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Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 22 (2): 193-198, 2014

ISSN 1990-9233
© IDOSI Publications, 2014
DOI: 10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2014.22.02.21845

Polarized Gan-Based Light-Emitting Diode with a
Silver Sub Wavelength Grating and Dielectric Layer
1

Samah. G. Babiker, 2Mohamed Osman Sid-Ahmed, 3Shuai Yong and 3Xie Ming
Department of Physics, Faculty of Education,
University of the Holy Quran and Islamic Sciences, Omdurman, Sudan
2
Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences,
Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan
3
Department of Engineering Thermophysics,
School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin, P.R. China
1

Abstract: The effect of silver/ dielectric sub-wavelength gratings and silicon dioxide transition layer, when
embedded onto InGaN/GaN -LED system, has been studied for enhancement of the polarized light. The SiO2
transition layer is placed between InGaN/GaN -LED and the grating section. The effect of the gratings geometric
parameters on the transmission of transverse magnetic (TTM) and electric mode (TTE) and polarization
extinction ratio (ER) were calculated numerically by using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA). The
results show that the proposed structure embedded onto InGaN/GaN-LED system has enhanced the
transmission and extinction ratio by the presence of the SiO2 transition, due to the interference in the Ag subwavelength gratings and SiO2 transition layer. The optimum parameters of the proposed structure are: grating
=
Λ 100
=
nm, f 0.5 . TTM >80% and ER >15dBhave been obtained over the whole range of with the
period and
SiO2 transition layer. The performance of this LED system has proved to be superior to that with single-layer
=
nm, d1 100
=
nm, d 2 200nm and f= 0.5
metallic gratings. The optimum parameters of the proposed structure=
are Λ 100
which are results TTM >80% and ER >15dB. The performance of this LED system proved to be superior to that
with single-layer metallic gratings.
Key words: Sub-wavelength grating
Polarization.

Rigorous Coupled-Wave Analysis (RCWA)

INTRODUCTION

LEDs. The EQE can be increased by increasing the IQE
and/or enlarging the LEE [1, 8]. Very high values
(approaching100%) of IQE have already been
demonstrated by the epitaxial growth and device
fabrication technologies [1, 9]. The LEE is very low
compared to the IQE, because it is limited by the total
internal reflection (TIR) at the interface between the
light-emitting material and the outside of the LED [4, 10].
Several methods have been proposed to increase the
efficiency of LEDs. It has been shown that light extraction
efficiency LEE can be sufficiently improved, using proper
micro/nanostructures, such as hemispherical source LEDs
[11], funnel shaped LEDs [12], truncated-inverted-pyramid
LEDs [13], surface textured LEDs [14], photonic crystal or
grating assisted LEDs [15-16] and metal assisted LEDs
[17].

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are semiconductor
solid-state lighting components which convert electrical
energy into electromagnetic radiation; most of the
radiation is visible to the human eye. LEDs have superior
characters, compared to the traditional light sources, such
as having low-cost, smaller size, long-terms stability, high
efficiency, strong brightness, long lifetime and
environmentally-friendly [1-3]. LEDs have been commonly
used in various fields such as traffic signals, automobile
lighting, full-color displays, liquid crystals and optical
interconnects [3-7]. The external quantum efficiency of
LEDs (EQE) is mainly dependent on the internal quantum
efficiency (IQE) and light extraction efficiency (LEE). It is
an important criterion for estimating the performance of
Corresponding Author:

Light emitting diodes

Samah. G. Babiker, Department of Physics, Faculty of Education,
University of the Holy Quran and Islamic Sciences, Omdurman, Sudan.

193

The accuracy of the solution computed depends solely upon the number of terms retained in space harmonic expansion of electromagnetic fields. The relative dielectric function in grating region II can be expanded as a Fourier series and expressed as Fig. The transmission (Ti) of the polarized LEDs. d1= 120nm and different Λ dielectric layer thickness d2 (from 0 to 300) nm. Zhang et al [18] used a surface emitting linearly polarized InGaN/GaN LED with a sub-wavelength metallic nano-grating to obtain a large polarization ratio. grating and output). Sci. respectively. the grating period ( ) and grating width (w) [6]. if the period of the grating ( x. respectively.20]. formulated in the 1980s by Moharam and Gaylord. based on Fourier expansion. The thickness of the QW with GaN buffer layer RCWA accurately describes diffraction from an Ag sub-wavelength grating with and without dielectric layer. diffraction would be influenced by Wood’s (1) j ( Z )exp( jPk x ) j anomaly. 1: Schematic of the proposed structure consisting of Ag sub-wavelength gratings and dielectric layer SiO2 Polarization properties of sub-wavelength gratings LEDs depend on the wavelength ( ) of incident light. and represents the polar angle and the azimuthal angle. K is the magnitude of the In this paper. RCWA analyzes the diffraction problem by solving Maxwell’s equations accurately in each of the three regions (input. = z) ( x + Λ. We will also investigate the optimum grating z direction respectively. are shown in Figure 2. The InGaN/GaN is a quantum-well (QW) with 150 nm GaN cap layer. A protection layer was deposited on top of the system to avoid grating oxidation. we propose a structure consisting of grating vector and j= −1 . MATERIALS AND METHODS Rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA).. The results show that 194 . The polarized InGaN/GaN LED consists of GaN buffer layer. = z) is close to . on the transmission properties (TTE. For example. The Polarization properties from LEDs such as the emission are desired for imaging and backlighting of Where is the grating period. embedded onto the polarized GaN LED system through the methods of vacuum evaporation and electron-beam lithography. of the grating permittivity. at normal incidence. is used for analyzing the diffraction of electromagnetic waves by periodic gratings. 2 (3) T j = Etj ∑ ∑ Grating Simulations: Figure 1. All numerical results are obtained by jth order transmitted wave can be calculated by using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) method [19. The z axis is the light propagation direction. grown on sapphire substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). z ) Etj exp(ik xj x − ik zjt z ) (2) proposed structure. 22 (2): 193-198. The normalized total electric Ag sub-wavelength grating structures and SiO2 as a field in (Et) can be expressed as dielectric layer which is embedded onto LED system. p is the Fourier component flat panels. Etj is the normalized amplitude of parameters which would lead to low fabrication of the jth order transmitted wave. of the = Et ( x. Res. the x and y lies in the direction of p-polarization (TM) and s-polarization (TE).Middle-East J. displays the schematic of the proposed structure which is composed of silver sub-wavelength grating and SiO2 dielectric layer. TTE and ER when Λ= 100nm. The diffraction efficiency and transmission are very sensitive to the choice of grating structure.5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Effect of the Dielectric Layer Thickness: TTM. 2014 is about of 5nm. respectively. j TTM) and extinction ratio (ER=10log (TTM/TTE)) will be Where kxj and kzj are the jth order wave vector in the x and investigated. f= w= 0. which corresponds to the diffraction order. The incident wave and the transmitted waves are located in region I and V. The influence of gratings geometric parameters.

2: The simulated transmission spectra for TM and TE and extinction ratio. we notice a high TTM1(with SiO2) value at d1= 100nm. with different dielectric layer thickness (a) TTM (b) TTE (c) ER Fig. ER is also high at about 23 dB (low TTE) at d2 = 15nm and 280nm. 195 .TTM1. nm. TTE peaks and two ER troughs at d2 = 60nm and 200nm. d2 = 0nm Effect of the Metal Grating Thickness: The effect of the metal grating thickness d1 on the transmission and extinction ratio is studied with different d1 (from 0 to 300) = Λ 100 = nm. TTE1 and ER1 refer to the grating with SiO2 layer. with different metal grating thickness (a) TTM and TTE (b) ER.The maximum value of the ER is about 50dB for the proposed structure embedded onto LED system has two TTM. TTM2. In our area of interest. 2014 Fig. TTE2 and ER2 are for grating without SiO 2 layer. Sci.TTE is zero at d1 50nm with and without the SiO2 layer. It can be seen that the values of TTM are low for grating without the SiO2 transition layer. f 0. The TTM > 70% at d1 20nm with SiO2 layer. which is the region where the polarization ratio (TTM-TTE)/TTE approaches infinity.5 and d = 200nm. 22 (2): 193-198.. It can be concluded that the enhancement of the transmission and extinction ratio can be tuned by different thicknesses of the dielectric layer depending on the specific requirement of the polarized LEDs system. 2 The results in Figure 3 (a) show the proposed structure embedded onto InGaN/GaN LED system.Middle-East J. Res. at normal incidence. 3: The simulated transmission spectra and ER. It can be seen that the insertion of SiO2 transition layer into the grating lead to enhancement of the transmission and polarization extinction ratio \compared to that without SiO2 transition layer (d2 = 0nm). TTE and ER is caused by the interference effect for a three-layer structure.The oscillatory behavior of TTM.

is studied with different filling ratio (f) (from 0. d1 = 100nm d2 = 200nm and f = 0. TTM and ER values are much lower than those with the SiO2 transition layer. 2014 Fig. presence of the SiO2 layer.5. which results in high values for ER. TTE1 and ER1 refer to the grating with SiO2 layer.6. 4: The simulated TTM and ER. TTM1 (with SiO 2 transition layer) is above 80%. It has to be noticed that the insertion of SiO2 layer to the grating has enhanced the transmission.5. Res. with different filling ratio (a) TTM (b) ER. TTE1 >20% and 8 < ER < 20dB when 0. Figure 6 shows TTM. d2= 200nm and f =0. For grating with and without SiO2 layer (d2 = 0nm ) Fig. TTM1. TTE and ER at (from 400 to 500) nm with grating parameters of = 100nm. = 0°.shows the TTM and ER of the proposed structure embedded onto GaN LED system with. . at normal incidence angle. the transmission and extinction ratio are very low compared to that with SiO2 transition layer. 22 (2): 193-198. = 100nm. Without SiO2 transition layer.2 < f < 0. The optimum metal grating period which is used in our study is = 100nm for high TTM and ER value. It is clear that without the SiO2 transition layer. Sci. TTM2. The optimum filling ratio is about f = 0. d1 = 100nm and d2 = 200nm at normal incidence. for different metal grating period ( ) (from 0 to 300) nm.9). Figure 5. The results indicating that the transition layer has the largest effects in the UV/blue spectral region. Figure 7 shows that TTM > 80% and ER > 15dB over the whole range of with the SiO2 196 . Effect of the Wavelength of Light: The polarized transmission by varying the wavelength of light is also studied (all the above simulations were done for =400 nm). TTM >80% and ER >15dB when the grating period is in the range 10nm < 110nm . The results show the dependences of the transmission and extinction ratio on the filling ratio. Effect of the Metal Grating Period: Figure 4. It can be seen that TTE is zero.Middle-East J. with different metal grating period (a) TTM (b) ER.LED system is studied with grating parameters of = 100nm. TTE and ER of the proposed structure embedded onto InGaN/GaN . d1= 100nm. It can be noted that.5 for normal incidence. Effect of the Filling Ratio: The effect of the filling ratio (f) on the transmission and extinction ratio of the proposed structure (embedded onto InGaN/GaN LED system) with and without SiO2 transition layer. the transmission has increased due to the Effect of the Plane of Incidence: The effect of the plane of incidence on the TTM. 5: The simulated TTM and ER. TTE2 and ER2 are for grating without SiO2 layer d2 = 0nm grating with SiO2 transition layer.1 to 0. The results show that the system has a high value of TTM and ER for grating with SiO2 transition layer. d1 = 100nm and d2 = 200nm and f = 0.5 for different polar angles at and -90° 90°..

TTE2 and ER2 are for grating without SiO2 layer d2 = 0nm Fig. It has yielded high TTM and ER with the following grating parameters values: = 100nm. TTE and ER with different . 22 (2): 193-198. = 0° (a) TTM (b) TTE (c) ER. The influence of gratings geometric parameters on the transmission and extinction ratio were studied by using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA). Res. Sci. The proposed structure which consists of the Ag sub-wavelength gratings and SiO2 transition dielectric layer integrated onto InGaN/GaN-LED system has exhibited enhanced polarization performance. TTM2. d1 = 100nm d2 = 200nm and f = 0. 6: The simulated TTM and ER with different wavelength (a) TTM (b) ER.5. TTM2. TTM1. 197 . 7: The simulated TTM. In order to enhance LED transmission and extinction ratio we embedded Ag sub-wavelength gratings and SiO2 transition dielectric layer onto InGaN/GaN LED system. TTE2 and ER2 are for grating without SiO2 transition layer d2 = 0nm CONCLUSION transition layer.. TTE1 and ER1 refer to the grating with SiO2 transition layer. TTM1.Middle-East J. It is clear that the TTM has been greatly increased by inserting the sub-wavelength Ag/ dielectric grating into the system. 2014 Fig. The results showed that the transmission and extinction ratio are affected by the gratings geometrical parameters. TTE1 and ER1 refer to the gratings with SiO2 transition layer.

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