1 Mark


Govt. Examination Q & A
3 Mark

(2006 to 2013)

5 Mark

Q -70 Compulsory problems (Solved)


1 Mark


3 Mark


5 Mark


Q-70 Compulsory problems (Solved) 220
List of Mechanisms


Blue Print


Rankers Education
Trichy 9843 113 114




En = –

, If the value of En = –34.84 to which value „n‟ corresponds

a) 4

b) 3

c) 2


d) 1


Dual character of an electron was explained by
[Mar-2006, Sep-2007, Sep-2008, June-2009, June-2010]
a) Bohr
b) Heisenberg
c) de-Broglie
d) Pauli


de-Broglie équation is
a) λ =


[June-2006, Sep-2009, Mar-2012, Sep-2012]
c) λ =
d) λ =

b) λ = hmv


Which of the following particle having same kinetic energy, would have the maximum de-Broglie
wave length?
a) α-particle
b) proton
c) β-particle
d) neutron


If the energy of an electron in the second Bohr orbit of H-atom is -E, what is the energy of the
electron in the Bohr‟s first orbit?
a) 2E
b) – 4E
c) –2E
d) 4E


The bond order of oxygen molecule is
a) 2.5
b) 1


[Sep-2010, Sep-2011]
d) 2

c) 3

The hybridisation in SF6 molecule is
a) sp3
b) sp3d2

[Mar-2008, Mar-2010, Sep-2013]
d) sp3d3


c) sp d


The intramolecular hydrogen bonding is present in
[June-2007, Mar-2009, Mar-2011, June-2010, June-2013]
a) o-nitrophenol
b) m-nitrophenol
c) p-nitrophenol
d) None


Which one of the following experiments confirmed the wave nature of electron?
a) G.P. Thomson’s gold foil experiment
b) Black body radiation
c) Photoelectric effect
d) Milliken‟s oil drop experiment


The momentum of a particle which has de-Broglie wave length of 1Ǻ is

a) 6.6 × 10

kg ms



b) 6.6 × 10

kg ms


c) 6.6 × 10


kg ms


[Mar-2006, Mar-2011]
d) 6.6 × 1034kg ms–1


The circumference of the circular orbit of the electron must be an integral multiple of --------[Sep-2006]
a) Frequency
b) Momentum
c) Mass
d) Wavelength


Number of spherical nodes in 2s- orbital is
a) 1
b) 2

c) 3

d) 4

www. 23.5 d) 2 15.13. 18. Energy levels of molecular orbitals have been determined experimentally by a) spectroscopic studies b) x-ray diffraction c) crystallographic studies 16. 14. 19.kalvisolai. Sep-2010] d) sp3d4 The hybridization involved in XeF6 is a) sp3d3 b) sp3d2 c) sp3d [June-2007. Molecular orbital with the least energy is ------------a) 1s b) *1s c) 2py 17. The bond order of nitrogen molecule is [June-2006. This is due to a) high boiling point b) low boiling point [June-2008] c) freezing point is zero d)hydrogen bond 26. 21. [Sep-2007] d) none [Sep-2011] d) *2py The type of hybridization of I in ICl4ˉ is a) sp3 b) sp3d2 c)dsp d) sp d The nature of hybridization in IF7 molecule is a) sp3d2 b) sp3d4 c) sp3d3 [Sep-2006. June-2011] d) sp3 The type of hybridization of S in SO42ˉ is 3 3 a) sp b) sp d c) sp d) sp [Sep-2012] 2 3 [Mar-2009] 2 The hybridization in CO32ˉ ion is a) sp2 b) sp3 c) sp d) sp d The hybridization in PCl5 molecule is a) sp3d b) sp3d c) sp3 d) sp2 The type of hybridization of N in NH4+ ion is a) sp3 b) sp3d [Sep-2009] 3 [June-2012] [Mar-2012] c) sp 2 d) sp 24. Intermolecular hydrogen bonding is present in a) orthonitrophenol b)salicylic acid c) orthohydroxybenzaldehyde The molecular orbitals are fi1led according to a) Pauli's exclusion principle b) Hund‟s rule c) Aulbau principle 27. Inter-molecular hydrogen bonding is present in a) HF b) H2O c) ethanol 25. Water exists in liquid [Mar-2007] d) all the above [Sep-2008] d) HF [Sep-2013] d) all the above . June-2013] a) 0 b) 1 c) 2 d) 3 In a molecule eight electrons are present in bonding molecular orbitals and four electrons are present in antibonding molecular orbitals. Its bond order is [Mar-2008] a) 3 b) 4 c) 2. 20. June-2012. 22.

com 198 [Mar-2012] d) 26. Radioactivity is due to a) Stable electronic configuration c) Unstable nucleus 5.7.3645 × 10–-10 s–1 a) 0. What will be the [Mar-2011.  4 Be 8 takes place due to The reaction 5 B 8  a) α decay b) β decay c) electron capture 4. Sep-2010] a) α particle b) deuteron c) proton d) neutron 3. June-2012. 15. Mar-2013] d) β particle [Sep-2006. The halflife period is [Mar-2006.1465 × 10 –8 s–1 d) 0. how many α and β particles are [Sep-2013] c) 3α and 5β d) 5α and 5β 89 y 139 . In the following radioactive decay. www. [June-2008] d) positron decay [Mar-2007. June-2009.6 days c) 261 days 8 8   In a reaction 5B 4Be + ? a) α-particle b) β-particle c) electron capture β-particle is represented as a) +1e0 b) –1e0 c) 1H1 14. 2. Half-life period of a radioactive element is 100 seconds. Sep-2011] b) Decrease of one neutron only d) None of these 10. 235 92U nucleus absorbs a neutron and disintegrates into 54 Xe product x? a) 3 neutrons b) 2 neutrons c) α particle 7. Half-life of 79Au nucleus s 150 days. The most penetrating radiations are [Sep-2009] a) α rays b) β rays c) γ rays d) all are equally penetrating Which one of the following particles is used to bombard 13 Al 27 to give 15 P 30 and a neutron [June-2006. After 24 hours 0.1465 × 10 s 12. Loss of a β-particle is equivalent to a) Increase of one proton only c) Both (a) and (b) 8.1 days [June-2011] d) positron [June-2013] d) 2He4 . The average life is a) 216 days b) 21. 38 Sr 94 and x. Sep-2007. Mar-2009. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY 1. Sep-2012] a) 24 hours b) 12 hours c) 8 hours d) 16 hours 15 12 When 7N is bombarded with a proton it gives 6C and --------[June-2007] a) α-particle b) β-particle c) neutron d) proton 9.2465 × 10–10 s–1 c) 0.125 g of the initial quantity of 1 g of a radioactive isotope is left out. Its average life period is [Mar-2010] a) 100 seconds b) 50 seconds c) 200 seconds d) 144 seconds 13. June-2010] b) Stable nucleus d) Unstable electronic configuration 92 x 232   220 . Half-life period of a radioactive element is 1500 years. The value of disintegration constant in terms of seconds is [Sep-2008] –10 –1 b) 0. In a nuclear reaction -------. ejected? a) 3α and 3β b) 5α and 3β balanced on both sides [Mar-2008] a) mass b) number of atoms c) mass number d) atomic number and mass number 11.kalvisolai.

June-2013] a) Superconductors b) n-type semiconductors c) p-type semiconductors d) Insulators 5. Sep-2010] a) One unit cell b) Two unit cell c) 8 unit cell d) 4 unit cell 7.June-2010.2012] 4. In the Bragg‟s equation for diffraction of X-rays. Sep-2008] d) FeS The coordination number of ZnS is a) 3 b) 4 c) 6 d) 8 [Mar-2010] The crystal lattice with coordination number four is a) CsCl b) ZnO c) BN [Sep-2012] d) NaCl 13. The size of the anion in Frenkel defect crystal is a) larger than the cation b) smaller than the cation c) equal in size with cation d) both are larger in size [June-2009] 15. SOLID STATE – II 1.kalvisolai. www. The Bragg‟s equation is a) λ = 2d sinθ b) nd = 2λ sinθ c) 2λ = nd sinθ [Mar-2011] d) nλ = 2d sinθ The crystal structure of CsCl is a) Simple cubic b) face-centred cubic c) Tetragonal [ Sep-2006 ] d) Body centred cubic An example for Frenkel defect is a) NaCl b) AgBr c) CsCl d) FeS 2. The total number of atoms per unit cell in fcc is a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 Which one of the following crystal has 8 : 8 structure? a) MgF2 b) CsCl c) KCl [Mar-2013] 16. [June .2011] b) Cu2O c) MoS2 d) Ru An example of metal deficiency defect a) NaCl b) AgCl c) CsCl [Mar-2008. June-2007.2012] a) 6 b) 4 c) 12 d) 8 In a simple cubic cell. [June-2008] d) Order of reflection 8. Mar . 12.‟n‟ represents a) number of moles b) Avogadro number c) quantum number 6. 3. Semiconductors which exhibit conductivity due to the flow of excess negative electrons are called [ d) 4 [Sep-2013] d) NaCl .Sep-2011] a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 9. This defect is called as [March-2007] a) Schottky defect b) Frenkel defect c) Impurity defect d) Vacancy defect 14.Sep-2009. The number of close neighbours in a body centred cubic lattice of identical spheres is [Mar-2009. each point on a corner is shared by [Mar -2006. An ion leaves its regular site and occupies a position in the space between the lattice sites. 11.8.2006. The total number of atoms per unit cell in bcc is [Sep-2007. Rutile is a) TiO2 10. [June .

Mar-2011] d) 3-nitro propanol 6. Sep-2011. Oxidation of aniline with acidified potassium dichromate gives a) p-benzo quinone b) benzoic acid c) benzaldehyde [Mar-2009] d) benzyl alcohol 13. Sep-2007. The compound that is most reactive towards electrophilic nitration is a) Toluene b) benzene c) benzoic acid [Mar-2007] d) nitrobenzene 5. Electrophile used in the nitration of benzene is a) hydronium ion b) sulphonic acid [June-2010. The isomerism exhibited by CH3CH2NO2 and CH3 CH2 – O – N = O is [Mar-2006. Mar-2008. June-2009. Which one of the following is a secondary amine? a) aniline b) diphenyl amine c) sec. June-2012. we get [Sep-2011.20. When nitromethane is reduced with Zn dust + NH4Cl in neutral medium. Mar-2013] a) Sn/HCl b) Zn dust c) Zn/NH4Cl d) Zn/NaOH 3. the intermediate formed is [June-2006. Sep-2009. June-2012] a) CH3NH2 b) C2H5NH2 c) CH3NHOH d) C2H5COOH 4. The organic compound that undergoes carbylamine reaction is [Sep-2006. Mar-2010] b) presence of nitrogen atom d) high electronegativity of nitrogen 10. Primary amine acts as a) Electrophile b) Lewis base c) Lewis acid [June-2008. In nitro alkanes –NO2 group is converted to –NH2 group by the reaction with [Sep-2006.HSO4 8.butylamine [Mar-2011] d) tert. Nitrobenzene on electrolytic reduction in con. Sep-2008. June-2010] d) Free radical 12. sulphuric . Mar-2013. The basic character of amines is due to the a) tetrahedral structure c) lone pair of electrons on nitrogen atom [June-2007. Sep-2011] a) position b) chain c) functional d) tautomerism 2.kalvisolai. Nitromethane condenses with acetaldehyde to give a) nitro propane b) 1-nitro-2-propanol c) 2-nitro-1-propanol [June-2007. Sep-2012] a) C6H5NH – NHC6H5 b) C6H5 – NHOH c) C6H5 – N = N – C6H5 d) C6H5. Which of the following compounds has the smell of bitter almonds? [June-2007. ORGANIC NITROGEN COMPOUNDS 1.butylamine www. Mar-2008. June-2011] a) aniline b) nitro methane c) benzene sulphonic acid d) nitrobenzene 7. June-2013] a) (C2H5)2 NH b) C2H5NH2 c) (C2H5)3 N d) (C2H5)4 N+ I – 11. Sep-2013] c) nitronium ion [NO2+] d) bromide ion 9.

b) CCl3NO2 [June-2008. Sep-2009. The reaction between benzene diazonium chloride and benzene in the presence of NaOH is [Sep-2007] a) Perkins reaction b) Gatterman‟s reaction c) Sand Meyer‟s reaction d) Gomberg Bachmann reaction 26. The compound used in the preparation of sulpha drugs is a) methyl amine b) nitro methane c) amino benzene [Sep-2006] d) nitro benzene 20. Sep-2012] a) m-toluidine b) aniline c) p-amino phenol d) benzyl amine 16. Which among the following is a tertiary amine? a) (CH3)3CNH2 b) (CH3)2CHNHCH3 c) (CH3)2-N-C2H5 www. Aniline differs from ethylamine by the reaction with [Mar-2007] a) metallic sodium b) an alkyl halide c) chloroform and caustic potash d) nitrous acid 17. Mar-2012] d) Aspirin 25.NaNO / HCl 14. Mar-2013] a) Sand Meyer’s reaction b) Stephen‟s reaction c) Gomberg reaction d) Schotten-Baumann reaction 19. June-2010. When aqueous solution of benzene diazonium chloride is boiled the product formed is [Mar-2009. June-2012] a) benzyl alcohol b) benzene + N2 c) phenol d) phenyl hydroxylamine 18. Conversion of benzene diazonium chloride to chloro benzene is called [Mar-2006. [Mar-2009] d) (C2H5)2C(CH3)NH2 . a) C6H5Cl b) C6H5NHOH 15. Oil of mirbane is a) nitro benzene c) methyl salicylate b) benzaldehyde [June-2008. Chloropicrin ( CCl3NO2 ) is used as a) soil sterilizing agent b) organic synthesis [Sep-2007. Sep-2013] c) C6H5N2Cl d) C6H5OH 23. Mar-2008. Mar-2011. The compound that does not show tautomerism is a) nitro benzene b) nitro methane c) nitro ethane [June-2006. C6H5NH2  2 X. Sep-2008. Which of the following will not undergo diazotisation? [June-2006. Nitro-acinitro tautomerism is exhibited by a) nitro methane b) nitro benzene c) CCl3NO2 [Mar-2007. Mar-2012. June-2011] c) good solvent d) antioxidant 24. Which one of the following will not undergo Hoffman‟s bromamide reaction? [Sep-2008] a) ethanamide b) propanamide c) methanamide d) phenyl methanamide 27.kalvisolai. Sep-2010. Identify X. Sep-2013] d) 2-nitropropane 21. June-2011] d) o-toluidene Chloropicrin is a) CCl3CHO c) CHCl3 [June-2013] d) CH3NO2 22.

[Sep-2010] d) hydrozobenzene [Sep-2009] [Sep-2012] d) Aniline 33. The compound X is a) C6H5Cl b) C6H5NHNH2 c) C6H6 www.kalvisolai.2-dimethylpropane 34. Aniline reacts with benzoyl chloride in the presence of sodium hydroxide and gives benzanilide. The tertiary nitro compound is a) 2-nitropropane c) 1-nitro-2. The compound X is C6H5N2Cl 2  a) C6H5NH2 b) C6H5NHNH2 c) C6H5-C6H5 H PO / Cu C6H5N2Cl 32  X + N2 + HCl. Which of the following nitro compounds behaves as an acid in the presence of strong alkali [Mar-2006] a) primary b) secondary c) tertiary d) both a and b [Mar-2010] d) C6H5Cl [Mar-2012] d) C6H5NO2 . The isomerism exhibited by [Sep-2010] O CH3-N O and O Nitroform a) Position b) Chain CH2=N is OH Acinitroform c) Functional d) Tautomerism 29. 37. The product obtained when nitrobenzene is treated with Zn / NaOH is a) aniline b) azoxybenzene c) azobenzene 31. The correct order of basic strength is a) NH3 < CH3NH2 < (CH3)2NH c) CH3NH2 < NH3 < (CH3)2NH b) NH3 > CH3NH2 > (CH3)2NH d) CH3NH2 > NH3 > (CH3)2NH Which one of the following is the most basic? a) Ammonia b) Methylamine c) Dimetylamine 32. The intermediate formed in the nitration of benzene is a) Arrenium ion b) Carbanion c) Oxonium ion 35. This reaction is known as [Mar-2010] a) Gattermann reaction b) Sandmeyer‟s reaction c) Schotten-Baumann reaction d) Gomberg-Bachmann reaction 36. [June-2009] b) 1-nitropropane d) 2-nitro-2-methylpropane [June-2009] d) Nitrite ion Cu Cl / HCl 2   X.

Al2(SO4)3. 24 H2O It is manufactured from alunite or alum stone. the alum is crystallised. It is used in water proofing of textiles and in dyeing and paper industry. Mar-2013] Lead is not attacked by pure water in the absence of air. 2. water proofing of textiles and in dyeing and paper industry.  2Pb(OH)2 2Pb + O2 + 2H2O  4. What is potash alum and how is it prepared? [March-2008] Potash Alum is K2 SO4. Mar-2008. the aluminium hydroxide part changes into aluminium sulphate. which arises from sp3 hybridisation of phosphorus atom. Sep-2006.kalvisolai. June-2007. It is used in purification of water. 3. What is inert pair effect? [Mar-2009] The tendency of being less availability of ns electron in bonding is known as inert pair effect. p -BLOCK ELEMENTS 1. Sep-2010. 4Al(OH)3.3 MARK 3. It is used to arrest bleeding Cl Cl . June-2009. Mar-2010. This phenomenon is called Plumbo solvency. June-2011] a) PCl3 PCl3 molecule has a pyramidal shape. but water containing dissolved air has a solvent action on it due to the formation of lead hydroxide (a poisonous substance). Write a note on plumbo solvency [June-2006.Electron of Cl P Cl www. It is finely powdered and boiled with dilute sulphuric acid. When a little more potassium sulphate in calculated amount is added. Al2(SO4)3. June-2011. Draw the electronic structure [electron dot formula] of a) PCl 3 b) PCl5 c) H3PO3 d) H3PO4 e) H4P2O7 (Any 2) [Sep-2008. xx Cl x P x Cl x Cl x- Electron of P . Write the uses of potash alum [Jue-2012] 1. 2. 5. Alunite or alum stone is K2SO4. One of the tetrahedral positions is occupied by a lone pair of electrons. The inert pair effect increases down the group with the increase in atomic number.

Why? [Sep-2009.Electron of O .com . O O xx x O O H H xxO H Electron of P . Mar-2010. Cl Cl x Cl Cl x x P Cl x x- Electron of P .  NaH2PO3 + H2O H3PO3 + NaOH  Sodium dihydrogen Phosphite  Na2HPO3 + 2H2O H3PO3 + 2NaOH  Disodium hydrogen Phosphite www.b) PCl5 PCl5 molecule has trigonal bipyramidal shape in vapour state which arises from sp3d hybridisation of phosphorus atom.Electron of H xx H Ox P x x O H H P OH HO H d) H3PO4 O O xx H Ox P x x- Electron of P .kalvisolai.Electron of H O HO P OH O P OH OH H3PO3 is diprotic or dibasic acid. June-2013] H3PO3 is a dibasic acid and gives salts of two types.Electron of Cl Cl Cl P Cl x Cl Cl c) H3PO3 O O x- Electron of P .Electron of H O H x O H P HO OH OH e) H4P2O7 O xx H Ox P xOx P x 6.Electron of O .Electron of O .

March-2007.  3H3PO4 + PH3 4H3 PO3  12. The product is evaporated below 453 K and then cooled in a vacuum desiccators surrounded by freezing mixture when crystals of orthophosphoric acid are deposited. June-2010. Write note on Holme’s signal [ . It is therefore. How is orthophosphoric acid prepared in laboratory? [June-2008] In the laboratory orthophosphoric acid can be prepared by boiling a mixture of red phosphorus with 50% nitric acid in a flask fitted with a reflux condenser on a water bath till no more oxides of nitrogen are liberated.  NaH2PO4 + H2O H3PO4 + NaOH  Sodium dihydrogen phosphate  Na2HPO4 + 2H2O H3PO4 + 2NaOH  Disodium hydrogen phosphate  Na3PO4 + 3H2O H3PO4 + 3NaOH  Sodium phosphate 8. This serves as a signal to the approaching ships. nitric acid and several organic compounds. Prove that P2O5 is a powerful dehydrating agent. Sep-2009] Containers which have a perforated bottom and a hole at the top are filled with calcium phosphide and calcium carbide. Mar-2012. used as a powerful dehydrating agent. March-2013][June-2007 – 5Mark] It is a tribasic acid. Iodine acts as a catalyst. Water enters the container through the bottom and reacts with calcium carbide and calcium phosphide to give acetylene and phosphine.7. Sep-2012] [Sep-2008 – 5Mark] Phosphorus pentoxide extracts water from many inorganic compound including sulphuric acid. www. Mar-2009. PO H2SO4 4 10   SO3 + H2O 2HNO3 4 10   N2O5 + H2O PO PO 9.kalvisolai. [Sep-2006. P + 5HNO3  H3PO4 + 5NO2 + H2O 11. Prove that H3PO4 is a tribasic acid (triprotic acid) [March-2006. 4 10  RCN + H2O RCONH2  Amide Nitrile How will you prove that H3PO3 is a powerful reducing agent? [June-2006] [June-2007 – 5Mark] H3PO3 is a powerful reducing agent because it has P-H bond.  2 PH3↑ + 3Ca(OH)2 Ca3P2 + 6H2O   C2H2 ↑ + Ca(OH)2 CaC2 + 2H2O  What is the action of heat on phosphorus acid? [June-2009] When H3PO3 is heated it undergoes auto-oxidation and reduction to form phosphoric acid and phosphine. Thus a bright red flame is produced which is accompanied by huge smoke due to the burning of phosphine.  2Ag + H3PO4 + 2HNO3 2AgNO3 + H2O + H3PO3  10. It combines with alkalies like NaOH to form three series of salts. It reduces silver nitrate solution into silver. Phosphine gets ignited spontaneously as it comes in contact with air and also ignites acetylene. These are thrown into the sea.

non-combustible and volatile liquids are used as refrigerants in refrigerators.13. What is the action of heat on ortho phosphoric acid? [Mar-2011] On heating it gives pyrophosphoric acid at 523 K and at 589 K gives metaphosphoric acid 523 K 2H3PO4   H4P2O7 + H2O 589 K H4P2O7   2HPO3 + H2O 14.  2F – + X2 (X– = Cl –. 17. Mar-2011. Fluorine is used in the manufacture of freons (dichlorodifluoro methane CF2 Cl2. HF is stored in wax bottles. Why is HF not stored in glass bottles? [March-2007. It oxidises other halide ions to halogens in solution or when dry.kalvisolai. Br –. Fluorine is the strongest oxidising agent. I–) F2 + 2X–  Halogen of low atomic number oxidises the halide ion of higher atomic number. 4. Discuss the oxidising power of fluorine [June-2007. NaF is used as a preservative to prevent fermentation and also for preventing dental cavities. How are xenon fluorides prepared? [Sep-2011] Xenon forms three binary fluorides XeF2 . These non-toxic. The oxidizing power decreases from fluorine to iodine. 673 K Xe + F2    XeF2 673 K Xe + 2F2    XeF4 573 K Xe + 3F2    XeF6 www.  Na2SiF6 + 3H2O Na2SiO3 + 6HF   SiF4 + 2H2O SiO2 + 4HF  So. 2. 16. deep freezers and air conditioners. Sep-2013] HF cannot be stored in glass or silica bottles as it attacks silicates and silica. Sep-2011.). Teflon is used as container to store hydrofluoric acid. What are interhalogen compounds? How are they formed? [Sep-2008. CaF2 is used as flux in metallurgy. June-2012] Each halogen combines with another halogen to form several compounds known as interhalogen compounds. Write the uses of fluorine [Sep-2012] 1. . They can all be prepared by direct combination or by the action of a halogen on a lower interhalogen 473 K Cl2 + F2    2ClF 573 K Cl2 + 3F2    2ClF3 573 K IF5 + F2    IF7 18. XeF4 and XeF6 by the direct union of elements under appropriate experimental conditions. 3. June-2013] [Sep-2008 – 5Mark] Oxidizing property of the halogen is due to high electron affinity of halogen atoms.

Mixed with helium it is used to protect electrical instruments from high Voltages. It is also used in beacon lights for safety of air navigation as the light possesses fog and storm-penetrating power. Write the uses of Neon? [June-2008. 3. THERMODYNAMICS – II 1. the heat of vaporisation (ΔHvap) in calories per mole divided by the boiling point of the liquid in Kelvin is a constant equal to 21 cal deg-1 mole-1 and is known as the entropy of vapourisaiton. 20. ΔSvap = ΔH vap Tb = 21 Cal deg–1 mol–1 ΔHvap = Enthalpy change of vapourisation = Latent heat of . 9. Give any three uses of helium. Sep-2010. Neon is used in discharge tubes and fluorescent bulbs for advertisement display purposes. This equation is useful for estimating the molar heat of vaporisation of a liquid of known boiling point. S= q T S = entropy. 2. www. Sep-2013] 1. Mar-2012. q = heat involved. June-2010. A mixture of oxygen and helium is used in the treatment of asthma.19. 3.kalvisolai. [Sep-2007] 1. Neon light is used in botanical gardens as it stimulates growth and helps the formation of chlorophyll. T = temperature of the process Units of entropy: cgs unit of entropy is cal K–1 (or) eu SI unit of entropy is J K–1 (or) EU (1 eu = 4.184 EU) 2. 4. It is a state function. Because of its lightness it is used in inflating aeroplane tyres. What is entropy? What are the units of entropy? [March-2006] Entropy is a measure of randomness or disorder of the molecules of a system. State Trouton’s rule [June-2009] According to Trouton‟s rule. Because of its lightness and non-inflammability helium is used to filling balloons for meteorological observations 2.

ΔG = ΔH – TΔS 5. What is Gibb’s free energy? [June-2006] Gibb‟s free energy G is defined .216 k Cal K–1 = 1216 Cal K–1 ΔS rev = 373 T www. ΔG < 0. Entropy is a measure of randomness or disorder of the molecules of a system A system always spontaneously changes from ordered to a disordered state. Low boiling liquids such as hydrogen and Helium which boil only a little above 0 K 2. if ΔH and ΔS are the changes in enthalpy and entropy of the system. How ΔG is related to ΔH and ΔS? What is the meaning of ΔG = 0? ΔG = ΔH – TΔS Where. Liquids such as acetic acid whose molecules are partially associated in the vapor phase and possess very low entropy vaporization which is very much less than 21 cal deg-1 mol-1 4. Give Kelvin – Planck statement of second law of thermodynamics [Mar-2007. G = H – TS where H = enthalpy or heat content of the system.6 k. June-2012] q rev 453. Give Clausius statement of second law of thermodynamics [June-2007] “It is impossible to transfer heat from a cold body to a hot body by a machine without doing some work”. 9. Sep-2012.3.kalvisolai. June-2013] “It is impossible to construct an engine operating in a complete cycle which will absorb heat from a single body and convert it completely to work without leaving some changes in the working system”. 8. 10. June-2011] 1. Therefore entropy of a spontaneous process is constantly increasing. What type of liquids or substances deviate from Trouton’s rule? [Sep-2006. What is the nature of reaction when ΔG > 0. ΔG = free energy change ΔH = changes in enthalpy ΔS = changes in entropy T = Temperature in Kelvin [Sep-2010] If ΔG = 0 then the process is in equilibrium (reversible) 6. [Sep-2011] What is the entropy change of an engine that operates at 100°C when 453. then free energy change ΔG is given by. T = Temperature in Kelvin S = entropy In an isothermal process. Polar substances like water. Sep-2009. ΔG = 0 ? ΔG > 0 : Non spontaneous ΔG < 0 : Spontaneous ΔG = 0 : Equilibrium 7.6 = =1. alcohol which form hydrogen bonded liquids and exhibit very high boiling points as well as high ΔHvap of heat is supplied to it? [Sep-2007. Give Entropy statement of second law of thermodynamics [Sep-2008] „A process accompanied by increase in entropy tends to be spontaneous”.

864 J K–1 mol–1 & Tb = 76. For a chemical reaction the values of ΔH and ΔS at 300 K are –10 k Cal mol–1 and 20 Cal deg–1mol–1 respectively. water (liq) to water (vapour. June-2010] ΔH = –10 k Cal mol–1 = –10. ΔH vap Tb = 40850 = 109.000 Cal mol–1 ΔS = 20 Cal.7 = 30726 J mol–1 = 30.517 J K–1 mol –1 373 Calculate the entropy change involved in the conversion of 1 mole of ice at 0oC and 1 atm to liquid at 0oC and 1 atm.864 × 349.184) (273 + 61.7oC and ΔS =87. Sep-2013] ΔSvap = 15.11.7 + 273 = 349. Calculate the change of entropy for the process. Calculate the molar heat of vapourisation of the ideal liquid CCl 4 (B.007 J K–1 mol –1 273 .726 kJ mol–1 6008 = 22.000 – (300 × 20) = –16000 Cal mol–1 12.5)K = 29390 J mol–1 = 29.390 kJ mol–1 14. The enthalpy of fusion per mole of ice is 6008 J mol–1 [Mar-2009] 0 C  H2O ( l ) H2O ( s )  Ice water ΔSfusion = ΔH fusion Tm ΔHfusion = 6008 J mol–1 & Tm = 0oC + 273 = 273 K  ΔSfusion = www. 373 K) involving ΔHvap = 40850 J mol –1 at 373 K [Mar-2010. What is the value of ΔG of the reaction? [June-2008.kalvisolai.Pt 76.7 K Δ H vap = 87.5oC) [March-2012] ΔSvap = ΔH vap Tb Δ H vap = (21 cal mol–1 K–1 × 4.864 J K-1 mol–1) [March-2008] ΔSvap = ΔH vap Tb ΔS = 87. Calculate the molar heat of vapourisation of the ideal liquid CHCl3 (B.deg–1 mol–1 ΔG = ΔH – TΔS = –10.Pt 61. ethyl alcohol H+ CH3 COOC2H5 + H2O ethyl acetate . This reaction is called esterification.2 % 17. Calculate the maximum % efficiency possible from a thermal engine operating between 110°C and 25°C [Mar-2011] % efficiency  T  = 1  2  × 100  T1 = 110°C + 273 = 383 K T1  T2 = 25°C + 273 = 298 K  298  = 1   × 100  383  = 22. CH3 CO OH + H O C2H5 acetic acid www. Calculate the entropy change for the following process possessing ΔH(transition) =2090 Jmol–1 1 mole Sn (α. 13ºC) [Mar-2013] T(transition) = 13°C + 273 = 286 K ΔS(transition) = ΔH transition 2090 = = 7. ii) CH 3COOH Formula Source Trivial name HCOOH Red ant Formic acid CH3COOH vinegar Acetic acid C3H7COOH Butter Butyric acid C4H9COOH Root of valarion plant Valeric acid C11H23COOH Laurel oil Lauric acid iii) C3H7COOH [June-2007] Write a note on esterification reaction with an example [June-2006] Carboxylic acids react with alcohols in the presence of mineral acid as catalyst and form esters. CARBOXYLIC ACIDS 1. Give the source and trivial names of i) HCOOH iv) C4H9COOH v) C11H23COOH 2.307 J K–1 mol –1 Ttransition 286 19. 13ºC) ⇌ 1 mole Sn (β.kalvisolai.

H O R C C OH Br2 PBr3 H O R C C Br Br2 PBr3 R C C Br H H H Br O Br O H OH R C C OH H COOH dil. it does not reduce Tollen's reagent.3. but acetic acid does not-Give reason [Sep-2007. It reduces Tollens reagent and Fehling‟s solution. Formic acid reduces Tollen's reagent. H2SO4 acid it dissociates to acetaldehyde and formic acid OH CH3 CH www.kalvisolai. Write the tests for carboxylic acid [June-2009. It reduces blue coloured cupric ions to red coloured cuprous ions. This reaction is known as Hell-Volhard Zelinsky reaction. Sep-2012.  CO2 + H2O + 2Ag ↓ (Metallic silver) H-COOH + Ag2O  b) Formic acid reduces Fehling‟s solution.  CO2 + H2O + Cu2O H-COOH + 2CuO  Blue Red Since acetic acid does not contain aldehyde group. Hence it can act as a reducing agent.H 2SO 4 CH3CHO + HCOOH [Mar-2008] . Sep-2010. O H C O OH H OH C a) Formic acid reduces ammoniacal silver nitrate solution (Tollen‟s reagent) to metallic silver. Mar-2013] 1. Sep-2008. 4. Carboxylic acids give brisk effervescence with sodium bi-carbonate due to the evolution of carbon-di-oxide 3. What is the action of dilute sulphuric acid with lactic acid? With dil. Aqueous solution of carboxylic acids turn blue litmus into red colour 2. Write a note on HVZ reaction [Sep-2006] Carboxylic acids having α-hydrogen atoms can be converted to α-halo acids by halogen and phosphorus trihalide. On warming carboxylic acids with alcohol and concentrated sulphuric acid it forms ester which is identified from its fruity odour 6. June-2012] Formic acid is unique because it contains both an aldehyde group and carboxyl group. Sep-2009.

Write a note on trans esterification [Mar-2006] In presence of a little acid. 9. Write the tests for salicylic acid [Mar-2010] . How is methyl salicylate prepared? [June-2008] On heating salicylic acid with methyl alcohol in presence of con. OH OH H2SO4 + + H2O H OCH3 COOCH3 CO OH Methyl salicylate Methyl salicylate is present in the oil of winter green. O O + CH3 C O CH3 C2H5 OH H CH3 O C2H5 + CH3OH C Ethyl acetate Methyl alcohol 8. methyl acetate is cleaved by ethyl alcohol to form ethyl acetate. 3. What is aspirin? Write its preparation and use [Mar-2011] Acetyl salicylic acid is known as aspirin Salicylic acid undergoes acetylation by heating with acetic anhydride to form aspirin which is used as an analgesic and antipyretic. An aqueous solution of salicylic acid gives violet colour with neutral ferric chloride. With Bromine water the colour is discharged with the formation of white precipitate. This is called ‘trans esterification’. 2.kalvisolai. It is soluble in sodium hydroxide and reprecipitated on acidification.7. O OH O + CH 3 C O C CH 3 O O C CH 3 + CH3COOH COOH COOH Acetyl salicylic acid or Aspirin www.H2SO4 a pleasant smelling liquid-methyl salicylate is formed. It gives effervescence with sodium bicarbonate. 10. 4.

trichloro acetic acid [Sep-2013] Cl is electron withdrawing group (–I effect). 3. What happens when lactic acid is treated with PCl5? Write the equation With PCl5 lactic acid forms lactyl chloride. di. Sodium benzoate is used as food preservative 3. Write the uses of lactic acid 1. in manufacture of ink and metal polishes. [June-2010] [Mar-2007. 2. Silver lactate as an antiseptic and astringent.11. trichloro acetic acid varies in the order. 3. 2. In tanning industry. it decreases the strength of the –O–H bond and hence the release of hydrogen becomes easy. Sep-2011] [June-2013] . Thus the strength of mono. www. 4. Benzoic acid is used as an urinary antiseptic 2. Mention the uses of oxalic acid 1. So. Three chlorine atoms in trichloro acetic acid withdraw the electrons more powerfully making the acid very strong. Redox titration 15. 14. CH3 C H COOH PCl5 OH 12.kalvisolai. 4. for removing ink stains and iron stains. Benzoic acid vapours are used to disinfect bronchial tube. Mar-2009. di. In the treatment of digestive disorder in children. It is used for the manufacture of dyes. CCl3COOH > CHCl2COOH > CH2ClCOOH 13. Write the uses of benzoic acid 1. June-2011. [Mar-2012] CH3 C H COCl Cl Lactyl chloride Compare the strength of mono. as mordant in dyeing and calico printing. In soft drinks.

KCl. . 8 Ne type configuration Ar type configuration 3. Sep-2010. (3) * * where. 8 Cl– .. Z*(C+) and Z*(A–) are known..5 MARK 2.internuclear distance between C+ and A– ions in C+A– ionic crystal 4. (4) 5.radius of anion. Mar-2010. The cations and anions of an ionic crystal are assumed to be in contact with each other and hence the sum of their radii will be equal to the inter nuclear distance between them.2. Pauling has calculated the radii of the ions on the basis of the observed internuclear distances in four crystals namely NaF.2. A– d(C+–A–) . Mar-2012] 1. PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION – II 1.2.. the radius of an ion is inversely proportional to its effective nuclear charge. For a given noble gas configuration. (1) where r(C+) .2. Sep-2011.radius of cation. In each ionic crystal the cations and anions are isoelectronic with inert gas configuration. 2. r(C+) + r(A–) = d (C+–A–) …. RbBr and CsI. r(C+)  1 Z (C  ) ……. 8 K+ .e. Hence the above two equations (1) & (4) can be used to evaluate the values of r(C+) and r(A–) provided that the values of d(C+–A–). C+ r(A–) . NaF crystal : KCl crystal : Na+ . Z*(C+) & Z*(A–) are the effective nuclear charges of cation (C+) and anion (A–) respectively. June-2010. On combining (2) & (3) r(C  ) Z* (A  )  r(A  ) Z* (C  ) ……. 8 F– . Explain Pauling’s Method to determine ionic radii [Mar-2006. www. i. 8. (2) r(A–)  1 Z (A  ) ……. Sep-2009..kalvisolai.

d-. Mar-2009. Because of the higher nuclear charge.kalvisolai. Sep-2013] 1) Atomic size Electron affinity  1 Size of atom Smaller the size of an atom.2. www. Mar-2007. c) Effect of number of electrons in the inner shells (Screening or shielding effect) The attractive force exerted by the nucleus on the most loosely bound electron is atleast partially counterbalanced by the repulsive forces exerted by the electrons present in the inner shells. Sep-2006. Consequently. the electron in the valence shell experiences less attraction from the nucleus. June-2011. lesser energy is required for removal of electrons from larger atoms than the smaller one. b) Magnitude of nuclear charge The higher the nuclear charge of protons in the nucleus. the ionization energy decreases in the order : s > p > d > f e) Effect of arrangement of electrons The more stable the electronic arrangement. the nuclear attraction for adding electron decreases. the greater is the ionization energy. June-2007. lesser is the ionization energy. they show maximum ionization energy. The electron to be removed is thus shielded from the nucleus by the electrons in the inner shell. i. This is due to the fact that electrons are tightly held in smaller atoms whereas in large atoms. Thus. June-2013] The ionization energy depends upon the following factors: a) Size of atom The ionization energy decreases with the increasing size of atom. As s-electrons remain closer to the nucleus than p-. nuclear attraction for adding electron increases. June-2012. stable electronic arrangements. Explain the factors which affect electron affinity [June-2006.e. the higher is the ionization energy. atom will have less tendency to attract additional electron towards itself. [June-2008. greater is its electron affinity. the electrons are bound with more force and hence higher energy will be required for their . d) Effect of shape of orbital The shape of orbital also influences the ionization potential. and f-electrons of the same valence shell. As the noble gases have completely filled. electrons are held quite loose. Explain the factors which affect ionization energy. Hence ionization energy is lower for larger atoms and higher for smaller atoms. 3. As the effective nuclear charge of atom increases.. Hence the ionisation energy will be low. As the size of atom increases. 2) Effective nuclear charge Electron affinity  Effective nuclear charge. The larger the size of atom.

e. XA and XB are the electronegativities of A and B respectively.. less will be the electron affinity. 4.kalvisolai. Disadvantage of Pauling scale The disadvantage of Pauling‟s scale is that bond energies are not known with any degree of accuracy for many solid elements. Consider a bond A-B between two dissimilar atoms A and B of a molecule AB. lying between nucleus and outermost state hinder the nuclear attraction for incoming electron. EA-B > E A  A  E B B  =EA-B – E A  A  E B B The difference () is related to the difference in the electronegativities of A and B according to the following equation  = (XA – XB)2 Δ = (XA – XB) 0. EB-B and EA-B . www. It may be seen that the bond dissociation energy of A-B is almost higher than the geometric mean of the bond dissociation energies of A-A and B-B bonds i. Pauling calculated electronegativities of other elements with the help of this equation. Disadvantage of Mulliken scale: Electron affinities with the exception of a few elements are not reliably known.208 Δ = (XA – XB) Here.3) Shielding or Screening Effect Electron affinity  1 Shielding effect Electronic energy state. Explain the Pauling’s scale for the determination of electronegativity [Mar-2008. This is because their atoms have stable ns2 np6 configuration in their valence shell and there is no possibility for addition of an extra electron. Therefore. greater the number of inner lying state. B-B and A-B bonds be represented as EA-A. Electron affinities of inert gases are zero. The factor 0.208 arises from the conversion of Kcals to electron volt.1. Let the bond energies of A-A. 4) Electronic Configuration The electronic configurations of elements influence their electron affinities to a considerable extent. Considering arbitarily the electronegativity of hydrogen to be 2. Sep-2012] This scale is based on an empirical relation between the energy of a bond and the electronegativities of bonded atoms.

Electronegativity XA = XB.e.XB = 0 XA > XB i.e.XB is small XA >> XB i. Mar-2011] The concept of electronegativity can be used to predict whether the bond between similar or dissimilar atoms is non-polar covalent bond. June-2009.XB is very large Nature of A-B bond Representation Non polar covalent bond A–B Polar covalent bond Aδ––Bδ+ Ionic bond A – B+ Example H –H O δ –-H δ+ in H2O Na+Cl – 2) Percentage of ionic character in a polar covalent bond [ Sep-2008] Pauling estimated the percentage of ionic character in various Aδ–-Bδ+ polar covalent bonds from known (XA–XB) values and has derived the following conclusions: Electronegativity difference (XA–XB) = 1. polar covalent bond (or) ionic bond. XA . i.5. XA.7 (XA–XB) > Bond character ionic character = 50% covalent character =50% ionic character < 50% covalent character >50% ionic character > 50% covalent character <50% Bond type Representation 50% ionic and 50% covalent Aδ ––Bδ+ Predominantly covalent A–B Predominantly ionic A – B+ . Write the applications of electronegativity 1) Nature of bond [Sep-2007.kalvisolai.7 (XA–XB) < 1.7 www. XA .

Sep-2007] i) Functional Isomerism Ethers are functional isomers of alcohols as both have the same general formula diethylether methyl isopropylether . CH3 O CH2 CH2 CH3 CH3 CH2 O CH2 CH3 CH3 O CH CH3 CH3 methyl n-propylether www. Write a note on the type of isomerism exhibited by ethers [June-2006.17.kalvisolai. same functional group. Molecular formula C2H6O Ethers Alcohols CH3–O– CH3 dimethyl ether CH3CH2OH ethyl alcohol CH3–CH2–CH2–OH n-propyl alcohol CH3–O–CH2–CH3 Ethyl methyl ether OH C3H8O CH3 CH CH3 isopropyl alcohol C4H10O CH3–CH2–O–CH2–CH3 Diethyl ether CH3–CH2–CH2–CH2–OH n-butyl alcohol CH3– O–CH2–CH2–CH3 Methyl n-propyl ether CH3 C H CH3 Isobutyl alcohol CH3 O CH CH3 OH CH3 Methyl isopropyl ether CH2 OH CH3 CH2 CH CH3 sec. ETHERS 1.butyl alcohol CH3 CH3 C OH CH3 tert. differing only in the nature of the alkyl group attached to oxygen.butyl alcohol ii) Metamerism It is a special isomerism in which molecules with same formula. [Sep-2010] . c.kalvisolai. How does diethyl ether react with PCl5. Mar-2008. H SO 2  4  C2H5 – O – C2H5 + H2O C2H5 – O – H + H – O – C2H5    b. C2H5–O–C2H5 + H–O–H H SO 4  2 C2H5OH 2 Ethyl alcohol c) PCl5  2C2H5 Cl + POCl3 C2H5–O–C2H5 + PCl5  Ethyl chloride 4.2. June-2011] a) Air or O2 / long contact C2H5–O–C2H5 (O)   (C2H5)2O2 Diethyl peroxide Diethyl peroxide is unstable and decomposes violently with explosion on heating. b) dil. How does ether react with the following? a) Air or O2 / long contact b) dil. Give the methods of preparing diethyl ether [June-2007. Mar-2013] a.H2SO4 c) PCl5 [Mar-2007. Δ C2H5 – I + Ag2O + I – C2H5  C2H5 – O – C2H5 + 2AgI 3. H2SO4 two molecules condense losing a molecule of water forming ether. Mar-2012. con. one equivalent of HI and excess of HI? a) PCl5  2C2H5 Cl + POCl3 C2H5–O–C2H5 + PCl5  Ethyl chloride b) With one equivalent of HI  C2H5OH + C2H5I C2H5 – O – C2H5 + HI  Ethyl alcohol Ethyl iodide c) With excess of HI  2C2H5I + H2O C2H5– O – C2H5 + 2HI  Ethyl iodide www.H2SO4 Ethers on boiling with water in presence dilute acids are hydrolysed to form alcohols. From alkyl halides Ethers may be prepared by heating alkyl halides with dry silver oxide.simple and mixed ethers.  C2H5 – O – C2H5 + NaBr C2H5Br + NaOC2H5  This method is suitable to prepare all kinds of ethers . Hence ether should not be evaporated to dryness. Williamson’s synthesis Ethers are prepared by heating alkyl halides with sodium or potassium alkoxide. Intermolecular dehydration of alcohol When excess of alcohol is heated with con.

How do ethers react with HI? Give the significance of the reaction With one equivalent of HI [Mar-2006]  C2H5OH + CH3I C2H5 – O – CH3 + HI  Halogen (I) prefers to attack the carbon atom of the smaller alkyl C6H5OH + CH3I .5. Using diazomethane  C6H5–O–CH3 + N2 C6H5 –O–H + CH2 –N2  phenol diazomethane Anisole c. How is anisole prepared? Write its chemical properties and uses [June-2008. June-2012. Using dimethyl sulphate C6H5 –O–H + (CH3)2 –SO4 phenol dimethyl sulphate NaOH  C6H5–O–CH3 + CH3HSO4 Anisole Chemical properties 1. Anisole reacts with hydroiodic acid to give phenol and methyl iodide C6H5 _ O _ CH3 H _I www. 6. With excess hot concentrated hydroidic acid  CH3I + C2H5I + H2O CH3 – O – C2H5 + 2HI  This reaction is used in the Zeisel’s method of detection and estimation of alkoxy (especially methoxy) group in natural products like alkaloids. Sep-2012. Williamson’s synthesis  C6H5–O–CH3 + NaI C6H5ONa + CH3–I  sodium phenoxide Anisole b. Anisole forms oxonium compounds with Lewis acids AlCl3 C6H5_O_CH3 AlCl3 C6H5_O_CH3 BF3 C6H5_O_CH3 BF3 C6H5_O_CH3 2. Mar-2009. June-2013] a.

HNO3 and con. Give the differences between aromatic ether and aliphatic ether [Sep-2006. It is used in perfumery. June-2010. Reaction due to the benzene ring : Electrophilic substitution reactions –OCH3.HNO3 + con.H2SO4 NO2 b) Bromination yields ortho bromoanisole and para bromoanisole OCH3 OCH3 OCH3 Br2 Br + Br Uses of anisole 1. para –directing. June-2009. 7. www. group increase the reactivity of the benzene ring with respect to electrophilic attack and is ortho.3. Sep-2009. used as a substitute for petrol 5 On heating with HI forms phenol and CH3I only It forms C2H5OH.H2SO4 it gives a mixture of ortho and para nitro anisole OCH3 OCH3 OCH3 NO2 con. Sep-2013] No 1 Aromatic ether (Anisole) Comparatively high boiling liquid Aliphatic ether (Diethyl ether) Volatile liquid 2 Used in perfumery Used as anaesthetic 3 Not used as solvent Used as a solvent 4 Can not be used as a substitute for petrol Mixed with . It is used as a starting material in organic synthesis. a) With a mixture of con. 2. Sep-2008. and C2H5I 6 With nitrating mixture forms nitro anisoles Nitration does not take place 7 Does not form peroxide easily Forms peroxide in air.Mar-2011. Sep-2011.

kalvisolai.5H2O (Blue Vitriol) Silver nitrate AgNO3 (Lunar Caustic) Zinc carbonate ZnCO3 (Calamine) Zinc oxide ZnO (Philosopher‟s wool) Purple of Cassius (Colloidal gold) www.(Q-70) d-BLOCK ELEMENTS Hints: Group Period 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn 5 Ag 6 Au Element Cr Cu Ag Au Zn Group 6 11 11 11 12 Period 4 4 5 6 4 Metallic compound Potassium dichromate K2Cr2O7 Potassium chromate K2CrO4 Coppersulphate pentahydrate Colour Silvery white metal Reddish brown metal White lustrous metal Lustrous yellow metal Bluish white metal Colour Orange red crystal Yellow Blue White White powder White cloud Purple or red .

Mar-2009] a)  3AgNO3 + NO + 2H2O 3Ag + 4HNO3 (dil)  Compound (A) is AgNO3 b) 2AgNO3    2AgNO2 + O2 Compound (B) is AgNO2 c) AgNO2    Ag + NO2 Element (C) is Ag d)  AgBr + KNO3 AgNO3 + KBr  Compound (D) is AgBr which is highly useful in photography. It is a reddish brown metal. (A) reacts with HCl in the presence of air and gives compound (B).(B) and (C). (B) on further heating gives (C). [Mar-2006. (A) is a reddish brown metal. Identify (A). (A) also reacts with conc.kalvisolai. Explain the AgNO3 AgNO2 Ag AgBr Silver nitrate Silver nitrite Silver Silver bromide .(C) and (D) and explain the reactions. HNO3 to give compound (C) with the liberation of NO2.(B). Identify (A). [June-2006 . Further compound (A) reacts with KBr and gives (D) which is highly useful in photography. HNO3 to give compound (A) which on heating at 723K gives (B).1. b)  2CuCl2 + 2H2O 2Cu + 4HCl + O2  Compound (B) is CuCl2 c)  Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO2 + 2H2O Cu + 4HNO3 (con)  Compound (C) is Cu(NO3)2 A B C 2. 723 K 980 K A B C D www. Cu CuCl2 Cu(NO3)2 copper Cupric chloride Cupric nitrate Silver reacts with dil. An element (A) belongs to group number 11 and period number 4. June-2011] a) Element (A) is copper: Group = 11 and period = 4.

Ka = 8. pOH of basic buffer. Specific conductance = Cell constant × Conductance 11. Ionic product of water Kw =[H+] [OH–] = 1 10–14 mol2 dm–6 7. pH = pKa + log 5.kalvisolai.   10. pH + pOH = 14 4. Equivalent conductance. Dissociation constant of the weak acid. pH of acidic buffer. C = www. [H+] [salt] [acid] [salt] [base] C 2 1  = Cα KaC = 1 l R a 9. pOH = pKb + log 6.(Q-70) ELECTRO CHEMISTRY-I Hints: 1. Molar conductance. pOH =  log 10 [OH  ] 3. Specific conductance. For weak   10  3 mho m2 mol–1 M . C = Cell constant Resistance 10 3 mho cm2 (gm equiv) –1 N C = 3  10 mho m2 (gm equiv) –1 N  13. pH =  log 10 [H  ] 2. Specific conductance  12.

Ka for acetic acid is 1. [June-2006. [Mar-2007] pOH [salt] [base] [salt] = –log Kb + log [base] = pKb + log = – log (1.20 mole per litre sodium acetate and 0.3010 – 1.8 × 10–5. Find the pH of a buffer solution containing 0.02 M NH4OH.kalvisolai.8696 3.2553 + 0.34 + log 1 = 5 – 0.34 × 10–5) + log 0. Sep-2007.5 M sodium propionate? The Ka of propionic acid is 1.8 × 10–5) + log 0.1.5 M propionic acid and 0.15 = 5 – log 1.15 mole per litre acetic acid. Calculate the pH of a buffer solution containing 0.8 + log 20 – log 15 = 5 – 0.3010 = 5. June-2010] [salt] [acid] [salt] = – log Ka + log [acid] pH = pKa + log = – log ( 0.20 0. the concentrations of salt and acid are reduced to the same extent and therefore the ratio [salt] remains the same. Sep-2006.04 M NH 4Cl and 0.8 × 10–5) + log = 5 – log 1. 2.0457 pH = 14 – pOH = 14 – 5.9543 www.2553 + 1.8 × 10–5. What is the pH of a solution containing 0.1761 = 4.1271 + 0 = 4.8 + log 2 = 5 – 0.5 = 5 – log 1.34 × 10–5.02 .8729 When volume is doubled by adding water. For NH4OH Kb is 1. What happens to the pH of the solution when volume is doubled by adding water? [Mar-2006. June-2011.04 0.5 0. So. there will be no change in pH of [acid] the solution. Sep-2011] [salt] [acid] [salt] = –log Ka + log [acid] pH = pKa + log = – log (1.0457 = 8.

Primary alcohols  No turbidity with Lucas reagent at room temperature  Give red colour in Victor Meyer‟s test  Give aldehydes on oxidation and then carboxylic acid (same number of carbons)  Give aldehydes with Cu at 573 K (dehydrogenation) 4.kalvisolai. Secondary alcohols  Give turbidity with Lucas reagent at room temperature after 5 – 10 minutes  Give blue colour in Victor Meyer‟s test  Give ketones on oxidation and then carboxylic acid (Carboxylic acid contains one carbon less than alcohol)  Give ketones with Cu at 573 K (dehydrogenation) 5. General formula of aliphatic monohydric alcohols: CnH2n+2O . Phenol decolourises Br2 / H2O and gives white precipitate 10. Alcohols liberate hydrogen gas with metallic sodium 3. Alcohols containing CH3CHOH.(Q-70) ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Hints: 1. Benzyl acetate (CH3COO CH2C6H5) has fragrance of jasmine and it is used in perfumery 8. Tertiary alcohols  Give turbidity with Lucas reagent at room temperature immediately  Give no colour in Victor Meyer‟s test  Give ketones on oxidation and then carboxylic acid (Ketone contains one carbon less than alcohol & Carboxylic acid contains two carbons less than alcohol)  Give alkene with Cu at 573 K (dehydration) 6.butyl alcohol answer haloform test (form iodoform with I2 / NaOH) OH CH3 CH2 OH CH3 C H CH3 Ethyl alcohol iso propyl alcohol OH CH3 CH2 C H CH3 sec. Phenol gives red orange dye with benzene diazonium chloride (Dye test) www. Phenol (C6H5OH) gives violet colour with neutral ferric chloride 9.

chloro benzaldehyde (A) A B (C) C6H5CHO C6H5 C N C6H5 Benzaldehyde Schiffs base H CHO m-chlorobenzaldehyde C Cl www. it is benzaldehyde iii) aniline (A) (B) C7H6O OH H H O C6H5 C C6H5 C + H N C6H5 . An organic compound (A) of molecular formula C7H6O is not reduced by Fehling’s solution but will undergo Cannizaro reaction. Compound (A) also reacts with Cl2 in the presence of catalyst to give compound (C). Identify (A) . Compound (A) reacts with aniline to give compound (B).1. (B) and (C) and explain the reactions. [Mar-2006] i) Aromatic aldehydes reduce Tollen's reagent but not Fehling's solution ii) Since compound (A) undergoes Cannizzaro reaction.H2O N C6H5 C6H5 C N C6H5 H H H Schiffs base Aniline Benzaldehyde (B) (A) iv) (A) Cl2 / catalyst (C) CHO CHO Cl2 FeCl3 Cl Benzaldehyde m .

kalvisolai. An organic compound (A) of molecular formula C3H8O gives turbidity within 5-10 minutes on reaction with anhydrous ZnCl2/HCl. Identify (A).com B CH3–CO–CH3 Acetone C CCl3–CO–CH3 Trichloro acetone . Compound (A) on treatment with sodium hypochlorite gives a carbonyl compound (B) which on further chlorination gives compound (C) of molecular formula C3H3OCl3.10 minutes C3H8O (A) ii) (A) secondary alcohol sodium hypochlorite C3H8O isopropyl alcohol (B) carbonyl compound H CH3 C Sodium hypochlorite OH + (O) CH3 C CH3 CH3 isopropyl alcohol acetone (B) (A) iii) O + H2O (B) chlorination (C) C3H3OCl3 CH3-CO-CH3 + 3Cl2 CCl3-CO-CH3 + 3HCl Acetone Trichloro acetone (C) (B) H A CH3 C OH Isopropyl alcohol CH3 www. [Mar-2006] i) (A) anhydrous ZnCl2 / HCl Turbidity within 5 .2. (B) and (C) and explain the reactions. CH3 C H CH3 CH3-CH=CH2 Isopropyl chloride Propene .7. (B). Identify (A). An organic compound A of molecular formula C3H6O on reduction with LiAlH4 gives B. The chloride on treatment with alcoholic KOH gives D. Compound B gives blue colour in Victor Meyer’s test and also forms a chloride C with SOCl2. (C) and (D) and explain the reactions. [Mar-2007] i) (A)  CnH2nO  (A) is aliphatic aldehyde or ketone C3H6O ii) LiAlH4 (A) (B) Victor Meyer's test Blue colour Reduction (B)  Secondary alcohol & (A)  Ketone (Acetone) (Isopropyl alcohol) OH O CH3 C CH3 + 2[H] LiAlH4 CH3 C H CH3 Acetone Isopropyl alcohol (A) iii) (B) (B) SOCl2 (C) Alcoholic KOH OH (D) Cl CH3 C H CH3 SOCl2 CH3 C H CH3 Alcoholic KOH CH3 C H CH2 + KCl + H2O Isopropyl alcohol Isopropyl chloride Propene (B) (C) (D) A CH3COCH3 Acetone OH B CH3 C H CH3 Isopropyl alcohol Cl C D www. CH3-CH3 Ethane . [Mar-2013] i) ii) (A)  Reduces Tollen's reagent  Aldehyde  Acetaldehyde C2H4O H2O / H+ HCN (A) (B) C2H4O (C) C3H6O3 optically active CH3 C CN CH3 C + HCN (A) H2O / H + CH3 C COOH H H H Acetaldehyde (A) iii) OH OH O Acetaldehyde cyanohydrin (B) Lactic acid (C) N2H4 / C2H5ONa (D) C2H6 Hydrocarbon C2H4O O N2H4 CH3 C H CH3 CH3 C2H5ONa Ethane Acetaldehyde A CH3-CHO Acetaldehyde OH B CH3 C CN Acetaldehyde cyanohydrin H OH C CH3 C COOH Lactic acid H D www. (D) and explain the reactions. Identify (A). (A) on treatment with HCN gives compound (B).(C). Compound (A) with molecular formula C2H4O reduces Tollen’s reagent.(B).40. Compound (A) on reduction with N2H4 / C2H5ONa gives a hydrocarbon (D) of molecular formula C2H6. Compound (B) on hydrolysis with an acid gives compound (C) with molecular formula C3H6O3 which is an optically active compound.

An organic compound (A) C3H8O with Lucas reagent gives turbidity after 5 – 10 minutes.41. Compound (B) on treatment with silver nitrite gives (C) which gives blue colour with nitrous acid. (A) with P / I2 gives (B).(B) and (C) and explain the reactions.kalvisolai. Identify (A).com CH3 CH NO2 CH3 2-nitro propane . [Sep-2013] i) ii) Lucas reagent (A) turbidity after 5-10 minutes C3H8O  2o alcohol  iso propyl alcohol (A) P / I2 AgNO2 (B) CH3 CH CH3 P/I2 HNO2 (C) CH3 CH OH CH3 blue colour AgNO2 CH3 CH NO2 I iso propyl alcohol iso propyl iodide (A) CH3 2-nitropropane (C) (B) HO-N=O N=O CH3 C CH3 NO2 Pseudo nitrol Blue colour A CH3 CH CH3 Isopropyl alcohol OH B CH3 CH CH3 Isopropyl iodide I C www.

com .For complete Material Contact RANKERS EDUCATION TRICHY 9843 113 114 www.kalvisolai.