# Lecture 2

Signal Size, Signal Operations, Periodic Signals, Even and Odd Signals

Size of a Signal (1)
• Size of an entity determines its ‘largeness’ or ‘strength’
• Signal amplitude varies with time
• Largeness should consider both amplitude and duration
• How to measure the strength of such a signal?
• Naive way: Area under signal 𝑥(𝑡)
• But what about negative area?

• More appropriate way: Area under signal 𝑥2(𝑡) (Signal Energy)

Size of a Signal (2) Signal Energy: CT 𝐸𝑥 = DT 𝐸𝑥 = ∞ −∞ 𝑥(𝑡) 2 𝑑𝑡 ∞ 2 𝑛=−∞ |𝑥[𝑛]| • For signal energy to be meaningful. it must be finite i. 𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 → 0 If 𝐸𝑥 is finite. CT 𝐴𝑠 𝑡 → ∞. 𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 → 0 DT 𝐴𝑠 𝑛 → ∞..e. the signal is called energy signal .

𝑃𝑥 If 𝑃𝑥 is finite and non-zero. 𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑑𝑜𝑒𝑠 𝑛𝑜𝑡 → 0 ⇒ measure signal power instead a𝑠 CT Signal Power: 1 𝑇 2 𝑥(𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 𝑇→∞ 2𝑇 −𝑇 1 𝑁 lim |𝑥[𝑛]|2 −𝑁 𝑁→∞ 2𝑁+1 1 𝑇 2 𝑥(𝑡) 𝑑𝑡) 𝑇 0 1 𝑁−1 = 𝑥 𝑛 2) 0 𝑁 CT 𝑃𝑥 = lim (𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑜𝑑𝑖𝑐. 𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑑𝑜𝑒𝑠 𝑛𝑜𝑡 → 0 a𝑠 𝑛 → ∞. the signal is called a power signal .Size of a Signal (3) • But what if: DT 𝑡 → ∞. 𝑃𝑥 = DT 𝑃𝑥 = (𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑜𝑑𝑖𝑐.

Size of a Signal (4) • Examples • Signal with finite energy (zero power) • Signal with finite power (infinite energy) .

Size of a Signal – Numerical Problem 1. part (c): Example 1.3. 𝑃 = 0 1 2 (Parts (a) and (b): Problem 1. Oppenheim. 𝐸 = ∞. c. 𝐸 = ∞. 𝑥1 𝑡 = 𝑒 𝜋 4 𝑗(2𝑡+ ) 𝑥2 (𝑡) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝑡) −0.5𝑛 𝑒 𝑥[𝑛] = 0 𝑛≥0 𝑛<0 Answers: a. Mandal & Asif) . Determine the energy and power of the following signals: a.7. 𝑃 = 1 b.582. 𝑃 = c. b. 𝐸 = 1.

𝐶𝑒 𝑗𝜔0 𝑡 is given by 𝐶 2 . is 𝐶2 2 • And.g. the power of a sinusoidal signal. • E. the power of a complex exponential signal. 𝐶𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜔0 𝑡 + 𝜃).Size of a Signal (5) • Most periodic signals are typically power signals..

Signal Operations – Time Shifting • A signal may be delayed by time T ∅(𝑡) = 𝑥(𝑡 − 𝑇) • Or it may be advanced by time T ∅(𝑡) = 𝑥(𝑡 + 𝑇) .

Signal Operations – Time Scaling • A signal may be compressed in time ∅(𝑡) = 𝑥(2t) • Or it may be expanded in time ∅(𝑡) = 𝑥(𝑡/2) .

Signal Operations – Time Reversal • Reflection of a signal about the vertical axis ∅ 𝑡 = 𝑥(−𝑡) .

e. • First.g.Signal Operations (4) • Combined operations • E. time shift the above signal by 𝑏/𝑎 . then time scale i. 𝑥 𝑎𝑡 − 𝑏 • Two possible sequences of operations: • Time shift. time shift 𝑥(𝑡) by b to obtain 𝑥(𝑡 − 𝑏) • Then. time scale the signal 𝑥(𝑡) by a to obtained 𝑥(𝑎𝑡) • Then...e. then time shift i. time scale the above signal by a to obtain 𝑥(𝑎𝑡 − 𝑏) • Time scale.. • First.

For the signal 𝑥 𝑡 shown below.Signal Operations – Numerical Problem (1) 1. Oppenheim) . 4. find: 1. 3. 𝑥(𝑡 + 1) 𝑥(−𝑡 + 1) 3 𝑥( 𝑡) 2 3 𝑥( 𝑡 2 + 1) (Example 1. 2.1.

2. 4. 2. Oppenheim) .2. For the CT signal 𝑥 𝑡 shown at the right. 2. 𝑥(𝑡 − 1) 𝑥(2 − 𝑡) 𝑥(2𝑡 + 1) 𝑡 𝑥(4 − ) 2 For the DT sequence x[n] shown at the right. 1. 3.1. 3.Signal Operations – Numerical Problem (2) 2. 𝑥 𝑥 𝑥 𝑥 𝑛−4 3−𝑛 3𝑛 3𝑛 + 1 (Problem 1. find: 1. 4.2. find: 1. 3.

𝑥 𝑡 = 𝑥 𝑡 + 𝑚𝑇 for all values of 𝑡 and for any integer 𝑚 • The fundamental period 𝑇0 is the smallest positive value of 𝑇 for which equation (1) holds. • Also. . 𝑇 is the period of the periodic signal 𝑥(𝑡). the signal is unchanged by a time shift of 𝑇.Periodic Signals (1) CT: • A signal 𝑥(𝑡) is periodic if there is a positive value of 𝑇 for which 𝑥(𝑡) = 𝑥(𝑡 + 𝑇) (1) for all values of 𝑡 • In other words. • In this case.

the signal is unchanged by a time shift of N. • The fundamental period 𝑁0 is the smallest positive value of 𝑁 for which equation (2) holds. 𝑁 is the period of the periodic signal 𝑥[𝑛]. • In this case. .Periodic Signals (2) DT: 𝑥[𝑛] = 𝑥[𝑛 + 𝑁] (2) for all values of 𝑛 • In other words.

• is symmetrical about the vertical axis (𝑡 = 0. . 𝑜𝑟 𝑛 = 0).Even and Odd Signals – Even Signal CT: 𝑥(𝑡) is even if DT: 𝑥[𝑛] is even if 𝑥 𝑡 = 𝑥(−𝑡) 𝑥 𝑛 = 𝑥 −𝑛 • An even signal: • has the same value at the instants 𝑡 (𝑜𝑟 𝑛) and −𝑡 (𝑜𝑟 – 𝑛) for all values of 𝑡 (𝑜𝑟 𝑛).

• An odd signal is antisymmetric about the vertical axis.Even and Odd Signals – Odd Signal CT: 𝑥(𝑡) is even if −𝑥 𝑡 = 𝑥(−𝑡) DT: 𝑥[𝑛] is even if −𝑥 𝑛 = 𝑥 −𝑛 • For an odd signal. • An odd signal must necessarily be 0 at 𝑡 = 0 or 𝑛 = 0 . the value at the instant 𝑡 (or 𝑛) is the negative of the value at the instant −𝑡 (or − n).

Even and Odd Signals – Properties 𝐸𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑎𝑙 × 𝑂𝑑𝑑 𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑎𝑙 = 𝑂𝑑𝑑 𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑂𝑑𝑑 𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑎𝑙 × 𝑂𝑑𝑑 𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑎𝑙 = 𝐸𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝐸𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑎𝑙 × 𝐸𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑎𝑙 = 𝐸𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑎𝑙 • Even and Odd components of a signal • Every signal 𝑥 𝑡 can be expressed as a sum of even and odd functions 1 1 𝑥 𝑡 = 𝑥 𝑡 + 𝑥 −𝑡 + [𝑥 𝑡 − 𝑥 −𝑡 ] 2 2 .

a power signal. • For combined operations (shift. or none. • A signal will either be an energy signal. • 𝑥(𝑡 − 𝑇) is the signal 𝑥(𝑡) shifted to the right (delay) by T units • 𝑥(𝑡 + 𝑇) is the signal 𝑥(𝑡) shifted to the left (advance) by T units • 𝑥(𝑎𝑡) is the signal 𝑥(𝑡) compressed by factor a • 𝑥(𝑡/𝑎) is the signal 𝑥(𝑡) expanded by factor a. T > 0.Take Home Messages! • For an energy signal as 𝑡 → ∞. reversal). • The power of a signal of the form 𝐷𝑒 𝑗𝜔0 𝑡 is 𝐷 2 • The power of a signal of the form 𝐶𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝜔0 𝑡 + 𝜃) is 𝐶2 2 • Considering a > 1. . 𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 → 0 • Power of a signal is the time average of its energy. • 𝑥(−𝑡) is the signal 𝑥(𝑡) flipped over the vertical axis. then scale. usually it is more convenient to first shift. scale.

2. P.1.2.Practice Problems • Examples: 1. 1.24 (Oppenheim) .5. P. 1.1.23.5 (B.3. Lathi) • Problems: 1.1 – 1. 1. Lathi) 1.2 (B.1.1 – 1. 1.

1.1. 1.2.2 (Lathi) • Sections 1. 1. 3.3 (Mandal & Asif) .2 (Oppenheim) • Sections 1. 1.Useful Readings • Sections 1. 1. 1.1.5.3. 3.1.