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TIBET

1. Tibet Info
Tibet, a rich and beautiful land, is located at the main part of Qinghai-Tibet
plateau, south-West frontier of China. Tibet borders with Sichuan, Yuannan, Qinghai
and Xinjiang; to the south contiguous to India, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan and Burma,
and bounded by Kashmir on the west.When the word Tibet is mentioned something
icy chills the readers' nerves. In fact it snows only once or twice in a year and owing
to the perpetuity of bright sunshine, it is not at all cold during the daytime even in the
coldest of the winter. Tibet is so sunny that it produces a year round sunshine of over
3,000 hours in a year. Its old name-"land of snow" the name by which Tibet is almost
popularly known as, is always thickly covered with snow with hardly any signs of
inhabitation. In fact, it is correct only when it is referred to the world greatest ranges
located in Ima, the Tisi, and like. These ranges run by leaps and bounds across the
country showing their beautiful snow covered peaks against the bluest of skies.

2. Tibetan Geography

The Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon. The total area of the Tibet Autonomous Region is 1.848 metres (29. located on the border with Nepal. where nomads and yak and sheep dwell here. The People's Government of the Tibet Autonomous Region exercises the hightest adminis-trative authority in Tibet.890. Climate in Tibet . These includeYangtze. Mount Everest. with several of them making the top ten lists. Tibet can be divided into three majoy parts. Chamdo. north and south.029 ft). Ganges. due to the rain shadow effect. Western passes receive small amounts of fresh snow each year but remain traversable all year round. Lhaoka. where bleak desolation is unrelieved by any vegetation beyond the size of low bushes. and where wind sweeps unchecked across vast expanses of arid plain.000. while the six prefectures are Shigatse. This part occupies approximately half of Tibet. The municipality is Lhasa. is the highest mountainon earth. along the Yarlung Zangbo River. Gyantse ad Tsetang located in this area.000 square kilometers and its population is 1. at 8. The atmosphere is severely dry nine months of the year. occupying approximately one-fourth of the land. Ngari. Shigatse. it is considered the cultural center of tibet. The eastern part is forest region. The southern and central part is agricultural region.Geographically. The region is administratively divided into one municipality and six prefectures.200. Tibet has some of the world's tallest mountains. Low temperatures are prevalent throughout these western regions. Northern Tibet is subject to high temperatures in the summer and intense cold in the winter. Virgin forests run The entire breadth and length of this part of Tibet. Yellow River. The Indian monsoon exerts some influence on eastern Tibet. Salween and the Yarlung Zangbo River (Brahmaputra River). 3. Mekong. Nakchu and Nyingtri (kongpo). is among the deepest and longest canyons in the world. occupying about one-fourth of Tibet's land area. with all major Tibetan cities and towns such as Lhasa. Indus River. The northern part is open grassland. the east. and average annual snowfall is only 18 inches. Several major rivers have their source in the Tibetan Plateau (mostly in present-day Qinghai Province).

But from December to February. But the magnetism of Mt. Ali (Mt. the road could be frozen. Besides. Everest's true face. While in winter. it's too cold to go to this region. try to avoid August . Due to the clear weather. Shigatse and Tsedang. Everest. Spring does not really get under way until April. the thawed road could make some trouble. this area offers very limited time for tourists. The low altitude valleys of Tibet (around Lhasa.500m. Mt. for those determined tourists. though July and August can be rainy . The coldest months are from December to February.Basically. and make terrible landslides. Everest always attracts people anytime of the year. you have great chance to see Mt. Gyantse. the Tibetan climate is not as harsh as many people imagine it to be.landslide could happen in the rainy season. Types of Soil . June. From December to February. this area is already inhospitable.Kailash): Even without climate restrictions. generally has very mild weather from April to November.the border of Nepal/China: The Friendship highway is basically in good conditions year around. More specific information in different areas: Lhasa . including Lhasa. Summer is the prime time to enjoy the great plain in northern Tibet. Everest Region: Early May and early October are the best time to visit Mt.these two months usually see around half of Tibet's annual rainfall. 4. the appropriate time is May. July. Big rain and snow could make the journey worse. September and October. Northern Tibet: With the average altitude of 4. the rain could ruin the road. though March can have warm sunny days and is not necessarily a bad month to be in Tibet. after which temperatures start to plummet. However. Eastern Tibet: Don't touch this area in July or August. It is not impossible to visit Tibet in winter. Shigatse and Tsedang) see very little snow. The best time of year to be in Tibet is from April to the beginning of November. The central Tibet. October and November often bring some dazzling clear weather and daytime temperatures can be quite comfortable at Tibet's lower altitude.

with soil OM content of about 10 percent. alpine marshland-meadow soil. Alpine steppe soil This is the most widely distributed and largest in area. Shrubs are typically Rhododendron. There are three major subtypes: alpine steppemeadow soils. Other plants. The soil is frozen for more than five months of the year and the vegetation is cold-tolerant .1-7. with shrubs like Rhododendron spp. Polygonum macrophyllum. with annual mean temperatures of -6° to -0°C and average annual precipitation of 350-550 mm. semi-humid conditions. and alpine shrubby-meadow soils. Subalpine meadow soil This is widespread and of good quality. The OM content is about 12 percent and the soil is highly acid. Meadow grass dominates. It is found in between 3 900 and 4 600 m where the average annual temperature is about -2° to -4°C and annual precipitation 400-700 mm. and average OM content is less than 5 percent. with average organic material (OM) content of 3. Soil pH is 6. with several subtypes see Table 8. developed under cold. such as Potentilla spp. and Anaphalis spp.727 percent. but Kobresia spp. and Carex spp. Alpine marshland-meadow soil is in low areas where water accumulates.. Leontopodium spp.3. Kobresia pygmaea and K. where plants such as Stipa and Artemisia dominate. It is found in northwestern Tibet. Vegetation is very variable.. Alpine steppemeadow soil is often in the transition area of meadow to steppe. Roegneria spp. with combinations of Carex spp. Ptilagrostis mongolica and Poa spp.2.Alpine meadow soil This is one of the more widespread and better soils. with an average content of over 20 percent.. humilis are the major plants. Dasiphora fruticosa. and the soil is rich in organic matter. Soil depth varies from 4 to 20 cm. found between 4 600 and 5 200 m. Dasiphora fruticosa and Salix spp.. Anemone. Salix and Caragana. are found in many areas.. and at altitudes between 4 400 and 5 300 m throughout Tibet. It develops under the alpine cold semi-dry climate with annual mean temperatures of 0°-6°C and annual precipitation of 200-300 mm.. Pedicularis. Alpine shrubby-meadow soils are usually on north-facing slopes. are common.

with annual mean temperature of -8ºC and low .7°C and annual precipitation of 230-350 mm. and Rosa spp. Androsace sp.5-8. Artemisia. Pennisetum flaccidum. Oxytropis. Carex moorcroftii.9. with Cotoneaster spp. Subalpine steppe soils These are found in central Tibet between 4 100 and 4 700 m.4 percent. Stipa glareosa andArtemisia spp. In some parts.0. The OM content of the soil is often 2 percent. Astragalus. subalpine shrubby-steppe soil. so there is a high gravel content. Ceratoides compacta grows. Alpine desert soil This is found in the far north. There are five subtypes: typical subalpine steppe soil. are common. Vegetation such asSophora moorcroftiana. and subalpine alkalized-steppe soil.500 mm. Mountain shrubby-meadow soil This is found in central Tibet at elevations of 3 400-4 200 m under a temperate semi-dry climate with annual mean temperature of 4°-9 ºC and annual precipitation of 300 . Pennisetum flaccidum and Aristida triseta are the most common plants. along the Kara-Kunlun Mountains. subalpine meadow-steppe soil. Potentilla chinensis and Stellera chamaejasme. Astragalus. above 4 800 m. often more than 10 percent.. accompanied by Festuca ovina. Stipa capillacea. such as Stipa spp. with a pH of 7. and some has less than 0. the pH averages more than 8. near the forest line. The OM content is usually about 2 percent. With high elevation and cold climate. under temperate semi-dry climatic conditions with an annual mean temperature of 0°-3. Orinus.species. In drier western Tibet. and accompanied by Festuca ovina. where the climate is cold and dry. Oxytropis. subalpine desertsteppe soil. Aristida triseta and Orinus thoroldii is found. biological and chemical soil weathering is very slow. with pH values of 6-7. Caragana spinifera. The OM content is usually about 2 percent and can be up to 3 percent. and Arenaria sp.

in addition to Kobresia spp.5 percent. Picea likiangensis var. such as Ceratoides sp. Ceratoides compacta. and Spiraea sp.6. and marshland soil has more than 10 percent and up to 20 percent. as are Potentilla spp. . are in low valleys and basins. in Rutob and Zhada counties. Ptilotrichum canescens and Ephedra spp. dry climate with annual mean temperature of 0° to -3°C and annual precipitation of 50-150 mm. on average.annual precipitation. the best for grazing and mowing. balfouriana and Sabina tibetica are common. Taupe soil is found between 3 600 and 4 200 m and brown soil below 3 700 m. and Carex spp. Trees such as Populus davidiana. Subalpine desert soil This is found in far western Tibet. The OM content of the soil is less than 1 percent and pH is around 8. with strong alkalinity at the surface. are the common species. In marshland. Betula platyphylla. Vegetation varies depending on soil moisture. there are plants such as Ranunculus. are common. Taupe soil and Brown soil These are found in southeastern forest zones. The OM content of the soil is less than 0. as are shrubs like Sabina wallichiana. Both shrubs and grass are common. Kobresia spp. On meadow soil. where the altitude is 3 600-4 500 m. Ajania fruticulosa. Meadow soil and marshland soils These two types.. Taupe soil is found under temperate and semi-humid climates with average annual temperature of 2°-5°C and annual precipitation of 400-700 mm. Hippuris and Potamogeton. Stipa glareosa. Meadow soil has 7 percent of organic matter. It developed under a temperate. are the only plants that survive. Brown soil is found in warm semi-humid climatic condition with average annual temperatures of 7°-13ºC and annual precipitation of 350-600 mm. and Carex spp.and drought-tolerant plants grow. The average pH range in both types is 6-8. and Carex spp. Carex moorcroftii and Oxytropis spp. Ceratositgma minus. Grass-like species such as Kobresia spp. Only a few cold. The common shrubs are Sophora viciifolia.

7-8 Orinus.3 Subtypes of soil under alpine steppe soil. Kobresia spp. TABLE 8.. . Trikeraia hookeri.5 < 0..5 . respectively... Stipa glareosa.2. The OM contents of taupe soil and brown soil are 6 percent and 5 percent. etc. 7-8 Kobresia spp. >9 Stipa purpurea.Caragana sp.5 . Carex spp. 1992.0 Alpine alkalized-steppe soil 1. etc.4 Vegetation pH Stipa purpurea. Poa annua. Stipa spp.Lonicera thibetica and Rhamnus sp. 7-8 SOURCE: Land Management Bureau of Tibet Autonomous Region.3. Subtypes of soil Alpine meadow-steppe soil Alpine desert-steppe soil OM content (%) 1. etc.8 Alpine shrubby-steppe soil 1.

 The region also boasts 798 species of vertebrates and 2. 64 species of fish.305 species of insects. yak.5.  It has over 1. Flora and Fauna  Over 5000 senior plants. 39 of which have been list as wild plants under state key protection.300 species of insects. and 142 species of beasts. about one third of the national total. .  6.400 kinds of plants including 40 kinds of rare species.000 sorts of herbal medicine. 488 species of birds. 55 pieces of reptiles.  Tibet has more than 2.  Some 125 animals in Tibet have been list as rare species under top government protection. and snow chicken and blackneck crane)  6. grow in Tibet.(Tibetan antelope.400 kinds of plants including 40 kinds of rare species. 45 species of amphibians.

blooming in July. and measure 2 to 2.to four-seeded. with a rounded apex. have longitudinal ridges and sometimes a slight. grape-like berry . The flower buds of A. which are cylindrical and gradually tapering. pale wooliness. xizangensis emerge elliptic. xizangensis is a one.Examples of Flora  Liana (Ampelocissus xizangensis ) Its climbing branchlets.5 mm in length. The fruit of A.

they vary from bright green to glaucous blue-green in colour. slender (1 mm thick). Southwesternmost Tibet and western Nepal.5–5 cm long. borne singly on long shoots. occurring at 1500–3200 m altitude. and in dense clusters of 20-30 on short shoots. mostly 2. Large evergreen coniferous tree reaching 40–50 m tall . Himalayan Cedar (Cedrus deodara ) The leaves are needle-like. occasionally up to 7 cm long.

branching. each cluster reaching a maximum of 15 centimeters long. Bukhara fleeceflower (Fallopia baldschuanica ) This is a vining plant with woody. . The fruit is a shiny black achene about 2 millimeters wide. climbing stems known to reach at least ten meters (about 30 feet) in length. The pointed oval or nearly triangular leaves are up to ten centimeters long and borne on petioles The inflorescence is an open array of narrow. drooping or spreading clusters of white flowers.

Examples of Fauna  Tibetan anterlope  Snow chicken .

 Black .necked crane .