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ECE 473, Spring 2015

Course Notes – Chapter 1

Chapter 1 - Fundamentals of Vibration
1.2. Simple Harmonic Oscillation (SHO): A mass m moving through a distance x while
attached to a spring serves as a model simple harmonic oscillator.

s
m

f

x
x=0
Equilibrium: Position of m for which the spring is relaxed and exerts no force on the mass;
convenient to choose origin where x = 0.
Restoring force [N]: When the spring is stretched by an applied force, there is a force that tends
to restore the system to equilibrium.
Mass [kg] has inertia, the property of persisting in whatever state of motion the system already
has.

In the case of a spring, the force exerted on the mass is a function of the displacement.
Expanding in a Taylor series,

 df 
1  d2 f 
f  x   f  0     x   2  x 2  ...
2  dx  x 0
 dx  x 0
Now, f  f  0  at equilibrium, and assuming small displacements, so that nonlinear terms are
negligible, then

 df 
f    x   sx (Hooke’s Law)
 dx  x 0
Where f is the restoring force [N], s is the stiffness (or spring) constant [N/m], and x is the
displacement [m]. Note the negative sign because f is opposed to x.
Applying Newton’s 2nd Law (for constant mass):

d2 x
f  m 2   sx
dt

1

C. ω0 These do not depend on how the system is used. Find A and B.3. 2 where C  Intrinsic properties: s. The relationship between the natural frequency. the solution for the EOM can m be written as x t   A cos 0 t   B sin 0 t   C cos 0 t     B A2  B2 and   Tan1   . Rearranging gives the Equation of Motion (EOM) for dt 2 a system with no loss: d2 x s  x0 dt 2 m Identifying the natural angular frequency. Spring 2015 where Course Notes – Chapter 1 d2x is the acceleration of the mass. Sol: Ans: x  t   x0 cos 0 t   u0 sin 0 t  0 2 . as 0  s . ω0 [rad/s]. or C and φ can be determined. m.ECE 473. and natural angular frequency is f0  0 . Example 1: If position (x0) and velocity (u0) are specified at one time (usually at t = 0). f0  A  [Hz]. B. 1. Extrinsic properties: A. then A and B. and are dependent on initial conditions. φ These are determined by external influences.

This yields d2 s Ae t  Ae t  0 2 m dt  2 Ae t  s Ae t  0 m For a nontrivial solution ( A  0 ). Ans: A1  dx  0  dt  u  0   u0 to find A1 . we must set  2  2 are    j s  0 . Let x  Ae t and substitute into the EOM. Spring 2015 Course Notes – Chapter 1 1. A2 and rearranging terms gives u0   j0t 1  u  1   x0  j 0  e  j0t  x0  j  e 2 0  2 0  x 1 u0  j0t  0 e j0t  e j0t  j e  e  j0t 2 2 0 x     Recall Euler’s expressions (Appendix A2): MEMORIZE e j  cos   j sin  e  j  cos   j sin  1 j e  e  j 2 1 j sin   e  e  j 2j cos       3 . Complex Exponential Method: An alternate approach to solving the EOM is to use the complex exponential method. and the two roots for the solution m s   j0 .ECE 473. 2 0  2 0  Let’s compare this to the previously obtained solution. Plugging in A1 . A2   x0  j  . Thus the complete solution is m x  A1 e j0t  A2 e j0t   Example 2: Apply the initial conditions x 0  x0 . Note that A1 and A2 complex conjugates.5. A2 . u0  u0  1 1  x0  j  .

Spring 2015 Course Notes – Chapter 1 Thus we can write x x0  j0t 1 u0  j0t e  e j0t  j e  e  j0t 2 2 0   x0  j0t 1 u0  j0t e  e j0t  e  e  j0t 2 2 j 0        x0 cos 0t    u0 sin 0t  0 1. 2 dx  0 C sin 0 t    . sx: E p   fdx  sxdx   0 The kinetic energy possessed by the mass is given by Ek      Recall that x t  C cos 0 t   .ECE 473. Energy: The total mechanical energy. Force exerted on the x x spring is in the direction of the displacement. and the kinetic energy. m the total energy is 1 2 1 2 sx  mu 2 2 1 2 1  sC cos 2 0 t     m0 2 C 2 sin 2  0 t    2 2 1 1  m0 2 C 2 cos 2  0 t     m0 2 C 2 sin 2  0 t    2 2 1  m0 2 C 2 2 E  E p  Ek  Note that E is constant with time and is equal to the maximum values of both Ep (when Ek = 0) and Ek (when Ep = 0). Therefore. E [J]. 2 1 2 mu . Ep. and 0  dt s . 4 . u t   0 1 2 sx .4. is the sum of the potential energy. Ek. Ep is the work done by distorting the spring from its equilibrium position.

the SHO will continue to oscillate forever with the same amplitude at the radian frequency. To make the model more realistic. Schematically. Spring 2015 Course Notes – Chapter 1 1. this is represented by a dashpot (or shock absorber) in parallel with the spring as Viscous friction: A force proportional to the speed of the mass.ECE 473. Let x  Ae t . the revised equation of motion becomes: d 2 x Rm dx s   x0 m dt m dt 2 We can solve this using the complex exponential method. Rm d d2 s t t Ae  Ae  Ae t  0 2 m dt m dt 2  Rm m  s 0 m 2   Rm s R    m  2m  2m  m      2  0 2 where   Rm and 0  2m s .6 Damped Harmonic Oscillation: Once set into oscillation. there should be some friction (dissipative forces) acting on the moving mass so that the oscillations die down. and directed opposite to the motion. and substitute into the above equation. Adding this additional force. m 5 . f R   Rm dx dt where Rm > 0 and is called mechanical resistance [N*s/m] (= [kg/s]) of the system.

Find β. The time constant where the amplitude decays to 1/e of its initial value is defined as   1 2m . s = 25 N/m. ω0 = 50. Then      jd . If   0 . page 6).   Rm Example 3: Consider m = 0.1 kg/s 0. However.6 6 0 0. does not oscillate 2. overdamped. thus it decays exponentially over time.. underdamped. and ωd = 49 (all in [rad/s]).4 -0. we can observe how changing the mechanical resistance alters the oscillatory response. 0.8 m = 0.0 -0.4 -0.8 0 0.4 0. ω0.2 0. Spring 2015 Course Notes – Chapter 1 There are three possible cases for this solution. case 3 contains damped oscillations.01 kg s = 25 N/m Rm = 0.2 kg/s. and Rm = 0.01 kg s = 25 N/m Rm = 0. Ans: β = 10. 1.8 -0.0 0. oscillates and decays Cases 1 and 2 have no oscillations as the mass asymptotically approaches its equilibrium point. so we can write x  t   Re x  Ae   t cos d t    The amplitude of the oscillation is Ae   t .2 kg/s 0. Graphically.6 .  x  e   t A1 e  jdt  A2 e  jdt  The real part of the complex solution is by itself a complete general solution (see Kinsler et al.2 0.4 0. If   0 .8 0. and the complete solution is.01 kg. critically damped 3. and ωd. 2 2 Define d  0   as the damped angular frequency.4 0.ECE 473. If   0 .4 m = 0.

the previously obtained solution). The steady-state solution is found by assuming that the displacement. The transient solution is found by setting the amplitude. to 0 (i. x. The EOM becomes d 2 x Rm dx s   x  f t  m dt m dt 2 The total solution for the forced oscillator will be the sum of the transient solution and the steady state solution if f(t) is harmonic (sinusoidal). Thus. the EOM is d 2 x Rm dx s   x  Fe jt 2 m dt m dt And x  Ae jt Rm d d2 s jt jt Ae  Ae  Ae jt  Fe jt 2 m dt m dt R s  2 A  j m A  A  F m m F A   s  j  Rm  j   m        7 .e. F. f. has the same form (and same angular frequency) as the driving force. Spring 2015 Course Notes – Chapter 1 1.7 Forced Oscillations Now consider the simple oscillator driven by an externally applied force f(t).ECE 473.

We define the complex mechanical impedance Z m  f [N*s/m]. Substituting in for the force and velocity. u ‘mechanical ohms’).  .e. the equations for complex displacement and complex velocity are x  Ae jt Fe jt    s  j  Rm  j   m        j t dx Fe u  j x  dt  s Rm  j   m     The actual displacement and speed are found by taking the real part of these.ECE 473. (Similar to V/I for circuits. The real part is the mechanical resistance and the imaginary part is the mechanical reactance. Spring 2015 Course Notes – Chapter 1 Thus. Fe jt   f s  Zm    Rm  j   m   u       jt Fe   s     Rm  j   m        There are real and imaginary parts to the mechanical impedance ( Z m  Rm  jX m ). X m   m  8 s . i.