Ing. William Navarro

.Introduction       A gas is a homogeneous fluid No definite volume Completely fills the vessel in which it is contained Behaviour vital to petroleum engineers Simple gas laws straightforward Hydrocarbon gases at reservoir conditions are more complicated.

There are no attractive or repulsive forces between molecules or molecules and container walls.Ideal Gases     Assumptions Volume of molecules are insignificant with respect to the total volume of the gas. No internal energy loss when molecules collide .

V = volume. T = temperature .Ideal Gases Boyle’s Law 1 Vα P or PV = cons tan t T is constant P = pressure.

Ideal Gases Charles’ Law Vα T or V = cons tan t T P is constant Pressure and temperature in both laws are in absolute units .

Absolute Units Temperature Kelvin K = oC + 273 Rankin oR = oF + 460 .

mole of ideal gas 1 lb.Avogadro’s Law      Under the same conditions of temperature and pressure equal volumes of all ideal gases contain the same number of molecules. That is.4 cu. 1 gm.mole of any ideal gas at 60oF and 14. 2. occupies 379.73 x 1026 molecules/lb. pressure occupies 22.mole at 0oC and atmos.ft.4 litres .7 psia. one molecular weight of any ideal gas occupies the same volume as the molecular weight of another ideal gas.

mole   One lb.lb. One kg.mole of methane CH4 = 16 kg.mol of methane CH4 = 16 lb. .

T & V PV = cons tan t T Constant is termed R when quantity of gas is one mole R is termed Universal Gas Constant .Ideal Gas Law The Ideal Equation of State Combining Boyle’s Law and Charles Law gives an equation relating P.

psia l b.mol.psia R = 10.73 o l b. R R = 10.o R .Universal Gas Constant cu.ft.mol.73 psfta cu.ft.

The Ideal Equation of State For n moles equation becomes PV = nRT A useful equation to compare conditions at two conditions 1 & 2 PV n= RT therefore P1V1 P2 V2 = T1 T2 .

Density of an Ideal Gas m ρg = weight / volume = V ρg is the gas density For 1 mole m = MW MW= molecular weight RT V= P MW.P ρg = RT .

Common practice to relate volumes to surface conditions.7 psia and 60oF Pres Vres PSC VSC = Tres TSC res .standard conditions This equation assumes ideal behaviour.Standard Conditions    Oil and gas occur under a whole range of temperatures and pressures Convenient to express volumes at a reference condition. 14.reservoir conditions SC . This is NOT the case for real reservoir gases .

Dalton’s Law and Amagat’s Law Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures Total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures P = PA + PB + PC + PD + .. Therefore RT RT RT RT P = nA + nB + nC + .... i...e. P = nj ∑ V V V V Therefore Pj P = nj n = yj yj =mole fraction of jth component ..Mixtures of Ideal Gases  Petroleum gases are mixtures of gases ......

Law of additive volumes. P P P Vj V = nj n RT nj ∑ i. volume fraction is equal to mole fraction .Amagat’s Law States that the volume occupied by an ideal gas mixture is equal to the sum of the volumes that the pure components would occupy at the same temperature and pressure. RT RT RT V = nA + nB + nC + .e.. V = VA + VB + VC + ... V = P = yj For ideal gas...

It behaves as though it has a molecular weight. Called Apparent Molecular Weight.97 .Apparent Molecular Weight    A mixture does not have a molecular weight. AMW AMW = ∑ y jMWj MWj is the molecular weight of component j. AMW for air = 28.

Mair = AMW of air .Specific Gravity of a Gas The specific gravity of a gas is the ratio of the density of the gas relative to that of dry air at the same conditions. γg = ρg ρair Assuming that the gas and air are ideal Mg P Mg Mg RT λg = = = M air P M air 29 RT Mg = AMW of mixture.