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NCET – Class Notes

10MAT11

Chapter – 1
LESSON -1 : Successive Differentiation

In this lesson, the idea of differential coefficient of a function and its successive
derivatives will be discussed. Also, the computation of nth derivatives of some standard
functions is presented through typical worked examples.
1.0 Introduction:- Differential calculus (DC) deals with problem of calculating rates of
change.When we have a formula for the distance that a moving body covers as a
function of
time, DC gives us the formulas for calculating the body’s velocity and acceleration at
any
instant.

Definition of derivative of a function y = f(x):-

f ( x + ∆x ) − f ( x )
∆x
The derivative of a function y = f(x) is the function f ′(x ) whose value at each x is defined as
dy
= f ′(x ) = Slope of the line PQ (See Fig.1)
dx
f ( x + ∆x ) − f ( x )
= lim
-------- (1)
∆x → 0
∆x
= lim (Average rate change)

Fig.1. Slope of the line PQ is

∆x → 0

= Instantaneous rate of change of f at x provided the limit exists.
The instantaneous velocity and acceleration of a body (moving along a line) at any instant x is
the derivative of its position co-ordinate y = f(x) w.r.t x, i.e.,
dy
Velocity =
= f ′(x )
--------- (2)
dx
And the corresponding acceleration is given by
Acceleration =

d2y
= f ′′( x)
dx 2

---------- (3)

NCET – Class Notes

10MAT11

• Session - 1
1.1 Successive Differentiation:The process of differentiating a given function again and again is called as
Successive differentiation and the results of such differentiation are called
successive derivatives.
• The higher order differential coefficients will occur more frequently in spreading
a function all fields of scientific and engineering applications.
• Notations:
dny
dy d 2 y d 3 y
i.
, 2 , 3 ,…….., nth order derivative:
dx dx dx
dx n
ii f ′(x ) , f ′′(x ) , f ′′′(x) ,…..., nth order derivative: f n (x)
iii Dy, D 2 y , D 3 y ,………..., nth order derivative: D n y
iv y ′ , y ′′ , y ′′′ ,……, nth order derivative: y (n )
v. y1 , y 2 , y 3 …, nth order derivative: y n

Successive differentiation – A flow diagram

Input function: y = f (x )

Operation
d

derivative)
Input function y ′ = f ′(x )

d

Input function y ′′ = f ′′(x )

df
= f ′(x)
dx

(first order

Output function y ′′ =

d2 f
= f ′′( x) (second order
dx 2

Output function y ′′′ =

d3 f
= f ′′′( x) (third order
dx 3

dx

Operation
d

derivative)

y′ =

dx

Operation

derivative)

Output function

dx

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------dn f
Input function y n −1 = f n −1 ( x) Operation Output function y n =
= f n (x) (nth order
n
d
dx
dx
derivative)
Animation Instruction
(Successive Differention-A flow diagram)
Output functions are to appear after operating
Operation
d

dx

on Input functions, successively.

1.1 Solved Examples :
1. If y = sin(sin x ) , prove that

d2y
dy
+ tan x + y cos 2 x = 0
2
dx
dx

NCET – Class Notes
10MAT11
Solution: Differentiating y = sin(sin x ) --------- (1) w.r.t.x, we get
dy
y1 =
= cos(sin x ). cos x -------------- (2)
dx
dy
Again differentiating y1 =
w.r.t.x gives
dx
d2y
y 2 = 2 = [cos(sin x)(− sin x) + cos x(− sin(sin x) cos x ] Using product rule
dx
d2y
y 2 = 2 = − sin x cos(sin x) + cos 2 x sin(sin x)
dx
 sin x

i.e. y 2 = − 
cos x cos(sin x) + cos 2 x sin(sin x )
 cos x

2
y 2 = − tan xy1 + cos xy , using Eqs. (1) and (2)

[

]

[

]

or

y 2 + tan xy1 + cos xy = 0

or

d2y
dy
+ tan x + y cos 2 x = 0
2
dx
dx

2

(ax + b)
, show that 2 y1 y 3 = 3 y 22
(cx + d )
(ax + b)
Solution: We rewrite y =
, by actual division of ax+b by c x+d, as
(cx + d )
ad  1
a
ad 


−1
y = a + b −
= + k (cx + d ) ---------- (1)where k =  b −


c 
c 
c  cx + d c

Differentiating (1) successively thrice, we get
dy
−2
---------- (2)
= y1 = − kc (cx + d )
dx
d2y
−3
= y 2 = −2kc 2 (cx + d )
---------- (3)
2
dx
d3y
−4
= y 3 = −6kc 3 (cx + d )
---------- (4)
From (2), (3) and (4) we get
3
dx
2 y1 y 3 = 2 {− kc (cx + d ) −2 }{− 6kc 3 (cx + d ) −4 }
2. If y =

[

2 y1 y 3 = 12 k 2 c 4 (cx + d ) −6

[

2 y1 y 3 = 3 − 2kc 2 (cx + d ) −3

]

]

2

Therefore 2 y1 y 3 = 3 y 22 , as desired.

d2y
dy
3. If x = sin t , y = sin pt , Prove that (1 − x ) 2 − x + p 2 y = 0
dx
dx
Solution: Note that the function is given in terms a parameter t. So we find,
dy
dy
= cos t and
= p cos pt , so that
dt
dt
2

1 for practice.NCET – Class Notes dy dy dt p cos pt . (1 − x ) 2 − x + p 2 y = 0 dx dx 2 d2y dx 2 4.e. and a a a dx d y y = = cosh (x )( 1 ). a a dx ∴ ay = cosh (x ).e. a 5. ( y1 )2 = ( 10MAT11 (by data) ) Canceling 2 y1 throughout. Squaring on both sides y1 = = = dx dx dt cos t p 2 cos 2 pt p 2 (1 − sin 2 pt ) p 2 (1 − y 2 ) = = cos 2 t 1 − sin 2 t 1− x2 2 ∴ (1 − x 2 )( y1 ) = p 2 (1 − y 2 ). If y = e ax sin bx . 1. If ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 1 . Differentiating this equation w. d2y 1  dt   1  = sec 2 t   = sec 2 t  = 2 3 dx  dx   at cos t  at cos t ( a ). find dy = a (− sin t + t cos t + sin t ) = at cos t dt dy = a (cos t + t sin t − cos t ) = at sin t dt at sin t  dy  dy ∴   = dt = = tan t  dx  dx dt at cos t Solution: Hence. ( ) 1. so that a y = cosh (x ) a a i. If y = a cosh x 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 • Problem Set No. as desired.t x. this becomes 1 − x 2 y 2 − xy1 = − p 2 y or 1 − x 2 y 2 − xy1 + p 2 y = 0 ( ) ( ) d2y dy i. If x = a (cos t + t sin t ) .r. y = a (sin t − t cos t ) . prove that a y = 1 + y dy Solution: y = = a sinh (x )(1 ) = sinh (x ). we get 1 − x 2 2 y1 y 2 + ( y1 ) 2 (−2 x) = p 2 (−2 yy1 ) . a y = 1 + sinh (x ) = 1 + y . prove that y 2 − 2ay1 + a 2 + b 2 y = 0 d y h − ab = 2 dx (hx + by )3 2 2. prove that 2 .

show that ( 6. x = 2 sin t − sin 2t . prove that x 2 + 2 − xy = 0 dx dx Ans: sin t a cos 4 t b cos ecθ sec 4 θ Ans: 3a 2 1 + 2x 2 Ans: 5 1− x2 2 ( ) Ans: -3/2 • Session -2 1. If x = 2 cos t − cos 2t . If xy = e x + be − x . find d2y dx 2 d2y 7.NCET – Class Notes 10MAT11 2 ( ) d y dy + 2k + k2 +l2 y = 0 2 dx dx 2 d y dy 4. y = a sin t . prove that + tan y   = 0 dx 2  dx  3. y = b sin 3 θ dx  d3y x   8. ) ( ) If x = a(cos t + log tan t 2 ) . when x = a cos 3 θ . prove that 1 + x 2 +x =0 2 dx dx 2 d2y  dy  5. Table : 1 . Find 2 . If y = Ae − kt cos(l t + c ) .2 Calculation of nth derivatives of some standard functions • Below. Find 3 . If y = log x + 1 + x 2 . If y = tan −1 (sinh x ) . we present a table of nth order derivatives of some standard functions for ready reference. where y = tan −1  2  dx 1 − x   d2y π 9. Find  2  x = 2  dx  d2y dy 10.

we get y3 = m 3 e mx y4 = m 4 e mx ……………. r = a 2 + b 2 θ = tan −1 ( b a ) 10. in general we cannot obtain readymade formula for nth derivative of functions other than the above.t x. log( ax + b) ( −1) n −1 ( n − 1) ! n a ( ax + b) n 7.r. iii.r.(m − n + 1)a n (ax + b ) 0 if m < n (n!) a n if m = n m! x m− n if m < n (m − n )! m −n for all m . Differentiating w. ( −1) n n ! n a ( ax + b) n +1 ( −1) n ( m + n − 1) ! n a ( m − 1) !( ax + b) m+ n (ax + b )m 6.NCET – Class Notes Sl.. 4 1 (ax + b ) 5. e ax cos(bx + c ) r n e ax cos(bx + c + nθ ) .. 1. ii. e ax sin(bx + c) r n e ax sin(bx + c + nθ ) . . we get ( ) y 2 = m me mx = m 2 e mx Similarly. as only the above functions are able to produce a sequential change from one derivative to the other. r = a 2 + b 2 θ = tan −1 ( b a ) • We proceed to illustrate the proof of some of the above results. Again differentiating w. cos( ax + b) a n cos(ax + b + n π ) 2 9. sin( ax + b) a n sin( ax + b + n π ) 2 8. Let y = e mx . Hence. Consider e mx . No 10MAT11 y = f(x) 1 2 e mx a mx 3 (ax + b )m yn = dny = Dn y dx n m n e mx n m n (log a ) a mx i. 1 m(m − 1)(m − 2 ). we get y1 = me mx . iv..t x.

(i. if n>m) which means if we further differentiate the above expression.e. m (See Sl. dx 10MAT11 [ ] 2. Again differentiating w. then y n = m(m − 1)(m − 2).r.... And hence we get m−n y n = m (m − 1) (m − 2 ) ……….r.t x.NCET – Class Notes And hence we get dn y n = m n e mx ∴ n e mx = m n e mx . No-5 of Table-1 ) y= 1 (ax + b ) m = (ax + b ) −m Differentiating w..then the above expression becomes n −n y n = n (n − 1) (n − 2) ………..e. we get y2 = m (m − 1) (ax + b )m − 2 a 2 Similarly. m y1 = m (ax + b )m −1 a ..t x − m −1 − ( m +1) y1 = − m(ax + b ) a = (− 1)m(ax + b ) a [ ] y 2 = (− 1)(m ) − (m + 1)(ax + b ) a = (− 1) m(m + 1)(ax + b ) 3 − ( m+3 ) 3 y 3 = (− 1) m(m + 1)(m + 2)(ax + b ) a Similarly. No-3 of Table-1 ) let y = (ax + b ) Differentiating w. (m − n + 1) (ax + b ) a n for all m. we get − ( m +1)−1 2 y 4 = (− 1) m(m + 1)(m + 2 )(m + 3)(ax + b ) a4 …………………………… n − (m+ n ) n y n = (− 1) m(m + 1)(m + 2).3.(m − n + 1)(ax + b ) a n becomes m(m − 1)(m − 2 ).(m − n + 1)(m − n )! = (ax + b )m −n a n (m − n )! m! i. If m = n (m-positive integer)..t x.r. Thus D n (ax + b ) if (m < n ) m −n .. Case (ii) the [ right hand site yields zero. (ax + b )m (See Sl.(m + n − 1)(ax + b ) a This may be rewritten as 4 − (m + 4 ) −(m+ 2 ) a2 .2.e yn = (ax + b )m −n a n (m − n )! Case (iii) 3.1 (ax + b ) a n Case (i) i. y n = (n!) a n If m<n.. 1 (ax + b )m Let ]= 0 If m>n.. we get m −3 y3 = m (m − 1) (m − 2 ) (ax + b ) a 3 ………………………………….....

(a) log(9 x − 1) 2 [ (b) log (4 x + 3)e 5 x+7 ] (c) log10 (3 x + 5) 2 ( 2 − 3 x ) ( x + 1) 6 Solution: (a) Let y = log(9 x 2 − 1) = log{(3 x + 1)(3 x − 1)} (Q log( AB ) = log A + log B ) y = log(3 x + 1) + log(3 x − 1) dn dn ∴ y n = n {log(3 x + 1)} + n {log(3 x − 1)} dx dx n −1 ( −1) ( n − 1) ! n ( −1) n −1 ( n − 1) ! n i.2.2.1. 1 (See Sl..NCET – Class Notes 10MAT11 (− 1) (m + n − 1)(m + n − 2). in the result   (−1) n (m + n − 1) ! n 1 Dn  = a m  m+n  (ax + b)  (m − 1) !(ax + b) 1  ( −1) n (1 + n − 1) ! n n a we get D  = 1+ n  ( ax + b)  (1 − 1) !( ax + b)  1  ( −1) n n ! n or D  a = 1+ n  ( ax + b)  ( ax + b) n • 1.e y n = (3) + (3) (3 x + 1) n (3 x − 1) n [ ] (b) Let y = log ( 4 x + 3)e 5 x +7 = log(4 x + 3) + log e 5 x +7 = log(4 x + 3) + (5 x + 7) log e e ∴ y = log( 4 x + 3) + (5 x + 7) ∴ yn = ( −1) n −1 ( n − 1) ! n ( 4) + 0 ( 4 x + 3) n (Q log A B = B log A ) (Q log e e = 1 ) Q D (5 x + 6 ) = 5 D 2 (5 x + 6) = 0 D n (5 x + 1) = 0 ( n > 1) .. Worked Examples:In each of the following Questions find the nth derivative after reducing them into standard functions given in the table 1.(m + 1)m(m − 1)! (ax + b )−(m + n ) a n (m − 1)! (− 1)n (m + n − 1)! a n yn = or (m − 1)!(ax + b)m+ n n yn = 4.. No-4 of Table-1 ) (ax + b ) Putting m = 1.1 1..

= yn =  (−1) n −1 (n − 1) ! n (−1) n −1 (n − 1) ! (−1) n −1 (n − 1) ! n  1 n 2 . (a) e 2 x + 4 + 6 2 x + 4 (b) cosh 4 x + cosh 2 4 x 1 1 (c) e − x sinh 3 x cosh 2 x (d) + + (6 x + 8) 5 ( 4 x + 5) (5 x + 4) 4 Solution: (a) Let y = e 2 x + 4 + 6 2 x+ 4 = e 2x e 4 + 62x64 y = e 4 (e 2 x ) + 1296(6 2 x ) ∴ dn dn hence y n = e 4 n (e 2 x ) + 1296 n (6 2 x ) dx dx 4 n 2x n = e 2 e + 1296 2 (log 6) n 6 2 x (b) Let y = cosh 4 x + cosh 2 4 x { } { } 2 hence.NCET – Class Notes 10MAT11 (3 x + 5) 2 ( 2 − 3 x ) ( x + 1) 6 (c) Let y = log 10 = 1  (3 x + 5) 2 ( 2 − 3 x)    log e 10  ( x + 1) 6  =  (3 x + 5) 2 ( 2 − 3 x )  1 1 log    log e 10  2 ( x + 1) 6   Q log10 X = log e X log e 10 Q log A B = B log A  A Q log  = log A − log B B { } 1 log(3 x + 5) 2 + log( 2 − 3 x ) − log( x + 1) 6 2 log e 10 1 ∴ y= {2 log(3x + 5) + log(2 − 3x) − 6 log( x + 1)} 2 log e 10 Hence. (1)   2 log e 10  (3x + 5) n (2 − 3x) n ( x + 1) n  2.  e 4 x + e −4 x   e 4 x + e −4 x   +   =  2 2     1 4x 1 = (e + e − 4 x ) + {(e 4 x ) 2 + (e − 4 x ) 2 + 2(e 4 x )(e − 4 x )} 2 4 1 4x 1 y = (e + e − 4 x ) + {e 8 x + e −8 x + 2} 2 4 1 1 y n = 4 n e 4 x + ( −4) n e − 4 x + 8 n e 8 n + ( −8) n e −8 n + 0 2 4 [ (c) Let y = e − x sinh 3 x cosh 2 x ] [ ] . ( 3 ) + ( − 3 ) − 6 .

e y n = ( 4) + (5) ( 4 x + 5) n +1 3!(5 x + 4) n + 4 • Session . we use the method of partial fractions to reduce .2. y n = } ( −1) n n ! ( −1) n (3 + n) ! n n i.2 Worked examples:x2 1 1 1.NCET – Class Notes Hence. 10MAT11  e 3 x − e −3 x  e 2 x + e −2 x  = e−x    2 2    −x e = {(e 3x − e −3x )(e 2 x + e −2 x )} 4 e −x 5x = { e − e − x + e x − e −5 x } 4 1 4x = {e − e − 2 x + 1 − e − 6 x } 4 1 y = {1 + e 4 x − e − 2 x − e −6 x } 4 1 y n = {0 + ( 4) n e 4 x − ( −2) n e − 2 x − ( −6) n e −6 x } 4 1 1 (d) Let y = + + (6 x + 8) 5 4 ( 4 x + 5) (5 x + 4) {  dn dn  1  dn  1 5 + n (6 x + 8) + n  4  n  dx  (4 x + 5)  dx  (5 x + 4)  dx ( −1) n n ! ( −1) n (4 + n − 1) ! n = ( 4) + (5) n + 0 n +1 4+ n ( 4 x + 5) (4 − 1) !(5 x + 4) Hence. (i) 2 (ii) (iii) x − 6x + 8 1 − x − x2 + x3 2x 2 + 7 x + 6 1  x+ 2 (iv)  + 2  x + 1  4 x + 12 x + 9 • ( a) (v) tan −1 x 1+ x  (vi) tan −1 x (vii) tan −1   1− x  In all the above problems.3 • 1.

1 1 Solutions: (i) Let y = 2 . we get the value of B as B = − 1 2 Similarly putting x = 4 in(*).NCET – Class Notes 10MAT11 them into standard forms. The function can be rewritten as y = ( x − 4)( x − 2) x − 6x + 8 • This is proper fraction containing two distinct linear factors in the denominator. 1 A( x − 2) + B ( x − 4) = ( x − 4)( x − 2) ( x − 4)( x − 2) ∴ 1 = A( x − 2) + B ( x − 4) -------------(*) Putting x = 2 in (*). we get the value of A as A = 1 1 (1 / 2) ( −1 / 2) = + ∴y= ( x − 4)( x − 2) x − 4 x−2 1 dn  1  1 dn  1  yn =  −   2 dx n  x − 4  2 dx n  x − 2  (ii) Let y = 2 Hence =  1  (−1) n n ! 1  (−1) n n ! n ( 1 ) − (1) n     n +1 n +1 2  ( x − 4)  2  ( x − 2)  =   1 1 1 (−1) n n !  − n +1 n +1  2 ( x − 2)   ( x − 4) 1 1 1 = = 2 3 2 1− x − x + x (1 − x ) − x (1 − x ) (1 − x)(1 − x 2 ) 1 1 ie y = = (1 − x )(1 − x )(1 + x ) (1 − x ) 2 (1 + x ) Though y is a proper fraction. it can be split into partial fractions as 1 A B y= = + Where the constant A and B are found ( x − 4)( x − 2) ( x − 4) ( x − 2) as given below. we write the function as A B C in terms of partial fractions. So. The constants A. Hence. B. C y= + + 2 (1 − x ) (1 − x ) 1+ x are found as follows: . it contains a repeated linear factor (1 − x ) 2 in its denominator.

e y n = (−1) n n !  2 n +1 n +1  ( x + 2)   (2 x + 3) ( x + 2) x (iv) Let y = + 2 ( x + 1) 4 x + 12 x + 9 (i) (ii) .e x 2 ÷ ( 2 x 2 + 7 x + 6) = + 2 2 2 2x − 7 x + 6 −7 x − 3 1 2 Resolving this proper fraction into partial fractions. y n = 0 +    n +1 n +1 2  (2 x + 3)   ( x + 2)   9 (2) n  4 − i. we get B as B = 1 2 Putting x = -1 in (**). We make it proper fraction by actual division and later spilt that into partial fractions. we get C as C = 1 4 Putting x = 0 in (**).NCET – Class Notes y= 10MAT11 1 (1 − x) (1 + x) 2 = A B C + + 2 (1 − x ) (1 − x ) 1+ x ie 1 = A(1 − x )(1 + x ) + B (1 + x ) + C (1 − x ) 2 -------------(**) Putting x = 1 in (**). we 2  ( 2 x + 3) ( x + 2)  get 1  9 ( −4)  y= + 2 + 2  2 x + 3 x + 2   (−1) n n !  9  (−1) n n ! n ( 2 ) − 4 (1) n  Hence. y = + + 2 (1 − x) (1 − x ) (1 + x ) ∴ yn = = 1  (−1) n n ! n  1  (−1) n (2 + n − 1) ! n  1  (−1) n n ! n  (1)  +  (1)  +  (1)   2+ n n +1 4  (1 − x) n +1  2  (2 − 1) !(1 − x)  4  (1 + x)    1  (−1) n (n + 1) ! 1 1 1 (−1) n n !  +  +  n +1 4 (1 + x) n +1  2  (1 − x)n + 2   (1 − x) x2 (iii) Let y = 2 (VTU July-05) 2x + 7 x + 6 This is an improper function. Following the above examples for finding A & B. we get ∴y= + 2 ( 2 x + 3)( x + 2) 1  A B  y= + + . we get 1 = A + B + C ∴ A = 1− B − C = 1− 1 − 1 = 1 2 4 4 1 ∴ A= 4 (1 / 4) (1 / 2) (1 / 4) Hence. 1 ( − 7 x − 3) i.

So. y is given by  x +1   x +1 1  1  y = 1+  [Q (2 x + 3) 2 = 4 x 2 + 12 x + 9 ] + 2  x + 1  (2 x + 3) Resolving the last proper fraction into partial fractions. θ = tan −1   x iθ x + ai = r (cos θ + i sin θ ) = re x − ai = r (cos θ − i sin θ ) = re −iθ . by actual division (i) becomes  x+ 2  1    = 1+   . Solving we get = + 2 ( 2 x + 3) ( 2 x + 3) 2 ( 2 x + 3) A = 1 and B = − 3 2 2 1 − 32   1   2 + ∴ y = 1+  + 2   1 + x   (2 x + 3) (2 x + 3)   (−1) n n ! n  1  (−1) n n ! 3  (−1) n (n + 1) ! n  n y = 0 + ( 1 ) + ( 2 ) − (2)  ∴ n      n n +1 2 2 ( 2 x 3 ) n 2 + + ( 1 x ) ( 2 x 3 ) + +       ( a) (v) tan −1 x ( a) Let y = tan −1 x ∴ y1 = 1 1+ x ( a) 2 a 1  = 2 2 a x +a  a  y n = D n y = D n −1 ( y1 ) = D n −1  2 2  x +a  a a Consider 2 = 2 ( x + ai )( x − ai ) x +a A B = + . Hence.NCET – Class Notes 10MAT11 Here (i) is improper & (ii) is proper function. we get x A B . on solving for A & B. on resolving into partial fractions. + = ( x + ai ) ( x − ai ) 1 1  a   n −1  − 2 i  n −1  2i ∴ D n −1  2 = D + D      2 x +a   x + ai   x − ai  n −1 n −1  1   (−1) (n − 1) !  1   (−1) (n − 1) ! =  −   +    -----------(*) n n  2i   ( x + ai)   2i   ( x − ai )  ( • ) ( ) Since above answer containing complex quantity i we rewrite the answer in terms of real a quantity. We take transformation x = r cos θ a = r sin θ where r = x 2 + a 2 . ( x + ai ) ( x − ai ) −1 1 2 i 2i .

2. tan −1  2  1− x   1 + x2 −1  7.1 for practice Find the nth derivative of the following functions: x 2 + 4x + 1 6x x 1. = (x − ai )n r n e −inθ r n (x + ai )n r n now(*) is y n = yn = (− 1)n −1 (n − 1)! [e inθ 2ir n − e −inθ 10MAT11 ] (− 1)n −1 (2 i sin nθ ) ⇒ (− 1)n−1 (n − 1)! sin nθ 2 i rn rn (vi) Let y = tan −1 x . 2.(v) we get y n which is same as above with r = θ = cot −1 ( x ) or ( x) x 2 + 1 θ = tan −1 1 x = cot θ 1 1 = = sin n θ n n r cos ec θ n −1 n −1 n D (tan x ) = (− 1) (n − 1) ! sin θ sin nθ where θ = cot −1 x ∴ r = cot 2 θ + 1 = cos ecθ ⇒ 1+ x  (vii) Let y = tan −1   1− x  put x = tan θ θ = tan −1 x 1 + tan θ  ∴ y = tan −1   1 − tan θ  = tan −1 [tan(π 4 + θ )] =π y= π 4 +θ = π 4 ( Q tan π 4 )  1 + tan θ  +θ =    1 − tan θ  + tan −1 ( x ) + tan −1 ( x ) 4 y n = 0 + D n (tan −1 x ) n −1 n −1  1   (−1) (n − 1) !  1   (−1) (n − 1) ! =  −  +     n n  2i   ( x + ai)   2i   ( x − ai )  Problem set No. tan −1    x   4.Putting a = 1 in Ex. x3 x 2 − 3x + 2  2x  6. x 4x − x − 3 2 . ( x − 1)( x 2 − 4) ( x + 2)( x 2 − 2 x + 1) x3 + 2x2 − x − 2 5.NCET – Class Notes 1 1 e inθ 1 e −inθ = = . 1. 3.

t x. Again using sin( X + y 2 = a sin(ax + b + π / 2 + π / 2). π 2 ) = cos X .NCET – Class Notes 10MAT11 • Session 4 1.a As sin( X + ) = cos X 2 We can write y1 = a sin(ax + b + π / 2). Differentiating w. No-7 of Table-1 ) Let y = sin( ax + b) .a y 2 = a 2 sin( ax + b + 2π / 2). …………………………… y n = a n sin( ax + b + nπ / 2).r. y 2 = a cos(ax + b + π / 2).r. y 4 = a 4 sin( ax + b + 4π / 2). Similarly.t x. we get y 3 = a 3 sin( ax + b + 3π / 2).e. π y1 = cos(ax + b). Again Differentiating w.a i. sin( ax + b) .we get y 2 as .(See Sl.

e. y1 = re ax [sin (bx + c + θ )]. ax y1 = e [a sin (bx + c ) + b cos(bx + c ) ] . (i) sin 2 x + cos 3 x (ii) sin 3 cos 3 x (iv) sin x sin 2 x sin 3 x (v) e 3 x cos 2 x (iii) cos x cos 2 x cos 3x (vi) e 2 x sin 2 x + cos 3 x ( ) The following formulae are useful in solving some of the above problems.. where r = a 2 + b 2 & θ = tan −1 b • 1.. a y1 can be rewritten as y1 = e ax [(r cosθ ) sin(bx + c ) + (r sin θ ) cos(bx + c ) ] or y1 = e ax [r{sin(bx + c ) cosθ + cos(bx + c ) cosθ }] i. No-9 of Table-1 ) 10MAT11 Let y = e ax sin (bx + c ). we write y 2 as ( ) y 2 = r 2 e ax sin (bx + c + 2θ ) y 3 = r 3 e ax sin (bx + c + 3θ ) Continuing in this way. e ax sin (bx + c ).....2.... we get y 4 = r 4 e ax sin (bx + c + 4θ ) y 5 = r 5 e ax sin (bx + c + 5θ ) …………………………….(1) Differentiating using product rule ..( 2) Comparing expressions (1) and (2). (See Sl.e.NCET – Class Notes 2. 1 − cos 2 x 1 + cos 2 x (i) sin 2 x = (ii ) cos 2 x = 2 2 (iii) sin 3 x = 3 sin x − 4 sin 3 x (iv ) cos 3 x = 4 cos 3 x − 3 cos x (v) 2 sin A cos B = sin( A + B ) + sin ( A − B ) (vi) 2 cos A sin B = sin( A + B ) − sin( A − B ) (vii) 2 cos A cos B = cos( A + B ) + cos( A − B ) (viii) 2 sin A sin B = cos( A − B ) − cos( A + B )  1 − cos 2 x  1 Solutions: (i) Let y = sin 2 x + cos 3 x =   + (cos 3 x + 3 cos x ) 2   4 .thus. y n = r n e ax sin (bx + c + nθ ) [ ( a) ] ∴ D n e ax sin (bx + c ) = r n e ax sin (bx + c + nθ )..we get y1 = e ax cos(bx + c )b + sin (bx + c ) ae ax i...3 • Worked examples 1. For computation of higher order derivatives it is convenient to express the constants ‘a’ and ‘b’ in terms of the constants r and θ defined by a = r cosθ & b = r sin θ ..so t r = a 2 + b 2 and θ = tan −1 b .

NCET – Class Notes ∴ yn = [ )] [ ( ( ) ( 1 1 n n 0 − (2 ) cos 2 x + nπ + (3) cos 3 x + nπ + 3 cos x + nπ 2 2 2 2 4 3 sin 3 2 x 1  − sin 6 x + 3 sin 2 x   sin 2 x  (ii)Let y = sin 3 x cos 3 x =  =   =  8 8 4  2   1 = [3 sin 2 x − sin 6 x ] 32 nπ  nπ   1  n   n yn = 3.2 sin  2 x +  − 6 sin  6 x +   32  2  2    (iii) )Let y = cos 3x cos x cos 2 x 1 1 = (cos 4 x + cos 2 x ) cos 2 x = cos 4 x cos 2 x + cos 2 2 x 2 2 1 1 1 − cos 4 x  =  (cos 6 x + cos 2 x ) +  2 2 2  1 cos 2 x 1 = cos 6 x + + (1 − cos 4 x ) 4 4 4 nπ  nπ    n 2 n cos 2 x +  4 cos 4 x +  1 n nπ  2  2     ∴ y n = 6 cos 6 x + − + 4 2  4 4  (iv) )Let y = sin 3 x sin x sn 2 x 1 = [sin (2 x ) − sin 4 x ]sin 2 x 2 1 = sin 2 2 x − sin 4 x sin 2 x 2 1 1 − cos 4 x 1  =  − (sin 2 x − sin 6 x ) 2 2 2   1 − cos 4 x  1  =   − (sin 2 x − sin 6 x ) 4  4   [ [ yn = 10MAT11 ] ] 1 n nπ  nπ  nπ    n n 4 cos 4 x +  − 2 sin  2 x +  + 6 sin  6 x +  4 2  2  2    (v) Let y = e 3 x cos 2 x (Refer Sl.No. 10 of Table 1) where ∴ y n = re 3 x cos(2 x + nθ ) 2 r = 3 2 + 2 2 = 13 & θ = tan −1   3 2x 2 3 (vi) Let y = e (sin x + cos x )    )] .

(sin 3 x + cos 2 x) 2. y n = 2 e − r1n e 2 x cos(2 x + nθ1 ) + r2n e 2 x cos(3 x + nθ 2 ) + 3r3n e 2 x cos( x + nθ 3 ) 2 4 [ ] We know that sin 2 x + cos 3 x = [ ] [ ] [ [ ] ] [ ] where r1 = 2 2 + 2 2 = 8 . If x = sin t . n C 2 = . e 3 x (sin 3 x + cos 2 x) 7.uD n v . sin x sin 2 x 6..+ n C r D n −r uD r v + .. y = sin pt prove that (1 − x 2 )y n+ 2 − (2n + 1)xy n+1 + ( p 2 − n 2 )y n = 0 (VTU July-05) Solution: Note that the function y = f (x ) is given in the parametric form with a parameter t. e − x sin 2 x cos 2 x LESSON -2 : Leibnitz’s Theorem • Session . then n D (uv ) = D n uv + n C1 D n −1uDv + n C 2 D n −2 uD 2 v + .2. cos x cos 2 x 8..θ 3 = tan −1   ... C1 = n ...θ 2 = tan −1   .9. n(n − 1) n! d n where D = . n C r = dx 2 r!(n − r )! • Worked Examples 1.. cos 2 x.. Problem set No.. 1. we consider dy dy dt p cos pt (p – constant) = = dx dx dt cos t • • 2 p 2 cos 2 pt p 2 (1 − sin 2 pt ) p 2 (1 − y 2 )  dy  or   = = = cos 2 t 1 − sin 2 t 1− x2  dx  . e x cos 2 x cos 4 x . sin 3x 5. e −3 x cos 3 x (VTU Jan-04) 4.2 for practice Find nth derivative of the following functions: 1.NCET – Class Notes 10MAT11 1 − cos 2 x 1 + [cos 3 x + 3 cos x ] 2 4 2x 1 − cos 2 x  e ∴ y = e 2 x sin 2 x + cos 3 x = e 2 x   + 4 [cos 3x + 3 cos x ] 2  1 1 ∴ y = e 2 x − e 2 x cos 2 x + e 2 x cos 3 x + 3e 2 x cos x 2 4 1 n 2x 1 Hence. sin 2 x cos 3x 3. Statement of the theorem: If u and v are functions of x. r2 = 2 2 + 3 2 = 13 .1 Leibnitz’s theorem is useful in the calculation of nth derivatives of product of two functions. r3 = 2 2 + 12 = 5 2 2 3 2 1 2 θ 1 = tan −1   .... So..

.(1 − x 2 ) + n C1 D n −1 ( y 2 ).e D (1 − x ) y 2 − D {xy1 } − D n p 2 y = 0 n 2 n ---------..(3) Consider the term (b): D n [xy1 ] .(4) Consider the term (c): --------. 2! 3! D n (1 − x 2 )y 2 = (1 − x 2 )y n + 2 − 2nxy n +1 − n( n − 1) y n ----------.D 2 ( x) + . 2! D n [xy1 ] = xy n +1 + ny n ---------...( −2 x ) + [ ] n(n − 1) n( n − 1)(n − 2) y ( n − 2 )+ 2 ..NCET – Class Notes or 1 − x 2 y12 = p 2 1 − y 2 ( ) ( 10MAT11 ) ( ) ( ) Differentiating w.( −2) + .. [( ) ] i.(0) + .r.(1) [ ÷ 2 y ..x + ny ( n −1) +1 + y ( n − 2 )+ 2 (0) + . We differentiate (1). If sin −1 y = 2 log( x + 1) or y = sin[2 log( x + 1)] or y = sin log( x + 1) 2 [ ] .D (1 − x 2 ) + n C 2 D n − 2 ( y 2 ) D 2 (1 − x 2 ) + n C 3 D n −3 ( y 2 ) D 3 (1 − x 2 ) + . we get D n [ y1 ( x)] = D n ( y1 ). 2..D ( x)+ n C 2 D n −2 ( y1 ). [ ] = y ( n )+ 2 − x 2 ) + ny ( n −1)+ 2 .( x)+ n C1 D n −1 y1 . (4) and (5) in Eq (2) we get {(1 − x 2 )y n+2 − 2nxy n+1 − n(n − 1) y n }− {xy n+1 + ny n } + {p 2 y n } = 0 ie (1 − x 2 )y n + 2 − ( 2n + 1) xy n +1 − n 2 y n + ny n − ny n + p 2 y n = 0 ( ) ( ) ∴ 1 − x 2 y n + 2 − ( 2n + 1) xy n +1 + p 2 − n 2 y n = 0 as desired. D n 1 − x 2 y 2 − xy1 − p 2 y = 0 [( { ) ] } ( ) i. n times.. using Leibnitz’s theorem as follows.(5) D n ( p 2 y) = p 2 D n ( y) = p 2 yn Substituting these values (3).e D n y 2 (1 − x 2 ) = D n ( y 2 ). Taking u = y 2 and v = (1 − x 2 ) and applying Leibnitz’s theorem we get D n [uv ] = D n uv + n C1 D n −1uDv + n C 2 D n − 2 D 2 v + n C 3 D n −3 uD 3 v + ... n( n − 1) = y ( n ) +1 . x. y ( n −3) + 2 . [(1 − x )(2 y y ) + y (− 2 x )] − p (− 2 yy ) = 0 (1 − x )y − xy + p y = 0 --------------. term wise.. Taking u = y1 and v = x and applying Leibnitz’s theorem.t. throughout] So that 1 − x y − p 1 − y 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 Equation (1) has second order derivative y 2 in it.(2) (a) (b) (c) Consider the term (a): D n 1 − x 2 y 2 .

.  n  n(n − 1) n −2 n −1 2 D ( y 2 )(2) + D n ( g1 )( x + 1) + nD n−1 y1 (1) + 4 D n y = 0  D y 2 ( x + 1) + nD ( y 2 )2( x + 1) + 2!   { } On simplification. D ( y1 )(1 + x 2 )+ n C1 D n −1 ( y1 ) D(1 + x 2 )+ n C 2 D n −2 ( y1 ) D 2 (1 + x 2 ) + . then find the value of (1 + x 2 )y n+1 + (2nx − 1)y n + n(n − 1) y n−1 (VTU July-04) Consider x = tan(log y ) ( ) −1 i. tan −1 x = log y or y = e tan x Differentiating w. we get (x + 1)2 y n+ 2 + (2n + 1)(x + 1) y n+1 + n 2 + 4 y n = 0 3.t x.t x.. − D n y = 0 n   n(n − 1) y n−1 (2) + 0 + ..r.r.t x. n-times.. ( We get ) [( ( ) ) ] D n 1 + x 2 y1 − D n ( y ) = 0 { } { } ie. −1 1 y y1 = e tan x . we consider the function as sin −1 ( y ) = 2 log( x + 1) Differentiating w. using Leibnitz’s theorem.e.t x.r. show that 10MAT11 (x + 1)2 y n+ 2 + (2n + 1)(x + 1) y n+1 + (n 2 + 4)y n = 0 (VTU Jan-03) Out of the above four versions..NCET – Class Notes or y = sin log( x 2 + 2 x + 1) . − y n = 0 ie  y n +1 (1 + x 2 ) + ny n (2 x) + 2!   2 (1 + x )y n+1 + (2nx − 1)y n + n(n − 1) y n−1 = 0 [ ] m [ ] m 4. = 2 1+ x 1+ x2 ie 1 + x 2 y1 − y = 0 -----------* ∴ 1 + x 2 y1 = y We differentiate * n-times using Leibnitz’s theorem. If x = tan(log y ) .r. or y = x + x 2 − 1 or y = x − x 2 − 1 Show that (x 2 − 1)y n + 2 + ( 2n + 1) xy n +1 + (n 2 − m 2 )y n = 0 (VTU Feb-02) 1 1 . (x + 1)2 (2 y1 y 2 ) + y12 (2( x + 1) ) = 4(−2 yy1 ) or or (x + 1)2 y 2 + ( x + 1) y1 = −4 y (÷2 y1 ) (x + 1)2 y 2 + ( x + 1) y1 + 4 y = 0 -----------* Differentiating * w.. we get 1  2  2 ( y1 ) =   ie ( x + 1) y1 = 2 1 − y 2  x +1 1− y Squaring on both sides (x + 1)2 y12 = 4(1 − y 2 ) Again differentiating w. If y m + y − m = 2 x .

apply Leibnitz’s theorem to get the results..3... we get (x 2 − 1)y n+ 2 + (2n + 1) xy n+1 + (n 2 − m 2 )y n = 0 Problem set 1. u = n  n +1   2 3 n x dx  x  x  2 n 2.. If y = a cos(log x) + b sin(log x ). show that d2y dy 1− x − 2 x + n( n + 1) y = 0 Hint : It is required to show that 2 dx dx 2 (1 − x )y n+ 2 − 2 xy n+1 + n(n + 1)y n = 0 3. Again differentiating w. On squaring (x 2 − 1 y = m 2 y 2 .NCET – Class Notes Consider y ⇒ 1 + y− m (y ) 1 ∴y 1 2 m m 10MAT11 1 = 2x m ⇒ y 1 m + 1 = 2x 1 y m ( ) + 1 = 0 Which is quadratic equation in y − 2x y 1 m 1 m − (−2 x) ± (−2 x) 2 − 4(1)(1) 2 x ± 4 x 2 − 4 = = 2(1) 2 = ) ( ( 1 2x ± 2 x 2 − 1 = x ± x2 −1 ⇒ y m = x ± x2 −1 2 ) ) ( y = [x + x − 1] or y = [x − x − 1] Let us take y = [x + x − 1]   1 ∴ y = m (x + x − 1 ) 1 + (2 x)  2 x −1 m ∴ y = x ± x 2 − 1 . So. ( 2 ) .t x.. we can consider m 2 m 2 2 m −1 1 2  m −1  x 2 − 1 + x  y1 = m x + x 2 − 1   x 2 − 1   ( x − 1)y 2 or or )  ) ( or m 2 1 = my ..1 In each of the following. (x 2 − 1 2 y1 y 2 + y12 (2 x) = m 2 (2 yy1 ) (x 2 − 1 y 2 + xy1 = m 2 y (÷2 y1 ) (x 2 2 1 ) ) ) − 1 y 2 + xy1 − m 2 y = 0 ------------(*) Differentiating (*) n. d n  log x  (−1) n n!  1 1 1 1 = log x − 1 − − − ..r.times using Leibnitz’s theorem and simplifying. Show that y n satisfies the equation 1.  Hint: Take v = log x. If y = ( x − 1) ..

If y = x n log x..NCET – Class Notes x 2 y n + 2 + (2n + 1)xy n +1 + (n 2 + 1)y n = 0 10MAT11 −1 4. Pr ove That (1 − x 2 )y n+2 − (2n + 1)xy n+1 − (n 2 + m 2 )y n = 0 7. +  2 3 n  n! 8.. y = sin m sin −1 x . the concept of successive differention was extended for special type of functions using Liebnitz’s theorem. Also. Prove That • 1 1 1  (i) y n = ny n −1 + (n − 1)! (ii) y n = n! log x + 1 + + + .The idea of successive differentiation was presented. Show that b n 2 x y n + 2 + (2n + 1)xy n +1 + 2n 2 y n = 0 ( ) 6. If y n = D n (x n log x ). If cos −1   = log  . ....... Prove That (1 − x 2 )y n+2 − (2n + 1)xy n+1 − (n 2 + m 2 )y n = 0 n  y  x 5. The computation of nth derivatives of a few standard functions and relevant problems were discussed. If y = e m sin x . Show that y n +1 = x Summary:.

Another useful system for similar purpose is Polar coordinate system. system A 2. r = f(ө) Polar coordinates (r . • Session-1 2. θ = projection of OP on the r initial axis OA.NCET – Class Notes 10MAT11 Chapter – 2 : POLAR CURVES LESSON -1 : Angle between Polar Curves • In this chapter we introduce a new coordinate system. • A polar curve by name “three-leaved rose” is displayed below: ө= ө= π 2 3π 4 ө= ө=π • • 4 ө=0 ө= • π 3π 2 Any point P can be located on a plane with co-ordinates (r .1 Important results T Y φ P(r. ө) called polar co-ordinates of P where r = radius vector OP.θ ) can be related with Cartesian coordinates ( x. Polar coordinate x = r cos θ & y = r sin θ .1. and the curves specified by these coordinates are referred to as polar curves. y ) through the relations Fig.1) Ө O The equation r = f (θ ) is known as a polar curve.θ ) P(r. where we can understand the idea of polar curves and their properties.1.We are familiar with Cartesian coordinate system for specifying a point in the xy – plane.(See Fig.1. ө) φ r L .0 Introduction:.(with pole ‘O’) .

: i.(2) i.2.. w. With usual notation prove that tan φ = r • ) ( ( • • • dθ dr Proof:. dy dx  dr   dr  = r (− sin θ ) + cos θ  = r (cos θ ) + sin θ   &  //NOTE// dθ dθ  dθ   dθ   dr  dy r (cos θ ) + sin θ   dy dθ  dr  θ d = = dividing the Nr & Dr by cos θ dx dx dθ  dr  dθ r (− sin θ ) + cos θ    dθ  r dθ + tan θ dy dr = dx − (rdθ dr ) tan θ + 1 dθ dy tan θ + r dr …………………. the length of the perpendicular from the pole to ..e.. = ..2) From Fig...r..t θ . (See fig. we have x = r cos θ . = dx 1 − tan θ rdθ dr Comparing equations (1) and (2) we get tan φ = r dθ dr  1 dr  Note that cot φ =    r dθ  A Note on Angle of intersection of two polar curves:If φ1 and φ2 are the angles between the common radius vector and the tangents at the point of intersection of two curves r = f1 (θ ) and r = f 2 (θ ) then the angle intersection of the curves is given by φ1 − φ2 ( • 10MAT11 ) ) Theorem 2: The length “p” of perpendicular from pole to the tangent in a polar curve i.NCET – Class Notes • Theorem 1: Angle between the radius vector and the tangent..e.In the Fig.. (1) dx 1 − tan θ tan φ On the other hand...3..e. note that ON = p..e. Angle between radius vector and the tangent ψ =θ +φ tan θ + tan φ tanψ = tan (θ + φ ) = 1 − tan θ tan φ dy tan θ + tan φ i.... y = r sin θ differentiating these. Fig.Let “ φ ” be the angle between the radius vector OPL and the tangent TPT 1 at the point `P` on the polar curve r = f (θ ) .2. 1 1 1  dr  2 = 2 = 4 (i) p = r sin φ or (ii)  2 p r r  dθ  Proof:.

.(i ) 1 1 1 Consider = = cos ecφ p r sin φ r 1 1 1 ∴ 2 = 2 cos ec 2φ = 2 (1 + cot 2φ ) p r r O r Ө P(r.NCET – Class Notes the tangent at p on r = f (θ ) . we solve few problems on angle of intersection of polar curves and pedal equations.e.... r = 2 log θ (VTU-July-2005) aθ a and r = 1+θ 1+θ 2 Solutions: 1...2 Worked examples:• Find the acute angle between the following polar curves 1.......1... r = a (1 + cos θ ) and r = b(1 − cos θ ) (VTU-July-2003) 2 r = (sin θ + cos θ ) and r = 2 sin θ (VTU-July-2004) ( 2 ) and r = 25 cos ec (θ 2 ) 3...r.. r = 16 sec 2 θ 4.... 2.3 Length of the perpendicular from the pole to the tangent 2 1 1   1 dr   = 1 +     p 2 r 2   r dθ   2 1 1 1  dr  ∴ 2 = 2 + 4   .. ө) φ Ψ r = f (ө) P N Fig. ON sin φ = ⇒ ON = (OP ) sin φ OP 10MAT11 φ i..r.t θ .from the right angled triangle OPN. we get 2 = u 2 +   r p  dθ  • Session-2 • In this session. r = a log θ and r = a 5.t θ Consider r = b(1 − cos θ ) Diff w. Consider r = a (1 + cos θ ) Diff w. .. p = r sin φ .(ii ) p r r  dθ  2 1 1  du  • Note:-If u = .

Consider ( 2) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 16 sec (θ ) dθ 2 r = dr 16 sec (θ )tan (θ ) 2 2 tan φ = cot θ = tan (π − θ ) 2 2 2 2 1 4 ( 2) r = 25 cos ec 2 θ Diff w.NCET – Class Notes dr = − a sin θ dθ dθ a (1 + cos θ ) = r − a sin θ dr 2 cos 2 θ 2 tan φ1 = − θ 2 sin cos θ 2 2 10MAT11 dr = b sin θ dθ dθ b(1 − cos θ ) = r dr b sin θ 2 sin 2 θ 2 tan φ1 = − θ 2 sin cos θ 2 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) = − cot θ ( = tan θ 2 ) i.t θ dr = cos θ − sin θ dθ dθ sin θ + cos θ r = dr cos θ − sin θ tan θ + 1 (÷ Nr & Dr cosθ ) tan φ1 = 1 − tan θ tan θ + 1 i. Consider r = (sin θ + cos θ ) Diff w.t θ dr = −50 cos ec 2 θ cot θ . 1 2 2 2 dθ = 16 sec θ tan θ 2 2 2 ) +θ −θ = π Consider r = 16 sec θ 2 4 Diff w.t θ dr = 32 sec 2 θ tan θ .e tan φ1 = = tan π + θ 4 1 − tan θ ⇒ φ1 = π + θ 4 ( Consider r = 2 sin θ Diff w.r.r.t θ dr = 2 cos θ dθ dθ 2 sin θ r = dr 2 cos θ tan φ2 = tan θ ) ⇒ φ2 = θ ( ∴ Angle between the curves = φ1 − φ2 = π 3.the given curves intersect orthogonally 2. 1 2 2 2 dθ = −25 cos ec 2 θ cot θ 2 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 25 cos ec (θ ) dθ 2 r = dr − 25 cos ec (θ )cot (θ ) 2 2 tan φ = − tan θ = tan (− θ ) 2 2 2 2 2 .e tan φ1 = tan π ( + θ ⇒ φ1 = π + θ 2 2 2 2 Angle between the curves ( 2 tan φ1 = tan θ ) 2 ⇒ φ1 = φ2 ) φ1 − φ2 = π 2 + θ 2 − θ 2 = π 2 Hence .r.r.

. 1 θ dθ 2 dθ  (log θ ) θ  r = − a   log θ  dr a  r = a log θ Diff w.... ⇒ φ2 = −θ 2 −θ 2 2 ) − (θ 2 ) 2 Consider Consider r= a log θ Diff w.(iii ) i.(i) We know that tan φ1 − tan φ 2 tan (φ1 − φ 2 ) = 1 + tan φ1 tan φ 2 tan φ 2 = −θ log θ ..(ii ) θ log θ − (− θ log θ ) 1 + (ϑ log θ )(− θ log θ ) 2θ log θ .....r.t θ dr a = θ dθ dθ r = a log θ θ a dr ( ) tan φ1 = θ log θ ...t θ dr 2 = − a (log θ ) ... we get = tan (φ1 − φ 2 ) = 2e log e 1 − (e log e ) 2  2e  = 2  1− e  (Q log e e = 1)  2e  ∴ φ1 − φ 2 = tan −1  2  1− e  5...... we take by θ =1 ⇒ θ = e NOTE Substituting θ = e in (iii)..t θ 2θ = − a dr r dθ 2 .e tan (φ1 − φ 2 ) = 2 1 − (θ log θ ) 2 ⇒ (log θ ) = 1 or log θ = ±1 From the data: a log θ = r = a log θ As θ is acute....NCET – Class Notes ( ⇒ φ1 = π 2 −θ 2 10MAT11 ) ( Angle of intersection of the curves = φ1 − φ2 = π =π 4...r.r... Consider Consider aθ as 1+θ 1 1+θ 1 1 = = +1 r aθ a θ Diff w...r..t θ 1 dr 1 1 − 2 = − θ2 r dθ a r= r= ( ( ) ) ( aθ 1+θ 2 ) ∴ 1+θ 2 = a r Diff w.

1 for practice. 2. • Working rules to find pedal equations:(i) Eliminate r and φ from the Eqs.1 Worked Examples on pedal equations:- 2 . r = a cos θ and r = a 2 5. r n cos nθ = a n and r n sin nθ = b n 3.2.Any equation containing only p & r is known as pedal equation of a polar curve.: (i) r = f (θ ) & ∴ 2 = 2 + 4   p r r  dθ  • 2.2.NCET – Class Notes 1 dr r = r d θ aθ 2 dθ aθ 2 r = dr r tan φ1 = 10MAT11 − 2rθ 1 dr = a r dθ dθ − a i.: (i) r = f (θ ) & p = r sin φ 1 1 1  dr  (ii) Eliminate only θ from the Eqs. • Find the acute angle between the curves 1.e r = dr 2 rθ aθ 2 aθ (1 + θ ) ∴ tan φ1 = θ (1 + θ ) 1+θ 2     a  tan φ2 = − a 2θ tan φ2 = − 1 ( 1+θ 2 ) 2θ Now.1 • 2. r n = a n (cos nθ + sin nθ ) and r n = a n sin nθ 2.0 Pedal equations (p-r equations):.1. r = a cos mθ and r m = b m sin mθ m m (ans: π ) 4 (ans: π ) 2 (ans: π ) 2 (ans:5 π ) 6 (ans: π ) 2 LESSON -2 : Pedal Equations • Session . r = aθ and r = a θ 4. we have aθ a =r= ⇒ aθ (1 + θ 2 ) = a (1 + θ ) 2 1+θ 1+θ or θ + θ 3 = 1 + θ ⇒ θ 3 = 1 or θ = 1 ∴ tan φ1 = 2 & tan φ2 = (− 1) Consider tan (φ1 − φ2 ) = = tan φ1 − tan φ2 1 + (tan φ1 )(tan φ2 ) 2 − (− 1) = −3 = 3 1 + (2 )(− 1) ∴ φ1 − φ2 = tan −1 (3) Problem Set No.

= 1 − cos θ r 2. Consider r = eθ cot α Diff..NCET – Class Notes 10MAT11 • Find the pedal equations for the polar curves:2a 1.r.(i) r Diff.. 2..t θ dr = eθ cot α (cot α ) = r cot α (Q r = eθ cot α ) dθ We use the equation ( ) ( ) ( ( ) ) 2 1 1 1  dr  = 2 + 4  2 p r r  dθ  1 1 2 = 2 + 4 (r cot α ) r r 1 1 1 1 = 2 + 4 (cot 2 α ) = 2 (1 + cot 2 α ) = 2 cos ec 2α r r r r 1 1 = 2 cos ec 2α 2 p r .. r m = a m sin mθ + b m cos mθ (VTU-Jan-2005) 4. Consider = 1 − cos θ ……….. w. is only in terms of p and r and hence it is the pedal equation of the polar curve. This eqn..(i)] 2 2   2 r  2 p = ar.. we get p = r sin − θ = − r sin θ ...r. w... l = 1 + e cos θ r Solutions: 2a 1. r = e θc cot α 3..(ii ) 2 2 Eliminating “ θ ” between (i) and (ii) r 2  2a  2 2 2θ 2  1 − cos θ  p = r sin =r   =   [See eg: .t θ dr 2a − 1 2 = sin θ r dθ 1 dr − r sin θ = r dθ 2a dθ 2a 1 r =− dr r sin θ 2 sin 2 θ (1 − cosθ ) 2 tan φ = − =− = − tan θ 2 θ θ sin θ 2 sin cos 2 2 tan φ = tan − θ ⇒ φ = − θ 2 2 Using the value of φ is p = r sin φ .

Consider l r = (1 + cosθ ) Diff w.t θ dr mr m −1 = a m (m cos mθ ) + b m ( − m sin mθ ) dθ r m dr = a m cos mθ − b m sin mθ r dθ 1 dr a m cos m θ − b m sin m θ = m r dθ a sin m θ + b m cos m θ m m m a m cos mθ − b m sin mθ a m sin mθ + b m cos mθ 1 1 Consider p = r sin φ . w.t θ dr   1 dr   l − 2  = − e sin θ ⇒ l r  1 r  = e sin θ dθ   r dθ   l (cot φ ) = e sin θ r ∴ cot φ = r e sin θ l 1 1 We have 2 = 2 (1 + cot 2 φ ) (see eg: 3 above) p r ( ) Now .r.Consider r = a sin m θ + b cos m θ Diff.NCET – Class Notes 2 p2 = r cosec 2α 10MAT11 or r 2 = p 2 cosec 2α is the required pedal equation 3. = cos ecφ p r 1 1 = 2 cos ec 2φ 2 p r 1 = 2 (1 + cot 2 φ ) r 2 1   a m cos mθ − b m sin mθ     = 2 1 +  m r   a sin mθ + b m cos mθ     2 1  a m sin mθ + b m cos mθ + a m cos mθ − b m sin mθ = 2 2 m m r  + a sin m θ b cos m θ  cot φ = ( ( ) ( ) )  2   1 1  a 2m + b 2m  =   Note p 2 r 2  r 2m  r 2 ( m +1 ) 2 ⇒ p = 2m is the required p-r equation a + b2 m 4.r.

r = a cos θ and r = a 2 4 . 2.1 for practice.NCET – Class Notes 10MAT11 1 1  l 2 + e 2 r 2 sin 2 θ  =  p 2 r 2  l2  2 2 1 = 2 1 + e r 2 sin 2 θ l r ( ) 1 + e cos θ = l e cos θ =  2   l − r  2   2 2  l + e r 1 −      re    1 1 =  p2 r2  l2       r l−r r l −r cos θ =    re  sin 2 θ = 1 − cos 2 θ 1  e2 − 1  2 On simplification 2 =  2  + p  e  lr • Problem Set No. r = aθ and r = a θ 3. r = a cos mθ and r m = b m sin mθ m m l −r = 1−    re  2 .2. r n cos nθ = a n and r n sin nθ = b n 2. Find the pedal equations of the following polar curves 1.