Suggested solution to HKCEE 2004 Additional Mathematics

1.
Find
(a)

∫ cos(3x + 1)dx .

(b)

∫ (2 − x )

2004

dx .
(4 marks)

(a)

∫ cos(3x + 1)dx = 3 ∫ cos(3x + 1)d (3x + 1)
1

1
= sin (3x +1) + C , where C is a constant.
3
(b)

∫ (2 − x )

2004

dx = − ∫ (2 − x )

2004

=−

2.

(a)
(b)

d (2 − x )

(2 − x )2005

+ C, where C is a constant.
2005
Expand (1 + 2x)6 in ascending powers of x up to the term x3.
 1 1 
6
Find the constant term in the expansion of 1 − + 2 (1 + 2 x ) .
 x x 

(4 marks)
(1 + 2x)6 = 1 + 6(2x) + 15(2x)2 + 20(2x)3 + .......
= 1 + 12x + 60x2 + 160x3 + ........
1 1 
 1 1 
6 
(b) 1 − + 2 (1 + 2 x ) = 1 − + 2  1 + 12 x + 60 x 2 + 160 x 3 + !
 x x 
 x x 
constant term = 1×1 – 12 + 60 = 49
dy
The slope at any point (x, y) of a curve C is given by
= 3 x 2 + 1 . If the x-intercept of C is 1,
dx
find the equation of C.
(4 marks)
dy
= 3 x 2 + 1 ⇒ y = ∫ 3 x 2 + 1 dx
dx
y = x3 + x + c, where c is a constant
when x = 1, y = 0 = 1 + 1 + c, c = –2
y = x3 + x – 2.
(a)

(

3.

(

)

)

4.

In Figure 1, the shaded region is bounded by the circle x2 + y2 = 9, the x-axis, the y-axis and
the line y = 2. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region about the y-axis.
(4 marks)
Volume V = ∫ πx 2 dy
2

0

(

)

= π ∫ 9 − y 2 dy
2

0

2

1 
46π

= π 9 y − y 3  =
cubic units.
3 0
3

Solve the following equations: (a) |x – 3| = 1. x = 2nπ ± or x = + (− 1) 2 2 12 6. (5 marks) 2 sin 2x cos x = cos x 1 cos x = 0 or sin 2x = 2 nπ π n π .5. (a) Express OC in terms of a and b. (b) |x – 1| = |x2 – 4x + 3|. 3 (5 marks) " " " " 2a + b 2a + b ⋅ (b) |OC | = OC ⋅ OC = 3 3 " " 2 " 1 "2 =  4 a + 4a ⋅ b + b   9 1 2π  =  4 + 4 × 1× 2 × cos + 2 2  9 3  4 = 9 n Prove that 9 – 1 is divisible by 8 for all positive integers n. where n is an integer. find |OC |. n = 1. By the principle of mathematical induction. It is true for n= 1. Find the general solution of the equation sin 3x + sin x = cos x. OAB is a triangle. . 9k+1 – 1 is also divisible by 8 if 9k – 1 is divisible by 8 and k is a positive integer. 2 or 4. In Figure 2. 9k+1 – 1 = 9(9k) – 1 = 9(8m + 1) – 1 = 72m + 8 = 8(9m + 1). C is a point on AB such that AC : CB = 1 : 2. which is a multiple of 8. ( 5 marks) 8. Therefore. By induction on n. 2π (b) If |a| = 1. 9n – 1 is divisible by 8 for all positive integers n. 9 – 1 = 8 which is divisible by 8. where k is a positive integer and m is an integer. (6 marks) (a) x – 3 = 1 or x – 3 = –1 x = 4 or 2 (b) x – 1 = x2 – 4x + 3 or –x + 1 = x2 – 4x + 3 x2 – 5x + 4 = 0 or x2 – 3x + 2 = 0 (x – 1)(x – 4) = 0 or (x – 1)(x – 2) = 0 x = 1. Let OA = a and OB = b. |b| = 2 and ∠AOB = . 3 (a) " " 2a + b OC = . Suppose 9k – 1 = 8m. 2 7.

In Figure 3. In Figure 4. 5 11. (6 marks) 0 0 1 x y Let P(x. The tangent to C at P passes through the point (0.9. OABC is a pyramid such that OA = 3. b = a3 a3 = 3a3 + 2 a3 = –1 ⇒ a = –1 b = –1 Let O be the origin and A be the point (3. y). Find the distance between these two lines. (6 marks) dy = 3x2 = slope of tangent at P. (6 marks) . OB = 5. (a) Find AC. b) is a point on the curve C: y = x3. (a) Show that b = 3a3 + 2. The distance is: 4 − (− 4 ) 4 2 + (− 3) 2 8 = . =2 2 3 4 0 0 |4x – 3y| = 4 4x – 3y – 4 = 0 or 4x – 3y + 4 = 0 So the locus is a pair of parallel lines. (a) Differentiate C with respect to x: dx b−2 3a2 = ⇒ 3a3 = b – 2 a−0 b = 3a3 + 2 (b) #P(a. ∠AOC = 120° and ∠OAB = ∠OBC = 90°. 2). 10. Determine whether the student is correct or not. b) lies on the curve. P(a. Show that the locus of P is a pair of parallel lines. 4). BC = 12. (b) A student says that the angle between the planes OBC and ABC can be represented by ∠OBA. P is a variable point such that the area of ∆OPA is always equal to 2. (b) Find the values of a and b.

Let OD = 2i and OF = –2j. i and j. C and E are collinear. 0). B = (0. c Solving L1: y = –x + c and L2: y = 2x. (ii) Show that AD = (2 + sin θ) i – cos θ j. 12. c). AB = 5 2 − 32 = 4 In ∆ABC. where c > 0. y = –x + c = 2x. (4 marks) (c) Find the value(s) of θ such that points B. then by the section formula. Find AP : PB.and y-axes at the points A and B respectively. (4 marks) " " (a) (i) OC = cos θ i + sin θ j . OABC and ODEF are two squares such that OA = 1. (a) Let θ be the acute angle between L1 and L2. AB2 + BC2 = 42 + 122 = 160 < 217 = AC2 ∴∠ABC ≠ 90° The angle between the planes OBC and ABC is not ∠OBA. (7 marks) 2 − (− 1) (a) tan θ = =3 1 + 2(− 1) (b) A = (c. x = 3 r × 0 + 1× c c = Let AP : PB = r : 1. Find tan θ. OC = 5 2 + 12 2 = 13 In ∆OAC. OF = 2 and ∠COD = θ. AC2 = 32 + 132 – 2(3)(13) cos 120° = 217 AC = 217 (b) In ∆OAB. (b) L1 intersects the x. (a) (i) Express OC and OA in terms of θ. Give your answer(s) correct to the nearest degree. where 0° < θ < 90°. The two lines intersect at point P. where i and j are two perpendicular unit vectors.(a) In ∆OBC. 1+ r 3 ⇒ r = 2. the student is incorrect. AP : PB = 2 : 1 13. (4 marks) (b) Show that AD is always perpendicular to FC . Figure 5 shows two lines L1: y = –x + c and L2: y = 2x. In Figure 6.

(ii) Find. C and E are collinear.. " " " " " FC = OC – OF = cos θ i + sin θ j – (–2 j ) = cos θ i + (sin θ + 2) j " " " " AD ⋅ FC = [(2 + sin θ) i – cos θ j ]⋅[cos θ i + (sin θ + 2) j ] = (2 + sin θ)cos θ – cos θ(sin θ + 2) = 0 AD ⊥ FC " " CB = OA = –sin θ i + cos θ j " " " " CE = OC – OE = cos θ i + sin θ j – (2 i – 2 j ) " " = (cos θ – 2) i + (sin θ + 2) j (ii) (b) (c) If B. or otherwise.(3marks) (b) ( 14.6sinθ) always lies on C1. ) Let L be the common tangent to C1 and C2 with a positive slope (see Figure 7).. (i) Using (a). (9 marks) (a) (i) sub P(6cosθ. passing through Q and R. (ii) It is known that C1 and C2 intersect at two distinct points Q and R. the equation of the tangent to C1 at P(6 cos θ.. (a) (i) Show that. A circle C3. 6 sin θ). the variable point P(6cosθ... for all values of θ.. ..... then CE = k CB " " " " (cos θ – 2) i + (sin θ + 2) j = k(–sin θ i + cos θ j ) cos θ – 2 = –k sin θ . is bisected by L. Find the equation of C3. (1) sin θ + 2 = k cos θ . find the equation of L. LHS = (6 cos θ)2 + (6 sin θ)2 = 36 = RHS so the point always lies on C1." " OA = cos(90° + θ) i + sin(90° + θ) j " " = –sin θ i + cos θ j AD = OD − OA " " " = 2 i – (–sin θ i + cos θ j ) " " = (2 + sin θ) i – cos θ j . in terms of θ.6sinθ) into C1. (2) cos θ − 2 sin θ (1)÷(2) =− sin θ + 2 cos θ cos2θ – 2 cos θ = –sin2θ – 2 sin θ 1 = 2 cos θ – 2 sin θ 1 = 2 2 cos θ cos 45 $ − sin θ sin 45$ 1 cos(θ + 45°) = 2 2 θ + 45° = 69° θ = 24° C1 and C2 are the circles x2 + y2 = 36 and x2 + y2 – 10x + 16 = 0 respectively.

The two streams of water lie in the same vertical plane. 5k 3( − ) – 4(0) = 30 2 k = –4 C3: x2 + y2 – 20x + 68 = 0 Given two curves C1: y = f(x). so the distance from centre (5. 5  10  C1 has the vertex (4. find. and 1  h − 20  C2 : y = – x 2 −  x + h . when sin θ = . 0) to the line = radius 5 cos θ − 6 15. in terms of h. 0). C2. so the centre lie on L. slope of L = – 5 sin θ −5 4 3 4 L: x – y = 6 5 5 3x – 4y = 30 (ii) First we find the radical axis of C1 and C2: C1 – C2 10x – 16 = 36 5x = 26 Next. 0). A vertical water pipe OP of height 15 units is installed on the horizontal ground. 0) 2 since L bisects C3. 0). we find the family of circles through the intersections Q and R. x2 + y2 – 36 + k(5x – 26) = 0 x2 + y2 + 5kx – (36 + 26k) = 0 5k centre = ( − . with D2 above D1. A rectangular coordinate system is introduced in this plane. 1 (a) Show that f(x) = – x 2 + 2 x + 5 . centre (5. where f(x) is a quadratic function. (ii) If C1 and C2 meet at two points. the x-coordinate of the point other than (10. Two streams of water are ejected continuously from two small holes D1 and D2 in the pipe. =3 cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ 5 cos θ – 6 = 3 or 5 cos θ – 6 = –3 9 3 cos θ = (rejected) or 5 5 4 4 sin θ = or – 5 5 4 cos θ < 0. 9) and passes through the point (10. 0). contradict the positive slope. with O as the origin and OP on the . (3 marks) 4 (b) (i) Show that C2 also passes through the point (10. (5 marks) (c) Figure 8 shows a fountain. radius = 5 2 − 16 = 3 since x cos θ + y sin θ = 6 is a common tangent to C1. the slope of L = – 5 sin θ 3 3 4 cos θ = – 54 = when sin θ = – .(b) (ii) Equation of tangent: 6 cos θ x + 6 sin θ y = 36 ⇒ x cos θ + y sin θ = 6 (i) C2: x2 + y2 – 10x + 16 = 0.

The fountain is designed such that the stream of water ejected from D1 lies on the curve C1. ABCD is a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle centred at O and with radius r. Let S be the 2 area of ABCD. y = 5 4 OD1 = 5 (ii) they do not cross ⇒ x-coordinate of the other intersection ≤ 0 or ≥ 10 2h – 10 ≤ 0 or 2h – 10 ≥ 10 h ≤ 5 or h ≥ 10 1  h − 20  C2 : y = – x 2 −   x + h . 4 1  h − 20  2 (i) Put (10. 0) is 2h – 10. π where 0 < θ < < β < π. . (ii) If the two streams of water do not cross each other in the air before meeting at the same point on the ground. find the range of possible values of OD2. such that AB//DC and O lies inside the quadrilateral. and that ejected from D2 lies on C2. when x = 0. 0) into C2: RHS = – (10 ) −  (10 ) + h = –20 – h + 20 + h = 0 = LHS 5  10  so C2 also passes through the point (10. (i) Find OD1. Let ∠COD = 2θ and reflex ∠AOB = 2β. (4 marks) f(x) = a(x – 4)2 + 9 0 = a(10 – 4)2 + 9 1 a =− 4 1 f(x) = − (x – 4)2 + 9 4 1 = – x2 + 2x + 5 . Point E denotes the foot of perpendicular from O to DC. (3 marks) 2 (b) Suppose β is fixed. when x = 0. In Figure 9.(a) (b) (c) positive y-axis. y = h 5  10  0 ≤ OD2 ≤ 5 or 15 ≥ OD2 ≥ 10 16. Let Sβ be the greatest value of S as θ varies. 0). r2 (a) Show that S = [sin 2θ − sin 2β + 2 sin (β − θ)]. 1 1  h − 20  (ii) C1 = C2: y = – x 2 + 2 x + 5 = – x 2 −  x + h 4 5  10  –5x2 + 40x + 100 = –4x2 – 2(h – 20)x + 20h x2 – 2hx + 20(h – 5) = 0 (x – 10)(x – 2h + 10) = 0 so the x-coordinate of the point other than (10. 1 (i) C1: y = – x 2 + 2 x + 5 .

4 2 3 4 2 π Similarly. Sβ is a maximum. cos 2θ – cos(β–θ) = 0 Let dθ θ+β 3θ − β – 2 sin sin =0 2 2 θ + β = 0 (rejected) or 3θ – β = 0 β θ= 3 2 d S 2 =r [–2sin 2θ + sin(β–θ)] dθ 2 d 2S 2β 2β   = r 2 − 2 sin + sin  < 0 2 dθ θ= β 3 3  Show that Sβ = 2r2 sin3( (c) (a) (b) 3 β ∴when θ = . so ABCD is a square when Sβ is a maximum. r2 = 2 (c) .2β β ) and the corresponding value of θ is . = 3 3 2 3π β= 4 β π 3π π π when β = . the quadrilateral ABCD becomes a square when Sβ in (b) attains its greatest value. ∠AOB = 2π – 2β = . S is a maximum 3 2β  r 2  2β maximum S = sin − sin 2β + 2 sin  2  3 3 2β 2β  3 2β  3 sin 3 − 3 sin 3 + 4 sin 3  2β =2r2 sin3( ) 3 2β # Sβ = 2r2 sin3( ) ≤ 2r2 × 1 3 2β 2β π when sin3( ) = 1. 3 3 [Hint: You may use the identity sin 3α = 3 sin α – 4 sin3α. ∠COD = 2θ = . θ = = . 2 The student is correct. ∠AOD = ∠BOC = β – θ = . (3 marks) S = area of ∆OCD + 2 area of ∆OBC + area of ∆OAB r2 r2 r2 sin (2π – 2β) = sin 2θ + 2[ sin (β–θ)] + 2 2 2 r2 = [sin 2θ − sin 2β + 2 sin (β − θ)] 2 dS r 2 = [2 cos 2θ − 2 cos(β − θ)]= r2[cos 2θ – cos(β–θ)] dθ 2 dS = 0.] (6 marks) A student says: Among all possible values of β. Determine whether the student is correct or not.

where c is a constant.17. In Figure 12. Figure 11 shows a sketch of the graph of y = f '(x) for 0 ≤ x ≤ x4. dy = (x – π) cos x. dx ∫ (x − π)cos xdx = ∫ dy = y + c = (x – π) sin x + cos x + c. draw a sketch of the graph of y = f(x) for 0 ≤ x ≤ x4. It is known that the areas of the shaded regions S1 and S2 as shown in Figure 11 are equal. (ii) Furthermore. (7 marks) (b) Let f(x) be a continuous function. (2) Find 3π 2 π 2 ∫ (x − π)cos xdx . 3π . (i) Show that f(x1) = f(x3). f(0) = f(x4) = 0 and f(x) ≠ 0 for 0 < x < x4. (5 marks) (a) (i) dy = (x – π) cos x + sin x – sin x = (x – π) cos x. 2 (ii) Figure 10 shows the graph of y = (x – π) cos x for 0 ≤ x ≤ (1) Find the areas of the two shaded regions R1 and R2 as shown in Figure 10. (i) Show that dx Hence find ∫ (x − π)cos xdx . . (a) Let y = (x – π) sin x + cos x.

so f(x2) is a relative maximum f '(x) changes from -ve to +ve at x3. so f(x1) is a relative minimum f '(x) changes from +ve to -ve at x2. so f(x3) is a relative minimum f(0) = f(x4) = 0 and f(x) ≠ 0 for 0 < x < x4. from the graph.(ii) (1) π R1 = ∫ π (x − π )cos xdx 2 = [(x − π )sin x + cos x ] π π 2 π π π = [(π – π) sin π + cos π] – [( – π) sin + cos ] 2 2 2 π = –1 + 2 R2 =| ∫ 3π 2 π (x − π)cos xdx | 3π =| [(x − π )sin x + cos x ] π2 | 3π 3π 3π – π) sin + cos ] – [(π – π) sin π + cos π]| 2 2 2 π π = |– + 1| = –1 + 2 2 = |[( (2) 3π 3π 2 π 2 ∫ (x − π)cos xdx = [(x − π)sin x + cos x] π2 2 3π 3π 3π π π π + cos ] – [( – π) sin + cos ] =[( – π) sin 2 2 2 2 2 2 π π =– + =0 2 2 (b) (i) (ii) ∫ x2 x1 f ' (x )dx = − ∫ f ' (x )dx x3 x2 f(x2) – f(x1) = –[f(x3) – f(x2)] f(x1) = f(x3) f '(x) changes from -ve to +ve at x1. f '(x) < 0 at x = 0 so f(x) is decreasing at x = 0 ⇒ f(x) < 0 for all x: 0 < x < x4 .