage and current controlled Output Fixed DC Voltage  Rectifier purpose is to create a fixed DC voltage. main components Rectifier.Part 3 Structures of UPS.

Input voltage & frequency tolerances Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 Impact on upstream infrastructure cost (CAPEX) . how to value it  The functions :    Converts AC input voltage to DC. Maximum output power. Input power factor. Input start-up current. Provide DC energy battery charger (if connected to DC Bus)  The main performances :        30 Input current distortion (THDI) : Harmonics. Supply inverter with DC energy. Efficiency (influences global efficiency).Part 3 Structures of UPS. Number of wires (3ph or 3ph+Neutral). main components Rectifier.

7 High* 0.93 > 0. types of rectifiers SCR 6 pulses SCR 12 pulses SCR + filters Protect plus IGBT > 35% > 10% Low* < 5% < 3% ≈0.Part 3 Structures of UPS.99 98-99% 96-97% Low* 98% 97-98% $ $$ $$$$ $$$ $$$ Architectures Input current THDi Power factor Efficiency Design Cost (*) depends on the type and size of filtering 31 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .7 ≈0. main components Rectifier.

8 SCR (6p / 12p) 0. power factor comparison Input power factor  Input power factor 1 IGBT 0.85 With battery charged 0.7 0.Part 3 Structures of UPS.6 25% 32 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 50% 75% 100% .9 Protect + 0.65 0.75 Under battery recharge 0.95 0. main components Rectifier.

These harmonics circulate between the phases. …. 9th. main components Harmonic Sequence  Harmonic sequence is the phase rotation relationship with respect to the fundamental component. These harmonics circulate between the phase and neutral or ground. ……..  Zero sequence harmonics ( 3rd.  Positive sequence harmonics ( 4th.  Negative sequence harmonics ( 2nd. (6n-3) th ) do not produce a rotating field. (6n+1) th ) have the same phase rotation as the fundamental component. 7th. 8th ……… (6n-1) th ) have the opposite phase rotation with respect to the fundamental component. These third order or zero sequence harmonics. 10th . 33 33 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002 . 6th.Part 3 Structures of UPS. 5th. These harmonics circulate between the phases. do not cancel but add up arithmetically at the neutral bus. unlike positive and negative sequence harmonic currents.

how to improve 6p & 12p  Passive. Decrease efficiency of around 2%. hybrid filters or phase shifting :  Reduce the THDi up to < 5%  Improve the input Power factor UPS  Drawback :      Not compact.Part 3 Structures of UPS. More expensive. Resonance risks. Additional hardware • More maintenance • Less reliable 34 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 UPS UPS . active. main components Rectifier.

main components Energy storage management  The Charger:   Regulates the battery recharging current (xx Amps – No ripple). depending on − Energy storage technology − Temperature condition − Charge status  The Booster (only used for some tranformerless UPS):  35 Step up the battery voltage (≈450 to 800Vdc) to supply the inverter upon discharge. Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .Part 3 Structures of UPS. Provide adapted voltage to the battery.

Part 3 Structure of UPS Energy storage management  Energy storage can be manage in different ways. Maintenance Bypass Static Switch Bypass input Output Rectifier Inverter Rectifier input Filter Charger/Booster Energy storage Management 36 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 Batteries .

Maintenance Bypass Static Switch Bypass input Output Rectifier Rectifier input Inverter Filter Blocking diode To avoid direct connection Charger 37 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .Part 3 Structure of UPS Energy storage management  Energy storage can be manage in different ways.

Part 3 Structure of UPS Energy storage management  Energy storage can be manage in different ways. Maintenance Bypass Static Switch Bypass input Output Rectifier Rectifier input Inverter Filter Blocking diode To avoid direct connection Charger 38 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

scope Input Fixed DC Voltage (Rectifier or energy storage) INVERTER Voltage and current controlled Output Voltage Current  Inverter purpose is to create a SINUSOIDAL VOLTAGE starting from DC Voltage and supply the POWER required to the LOAD 39 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 . main components Inverter.Part 3 Structures of UPS.

how to value it  The function:   Supply the load with a regulated voltage and frequency. Inrush current and short-circuit capability.  The main performances :         40 Nominal apparent power (VA) Nominal active power (W) Capability to support load Power factor (Leading mainly) Inverter efficiency (influences global efficiency) Output voltage distortion (ThdV. with different load types) Max load current crest factor Overload. main components Inverter. With or without galvanic isolation Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 . Supply the load from either converted rectifier supply or stored energy source.Part 3 Structures of UPS.

Part 3 Structures of UPS. main components Inverter  2 types of inverter power conversion in the market :   IGBT 2 levels IGBT 3 levels  2 types of UPS topology in the market :   41 Transformer-based Transformerless Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

2 or 3 IGBT levels 2 levels 3 levels From -400 to 400V 800V From -400 to 0 & 0 to 400V 400V IGBT losses High Low Choke losses High Low ≈ 94% ≈ 96% $ $$$ Architectures Inverter bridge output voltage Switched voltage Global Efficiency Design Cost 42 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 . main components Inverter.Part 3 Structures of UPS.

main components Inverter.Part 3 Structures of UPS. with or without transformers Transformerless UPS topology 43 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 Transformer based UPS topology .

main components Built-in inverter transformer UPS + batt Ubatt 450V N .batt 44 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .Part 3 Structures of UPS.

Part 3 Structures of UPS.batt 45 0V batt Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 N . main components Transformerless UPS with 2-level inverter + batt Ubatt 400V Ubatt Ubatt 0V batt 800V 450V Ubatt 400V .

with or without transformers Transformerless UPS Techno Standard High performing Standard High performing Rect. main components Inverter. vs bypass galvanic isolation - - +++ +++ DC / Output galvanic Isolation - - +++ +++ ++ +++ + ++ +++ ++ + + ++ +++ + ++ Inverter Short circuit Ik1 + ++ ++ +++ Inverter Short circuit Ik2/Ik3 + ++ + ++ Design Cost $ $$$ $$ $$$ Efficiency performance Weight Compactness / Power density 46 Transformer based Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .Part 3 Structures of UPS.

Part 3 Structures of UPS. main components Inverter.. Weight +++ ++ + • Bypass line Galvanic isolation. Size (m²) +++ + • Create neutral for 4wires rectifiers. with or without transformers Transformerless UPS Techno Pay attention.Short circuit Ik2/Ik3 Inverter + ++ + Design Cost 47 $ Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 $$$ $$ ++ + ++ +++ ++ $$$ . •... vs Bypass inputs isolation Transformer based Standard High performing Standard High performing - - +++ +++ - - +++ +++ For both topologies. Rect. Inverter Short circuit Ik1 + ++ ++ • Adapt the voltage. ++load and+++ + • Galvanic isolation between upstream infra. and UPS. • Input or output grounding ++ system adaptation. additional transformer can be required for : DC / Output Isolation • Galvanic Efficiency isolation between UPS.

5 100ms x In Static bypass Short-circuit current capability 14 to 20 x In 20ms Power bridge rated to provide high short-circuit capability 48 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 . main components Abnormal load conditions > Downstream short-circuit Fault current in a downstream supplied equipment Unmatched performance & high short circuit capability Inverter Short-circuit current capability Up to 2.Part 3 Structures of UPS.5 – 3.

How? 49  Assure the highest short circuit current from the inverter  Trip the protection in less than 20ms (1 period) Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .Part 3 Structures of UPS.Short Circuit Capability & discrimination Distribution to loads During the short circuit. output voltage of the UPS = 0V => Need to eliminate the failure as fast as possible. main components OUTPUT .

9 leading Now THDI < 5% PF = 1 CF = 1.Part 3 Structures of UPS.7 CF = 3 Cos phi = 1 50 Then THDI < 20% PF > 0.6 Cos phi = 0.9 CF = 1.4 Cos phi = 1 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 50 . main components Load Evolution Before THDI > 80% PF = 0.

Part 3 Structures of UPS.5% kW available 51 Design for PF 0.7 0.9 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 51 .6 400 400 280 240 + 12.9 0.9 1 400 360 360 360 lagging 0.8 S 395 (kVA) P (kW) 316 0.8 400 400 360 320 0. main components UPS performances with Load leading FP 0.

8 Still suitable from 0.9 lagging to 0.9 + 25 % compared to PF=0. main components UPS performances with Load + 11 % compared to PF=0.Part 3 Structures of UPS.9 Leading 52 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

main components Efficiency 53 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .Part 3 Structures of UPS.

auxiliary mains Voltage Current Static by-pass Output Inverter  Purpose of the static by-pass:   54 Connect the output directly with auxiliary mains via a bypassing of the UPS. main components Static by-pass By-pass.Part 3 Structures of UPS. Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 . Commute from inverter output to by-pass line and vice versa.

main components Static by-pass. how to value it  The transfer time :  With no break = • •  With interruption = • • • 55 Zero transfer time during the commutation inverter to by-pass. Off-line UPS have it. On-line UPS have it. Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .Part 3 Structures of UPS. < 6ms is a good transfer time. Transfer time during the commutation inverter to by-pass.

how to value it  The overload :   It measures the capability of the UPS by-pass to supply transient loads higher than the nominal load.  The short-circuit current :   56 In case of s/c. By-pass overload characteristics is essential to estimate the size of the by-pass.Part 3 Structures of UPS. Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 . The by-pass must be able to withstand this s/c until the protection trips. the UPS commutes immediately on by-pass. main components Static by-pass. connecting directly the s/c to mains = very high s/c current.

main components Static by-pass. how to value it ON BYPASS: The short-circuit capability correspond to the ability of the UPS semiconductors to let trough the fault current coming from the LV transformer. without damage ON INVERTER: The short-circuit capability correspond to the ability to trip the downstream protection in a SHORT TIME ! The Inverter short-circuit capability is sizing the downstream selectivity !! 57 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .Part 3 Structures of UPS.

at 80kVA Masterys GP 80kVA 58 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .  Energy storage is an huge percentage of the final price of the UPS solution proposed to the customer : Battery cabinet 15min.Part 3 Structures of UPS. main components Energy storage  The purpose of the energy storage system is to provide the energy necessary to supply the load when the mains supply in not available.

main components Energy storage. battery basics  Is the key element to store energy.  The most common used battery technology with UPS is VRLA. VLRA : Valve Regulated Lead–Acid  Is an alive component (>80% of Capacity) :  Life expectancy classification (Eurobat) : • • • • 3-5 years 6-9 years 10-12 years > 12 years  It is sensitive to several environmental factors. 59 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .Part 3 Structures of UPS.

 By design. Cycling Overcharge Temperature Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 . main components Energy storage. usually a battery bloc has a Vn of 12V (6 cells). Nominal Voltage (V) : lead cell is 2V. Short circuit current (A) : is the current where the fuse sizing must be done.Part 3 Structures of UPS. battery basics  Important values for the batteries are :    Nominal Capacity (Ah) : indicates the capability of the battery to store more or less energy. critical elements affecting battery life :     61 Under charge : A fully charged battery can be stocked for a maximum period of 6 months.

battery connection for UPS  Different UPS  different DC voltage :   String are connected in series to reach the required DC voltage Battery cabinet cannot be connected among different brand of UPS (Vs required nominal voltage and end of discharge voltage)  String are connected in parallel  total capacity (Ah) :   62 Determinates the limit of the battery charger of the UPS. main components Energy storage. Recharging current >= 10%*Total battery capacity.Part 3 Structures of UPS. Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 3 Structures of UPS. battery temperature  Storage and working temperature are the most critical factors affecting battery expected life :  Working temperature is affecting the available power. VLRA are generally defined for 20°C 63 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 . main components Energy storage. which means also the back-up time.

Part 3 Structures of UPS. main components Energy storage. so customers can be confused when comparing different battery offers  What does“100kVA UPS with backUp time of 30 minutes” mean? Battery provides kW ! 64 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 . the backup time  BackUp time depends only on active power of the load.

Part 4 Parallel UPS systems  Parallelization solutions  Distributed or centralized bypass 66 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 4 Parallel UPS systems Parallelization solutions: Modular UPS  “Modular” UPS systems. flexibility on     UPS redundancy Power increase Battery redundancy Back-up Time increase  Hot-swappable  Insignificant MTTR  Easy and on-line power increase  Granularity  Power-on-demand in small steps 67 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 4 Parallel UPS systems Parallelization solutions: Standalone UPS  Horizontal parallelisation of standalone Example : Power Increase 2 x 400kVA/kW 400 400 400 Redundant Unit (N+1) 2+1 x 400kVA/kW 800kVA/kW Can be done in Online Mode Infra need to be ready for 68 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 4 Parallel UPS systems Parallelization solutions: Standalone UPS  Horizontal parallelisation considerations for standalone LOAD Redundancy Number of modules 500kW (N+1) design cost (MTBF) and batteries 200 4*200 = 800kW   250 3*250 = 750kW   500 2*500 =1MW   UPS rating + footprint + maintenance + electrical infrastructure costs +.. 69 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 4 Parallel UPS systems Distributed or centralized bypass  Both Solutions offer Flexibility and Availability  Parallel Capacity or Redundant 70 DISTRIBUTED CENTRALIZED STATIC BY-PASS STATIC BY-PASS Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 4 Parallel UPS systems Distributed or centralized bypass Distributed by-pass Centralized by-pass Each unit has its own bypass Principle Single Bypass common for the whole system Load current management Bypass power sizing Short-circuit management Shared between the bypass line Single bypass line Sized according each UPS Can be sized according the need : nominal power Nominal load & short-circuit capability “Almost “shared between the bypass line Unique bypass line that can be sized (unbalancing due to ≠ impedances) according the prospective current Selectivity More sensitive with Easy: Upstream/Downstream several number of units (Single bypass protection) (1 protection per by-pass) Maintenance by-pass Must be external or in additional cabinet Sized for the full power 71 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 Can be integrated in the bypass cabinet .

Part 5 Isolation Transformer      73 Why isolation Transformer Why Double neutral K rated Transformer Zig Zag Transformer Location of Transformer Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

UPS  3rd order harmonics can create over heating in the neutral conductor.   74 Of higher frequency. EMC with Harmonics  Harmonic currents are generated by non-linear loads: lighting. Variable speed drives.  The 3rd order harmonics are in phase and add in the Neutral.Part 5: Isolation Transformer Neutral overheating. they are better transmitted by coupling capacitors They create EMC issues between equipments. Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .  Harmonic currents can perturbate other equipements. power supply units (computers).

Part 5: Isolation Transformer Why Isolation Transformer  Reduce Harmonic Current  Create a local Neutral System  Establish local grounding points for safety as well as common mode noise reduction  Handle unbalanced wye-connected loads when applied to 3W distribution 75 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 5: Isolation Transformer Why Double Neutral Phase L1 Phase L2 Phase L3 Neutral current: IN = 3 x Ih3 Neutral 76 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 5: Isolation Transformer Example of a multi storey IT building Work Stations Storey n Work Stations 3W main riser Storey n-1 Servers TNS for IT systems Basement IT Tfo 77 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

 Cores are specially designed to maintain flux core density below saturation due to distorted voltage waveforms or high line voltage 78 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .Part 5: Isolation Transformer What is K Rated Transformer ?  Able to handle heat generated by harmonic load  Not affected by harmonics  The neutral bus is rated at 200% of the secondary full load ampere rating  The winding conductors are specially configured and sized to minimize heating due to harmonic load currents.

Part 5: Isolation Transformer K Factor Calculation As mentioned in IEEE Standard 1100-1992 79 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

9122 9.8608 0.8109 0.0162 9 11 0.83 0.0040 11 1.0149 Required K Factor is 1.8274 0.0067 13 8 0.00 1.40 0.8109 0.0000 0.0441 37 0.0041 35 0.0021 Required K Factor is 80 1.0000 0.8109 0.0003 0.0000 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 ih^2*h^2 0.0021 21 5 0.0014 5 0.0349 13 0.0000 0.0002 0.70 0.26 0.0901 5 20 0.1375 .0000 0.7946 0.0000 1.0177 23 0.0027 19 0.8949 0.90 0.60 0.0000 0.0001 0.0100 11 9 0.0041 17 6 0.22 0.83 3 33 0.9122 0.70 0.50 0.0132 29 0.0331 7 14 0.00 3 1.70 0.0030 19 5 0.Part 5: Isolation Transformer K-Factor Calculation Typical Nonlinear Load Current Harmonics Ih ih^2 1 100 0.7467 0.0000 0.0012 7 0.0053 15 7 0.2092 400KVA Delphys Green Power Current Harmonics Ih ih^2 ih^2*h^2 1 100 1.33 0.0000 0.

Part 5: Isolation Transformer Zig-Zag Transformer  Third harmonic suppression The zigzag connection in power systems to trap triple harmonic (3rd. where they can produce undesirable effects.  Ground current isolation If we need a neutral for grounding or for supplying single-phase line to neutral loads. The windings trap the harmonic currents and prevent them from traveling upstream. etc.  No Phase Displacement There is no phase angle displacement between the primary and the secondary circuits. 9th. 15th. 81 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 . We install zigzag units near loads that produce large triple harmonic currents.) currents. Here.

Part 5: Isolation Transformer Location of Transformer 82 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 6 Grounding  Earthing System  UPS Grounding Schemes 83 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 6 Grounding Earthing System 84 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 6 Grounding Earthing System TT/IT 85 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 6 Grounding System Grounding “System Grounding” refers to the intentional connection of a circuit conductor(typically the neutral on a 3 Phase circuit) to earth Purpose:  Electrical Safety to Personnel & Equipment  Also Impacts on the performance of the electronic load for reasons related to common mode noise 86 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 6 Grounding

UPS Grounding Schemes
Configuration 1: Single UPS with Non Isolated Bypass

In this system
 The UPS Neutral Should not be bonded to the grounding conductor
 It Does not provide any Isolation or Common Mode Noise
attenuation
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Part 6 Grounding

UPS Grounding Schemes
Configuration 2: Single UPS with Isolated Bypass

In this system
 It acts as a separately derived Source
 The UPS Neutral Should be bonded to the grounding conductor
 It provides complete Isolation & Common Mode Noise attenuation
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Part 6 Grounding

Configuration 3: Single UPS NonIsolated Bypass,
Isolated Distribution Centre

In this system
 UPS Neutral should not be bonded
 With Transformer in the PDU,PDU acts as a separately derived Source
 The PDU Neutral Should be bonded to the grounding conductor
 It provides complete Isolation & Common Mode Noise attenuation will be better when
compared with earlier 2 Configurations
 With this scheme, the UPS Can be placed remotely

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Part 7 Harmonics  Passive Filter  12 Pulse /Phase shifting Transformer  Active Filter 90 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 7 Harmonics Harmonic Symptoms/Concerns  Equipment Failure and Misoperation     Notching Overheating/Failure Nuisance Operation Communication / control interference  Economic Considerations   91 Oversizing Losses/Inefficiencies/PF Penalties Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 7 Harmonics Harmonic Solutions Oversized Generator G Xs Active Filter XT 480 V Low Distortion Electronic Ballast Blocking Filter 12 Pulse M Welder M UPS w/Filter M Filter 92 K-Rated Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 + - .

7% @ 100% Load Constant KVAR as % Load changes Leading PF on Lightly Loaded UPS Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .Part 7 Harmonics Passive Filters      93 Tuned to 5th or 7th Harmonics on 6 Pulse Tuned to 11th and 13th on 12 Pulse Reduced THDI to 5 .

12 Pulse Advantages  94 Disadvantages Substantial reduction (5080%) in harmonics Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013  Cost varies  Increased size .Part 7 Harmonics Phase Shifting .

Part 7 Harmonics Active Filters Advantages  Guarantees IEEE 519 compliance  Cancels 2nd-50th harmonic  Provides 50 Hz reactive current (PF correction)  Can be incorporated in PCC  Fast response to varying loads Disadvantages  Typically more expensive than other methods  Series design must be sized for total load  More complex 95 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 8 Surges     96 Types of SPD’s SPD Technology Selection Criteria Protection Modes Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 8 Surges Protection against indirect effect 1 Equipment voltage limitation In Nominal discharge current Up Protection level LV Surge Protective Device 2 Impulse current flow 97 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 Equipment to protect .

Part 8 Surges Normalized waveforms Current values Type 2 Class II Type 1 Class I 12.5 kA min 5 kA min 98 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Top or inside installation 2. Test with 1. Test with 8/20us waveform  Type 3 1. Test with 10/350us waveform  Type 2 1. Main distribution board can be struck directly by lightning (eg equipped with lightning protection) 2.Part 8 Surges Types of SPD  Type 1 1. Close to sensitive equipments 2.8/20us waveform 99 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .2/50us .

Part 8 Surges Types of SPD Technology Spark gap U Varistor U Priming Diode clipping U Clipping Clipping  In the presence of overvoltage  Priming: high impedance to short circuit  Flow all the overvoltage  Clipping: High imedance to low impedance  Overvoltage limitation 100 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 8 Surges Comparaison Technologies SPARK-GAP Voltage Range 8/20 µs Flow Response Time Insulation Resistor Capacitor Priming Accuracy Life Short-circuit Destruction Follow Current 101 No Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 VARISTOR .

5 kV max (at entrance of the 230/400 Vac network)  Uc and Ut voltages of the SPD are in relation with the nominal voltage and the system configuration of the AC network  Discharge currents :  In = 5 kA (@ 8/20µs) minimum by pole  Iimp = 12.5 kA (@10/350µs) minimum by pole  SPDs must be installed at the origin of the electrical installation  Additional SPDs must be necessary close to the sensitive equipment  SPDs must be protected against the short-circuit currents : external and associated fuses required. Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .Part 8 Surges Selection Criteria  SPDs are required following IEC 60364-4-443  SPDs must comply with IEC 61643-1 std  Up level = 2.5 m length max. 102  SPDs must be equipped with a status indicator  SPDs must be connected in parallel with 0. wires.

Part 8 Surges SPD choice according installation Lightning Protection System (LPS) Distribution SPD Type 2 Head SPD Type 1 103 Head SPD Type 1 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 Equipment to protect .

Part 8 Surges SPD protection modes  Common mode L Uc Perturbation N Equipment to protect  SPD connection between each Phase-PE conductors and between neutral-PE conductors Phase-PE overvoltage destroys the equipments connected to earth  Applies to all neutral systems Common Mode connection 104 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 8 Surges SPD protection modes  Differential mode L Uc Equipment to protect Perturbation N  SPD Connection between each phase and neutral conductors and neutral and PE conductors  Phase-Neutral overvoltage mainly for TT and TN-S systems if the cable lengths of neutral and PE are different SPD Differential Mode scheme 105 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 8 Surges SPD protection modes  According to SPD Standard TT Phase-Neutral (MC/MD) Recommended Phase-Earth (MC) YES Neutral-Earth (MC) 106 TN-C TN-S IT Recommended Not useful YES YES YES YES If distributed neutral YES YES _ Top of Installation Common Mode SPD Close to sensitive equipments Common Mode / Differential Mode recommended Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 9 Battery     107 Battery Sizing Calculation Battery Cable Sizing Battery Protection Design Considerations Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

 The ventilation system must prevent accumulation of hydrogen pockets in greater than 4% concentration  Key is Ventilation and Maintainability  Avoid battery cabinets where possible 108 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .Part 9 Battery Design Considerations  Optimum ambient temp 20°C and 25°C.

Heat buildup because of restricted air-flow Heat generated within the battery because of charging current  Personnel safety. Replacing defective battery blocks can be extremely difficult.Part 9 Battery Batteries in cabinets.  Heat.  Access for installation.    Heat generated nearby equipment. Visual inspection is impossible.  109 It can be plain dangerous Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 . Difficult to access terminals to take periodic readings.      Difficult to make and inspect connections and check torque Access for maintenance.

 Equipment Reliability & safety – The system must provide an environment that optimizes the performance of equipment and maximize their life expectancy.e. toxic.Part 9 Battery Why Ventilation is Required? The ventilation system must address  Health Safety – Air shall be free of pollutants i.corrosive & poisonous  Fire Safety – The system must remove accumulation of gasses or aerosols that could be flammable or explosive. 110 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 9 Battery Battery preventive maintenance       111 Measure cell voltage levels Visual inspection for leaks or bad cells Spot check for connection torques Load testing Inspection of battery environment Spot replacement of batteries Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

of cells in the battery bank 100 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .3 x Ah @C10 x No.1 x 2.23 x Ah @C10 x No.Part 9 Battery Heat Loss of Battery 112 Float mode the heat generation in Watt-Hrs for 2V cell 0. of cells in the battery bank 100 Boost mode the heat generation in Watt-Hrs for 2V cell 0.2 x 2.

cm2) 28* Q 36742 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 . cm2) Area of Opening in air inlet & Out let (A.Part 9 Battery Airflow Required in Battery Room Air Flow Required for SMF Battery as Per EN 50272-2 No of cells/UPS 10800 Charging Current 15 Capacity of Battery 150 I gas I float/boast *FG *F s I float/boast .Float charge current under fully charged condition 15 FG Gas Emission factor.2 Fs Gas Emission Safey factor.(as Per EN 50272-2) 0.(as Per EN 50272-2) 5 I gas 113 Air Flow Required in m3/Hr (Q) 15 0.054X No of Cells X I gas X Capacity of BatteryX 10-3 Air Flow Required in m3/H (Q) 1312 Area of Opening in air inlet & Out let (A.

the VA product is only the Apparent Powerof the circuit. this calculation does not reflect the reactance in the circuit. the efficiencyof the UPS Inverter also needs to be considered.  In order to calculate the Real Power(Watts) the Power Factor (PF) of the circuit needs to be known. Watts = VA x PF  In order to calculate the battery Watts required.Part 9 Battery Understanding Battery Sizing  In an ac circuit. However.  Because of this.  Battery Watts = VA x PF ÷Inverter Efficiency 114 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 . the product of the measured rms value of the current (Amps) and the measured rms value of the Voltage equals the Volt Amps (VA) of the circuit.

Part 9 Battery Battery Sizing Calculation  .\Battery Sizing..\Customers\Customer\JPMC Blr\DC Cable Sizing & Cable Details.xlsx  .pdf 115 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 ..

Part 9 Battery Battery Protection Types of Fault 116 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .

Part 9 Battery

Short Circuit Current

117

Capacity of
Battery

Open Circuit
Voltage

26AH
42AH
65AH
100AH
120AH
150AH
200AH

13.5
13.5
13.5
13.5
13.5
13.5
13.5

Introduction to UPS
All rights reserved © Socomec 2013

Internal Short Circuit
Resistance Current

0.012
0.0095
0.0073
0.0042
0.004
0.0035
0.003

1125.00
1421.05
1849.32
3214.29
3375.00
3857.14
4500.00

Part 9 Battery

Coordination of Battery and Battery breaker
 Trip Settings

118

Magnetic Setting < 70% of Short Circuit Current of Battery
AC breakers can be used for DC with necessary correction
factor on the trip settings

Introduction to UPS
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119

Introduction to UPS
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120 Introduction to UPS All rights reserved © Socomec 2013 .