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The Greek Influence on Early Islamic Mathematical Astronomy

Author(s): David Pingree
Source: Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 93, No. 1 (Jan. - Mar., 1973), pp. 32-43
Published by: American Oriental Society
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from the Han to the T'ang Dynasties. 4 K. The Paficasiddhdntikd of Vardhamihira." Isis 55.Zurich 1970.134. the attention of Islamic astronomers was turned to those areas where these several astronomical systems were in conflict. 493-538. 2 N. Syria. must begin with a review of those centers of astronomical studies in the seventh and eighth centuries which can be demonstrated to have influenced astronomers who wrote in Arabic.D. "The Chinese-Uighur Calendar as Described in Islamic Sources. Erevan 1958. This led to the development in Islam of a mathematical astronomy that was essentially Ptolemaic. Petrie. already influenced the other cultural traditions that contributed to the development of the science of astronomy within the area in which the Arabic language became the dominant means of scientific communication in and after the seventh century A.Kobenhavn 1970/71. an Indian Astronomical Book in the T'ang Dynasty. I have disregarded the rather divergent views of B. A. Abramian. Leiden 1969. 5 Proclus (410-485) was the author of a summary of Ptolemaic astronomy entitled Hypotypdsis ton astrono- mik6n hypothese6n. 435-443. When to this mingling of Greco-Indian and Greco-Iranian astronomy was added the more Ptolemaic Greco-Syrian in the late eighth and early ninth centuries. cit. but in which new parameters were introduced and new solutions to problems in spherical trigonometry derived from India tended to replace those of the Almagest. pp. 572-584. Kennedy. 32 This content downloaded from 158. Neugebauer and D. This limitation by means of the criterion of demonstrable influence will effectively exclude Armenia. in writing this survey. 1964.EARLY THE GREEK INFLUENCE ON ISLAMIC MATHEMATICAL ASTRONOMY PINGREE DAVID BROWN UNIVERSITY Some concepts of Greek mathematical astronomy reached Islam in the eighth century through translations and adaptations of Sanskrit and Pahlavi texts. Conybeare.251. p. esp. The reader should note that. Anania Shirakatsi. "The Chiuchih-li.1 and China. vol. and India.2 some apparently derived ultimately from Mesopotamian sources.3 were partially replaced by Indian adaptations of Greek and Greco-Babylonian techniques rendered into Chinese at the T'ang court in the early eighth century. these have been most recently ex- pounded in his Das heliozentrischeSystem in der griechischen. "Astronomical Tables in China. K. Sasanian Iran. 441.. niques. and W. 3 E."Ananiasof Shirak(A. Yabuuti. 1.41 on Thu. O. These represented largely non-Ptolemaic ideas and methods which had been altered in one way or another in accordance with the traditions of India and Iran. then. THE PROBLEM OF THE INFLUENCE of Greek mathematical astronomy upon the Arabs (and in the following I have generally excluded from consideration the related problems of astronomical instruments and star-catalogues) is immensely complicated by the fact that the Hellenistic astronomical tradition had. S. 269-288. where Ananias of Shirak worked in the seventh century. 1964. pp. C." BZ 6. Tokyo (?) 1963.D. 30 Oct 2014 11:18:10 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the summary of Geminus' Eisagoge entitled Sphaira tou Pro- klou is probably not his. Leipzig 1909. 16. An investigation of this probelm.600-650c. R. Pingree. L.4 But it leaves Byzantium.ed. While astronomy had been studied at Athens by Proclus5 and observations had been made by members of the Neoplatonic Academy in the fifth van der Waerden." ZDMG 114. Yabuuti. 445-492. Manitius.). Jahrhunderts." History of ChineseScience and Technology in the Middle Ages. Cosmosand Computationin Early Chinese Mathematical Astronomy. together with Mesopotamian linear astronomy of the Achaemenid and Seleucid periods and its Greek adaptations. C. where older astronomical tech- 1 F. persischenund indischen Astronomie. Sivin. and the completely Ptolemaic Byzantine tradition during the course of the ninth." op. "Ananija Schirakaziein armenischer Kosmograph des 7. 1897.

" Isis 11. Neugebauer. He is falsely associated with a short text containing a GrecoBabylonian theory of the planets by F.e. Madrid-Granada 1943-1950.251. and A. Ammonius) (on the night of 21/22 February 503 Saturn and the Moon were in conjunction at approximately Cancer 5. is said to have been the author of a lost work on the astrolabe (it is not "Aegyptius"' Hermeneia tes tou astrolabou chreseos. see D. VII. "The Almanac of Azarquiel. pp. Drecker. the best edition is by J. 1971. Oxford 1932.7 a hundred years later the 6 A series of seven observations made between 475 and 510 are preserved in several manuscripts.134. A conjunction of Mars and Jupiter on 6/7 Pachon 214 Diocletian (1 May 498) observed by Heliodorus (on 1 May 498 Mars and Jupiter were in conjunction at approximately Virgo 1o). 15-44. and was behind it on the 28th). M. and the Sun was at Scorpio 280 at an elongation of 47o). 4. see fn. H. Proclus) (on 18 November 475 Venus and the Moon were in conjunction at approximately Capricorn 150. edited by E. V. De Stephano Alexandrino. L. 15-16. J. composed a commentary on Aristotle's Peri ouranou. rose before it-on 26 Mesore. 30 Oct 2014 11:18:10 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . pp. 129-156.e. a pupil of Ammonius. Leipzig-Berlin 1914. Boll in CCAG 7. Toulouse-Paris 1920. "Des Johannes Philoponos Schrift iiber das Astrolab. Leipzig 1962 (apparently written by Olympiodorus.300 on 15 Phamenoth 225 (11 March 509) observed by Heliodorus (in the early evening of 11 March 509 the Moon was at Taurus 16. Usener. Heiberg. Heiberg.400). 1967. 7) nor of the Eis ton Paulon. 1928. 10 Heliodorus. RhM 6. W. 182).. Philoponus.8 Such studies. The Astrolabes of the World. Eutocius was evidently the author of a Prolegomena tes Ptolemaiou megales syntaxeos. however. when their restoration seems to have been due to the stimulus of the desire to emulate the achievements of the Arabs. 6." Centaurus 12.300 close to a Hyadis). CAG 7.41 on Thu. ed. as yet unpublished (J. vol.e. they were next in conjunction at Virgo 19o on 21 August 510 or 27 Mesore 226. 8 The fullest description presently available is by H. "Notes critiques sur le Traite de l'astrolabe de Philopon. A transit of a Hyadis by the Moon at Taurus 16. 153-234 and 379-392. 61-81. Greene in R. There is an English translation by H. Observations of Venus ahead of Jupiter in 226. Bonn 1880. 33-54 (= Kleine Schriften. a pupil of Proclus. xxv-xxvii. II. vol.PINGREE: Greek Influence on Islamic Astronomy and early sixth centuries. and Simplicius had written about astronomical problems at Alexandria in the early sixth century. pp. MillAs Vallicrosa. Simplicius. pp. another pupil of Ammonius. 254-262). not to be revived in Byzantium till the ninth century. Eutocius. 158-171. were soon abandoned. pp. 9 On the history of the Mikros astronomos. 3. 1968. A conjunction of Mars and Jupiter on 9/10 (read 19) Payni 225 (13 June 509) (early on 13 June 509 Mars and Jupiter were in conjunction at approximately Leo 12. Except for the texts of the Little Astronomy9 and some passages reflecting Greco-Babylonian astronomy in pseudo-Heliodorus'0 and Rheand Egyptian years (CCAG 2. VI. pp. RhM 6. Berlin 1894. Delatte. 119-122." RPh 12. Leipzig 1907. ed. see L. Mogenet. but whose work is only known in the recension of al-Zarqali (J. Ptolemaei Opera astronomica The observations minora. wrote a well-known treatise Peri tes tou astrolabou chreseos kai kataskeues. 6-21). J. Boutelle. T. very close to Regulus).34o). vol. M. 12-19). see also O.6 and while Ammonius. vol. Paris 1939. where in imitation Stephanus of Alexandria-perhaps of the Sasanian Ztk-i Shahriydrdn-prepared in 617/618 a set of instructions with examples illustrating the use of the Handy Tables of Theon for the Emperor Heraclius." BZ 64. Hase. 1839. see P. Westennk. of which the oldest was written in the tenth century. and is sometimes identified with the Awmfiniyfis who also is said to have used Egyptian years. A conjunction of Saturn and the Moon observed on 27/28 Mechir 219 (22 February 503) by Heliodorus and his brother (i. 1. Estudios sobre Azarquiel. Pingree in Gnomon 40. ed. L'Introduction a l'Almageste. Boer. Anecdota Atheniensia et alia. Bruxelles 1956). Gunther. 289319). III.. was the author neither of the Prolegomena to Ptolemy (probably written by Eutocius. He is also said by a certain philosopher named Stephanus to have published a kanonion using the Era of Philip 33 tradition was transferred to Constantinople. 1839. pp. 2.. IV. G. A conjunction of Venus and the Moon at Capricorn 130 at an elongation of 480 from the Sun on 21 Athyr 192 (19 November 475) observed at Athens by "the divine" (i. Hase. who was the principal observor in the series of observations noted in fn. 1888. Philoponus. but then behind it on the 28th of an unspecified month (Venus was in conjunction with Jupiter at Virgo 60 on 13 October 509 or 15 Paophi 226. 241-260). are: I. 60-73 (== Memoires scientifiques. "On a Fragment of This content downloaded from 158. A transit of Regulus by Jupiter on 30 Thoth 225 (27 September 508) (on 27 September 508 Jupiter was approximately at Leo 9o. "Ein astrologisches Kolleg aus dem Jahre 564. H. 7 Ammonius. Tannery. L. It must be the latter conjunction that Heliodorus here records as Venus was ahead of Jupiter-i.

see H. is identified by A. 5. Drijvers. Mass. Weinstock in CCAG 5.13 and of George. NS 32. the early sixth century translator. Pingree in Albumasaris De revolutionibus nativitatum. Nau.ed. "Le trait6 sur les 'Constellations' ecrit en 660 par Sevbre Sebokt eveque de Qennesrin. London 1968. 53 Ryssel). 264) has contended that this ancient version was made from the Syriac and was used by al-BattAnt. 1971." ZA 8. A. see also his Ta'rtkh mukhtaSar al-duwal. p. al-Battant (C. esp.l8 15 Bar Hebraeus in the thirteenth century (Chronography. Moreover. the son of Elias. Leipzig 1871-72. the head of the Bayt al-hikma. The works of Bar Daisan. "La cosmographie au vIIe siecle. pp. 245-273. 251-263. F. J. 1-55. R. cf. Neugebauer. Assen 1965. This content downloaded from 158. but in general does not display a very profound knowledge of astronomy. Ryssel. 13 Philip. who flourished in the first quarter of the sixth century.12 his pupil Philip. Nau. The Thousands of Abd MaCshar. that sufficient knowledge of the subject must have existed to permit the casting of horoscopes. most recently edited by Drijvers. Baumstark (LucubrationesSyro-Graecae. p. esp." TAPhS. G. and 245. 257 fn. 200-201 of Laur. 30 Oct 2014 11:18:10 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Neugebauer. Pingree. 214-224. who must have flourished in about 800. 237 and 240. vol. 2 vols. the pupil of Bar Daisan."ROC 27. Fligel. in chapter 51 of his Ek ton Antiochou thesauron (ed. 163). 244) reports that Ayyfib and Sim'An translated the Ztj Batlimlls (Handy Tables) into Arabic (apparently from the Syriac) for Muhammad ibn Khalid ibn YabyA ibn Barmak. viii. 1910. Boll in CCAG 1. Wuensch. 1893. Oxford 1932.Leipzig 1894. 73. 208 also occurs on ff. 28. Roma 1944." pp. 225254. Nallino (AlBattdnf. and 28. 4. "Regula Philippi Arrhidaei. Nallino. are tables. 54) attributes to Theon a work on the use of the astrolabe. was responsible for the Syriac version. J.l5 There may also have been a Syriac translation of Ptolemy's Syntaxis since some of the Arabic versions are said to have been made from that language. 133-152 and by D. 208-219. vol. vol. 97-98) states that the first translation of the Almagest into Arabic was made for Yahya ibn Khalid ibn Barmak (died 807). pp.41 on Thu.l6 In fact. and F. p. Cambridge. for this all that is really needed. Bayrfit 1958. "Notes d'astronomie syrienne. p. "La cosmographie. and D. 16 Ibn al-Nadlm (Fihrist. 17 Sergius (died 536). pp. Ibn al-Nadtm in his Fihrist (ed. wrote an exposition of his master's teachings. and a Book of the Canon whose only memorable feature for Bar Hebraeus seems to be the discussion of the theory of trepidation. It was edited by F." ROC 15. S. 16. an introduction to the Syntaxis. includes in his Peri phuse6s kai kraseds kai geuseos tdn z aster6n a very schematic version of the Greco-Babylonian planetary theory. "Die astronomischen Briefe Georgs des Araberbischofs. I. 192 and 211) used a Syriac version of Ptolemy's kan6n basileon extending through the reign of Theodosius III (died 717) and a Syriac adaptation of his geographicaltables. though he derives (p. 46). 2.7 and in any case he did write on astrology and on the motion of the Sun. F.134. "The Rising Times in Babylonian Astronomy. 1931-32. But we know that a version was available to Severus Sebokht already in the seventh century. He also. 64 and 66-68. 132. p. as do also John Lydus in Peri menon III 16 (ed. 85-100. 267-268.14 indicate Heliodorus (?) on Planetary Motion. 2. p. 327-410. Assen 1965. 100-102). George attributes to Bar Daisan (p. the Bishop of the Arabs. Bar Daisan. and it is certain that a Syriac version of the Handy Tables existed. Boll in CCAG 7. Nau. The history of astronomical writings in Syriac before the rise of Islam is difficult to trace. 237-244 (the same text as is found in Vat. 1958. Wallis Budge. and was "commentedon" by Abfi al-Hasan and Salm. it has been claimed that Sergius of Resheaina. 56-57) and others.. see F. see also the excerpts of Isidore of Kiev edited by S. gives a list of Babylonian period relations for the planets.3 vols. 14 The astronomical letters of George. George also knows the Ptolemaic value (1o per century) of precession (p. 1929-30. 229-230. Raccolta di scritti editi e inediti. Al-Battdnt sive Albatenii Opus Astronomicum. Milan 1899-1907. 380) with Sarjfin ibn Haliya al-Rfimt whose name is recordedat the end of the unique Leiden manuscript of al-Hajjaj's Arabic translation of the Almagest. gr. the Book of the Laws of Countries. Leipzig 1968. Leipzig 1903. 239-240. 49 Ryssel) his longest periods of daylight for the seven climata from Ptolemy's Syntaxis 2." JA 10. Kennedy and D. 48 Ryssel) a scheme of rising-times of the zodiacal signs equivalent to the Babylonian "System A" (O. the Bishop of the Arabs (died 724). 208-228. Ta'rtkh al-hukamd'. translated E. 477-478.1 (1973) torius of Egypt. 13 (0. The Astrological History of Mdshd'alldh. pp. 12 Bar Daisan (154-222/3) of Edessa represents a peculiar combination of Christianity and Gnosticism with astrology. p. 39). 1959. are published by V. Leipzig 1898. 11 Rhetorius of Egypt. and O." Sudhoffs Archiv 42. pp. 1942. Pingree. Neugebauer. A. 1953.251. 1910. and fns.34 Journal of the American Oriental Society 93. of course. esp. Ibn alQiftf." JCS 7. W. 13 and 14..1l Byzantine astronomy in this period was solidly Ptolemaic. Nau." Isis 50. pp. see also F. for these period relations in Islamic astrology see E. "On Some Astronomical Papyri and Related Problems of Ancient Geography. vol. Lippert.

but they do indicate the existence of some sort of astronomy in Syria.PINGREE: Greek Influence on Islamic Astronomy 35 do not reveal what astronomical texts he used.Jupiter Libra 20. 23 See the texts and references in D. of Dorotheus of Sidon.20 Also in the late eighth century there came from Edessa the chief astrologer of the Caliph al-Mahdi. 202-283. for al-Ma'mfin in 829/30. 13. Nau.55 Pisces 21 further his dependence on Indian sources. Sachs. 800) of the Pahlavi version of the astioand 959/60 The Arabic original was edited by H." Stu. The horoscope is dated.according to the text. the 22 The basic publication of this material is 0. and 22. perhaps from astrological texts through the translations sponSergius' Syriac. computations for that date are: 21 Theophilus (died 785) wrote several astrological text 26 February 381 works. wrote gebauer. they have been freely mingled with material ponds to 26 February 381. despite this contact with the east.. "Some Atypical Astronomical Cuhis work on the astrolabe by Nau in JA 9. 24 This horoscope occurs in Book 3 of the Arabic falsely attributed to Maslama al-Majrftt (died 1007/8). neiform Texts. They also indicate again an acquaintance with Indian material.op.. in Syriac. Syrian astronomy seems to have been predominantly Ptolemaic. Neuge14 and 15. The see also F. Leipzig-Berlin 1933. was composed between 954/5 translation (ca. 1928. Lonvoluminously on astronomy.19 This early Indian influence on Syrian science reminds us of the similarities between HarrAnian and Indian worship of the planets and of the knowledge of the Sanskrit names of the planets at Harran evident from the Ghdyat al-hakim falsely ascribed to al-Majritt. which I hope will elucidate Mercury Pisces 19. 75). 17) was probably made from the Pahlavi. The Iranians.10 Libra 27 gical advisor to the 'Abbasid court from the 750s till Mars Taurus 24. 30 Oct 2014 11:18:10 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Sachau. cit. Ritter and M. 7-13.Pahlavi translation of the Greek astrological poem dia Orientalia 2. in Pahlawell as with Greek and Indian vt. Lagarde. 202-225 of the text. 213-237 of the (. lian Peri kosmou edited by P. and 0. cf. This Indian influence on Syrian science probably came through Sasanian Iran. Providence 1955. who was familiar not only with the Handy Tables. but. Astronomical Cuneiform Texts. lie was an astrolo. pp. 82-103). Some further information on the Arabic versions fourth century the Era of Diocletian was employed of Ptolemy will be found in 0. pp. and in Arabic. existence of a set of astronomical tables in Pahlavi Sergius also translated into Syriac the pseudo-Aristote. 20 The Ghdyaial-haklm. and bauer and A. cit. others by Sachau. I am at present Sud Pisces 6 50 Pisces 9 preparing an edition of all of his astrological writings. 19 Severus Sebokht of Nisibis. 183-214.7 Virgo 20 At Qenneshre. 197-202. (ibid.251. below fn. Theophilus. 1899. p. and the Greek tradition of astrolabes. see also A. Inedita Syriaca.21 His writings This content downloaded from 158. ical and Related Texts.55 Taurus 26 his death shortly after al-Mahdf'sin 785. 56-101 and 238-303 (there is an English translation of 92-111." JCS 21. London 1962. "in the year 96 (read 97) of the rAnian adaptations of Indian material are principally years of Darintfs (= Diocletian ) n the month Mihr located on pp.24 this may indicate the 18 E. 127-134. Tallgren. 1969. Megise--as Al-IHajjajibn Matar made his translation. Late Babylonian Astronombeen published in Nau's articles cited above in fns." ROC 28. Halle 1870.. 134-158. now extant mainly in Greek.using that era. the translation of the Almagest astrologique de Claude Ptolemee intitulI le Livre du by Rabban al-Tabari to which Abcf Ma'shar refers fruit.134. Rit. Plessner. Moon Virpo 19.PhamenothI) on the second day". and translated into German paring an edition of this work. J. moreover. Some of his works have don 1955. by H. pp.22 in the very earliest reigns of the Sasanian dynasty became familiar with Ptolemy's Syntaxis-He megiste biblos or. The horoscopes and modern from a variety of other sources. though there also Saturn Taurus 4. which correstranslation.logical poem of Dorotheus of Sidon (cc. whatever their astronomy may have been in the Parthian period besides the linear astronomy preserved in cuneiform at Babylon and Uruk. 101-126. op. pp. a man learned in Greek. pp. pp. Analecta Syriaca. A. Leipzig 1858. Sachs.50 Pisces 29 in Greek and in Arabic. in the middle of the seventh century lived the monk Severus Sebokht of Nisibis. 1967. Venus Pisces 26. 1931-32. this by Mrs.23 In the late 96. The Har.. 3 vols.34o Taurus 7o exist many fragments in Arabic. Pingree. NeuBishop of Qenneshr6 in the middle of the seventh century. sored by Ardashir I and ShApfir I. I am preter.41 on Thu. but also with Indian numerals. "Un fragment syriaque de l'ouvrage Thousands. "Survivances in computing a horoscope inserted into the earlier arabo-romanedu Catalogue d'6toiles de Ptolem6e. Margoliouthin Gunther.

who first learned something of Babylonian lunar and solar period relations and linear techniques of solving astronomical problems from the Iranians during the Achaemenid occupation of the Indus Valley. 1963. concentrated on pragmatic methods and astrologically useful results rather than on theoretical models of the structure of the heavens. hereafter re- ferred to as al-Hashimi). 93-114. which belonged to the Ardharatrikapaksa. A. pp. S. and YahyA ibn AbI Manstir(see below fn. the Iranians of the Sasanian period. Indian Derivatives. sees. I. the Indian text. Leiden 1970. they favored simplified techniques leading to Even more than the Inrough approximations. S. it appears that in ca. ca. 35 D. Pingree. Mathematically. Yazdijird III. [1958]. both 25 E. and D. in any case. Leiden 1969.D.36 Journal of the American Oriental Society 93."JAOS 78. Kennedy and B. Khusrau Anfishirwan ordered his astrologers to compare an Indian text called in Arabic the Zij al-Arkand (arkand being a corruption of the Sanskrit ahargana) with Ptolemy's Syntaxis. 32 See below fns. pp." JNES 24. "The Persian 'Observation' of the Solar Apogee in ca. 28 Like other Pahlavt astronomicaltexts it is primarily written at Qandahar not very long after 735.27 A final version of the Zfk-i Shahriydrdn. The Thousands. 330-334.29 and of another series computed during the reign of Harun al-Rashid. 229-246. Pingree. Pingree. Pingree.28 In its Pahlavi form it was probably the zlj used by the computer of a series of horoscopes illustrating the early history of Islam. E."JORMadras 33. from KhurAsAncame the families of Nawbakht known through citations by Arab authors. 33 J. Further evidence for the Indian influence on Sasanian astronomy will be found in D. 4. van der Waerden in JAOS 83.1 (1973) But. 23). It was translated into Arabic by an otherwise unknown Abu alHasan 'All ibn Ziy/d al-Tamifm.35 In a somewhat later period-perhaps in the fourth or early fifth texts expounding both a doublecentury-Greek 31 Al-HAshiml. 34 From TabaristAncame Rabban al-Tabarf (see above fn. 5. found to be superior. Haddad. and a new redaction of the Zik-i Shahriydrdn was based upon it." Isis 54. 48 and 58. "Astronomy and Astrology in India and Iran.25 A century later. however. Neusner. 1963. 30 Oct 2014 11:18:10 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .134.32 The eclectic nature of these Royal Canons is evident from what we know of their parameters. Pingree. methods of computing planetary positions for casting horoscopes based on Greek adaptations of the Mesopotamian planetary theories of the Seleucid and Parthian periods became known in the middle of the second century A. was. S. 190-193.sees. Pingree.31 and to al-Fazart and Ya'qfib ibn Tariq in the last quarter of the eighth century.. 5-6 and 35. pp. 73). Kennedy and D. 1-8. vol. sec. surprisingly.and Barmak (see above fns. Aside from these official sets of tables in Iran.g. 8 and 64-66) and by al-Birfint (see in particular the material collected and discussed by E. 450. we know from Neusner's studies that the Jews in Mesopotamia during the Sasanian period were familiar with astrology. The Astrological History. the longitude of the Sun's apogee. pp. 321 and 323. F. remain obscure. 12-13. though heirs through both Greece and India of Greek astronomy. 760-815). Kennedy. L.30 It was also known to the authors of a Zfj al-Jdmi' and of a Ztj al-Hazdr. 7." to appear in JORMadras. and vol. Pingree. 29 D. was published during the reign of the last Sasanian monarch. and D.34 Among the Indians.33 the astronomical tables that may have been available to them. 1963-64. dians. in 556.D. the one element that we know from it. This content downloaded from 158. Ma'shar (787-886). The Book of the Reasons Behind Astronomical Tables (to appear. but again all further details are missing. "The Sasanian Astronomical Handbook Zfj-i Shdh and the Astrological Doctrine of 'Tran. "Indian Influence on Early Sassanian and Arabic Astronomy. The Thousands. 334-336. 246-262). A History of the Jews in Babylonia. It also seems likely that astronomical studies flourished in Sasanian Tabaristin and Khurasan because these provinces were the places of origin of several early 'AbbAsid astronomers and astrologers who were acquainted with the Pahlavi tradition.41 on Thu. 26 D. S. Kennedy. the family of 'Umar ibn al-Farrukhanal-Tabart (fl. pp. 1965. "Greco-BabylonianAstronomy and its 30 Ibid. but nothing can now be recovered of any geometric or cinematic models which they may have proposed to account for planetary motions. 27 E. 114-121. and extensively used by al-HSshimt (e.. or a little earlier. is a parameter of the brahmapaksa of Indian astronomy. Pingree. 15 and 16) as well as Abf sit' (mamarr).26 this redaction was still available to Masha'allah at the beginning of the ninth century.251. like its predecessor incorporating many ardharAtrika parameters though employing others of unknown origin as well. 450 a Royal Canon--Zk-i Shahriydrdn-was composed. computed shortly after 679. D.

. frags. Kennedy. as we have seen.38 It is clear. this activity took place at the early 'Abbasid court. pp. 44 D. Z 12. 16." TAPhS. Heller. 42 and 43. S. 42 E. Nuremberg 1549.PINGREE: Greek Influence on Islamic Astronomy epicycle model based partially on the principles of Aristotelian physics and a pre-Ptolemaic eccentric-epicyclic model were translated into Sanskrit. T 4.. Z 17. at least we know that this was used by Masha'allah for horoscopes he cast during the reign of Harun al-Rashid for his astrological history of the caliphs. sees.251.46and for the horoscopes cited in the world history which he wrote in ca. 137). pp. and al-Hashimf. 37 del. 45 E.41 on Thu. S. but displaying some knowledge of the Zik-i Shahriydrdn of Yazdijird III. Ifram. which was in part known in late eighth century Baghdad. When the former was planning to build his new capital. which was written in Sind-prob735 on the basis of the ably at al-Mansura-in Khaandakhddyaka composed by Brahmagupta at Bhillamala in 665. The Thousands. "A Survey of Islamic Astronomical Tables. 30 Oct 2014 11:18:10 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . frag. 19. a rough rule for determining the equations of the center of the two luminaries according to the parameters of the aryapaksa. he assembled the astrologers Nawbakht. or possessed any other identifiable Greek element. 5-6 and 35. and the aryapaksa. and On Transits. probably from Harran.39 From this zij are derived two others written at Qandahar. The first is the Zij al-Arkand (different from the Pahlavt work available to the astrologers of Anushirwan). 43 Al-BIruni. 3 and 25. frags. it is uncertain to what extent his numerous citations in the India and in Al-Qdntln al-Mas'iidt of the Ztj al-Arkand can legitimately be referred to the "translation"of 735. This content downloaded from 158.47 41 As al-Blruinl translated the Khandakhddyaka into Arabic and entitled this translation Tahdhtb zijf alArkand. and by I. the same rule was given later by al-Fazari. "On the Greek Origin of the Indian Planetary Model Employing a Double Epicycle.43 Since this rule is based on the "method of sines. Pingrec in JNES 29. and S 3. and 'Umar ibn al-Farrukhan alTabari to determine an auspicious moment. 129-143. The Astrological History. Baghdad. 39 Al-Hashiml. We do not have sufficient information concerning these texts to judge whether or not they described the Greco-Indian double-epicycle mo36 D. Saffouri and A.45 for a group of horoscopes he computed between 768 and 794. translated M. which influenced the Ztk-i Shahriydrdn of Anushirwan and Yazdijird III. 38 See below fns. 1971. 40 Al-Hashimi. and the commentary on Ya'qfib. 58). 46 Ibid. The earliest astronomical texts in Arabic seem to have been written in Sind and Afghanistan. 37 Al-Fazart (see below fn.134. 123-177. al-Fazari. Beirut 1959. Hyderabad-Deccan 1948. is really Masha'allah's. 48). which. the ardharatrikapakQa. pp. T 1-3. Z 6. published by I. In the fifth century three separate schools representing different mixtures of these elements came into existence: the brahmapaksa. 1970. Pingree. Rasd'il. no. 742." it reflects an Indian simplification of computing with the Greco-Indian double-epicycle model.42 whose epoch is the year 110 of Yazdijird or A. and which gives. Stabius. frag. Nuremberg 1504. he knew something of Ptolemaic astronomy.40 which we have had occasion to refer to previously. and K 6. Ya'qfib ibn Tariq (see below fn. already influenced the Ztk-i Shahriydrdn in ca. D.44 It is most likely that they used the Pahlavi original of the Zij al-Shdh of Anushirwan in casting this horoscope. 4. 80-85. therefore. Kennedy and D. Masha'allah. NS 46.pp. If the Latin De scientia motus orbis. secs. sec.41 A similar mixture of Indian and Iranian materials was evidently present in the Zij al-Harqan. 450. that Greek influence on early Islamic astronomy came from many sides and in many distorted forms. al-Fazarf. in verse. 47 Ibid. 26: 4-19.36 This non-Ptolemaic Greek astronomy was modified by the Indians both in the light of their existing traditions of adaptations of Irano-Babylonian and Greco-Babylonian theories and methods and in that of their own developments in trigonometry and algebra. Pingree. 810. 1-125. and 29-32. The next phase in the history of Arabic astronomical texts is marked by a further infusion of Indian material accompanied by translations of the Ptolemaic Syntaxis and Handy Tables and of the Iranian Zij al-Shdh. III 26.D.37 apparently through the Zfj al-Harqan. Z 4. the Zlj al-Jdmi' and the Zij al-Haztir. Z 12. and particularly under al-Mansur and Harun al-Rashid. Pingree. 175-185. 104. 1956. they chose 30 July 762. X206 (p." JHA 2. We must now examine in chronological order what is known of astronomers who wrote in Arabic in order to gauge the extent of the dependence of each on ultimately Greek sources and the route by which this influence reached him.

however.58 Like al-FazArt he wrote a ztj (employing as epoch the Era of Yazdijird III) in which some elements from the Mahdsiddhdnta59 were mixed with others from the Ztj al-Shdh. 50 See above fns. however. One purpose of this activity was to solve the problem of contradictory parameters. 97-125. 62 E.48 When an embassy sent to the court of al-Mansfir from Sind in 771 or 773 included an Indian learned in astronomy. with the instruments invented by the Greeks. Kennedy. E. Pingree. NS 57. whose elements. Z 5. Z 11-12. Z 11-15. Z 5-6. 1968. Z 1-6. in which he deals at length with methods of computing the ahargana which he has derived from the Mahdsiddhdnta." 128. frags. 59 Ya'qfb.65 This tradition of observation was continued under al-Ma'mfin. 1967. 4. 51 Al-FazArf. As we have noted previously. under the patronage of the family of Barmak.frag. 55 Al-FazArt. frags. and it is not yet possible definitely to assert a Greek influence on him at this point. Kennedy. Z 2 and Z 10. cf. 6-8. 50-51." JNES 27." TAPhS. Z 24.251. frags. This content downloaded from 158. pp.54 This epicyclic model from a Sanskrit source and the Ptolemaic value of precession apparently from a Pahlavl source are the first specifically Greek elements identified in an Arabic astronomical text. the Ptolemaic Syntaxis and Handy Tables were first translated into Arabic during the reign of HArtn al-Rashfd."JNES 27. 54 Al-FazArt. R. the Tarkib al-afldk. 49 Al-FazArt. "The Arabic Version of Ptolemy's Planetary Hypotheses. 1360. Sayili. are derived not only from the Mahdsiddhdnta. and Z 25. this work seems to have been dependent on the Brdhmasphutasiddhdnta written by Brahmagupta in 628. 37 and 43. 64 Ya'qfib. but much later in Spain and the Latin west. 63 Ya'qfib. 57 The earliest Sanskrit text on the astrolabe is the Yantrardjacomposed by Mahendra in ca. pp. T 1. frags. This important study is an essential source for much of what follows. and Z 9. The Observatoryin Islam.134. the Ztj al-Shdh. S. 60 Ya'qfb. 61 Ya'qfib. at both BaghdAd and Damascus. Under the same patronage Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-NihAwandi began making observations at JundishApur for use in his Al-zlj al-mushtamil. and various works on the astrolabe and armillary sphere. Z 2. and none in Sanskrit before the fourteenth century.38 Journal of the American Oriental Society 93.frags.frags. Z 17 and Z 18. the eastern domains of Islam into the tenth century. Ankara 1960. thus beginning the long tradition of the observatory in Islam.1 (1973) But another of the astrologers consulted on the propitious moment for the foundation of Baghdad was Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-FazArl. 56 Al-FazArt. Pingree. 79055-alFazArl wrote the first zij to contain tables for converting dates according to other calendars into those of the Muslim calendar. though the three systems known to astronomers of the early eAb58 D. Z 8-9. 126-132. 53 Al-FazArL. frags.41 on Thu.53 While mentioning the rules for computing the equations of the center by means of the "method of sines". "The Fragments of the Works of alFazAr1. the scion of an ancient Arab family of al-Kfifa. 1970. Associated with al-FazArt in his conversations with the Indian astronomer from Sind was one Ya'qub ibn Tfriq. the last two probably were based on Greek or Syriac texts as we know of no treatises on the astrolabe in Pahlavi. frag. The precise method by which he computed these distances is not known. Z 16. The result of this collaboration was the ZIj al-Sindhind al-kabtr. B. Z 1 and Z 7. the caliph ordered al-FazArl to translate with his help a Sanskrit text related to the brAhmapaksa and apparently entitled the Mahdsiddhdnta.57 This eclectic and not very profound production by al-Fazarl formed the foundation of the Sindhind tradition which survived in 48 D.62 In 777 or 778 he composed a second work. T 5-11. Goldstein. Z 23. for. S 1. 103-123. "The Lunar Visibility Theory of Ya'qfb ibn TAriq. Z 7 and Z 8. 30 Oct 2014 11:18:10 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .49 but also from the Aryapaksa5 (probably through the Zij alHarqan).frag.63 but also with the distances of the planets in a fashion that appears more like that of Ptolemy in the Planetary Hypotheses4 than like that of the Indians. 52 AI-FazAri.56 Ptolemy52 (perhaps the Pahlavi version). 1968. al-FazArl also describes the Indian method of computing this equation by means of an epicycle model. S. and S 2. "Lunar Visibility Theory." JNES 29. Z 1-2. S 2.60 but he also introduced yet others from an ArdharAtrika source-presumably the Zij al-Arkand61 -and from Ptolemy. 65 A.frag.frags. "The Fragments of the Works ot Ya'qfb ibn TAriq. Later in his life-apparently in ca. and a Persian geogr aphical text ascribed to Hermes.56 He also composed a lengthy poem on astronomy.

" pp. In fact. 1956. while the table of lunar equations is equivalent to that in the Handy Tables save that an extra column is added allowing the reduction of longitudes on the lunar orbit to longitudes on the ecliptic. Paris 1803. the Zti al-Mumtahan of YahyA ibn Abi Mansfir and others and the Zfj al-Sindhind of al-KhwArizmt." JHA 3. 97 (p. "Le Livre de la grandeTable Hakemite. newly available in the translation completed by al-Hajjaj in 829 or 830)-were all descendents of Hellenistic astronomy. pp.72 Except for Sanad.134. p. 78. and the Ptolemaic (Almagest. A manuscript of the Escorial claims to contain the Zif al-Mumtahan of Yahya. S. 50. The Thousands. originally coming from Tabaristan under the name Biztst ibn Flfrizn. Skold. 74 Vernet. 67 D. 275). then.75 The table of solar equations is based on a Ptolemaic eccentric model. all of these astronomers came from Iran. 30 Oct 2014 11:18:10 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .590.Barcelona 1956. their parameters differed substantially. for the maximum. 135160. 1. p. 508. 70 YahyA ibn AbT Mansfr. We now possess two of these in imperfect form. "Las 'Tabulae Probatae'. 492-497. He claimed that the three systems were all aberrant derivatives of a unique ante-Diluvian revelation whose exposition he had discovered in a manuscript buried at Isfahan by the legendary Tahmfirath. the Iranian (Shah). Kennedy.68 The personnel involved in the observations made under al-Ma'miun at the Shammasiya in Baghdad in 828 and 829 included Sanad ibn 'All. "Survey. in this extra column the Ptolemaic value of the inclination of the lunar orbit. and E S. S. direct and indirect. Caussin de Perceval. for example.PINGREE: Greek Influence on Islamic Astronomy basid period-the Indian (Sindhind). 68." Homenaje a Millds-Vallicrosa. 335-336). "Solar and Lunar Tables in Early Islamic Astronomy.67 and their new mean motions of the planets seem largely to be simply Ptolemy's corrected for the new length of a tropical year. Abi Manstr. Kennedy.69 YahyA ibn Abi Mansuir. and his Ma'rifat al-hildl wa md fthinna alnor (Bodleian Marsh 663 p. 138. though it is evident that some of their revised parameters are in fact confirmations of ones already known. 1200. esp. D. See also Ibn Yfnus. his Ft haSral-qawdti'(BM Or. 56. 44-46. Zfj al-Hadkimt. 73 and also Ibn Yfinus. 56. pp. 3577 ff. Pingree. This content downloaded from 158." JHA 1. Let us now examine these in order to assess the extent of Greek influence. and his Kitdb ikhtildf al-zjfdt. 1964. 1967. 1970. "Parallax Theory in Islamic Astronomy. 62-68. the determination of the value of in 2/3 of a century-merely conprecession--1 firms an older Indian parameter." Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18. 2 vols. J. was the principal author of the Zfj al-Mumfahan. "Survey. One rather bizarre effort at reconciliation was made between 840 and 860 by the astrologer Abfi Ma'shar of Balkh in his Zij al-hazdrdt. a converted Jew. 33-53. but utilizes a new parameter. Vernet. his Kitdb al-uldf.74 Those sections of the Escorial manuscript that have been investigated recently and that can be confidently attributed to Yahya tend to bear out this claim.70 and Muhammad ibn Mfisa al66 D. see Ibn al-Nadlm. 39 Khwarizmt. 20-38. Their new value of precession. Salam and E. 71 Al-KhwArizmtis now the best known scientist of al-Ma'mftn's circle." no.. is Indian.D.41 on Thu. 16-240. Kennedy. pp. 27-35." JAOS 87. "Precession and Trepidation in Indian Astronomy Before A. 73 Kennedy. "The Solar Eclipse Technique of YahyA b. 3577 ff. 145-147. op. see fn." Isis 47. Pingree. p. 68 This problem is being investigated by my student J. and this. 1972. and 230-236.251. 2. "Gregory Chioniades and Palaeologan Astronomy.71 and the principal observor at QAslyin near Damascus in 831-833 was KhAlid ibn 'Abd al-Malik al-Marwridhi. 72 KhAlid's zljes are noted by Kennedy. His Zfj al-Sindhind is discussed below. 74. As was noted previously. 208). 146. 501-522. 114-116. cit. They tried to establish the correct parameters on the basis of new observations. Abfi Ma'shar's system is a curious admixture of elements lifted from the various texts known to him. 69 The only extant works of Sanad known to me are his Kitdb al-qawdtie(BM Or. is used to "correct" the mean motions of the planets according to Ptolemy. E.66 But the astronomers of al-Ma'mfn sought a less fanciful solution. 329v-335. though only partially. esp. esp. 75 See above fn.vol. though it is clear that only in part does it reproduce that work.." Notices et extraitsdes manuscrifs 7. Pingree. 136). on each. and each wrote at least one zlj.73 The introduction proclaims that YahyA is following the Almagest with corrections due to his own observations made at the ShammAslya in Baghdad during the course of a solar year.

MadridBarcelona 1947). 73-78." Centaurus 14. Amsterdam 1669. 73-74. Ibn al-Masrfr. 205-252." AHES 2. Kennedy. sec. but different from. Kobenhavn 1914. for the other planets the maximum latitudes are closer to Ptolemy's than to the Indians'. El libro de los fundamentos de las Tablas astron6micas de R. sees. op. cit. 850. 85 In particular one thinks of the recent studies of al-Zarqalf (see above fn.83 and Ibn alMuthanna in the tenth century. "A Survey of the Toledan Tables.51? as the value of the obliquity of the ecliptic. and E. 1961.. and in al-Birinf. 16. "AlKhwarizml on the Jewish Calendar.2 and 85. 1969. Neugebauer. Pingree in JNES 29.330." Osiris 15. 146 and 173. those of Indian astronomers. 88 Ibid. pp. the exceptions are the tables of epicyclic anomalies at which each planet has its first station. 1968.84 In addition many later Andalusian texts belong to this tradition. 306-336).82 Abu Ma'shar's 76 Salam and Kennedy." Centaurus 14. 1970. Kobenhavn 1962. 1000. J. the two Hebrew versions. S. including a table of sines.77 The tables for computing solar eclipses use 23. Al-Farghani was also the author of a pupil. Kennedy and M. Another.30?. 78 Kennedy. Campani. a parameter from the Handy Tables. is largely derived from the works of al-Fazari. R.81 there is a substantial commentary literature which helps us to reconstruct the early ninth century state of the text. but rather a new value.. M. Kennedy and W. "II 'Kitab al-FarghAnt' nel testo arabo e nelle versioni.85 An analysis of this material shows that the models and methods underlying the zij's tabular values are with a few exceptions the Indian or Indo-Iranian permutations and refinements of Greek material as transmitted non-Ptolemaic through al-Fazari. Ibn al-Muthannd's Commentary on the Astronomical Tables of al-Khwdrizmf. 48 and 95-96.88 and various parameters embedded in tables (such as that of the obliquity of the ecliptic). 79 Kennedy. 84). Ukashah. 515) Yahya gives the obliquity as 23. 1910. 55-59. The Astronomical Tables of al-Khwdrizmt. brief astronomical text of al-Khwarizml has been studied by E. for computing planetary longitudes Yahya is basically Ptolemaic. 875.76 The planetary equations are taken from Ptolemy with the exception of the equation of the center of Venus.89 all derived from the Handy Tables. 77 Ibn Yfinus. 108. 0. of which one was written by Abraham ben Ezra in 1160. "Parallax Theory. 277. S. Goldstein. Golius. adjusted the parameters in accordance with its own observations. 1965. ca. p. 7 and G. 86-96. Madrid-Barcelona 1963. 87 Ibid. and H." pp. 15. New Haven-London 1967. the Toledan Tables (G. See also Kennedy. "The Solar Theory of az-Zarqal: A History of Errors. Toomer. 1964. "Al-Khwarizml's Planetary Latitude Tables. 104-105. Millas Vallicrosa.86 the tables of right ascension. 4.87 the table of the equation of time. This content downloaded from 158. see Ibn al-Nadfm. "The Crescent Visiblity Table in alKhwarizmt's Zlj. on the other hand." In his table of solar declinations (Vernet." 47-51. S. E. "Tabulae Jahen.80 only a Latin translation made in 1126 by Adelard of Bath of the revision due primarily to Maslama al-Majrltt of Cordoba in ca. 89 Ibid. in ca.134. al-JahAnt(H. and the other.41 on Thu. 30 Oct 2014 11:18:10 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . p. along with a few fragments of the original zij. which it replaced as the main representative of the Sindhind tradition. Rasd'il." Centaurus 11. Hermelink.1 (1973) is not employed. see also R. J. then. but he depends on the Sindhind and perhaps the Shah for methods of solving other problems. Though we now possess. then. 83 MS Taymiriyya. "Parallax Theory" and "Solar Eclipse Technique. but otherwise are based on procedures related to. Abraham ibn rEzra. and continued to incorporate elements from the Sindhind or Shah wherever these seemed "easier" than their Ptolemaic counsummary of Ptolemaic astronomy published by J. 230-236. pp. 84 The Latin translation by Hugo of Sanctalla (fl.. 82 There are fragments in al-Hashimf. 1969. Millas Vendrell. that astronomy in the time of al-Ma'miun developed in two ways: one school retained most of the Indian Sindhind tradition but supplemented it from the Iranian Shah and the Ptolemaic Handy Tables. The Astronomical Tables. pp. 80 D. 81 A. R. secs. It is clear.. in Ibn al-Muthanna (see below fn. 108-112)." SM 27. 99. Math. Besthorn. 86 Neugebauer.40 Journal of the American Oriental Society 93.251. Suter. 1130) is edited by E. Toomer. and Abraham ben Ezra (J. Bjornbo.78 The latitude theory is also derived from India-evidently through the Sindhindas is also the parameter for the maximum lunar latitude. El comentario de Ibn al-Mutannd' a las Tablas Astron6micas de alJiwrizmi. 110-111.460. al-Hashimt. "Survey. al-HAshimf. 101. 4." RSO 3. The Zij al-Sindhind of al-KhwArizmi. which is made to be the same as that of the Sun. Die astronomischen Tafeln des Muhammed ibn Mdssd al-Khwdrizmt. Janjanian. I 128 and 168. the principal commentators are al-Farghani in ca.79 In general. by B. 5-174). p. p. while accepting the models of Ptolemaic astronomy.

"Oriens 7. But before the process of Ptolemaicization was completed.Majmd' al-rasd'il. though many of his parameters are taken from the Zij al-Mumtahan and some of his eclipse-theory from the Sindhind. S. though he is not named in the manuscripts of the pre-Ttst This content downloaded from 158. See Ibn alNadim. 437-532. 285-293. pp. 1955. no 12). 55-80. alHashimi. 151-154. pp. He further introduces many refinements into his tables facilitating their practicality. E. M. Hypsicles' Anaphoricus (al-Tisf.) and On Risings and Settings (al-Tisl. 14." nos. Some of his mathematical texts have recently been published: translations of two Archimedean treatises in Rasd'il Ibn Qurra. Abt Nasr Mansfir in Rasd'il. On Thabit's life see E. Sayili. Rosenthal. esp.91 he is known to have been engaged in observational activities between 829 and 864. HyderabadDeccan 1948. and W. Mogenet. no. and collaborated with Thabit in translating Archimedes' On the Sphere and the Cylinder (al-Tfisl. 41 At this point in the history of eastern Islamic astronomy. S. and E. no. Soz. 13 and 74. no. Gabrieli. Agha. Transue. A cursory examination of this material makes clear that his geometric models are essentially Ptolemaic. 1944. Kennedy. A. translated Archimedes'Lemmata(al-Tius.-Med. "The Introductory Section of Habash's Astronomical Tables Known as the 'Damascene' Zij. 2. 21." 42-43. Kennedy. 137. 2 vols. "Parallax Theory. and many later authors discuss his views on various topics. 2425. 14. pp. Theodosius' Spherics (al-Tfist. Dilve Tarih-Cografya Fakiiltesi Dergisi 13. but still manifesting a basic lack of control over the geometric models that lie behind them. 98-100 and 170-174. 875) corrected QustA's transla-' tion of Hypsicles' Anaphoricus according to al-Ttsf." Isis 35." AMM 63. R. 133-151. translated into Sanskrit by Nayanasukhopadhyaya in 1730). and. All of these will be investigated by J. no. 30 Oct 2014 11:18:10 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 126-127) and pp. 9). HyderabadDeccan 1939-40. Phys. R." 446-447. Beirut 1958."Sitz. "An Early Method of Successive Approximations. E." Centaurus 13. esp. Erlangen 52-53. one at Berlin and the other at Istanbul. Wiedemann. see fn. Die Sphdrik von Menelaos aus Alexandrien. and the Arabic biographical literature.94 and Qusta ibn Luqa. no. edited by W. no. 1912-13. Krause.. and of Nicomachus. including a table of tangents. Many Arabic authors also discuss Habash-e. Skold in his work on Habash. however. 92 Ibn Yfnus. For Qusta's life see G. the so-called Little Astronomy. 10) and. 4). Kutsch. in some respects permitting more accurate computations than would those of al-FazArl or Ya'qub. The results were eclectic and internally inconsistent astronomical systems. Hyderabad-Deccan 1948. 189-219 (= Aufsdtze zur arabischenWis2 vols. 1920-21.251. Neugebauer. Ace." Centaurus 7.41 on Thu. "Ober Tdbit ben Qurra. 13) (see J. 96 Al-Kindl (died ca. 3. Lincei 5. and al-Mas'fdt and al-BIrtin in various of their works. no. Kennedy and W. QSt B 3. Krause. There are manuscriptsof two works of his on Ptolemaic instruments noticed in M. 1954. sein Leben und Wirken. "Survey. "Planetary Visibility Tables in Islamic Astronomy. the preliminary Greek works on celestial mechanics. H. 1) and Menelaus' Spherics (also connected with al-Mahani...PINGREE: Greek Influence on Islamic Astronomy terparts. and he composed the Data (al-Tuist. "Stambuler Handschriften islamischer Mathematiker. 1960. sees.134.g. the predominance of Ptolemy was virtually secured. perhaps. 126-142. corrected Autolycus' On the Moving Sphere (alTfisi. Commentary on the Astronomical Treatise Par. p. 80-83. 1956. who wrote extensively on the observations made under al-Ma'mun90 and himself composed several zljes. and F. Louvain 1950). Gottingen 1936). 94 Thabit of Harran (834-901) corrected Ishaq's translations. 548-578). 91 Kennedy. But preceding al-Battani's ztj was the work of Habash al-HAsib of Marw. "Qusta ibn Luqa on the Use of the Celestial Globe. 100. Autolycos de Pitane. 134-140.' Rend.93 Thabit ibn Qurra. no 2.96 Ishaq 93 Ishaq (died 910/11) translated Euclid's Data (Nasir al-DIn al-Tfius. were translated into Arabic in Syria by Ishaq ibn Hunayn. 96). gr. Salam and Kennedy. Hunayn's Ta'rlb al-atibbA'. This control was to come only with al-Battani. For some more of his astronomical works see below fn. 95 Qusta of Ba'albak (died 912) translated Theodosius' Spherics (with ThAbit) and On Habitations (al-Tusi. Ibn Amajfr as cited by Ibn Ytnus. Bruxelles 1969. "A Medieval Iterative Algorism. 285. 248-250. Worrell. with Qusta.92 There are two manuscripts extant of zijes ascribed to Habash. 1936. "Ishaq b. no. 160. 341-382. vol. Kennedy and M. senschaftsgeschichte." Ankara Univ. S. the Sindhind and the Shah became primarily of historical interest. For a late eleventh century Greek text which may have been influenced by HIabash see 0. with the existence of Arabic versions of the Almagest and of the Handy Tables and with the compilation of YabyA's and Habash's zijes. 90 Ibn Yfnus.95 with the possible participation of al-Kindi. "Nota bibliografica su Qusta ibn Lfiqa. 15 and 16 (pp. 1969. p. Hildesheim-New York 1970. "Solar and Lunar Tables".

102-113. "Al-Kind! and Ptolemy. 101Al-BattAnf. garman. New mathematical techniques of approximation. He mastered both the Ptolemaic models and solutions and also the new trigonometry developed from the Sindhind tradition by scholars such as Habash. 145-148. however. though ultimately of Greek text used by M. a HarrAnianwhose pp. de Falco. two traditions in the 'Abbasid period led to an De motu octave spere in Carmody. 1910. In response to De hiis que indigent expositione antequam legatur Althis unsatisfactory and confused state al-Ma'min magesti in Carmody. reDelhi 1967-69). he took over many of the values established by the astronomers of the time of al-Ma'mun. Among other astronomical approximative methods. pp. pp. With this into Sanskrit by Jagannatha in 1732 under the title also came the rudiments of trigonometry. Erlangen 42. 436-456). 2 vols. Krause in V. After alBattani the Ptolemaic character of mathematical astronomy in Islam was firmly established. observations were De quantitatibus stellarum et planetarum et proportiomade at al-RAqqa between 877/8 and 918/9 and who ne terre in Carmody. various Siddhdntasamrdt (edited by R. Qurra. 159-164. 1962. Iran came a Sasanian adaptation of some of this Neugebauer." Studi fications. of which those for the 100 De anno Solis in F.1 (1973) For it is al-Battanl101 who represents the culmination of this phase in the history of Islamic astronomy. J.9 Thabit also wrote numerous treatises on astronomy. M. 0.. wrote as his principalastronomicaltreatise De figura sectore in Carmody. This content downloaded from 158. Krause. 131-139. 264-299. died in 929/30. Carmody. vol. the Zij al-. in particular those recorded in the Zij al-Mumtahan. Al-Ttisf's recension was translated mers and Peripatetic philosophers.251." PAPhS ments of Ptolemaic theory. geographical distances. and so on. 290-299. 1962. Through India came a double-epicycle orientalistici in onore di Giorgio Levi della Vida. of which a number have recently been published. "The Arabic Version". a program of careful translations of inaugurated De imaginatione spere et circulorum eius in Carmody. These various books and others written by the Syrian translators and scholars of the second half of the ninth century provided the Arabs with a curriculum for instruction in the Ptolemaic system. the influence of the non-Ptolemaic systems of India and Iran which. pp. or rather several of its 294-300 (= Aufsatze. latively crude theories of eclipses.-Med. The Astronomical mean planetary motions were based on the conWorks of Thabit b.42 Journal of the American Oriental Society 93. and also attest to his knowledge of Theon's Handy Tables and the Ztj al-Mumtahan. itudes. 2. pp. "Thabit ben Qurra 'On the Solar Year' Greco-Indian astronomy fused with various eleand 'On the Motion of the Eighth Sphere'. pp. nerated by the controversy of the first and second 97 This also was revised by al-Tfis and exists in many centuries between Greek mathematical astronomanuscript copies. and an epitoproducts. then. 99-103). and " Krause. and origin. and revised others on the basis of his own observations. planetary lat98 B.99 many of these minor tracts exist in Latin translations. "Stambuler Handschriften. 140-144. and prepared the way for al-Battant's Ztj al-Sdbi'. Neueclecticism characterized by internal inconsisgebauer. 63-79 (on the grave deficiencies of Carmody's book ular intervals over vast periods of time. von al-Kindi. rection of mathematical simplification through Gottingen 1966. Greek astronomy. a host of new parameters. model of planetary motion that had been geRoma 1956. to be challenged only by those who were disturbed by its incongruency with Aristotelian physics. reached Islam by various routes. pp. Wiedemann. ception of universal conjunctions occurring at regpp. 61-84." Sitz. Goldstein.134.97 and ThAbit with the translation of Ptolemy's Planetary Hypotheses. Berkeley-Los Angeles 1960.41 on Thu. tencies and evident imprecision. esp. on me of Ptolemaic astronomy based on al-Hajjaj's transsome of which it was subjected to major modilation (F." 453-457. Soz. and ThAbit were involved as well in a new translation of the Almagest from the Greek. 30 Oct 2014 11:18:10 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Hypsikles. vol. "Ober eine astronomische Schrift nometry to the later phases of Islamic astronomy. pp. While accepting the Ptolemaic cinematic models. Neugebauer.100 These works of Thabit demonstrate that he did indeed understand Ptolemaic astronomy as expounded in the Almagest.. Rosenthal. 1. The mixture of these 106. Through see 0. waned everywhere save works of al-Kind! is one on the instrument dhAt al-shu'bain Spain after contributing little besides trigotayn (E. R. Phys. Die Anfangszeiten der Gestirne. 660-666). 264-289. Neugebauer in Speculum 37. he acknowledged the necessity of improving the Greek parameters by means of new observations. had been largely transformed in the diO. 3 vols.dbi' edited by Nallino.

R." JA 10. F. Al-Bitruji102 and others at- 43 tempted to devise mathematical models that would preserve the concentricity of the planetary orbits. Gauthier. Kennedy. 1909. J." Isis 53. R. "The Planetary Theory of Ibn ai-ShAtir. 1957. Roberts. which represents a level of control over observation and theory that the best astronomers in the Muslim world never lost. 365-378. 1964.251. 1951.Theory of Ibn al-ShAtir: Latitudes of the Planets. Carmody. S. 232-247. 1959. 30 Oct 2014 11:18:10 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . but are interesting within the context of a discussion of Greek influence because they reflect the fundamental incompatibility of Aristotelian physics with Ptolemaic planetary astronomy. 14." Isis 48. "On the Theory of Trepidation. and E. 208-219. The complaints of the Peripatetics and these Muslim responses were not without influence on the Western astronomers who faced the same problems in the Renaissance.2 vols.Tables. Roberts." Isis 42. E. scholars in the latter half of the ninth century carried on the process of the Ptolemaicization of Islamic astronomy. Kennedy and V. and the School of MarAgha103invented geometric devices by which the non-uniform motion of the Ptolemaic deferent about its center was banished from planetary theory. Carmody. These developments cannot here be adequately explored. 1962. "Late Meastronomique de Ptolem6e tentee par les philosophes dieval Planetary Theory. 428-432. "The Solar and Lunar Theory of Ibn ash-ShAtir: A Pre-Copernican Copernican Model. Roberts. Al-Bi." Isis 57. 1966. S. J. see also F. 483-510.41 on Thu. "Regiomontanus' Notes on al-Bitrfijl's Astronomy. Goldstein. Abbud. Goldstein." Centaurus 10. Despite the strange aberrations of AbA Ma'shar and the temporarily continuing vitality of the Sindhind tradition. and of new observations leading to adjustments of the Ptolemaic parameters. arabes du xiIe siecle. V. and in particular of the Almagest and of the Handy Tables. "Une reforme du systdme Isis 57.Berkeley-LosAngeles 1952.. This content downloaded from 158.492-499. see also L. 103 V. 227235. New HIa. the edition of the Latin translation (made by Michael Scot in 1217) by F. Later developments in Islamic astronomy (aside from alterations of parameters. 121-130.PINGREE: Greek Influence on Islamic Astronomy Greek and Syriac texts. "The Planetary Theory of Ibn al-ShAtir: Reduct'on of the Geometric Mlodels to Numerical 102 The main study is now B. "The Planetary truji: On the Principles of Astronomy. and B.134." ven 1971. The process was completed in the great work of alBattAnl. 1966." Isis 50. which new observations might at any time justify) were not generated by mathematical. but by philosophical considerations. of a modernization of the Sindhind tradition.