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GAS NATURAL Y

CONDENSADOS I
PPPP-412

Ing. William Navarro

CARACTERIZACIÓN DE YACIMIENTOS EN BASE A LA
MEZCLA DE HIDROCARBUROS QUE CONTIENEN

A PARTIR DE:
• DIAGRAMA DE FASES-PRUEBAS PVT
• INFORMACIÓN DE PRUEBAS DE PRODUCCIÓN

Introducción   

Gas y petróleo son mezclas de fluidos que están
sujetos a diferentes ambientes de P & T
Estas medios se denominan Phases.
Phase es una porción homogénea de un sistema
heterogéneo    

Es homogéneo en su composición
Posee superficies limites
Son separables físicamente

Entender el comportamiento de phase permite
determinar el comportamiento de los fluidos en el
reservorio y en el sistema de produccióntransporte.

Definiciones   

Sistema
Amount of substance within given boundaries
under specific conditions composed of a number of
components.
If anything moves across the boundary system will
have changed. 

Componentes 

Sustancias puras que producen el sistema a las
condiciones de P y T.
Ejem. C1, C2, CO2, agua 

Ejem.Definiciones  Phase   Porción física distinta de materia. Agua liquida-Hielo. que tiene propiedades físicas y químicas uniformes.  Equilibrio  Un sistema esta en equilibrio cuando no ocurren cambios en el tiempo de sus propiedades físicas .

Definiciones  Propiedades intensivas   Independientes de la cantidad de materia. Ejem. Volumen  . Ejem. volumen especifico. factor de compresibilidad  Propiedades extensivas  Dependen de la cantidad de materia presente. Densidad.

FACTORES FÍSICOS QUE CONTROLAN EL COMPORTAMIENTO DE FASES • • • • PRESIÓN TEMPERATURA ATRACCIÓN MOLECULAR REPULSIÓN MOLECULAR PRESIÓN Y ATRACCIÓN MOLECULAR Confinan las Moléculas TEMPERATURA Y REPULSIÓN MOLECULAR Dispersan las Moléculas .

Al disminuir más la distancia se incrementa las fuerzas de repulsión  .   Fuerzas de atracciónatracción-repulsión entre moleculas. Más moleculas incrementa presión.Presión  Presión  Refleja la frecuencia de colisión de las moleculas en las paredes del contenedor.Temperatura .  Fuerzas de atracción aumentan a medida que la distancia entre las moleculas disminuye hasta que las cargas se superponen.

Presión  Temperatura  Indicativo de la energía Cinetica de las moleculas.Temperatura .   . Si se adiciona calor se incrementa energía Kinetica Las moleculas se mueven más separados.

 . Repelling force which causes liquid to resist further compression.  Liquidos  Molecules are closer together.Gases & Liquidos  Gases   Molecules are widely spaced. Attractive forces exist between the molecules.

Phase diagrams Plots of pressure versus temperature or pressure versus volume Show the phases that exist under varying conditions.Sistema Puro     Useful to examine pure systems to gain insight into more complex hydrocarbon systems. .

Diagrama P-T .

.Diagrama P-T Vapour pressure line Divides the regions where the substance is a liquid from regions where it is a gas Conditions on the line indicate where both liquid and gas coexist.

the limiting state for liquid and gas to coexist. Tc Critical pressure. Pc of the pure substance General definition: For pure component. The point at which all intensive properties of the gas and liquid are equal .Diagrama P-T Critical Point The limit of the vapour pressure line Defines the: Critical temperature.

. liquid and vapour co-exist under equilibrium conditions.Diagrama P-T Triple Point Represents the pressure and temperature at which solid. ashphaltenes and hydrates. Not common for Petroleum engineers to deal with solid state. More recently an issue in the context of wax.

Diagrama P-T Sublimation -Pressure Line Represents the pressure and temperature at which solid exists from the area where vapour exists. .

Of relevance to wax and hydrates .Diagrama P-T Melting Point Line Represents the pressure and temperature at which solid exists from the area where liquid exists.

volume. temperature ) cell charged with a pure substance and the volume varied by frictionless piston. P1 Single phase liquid at P1 .Diagrama P-T Consider behaviour of a PVT (pressure.

Diagrama P-T Single phase liquid at P1 Significant pressure reduction Small liquid volume change P1 P2 Bubble point pressure P2 Small gas bubble in equilibrium with liquid .

Diagrama P-T Single phase liquid at P1 P1 P2 Bubble point pressure P2 P3 Further volume expansion More gas phase. Liquid volume decreases Pressure remains constant .

Diagrama P-T Single phase liquid at P1 P1 P2 Bubble point pressure P2 P3 Further volume expansion P4 Dew point pressure P4 Small liquid drop in equilibrium with gas Pressure remains constant .

Diagrama P-T Single phase liquid at P1 P1 P2 Bubble point pressure P2 P3 Further volume expansion P4 P5 Dew point pressure P4 Further gas expansion Pressure reduces .

Diagrama P-T P1 P2 P4 P3 P5 .

Behaviour across the vapour pressure line From A to B via VP line P1 At A liquid phase Between A&B on VP line gas & liquid phases P3 P5 At B gas phase .

Behaviour around the critical point At A liquid phase At E compressed liquid phase From E to F from liquid to gas with no phase boundary At G gas phase At B gas phase .

Beyond critical point At 3 liquid phase ? Dense phase fluid From 3 to 4 a change from liquid properties to gas properties with no distinct phase change At 4 gas phase .

Diagrama P-T Etano .

No definite phase distinction. .Diagrama PresiónPresión-Volumen P1 1. Single phase liquid T = Tc critical temperature P2 Single phase region Bubble point first gas bubble P4 Dew point Last drop of liquid P5 T<Tc Two phase region All gas Reflects compressibilty of liquid T>Tc Smooth change from liquid to gas.

Diagrama PresiónPresión-Volumen Single phase   A series of expansions at various constant temperatures yield pressure volume diagram. Liquid Two distinct phases Gas . Gives the focus of the bubble point and dew point values.

Diagrama PresiónPresión-Volumen Etano .

Three Dimensional Phase Diagram for a Pure Component .

Sistema dos Componentes    Such a system is called a binary One component more volatile than the other. Components are miscible .

density .Sistema dos Componentes Diagrama PresiónPresión-Volumen Isotherm similar to pure component Pressure decreases as system goes from bubble point to dew point Composition of liquid and vapour phases change from bubble point to dew point Physical properties function of composition e.g.

Sistema dos Componentes Diagrama PresiónPresión-Volumen Compositions Component light Component heavy Liquid mixture At bubble point Liquid Gas At dew point Liquid Gas mixture Gas .

4 mole% mixture of N-heptane and N-pentane A ‘finger print’ of the mixture .Sistema dos Componentes The diagram is for a 52.

a broad region in which two phases co-exist characterises 2 component systems .Sistema dos Componentes Diagrama PresiónPresión-Temperatura Compared to a single line representing two phase behaviour for pure substances.

These values are NOT the compositional averages of the critical values of the pure components. A mixture has a critical temperature and pressure.Sistema dos Componentes Diagrama PresiónPresión-Temperatura Bubble point line and dew point line meet at critical point. .

Sistema dos Componentes Diagrama PresiónPresión-Temperatura Bubble Point Within 2 phase region proportions of liquid and gas. These are termed quality lines Dew point By carrying out a series of constant temperature expansion phase envelope is defined .

Increase the proportion of B and the envelope will change shape and move to the right. Increase the proportion of A and the envelope will change shape and move to the left. PCAB much greater than PCA and PCB .Sistema dos Componentes Diagrama PresiónPresión-Temperatura A specific mixture will give a specific phase envelope.

Diagrama P-T emperature Etano -Heptano Critical points for various mixtures Pure component critical values Locus of the mixture critical points .

gasolina natural 2700 LÍQUIDO U ID O Q Í L 2600 A% 2500 100% 90% 2400 80% 70% 2300 60% 2200 2100 50% LÍQUIDO + VAPOR (GAS) 2000 1900 40% 1800 1700 1600 30% 1500 1400 20% 10% 1300 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 TEMPERATURA.PRESIÓN. L Lpca Diagrama de Fases de una mezcla de gas natural . °F GAS 0% 220 240 260 .

Punto Critico Mezcla de HCs Mixture of methane and n-octane has a critical point much greater than pure component values Two phases exist within this boundary Methane is a significant component of reservoir fluids Pure component critical values .

. The cricondenbar. The cricondentherm.Condensación Retrograda      Within the two phase region of our two component system there can be temperatures higher than the critical temperature and pressures higher than the critical pressure. Is the maximum pressure at which two phases can exist in equilibrium. Is the maximum temperature at which two phases can exist in equilibrium.

Condensación Retrograda Examine behaviour at constant temperature between critical temperature and cricondentherm of pressure decrease Cricondenbar 1 At 1 single phase fluid 2 At 2 dew point 3 At 3 maximum liquid 4 5 At 4 dew point At 5 single gas phase Cricondentherm .

Condensación Retrograda .