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uravitam
Sunday, August 10, 2008
Seminar report - Touch Screen
Touch screen

INDEX
1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. How Does a Touchscreen Work
4. Comparing Touch Technologies
5. Information Kiosk Systems
6. Software, Cables, and Accessories
7. Touchscreen Drivers
8. Applications
9. Advantages over other pointing devices
10. Conclusion
11. References

ABSTRACT

TOUCH SCREEN

First computers became more visual, then they took a step further to understand vocal commands
and now they have gone a step further and became ‘TOUCHY’, that is skin to screen.
A touchscreen is an easy to use input device that allows users to control PC software and DVD
video by touching the display screen. A touch system consists of a touch Sensor that receives the
touch input, a Controller, and a Driver. The most commonly used touch technologies are the
Capacitive & Resistive systems. The other technologies used in this field are Infrared
technology, Near Field Imaging & SAW (surface acoustic wave technology). These technologies
are latest in this field but are very much expensive.
The uses of touch systems as Graphical User Interface (GUI) devices for computers continues to
grow popularity. Touch systems are used for many applications such as ATM’s, point-of–sale
systems, industrial controls, casinos & public kiosks etc. Touch system is basically an alternative
for a mouse or keyboard.
The market for touch system is going to be around $2.5 billion by 2004. Various companies
involved in development of touch systems mainly are Philips, Samsung etc. Even touch screen
mobile phones have been developed by Philips.

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INTRODUCTION
A touchscreen is an easy to use input device that allows users to control PC software and DVD
video by touching the display screen. We manufacture and distribute a variety of touch screen
related products.
A touch system consists of a touch
Sensor that receives the touch input, a Controller, and a Driver. The touch screen sensor is a clear
panel that is designed to fit over a PC. When a screen is touched, the sensor detects the voltage
change and passes the signal to the touch screen controller. The controller that reads & translates
the sensor input into a conventional bus protocol (Serial, USB) and a software driver which
converts the bus information to cursor action as well as providing systems utilities.
As the touch sensor resides between the user and the display while receiving frequent physical
input from the user vacuum deposited transparent conductors serve as primary sensing element.
Vacuum coated layers can account for a significant fraction of touch system cost. Cost &
application parameters are chief criteria for determining the appropriate type determining the
system selection. Primarily, the touch system integrator must determine with what implement the
user will touch the sensor with & what price the application will support.
Applications requiring activation by a
gloved finger or arbitrary stylus such as a plastic pen will specify either a low cost resistive
based sensor or a higher cost infra-red (IR) or surface acoustic wave (SAW) system.
Applications anticipating bare finger input or amenable to a tethered pen comprises of the
durable & fast capacitive touch systems. A higher price tag generally leads to increased
durability better optical performance & larger price.
The most commonly used systems are
generally the capacitive & resistive systems. The other technologies used in this field are
Infrared technology & SAW (surface acoustic wave technology) these technologies are latest in
this field but are very much expensive.

How Does a Touchscreen Work?
A basic touchscreen has three main components: a touch sensor, a controller, and a software
driver. The touchscreen is an input device, so it needs to be combined with a display and a PC or
other device to make a complete touch input system.

1.Touch Sensor
A touch screen sensor is a clear glass panel with a
touch responsive surface. The touch sensor/panel is placed over a display screen so that the
responsive area of the panel covers the viewable area of the video screen. There are several
different touch sensor technologies on the market today, each using a different method to detect
touch input. The sensor generally has an electrical current or signal going through it and touching
the screen causes a voltage or signal change. This voltage change is used to determine the
location of the touch to the screen.

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Advantages Disadvantages • High touch resolution • Pressure sensitive. water. The controller is usually installed inside the monitor for integrated monitors or it is housed in a plastic case for external touch add-ons/overlays. or office use. works with any stylus • Not affected by dirt. dust. Comparing Touch Technologies Each type of screen has unique characteristics that can make it a better choice for certain applications. It takes information from the touch sensor and translates it into information that PC can understand. DVD players. Controller The controller is a small PC card that connects between the touch sensor and the PC. . an electrical current moves through the screen. Although clarity is less than with other touch screen types. It tells the computer's operating system how to interpret the touch event information that is sent from the controller. school. Specialized controllers are also available that work with DVD players and other devices. Most touch screen drivers today are a mouse-emulation type driver. and specialized computer systems either do not use software drivers or they have their own built-in touch screen driver.Software Driver The driver is a software update for the PC system that allows the touchscreen and computer to work together. causing a change in the electrical current and a touch event to be registered. resistive screens are very durable and can be used in a variety of environments.eepdf. restaurant systems. When operating.Please purchase 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. This allows the touchscreen to work with existing software and allows new applications to be developed without the need for touchscreen specific programming.com/' to remove this watermark. The thin layers are separated by invisible separator dots.eepdf. This type of screen is recommended for individual. or less demanding point-of-sale systems. 2. This makes touching the screen the same as clicking your mouse at the same location on the screen. Integrated touch monitors will have an extra cable connection on the back for the touchscreen. When pressure is applied to the screen the layers are pressed together. 3. 4-Wire Resistive type touch screens are generally the most affordable. The controller determines what type of interface/connection you will need on the PC. or light • Affordable touchscreen technology • 75 % clarity • Resistive layers can be damaged by a sharp object • Less durable then 5-Wire Resistive technology Please Demo purchase Watermark 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www.com/' to remove this watermark. home. The most widely used touchscreen technologies are the following: 4-Wire Resistive Touchscreens 4-Wire Resistive touch technology consists of a glass or acrylic panel that is coated with electrically conductive and resistive layers. Some equipment such as thin client terminals. Controllers are available that can connect to a Serial/COM port (PC) or to a USB port (PC or Macintosh). etc.

. 95% RH for 96 hours. acetone.com/' to remove this watermark. Chemical Resistance: Alcohol.eepdf. This type of screen is recommended for demanding point-of-sale systems. When operating. Although clarity is less than with other touch screen types. causing a change in the electrical current and a touch event to be registered. dust.Please purchase 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. Advantages Disadvantages • High touch resolution • Pressure sensitive. works with any stylus • Not affected by dirt. grease. Light Transmission: 80% +/-5% at 550 nm wavelength (visible light spectrum) Expected Life: 35 million touches at one point Please Demo purchase Watermark 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. and general household detergent Software Drivers: Windows XP / 2000 / NT / ME / 98 / 95. resistive screens are very durable and can be used in a variety of environments. restaurant systems.eepdf. industrial controls. and other workplace applications. Touchscreen Specifications Touch Type: 4-Wire Resistive Screen Sizes: 12"-20" Diagonal Cable Interface: PC Serial/COM Port or USB Port Touch Resolution: 1024 x 1024 Response Time: 10 ms.com/' to remove this watermark. The thin layers are separated by invisible separator dots. Linux. Macintosh OS 5-Wire Resistive Touchscreens 5-Wire Resistive touch technology consists of a glass or acrylic panel that is coated with electrically conductive and resistive layers. water. or light • More durable then 4-Wire Resistive technology • 75 % clarity • Resistive layers can be damaged by a sharp object Touchscreen Specifications Touch Type: 5-Wire Resistive Cable Interface: PC Serial/COM Port or USB Port Touch Resolution: 4096 x 4096 Response Time: 21 ms. 5-Wire Resistive type touch screens are generally more durable than the similiar 4-Wire Resistive type. an electrical current moves through the screen. When pressure is applied to the screen the layers are pressed together. maximum Positional Accuracy: 3mm maximum error Light Transmission: 80% nominal Life Expectancy: 3 million touches at one point Temperature: Operating: -10°C to 70°C Storage: -30°C to 85°C Humidity: Pass 40 degrees C.

Methyl alcohol. Methyl ethyl ketone . Linux. . Ethyl acetate. ME. NT. 95. Turpentine. 98. Capacitive type touch screens are very durable. Transmission Fluid. Gasoline. Tea. DOS. Diesel Fuel. Frequency changes are measured to determine the X and Y coordinates of the touch event. Kerosene. Unix (3rd Party) PenTouch Capacitive Touchscreens Please Demo purchase Watermark 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. grease. NT. Mineral spirits. Isopropyl alcohol. Coffee.com/' to remove this watermark. 98. DOS. ME.1. Hexane. Unleaded Gasoline. • Must be touched by finger. Circuits located at corners of the screen measure the capacitance of a person touching the overlay. and have a high clarity. Methylene chloride. Salt Software Drivers: Windows XP. 3. etc. Laundry Detergents. Macintosh OS. Toluene. Macintosh OS. Ammonia based glass cleaner.000 plus touches at one point Temperature: Operating: -15°C to 50°C Storage: -50°C to 85°C Humidity: Operating: 90% RH at max 40°C. 2000. 3.com/' to remove this watermark. Grease. from restaurant and POS use to industrial controls and information kiosks. Cleaners (Formula 409. Advantages Disadvantages • High touch resolution • High image clarity • Not affected by dirt. such as: Acetone. Vinegar Software Drivers: Windows XP.).Please purchase 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. Vinegar. Temperature: Operating: -10°C to 50°C Storage: -40°C to 71°C Humidity: Operating: 90% RH at max 35°C Storage: 90% RH at max 35°C for 240 Chemical Resistance: Acetone. Methyl ethyl ketone. Motor Oil. non-condensing Chemical Resistance: The active area of the touchscreen is resistant to all chemicals that do not affect glass.eepdf. Linux. 2000.000. Cooking Oil.1. Antifreeze. will not work with any nonconductive input Touchscreen Specifications Touch Type: Capacitive Cable Interface: PC Serial/COM Port (9-pin) or USB Port Touch Resolution: 1024 x 1024 Light Transmission: 88% at 550 nm wavelength (visible light spectrum) Durability Test: 100. They are used in a wide range of applications. moisture. Ammonia-based glass cleaners. Isopropyl alcohol.eepdf. 95. Unix (3rd Party) Capacitive Touchscreens A capacitive touch screen consists of a glass panel with a capacitive (charge storing) material coating its surface.

It is based on sending acoustic waves across a clear glass panel with a series of transducers and reflectors. Near Field Imaging Touchscreens NFI is one of the newest technologies. When any object touches the screen. Responds to finger or gloved hand. It is a durable technology that offers high image clarity. on-screen annotations. The NFI type screen is not affected by most surface contaminants or scratches.com/' to remove this watermark. causing a drop in the signal received by the photo sensors. An AC signal is applied to the patterned conductive coating. computer based training. . Surface Acoustic Wave Touchscreens Surface Acoustic Wave technology is one of the most advanced touch screen types. A frame surrounds the display’s surface. It is an extremely durable screen that is suited for use in industrial control systems and other harsh environments.Please purchase 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. the electrostatic field is disturbed. Advantages Disadvantages • High touch resolution • Highest image clarity • All glass panel. Something hard like a pen won't work • Not completely sealable. can be affected by large amounts of dirt. the waves are absorbed. This technology is recommended for public information kiosks. When a finger touches the screen.eepdf. PenTouch Capacitive touchscreen technology works with the CRT and LCD touch monitors. causing a touch event to be detected at that point. The pen stylus is a good choice for signature capture. Infrared Touchscreens Infrared touch screen monitors are based on light-beam interruption technology.com/' to remove this watermark. creating an electrostatic field on the surface of the screen. This is the only type of touch technology that are available for large displays such as 42-inch Plasma screens.on one side. Please Demo purchase Watermark 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. the invisible light beam is interrupted. and / or water in the environment. or both. giving this technology the highest durability factor and also the highest clarity. pen input only. This screen combines durable Capacitive technology with a tethered pen stylus. One concern with this technology is that it might respond to a very light touch. or for applications requiring precise input. gloved hand. or soft-tip stylus. no coatings or layers that can wear out or damage • Must be touched by finger. and light detectors on the opposite side.eepdf. or light-emitting diodes (LEDs). or other high traffic indoor environments. making unwanted system adjustments. dust. When the finger or glove or other conductive stylus comes into contact with the sensor. This design creates an optical grid across the screen. Because the panel is all glass there are no layers that can be worn. It consists of two laminated glass sheets with a patterned coating of transparent metal oxide in between. even that of an insect crossing the monitor. The frame has light sources. The screen can be set to respond to finger input only. Responds to any input device or stylus.

Software. Complete Kiosk Systems Several affordable and easy to use kiosk enclosures are available with integrated touch screen monitors.Please purchase 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. and more. and painted metal finishes. tourism guides. Information Kiosk Systems A Kiosk (pronounced key-osk) is a computer based terminal or display that is used to provide information or services. stained oak. .com/' to remove this watermark. electronic catalogs.com/' to remove this watermark. Other Components for Kiosk Systems A variety of hardware components that can be used in information kiosk systems. typically in a public place. and Accessories Software: Touchscreen related software.eepdf. Kiosk systems are being used in a variety of applications. including a presentation development package and an on-screen keyboard package. including mountable printer. Mountable Monitors for Kiosk Systems A variety of mountable displays that can be used in kiosk applications. customer self-service terminals. including presentation development software and other utilities 1.eepdf. MYTSOFT My-T-Soft On-Screen Keyboard Software 2. Software for Kiosk Systems Several software packages can be used in a kiosk environment. fan. Available with several of the leading touchscreen technologies and with a variety of laminate. internet access terminals. Cables. including information directories. RIGHTTOUCH RightTouch Right-Click Utility Software MYTSOFT My-T-Soft On-Screen Keyboard Software My-T-Soft is an On-Screen keyboard utility that works with any Windows 95 / 98 / Me / NT / Please Demo purchase Watermark 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. and speaker grills are available. including mountable CRT monitors and several types of mountable flat panel monitors are available.

eepdf. Most touchscreens work by emulating left mouse button clicks. and a wealth of information for integrating My-T-Soft with your own application. Features: Over 40 "Heads-Up Display" Keyboards with 12 base sizes and infinitely larger sizes ABCD Alphabetical.eepdf. etc. Assignable Functions for Pointing Device Buttons RIGHTTOUCH RightTouch Right-Click Utility Software An easy interface to bring Right Click capability to any touchscreen. source code. Store up to 2000 keystrokes/menu selections (or the applications macro scripts) on each button. But what if you need to right click on an item? Some touchscreens do include right click support. sample code. By allowing systems to operate without the need for a physical keyboard. but many do not. It provides on-screen keyboards and user programmable buttons that allow users to enter data using a touchscreen display. Spanish. My-T-Soft can provide the finishing touch on sealed systems that only require a touchscreen for user input. French. . which auto-open when their assigned application becomes active. The Right Touch utility provides an easy way to perform right clicks with any touchscreen. ondemand functionality. The Developer's Kit comes with all kinds of utilities. Please Demo purchase Watermark 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www.com/' to remove this watermark. Developer friendly Show & Hide keys. My-T-Soft uses a concept called "Heads Up Display" technology and its principal objective is to keep the users focus and concentration centered in one place. My-T-Soft can be used by itself in home or workplace applications. so that touching the screen is the same as clicking your left mouse button at that same point on the screen. program keys in Key Options. QWERTY. 2000 / XP software. simply touch the Right Touch button to change to right click mode. or buttons. When the screen is emulating left clicks. My-T-Soft uses that concept to reduce the visual re-focusing and re-positioning caused by the head's up and down motion of going from screen to keyboard to screen. The Right Touch utility places a button on your desktop that allows you to switch the touchscreen between left and right clicks. and over 40 International (German.com/' to remove this watermark. Operator mode. 3 DVORAK's.) with Edit and Numeric panels. membranes. external templates. and you're back to the standard left click.Please purchase 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. Custom logo display. Touch again. Up to 15 buttons can be grouped on individual Panels. and it includes a developer's kit that allows the keyboard to be called up from Web pages and other programs.

18 These drivers are for 3M Dynapro SC3 and SC4 Controllers The new UPD Driver will work for the following controllers: SC3 Serial. includes video and serial port extension cables. SC4 USB. STYLUS1 Stylus Pen for Resistive Touchscreens STYLUS2 Stylus Pen for Surface Acoustic Wave Touchscreens Touch Screen Drivers UPD Driver 3.Please purchase 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www.5. Serial Cables SERIAL25: 25-Foot Serial Extension Cable SERIAL50: 50-Foot Serial Extension Cable SERIAL100: 100-Foot Serial Extension VGA Video Cables VGA25: 25-Foot VGA Extension Cable VGA50: 50-Foot VGA Extension Cable VGA100: 100-Foot VGA Extension Cable VGA-Y: VGA Video Y-Splitter Cable Accessories: Stylus Pens A stylus pen can be used along with our touchscreen systems for precise input. . SC4 Serial. Software Requirements Windows95/98/ME/NT/2000/XP Please Note: Many of the touchscreen systems include a similar right-click tool with their software driver. Cables: Cables for use with the touch monitors.com/' to remove this watermark. Supported platforms are Win2000/WinNT/Win9x/Me/XP. The Right-Touch software is useful for touchscreens that do not have an included right click utility.com/' to remove this watermark.eepdf.eepdf. DOS and other drivers Please Demo purchase Watermark 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www.

The user-friendly touch screen interface can be less intimidating and easier to use than other input devices. This release supports any serial and PS/2 SMT controller.eepdf. MT410. not 3M Touch Systems. SMT3. Release 5. Here are a few examples of how touch input systems are being used today: 1. APPLICATIONS The touch screen is one of the easiest PC interfaces to use. Near Field Imaging OEM Drivers Use the OEM drivers below with Near Field Imaging touch screen products. It provides multiple monitor support.5MB) For Windows NT/9X/3.63 SR3 These drivers are for MicroTouch Touch Controllers (EXII. Linux Drivers TouchWare Driver. trade show displays. Touchscreen systems Please Demo purchase Watermark 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. Retail and Restaurant Systems Time is money. making it the interface of choice for a wide variety of applications. including dual head video adapters. Microcal is compatible with fully-integrated ClearTek capacitive and TouchTek resistive touchscreens. For Windows NT/9X: 8.com/' to remove this watermark. tourism displays. and are provided for our customers convenience.4-inch and larger Near Field Imaging touch screens Linux Drivers for NFI Linux drivers for NFI were developed by a third party.63.eepdf. This service release also corrects known problems with silent installation.com/' to remove this watermark. A touchscreen can help make your information more easily accessible by allowing users to navigate your presentation by simply touching the display screen 2. 3M Touch Systems cannot offer any warranty or technical support for them. and are provided for our customers' convenience. Supported platforms are WinXP/Win2000/WinNT/Win9x/Me. from TouchWare 5. 2.Please purchase 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. Public Information Displays Information kiosks.4-inch Near Field Imaging touch screens (approx. MT3000. and other electronic displays are used by many people that have little or no computing experience. Linux Drivers for SC3 and SC4 Controllers Linux drivers for SC3 and SC4 were developed by a third party. Microcal 7. 3M Touch Systems cannot offer any warranty or technical support for them. especially in a fast paced retail or restaurant environment.6MB) For Windows XP/2000 for 10. . MT510) This release improves performance for Windows XP drivers. PC BUS controllers and the MT400 controller.1 Use this utility to modify controller settings and to calibrate the sensor at different resolutions under DOS. especially for novice users. not 3M Touch Systems.4-inch and larger Near Field Imaging touch screens (approx> 3.1 and MS-DOS: 10.

• Touch screens are durable in public access and in high volume usage. 5. Automated bank teller (ATM) and airline e-ticket terminals are examples of self-service stations that can benefit from touchscreen input. seating and reservation systems.eepdf. and more 3. 4. waiting in line is one of the things that has yet to speed up. Touchscreens can be used in cash registers. It can also help to make learning more fun and interactive. which can lead to a more beneficial training experience for both students and educators. has developed a system that allows non-verbal individuals to communicate using a PC and touchscreen display. Computer Based Training Because the touch screen interface is more user-friendly than other input devices. Please Demo purchase Watermark 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www.com/' to remove this watermark. Take a look at how one of our customers. ADVANTAGES OVER OTHER POINTING DEVICES Touch screens have several advantages over other pointing devices: • Touching a visual display of choices requires little thinking and is a form of direct manipulation that is easy to learn. CHI Centers. are easy to use so employees can get work done faster.eepdf. Customers can quickly place their own orders or check themselves in or out. and decreasing wait times for other customers. 6. Customer Self-Service In today's fast pace world. and therefore training expense. And with a graphical interface. fast service restaurants. • Touch screens have easier hand eye coordination than mice or keyboards. Control and Automation Systems The touch screen interface is useful in systems ranging from industrial process control to home automation. Selfservice touch screen terminals can be used to improve customer service at busy stores. or other assistive technology. they can help make computing resources more available to people that have difficulty using computers. and more. and training time can be reduced for new employees. valuable counter space can be saved. When used in conjunction with software such as on-screen keyboards. • No extra work space is required as with other pointing devices. ..com/' to remove this watermark. valuable workspace can be saved. operators can monitor and control complex operations in realtime by simply touching the screen. Assistive Technology The touch screen interface can be beneficial to those that have difficulty using other input devices such as a mouse or keyboard. And because input is done right on the screen. transportation hubs. • Touch screens are the fastest pointing devices. order entry stations. overall training time for computer novices. can be reduced. saving them time. By integrating the input device with the display.Please purchase 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. Inc.

.blogger.} Protein memory Abstract While magnetic and semi-conductor based information storage devices have been in use since the middle 1950's. The reality should provide value added opportunities to operations participating in these areas.com 3. While the speed of integrated circuit random access Please Demo purchase Watermark 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www.touchscreen. today's computers and volumes of information require increasingly more efficient and faster methods of storing data. or the image may have been corrupted. optical interference coating and mechanical protective coatings. www. August 7. Restart your computer. References 1. • Some reduction in image brightness may occur. • Screens need to be installed at a lower position and tilted to reduce arm fatigue.eepdf. Touch sensor manufactures currently require thin films in the areas of transparent conductors.org The image cannot be displayed.g?blogID=6982476112972645868&postID=1339780921687839255&from=pencil Labels: Seminar of Electronics and Communication engineering Thursday. • They cost more than alternative devices. www. and then open the file again. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image.} w\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML). Touch sensors technical requirements dovetail well with those of the flat panel and display filter markets. so touch coatings present opportunity for suppliers of vacuum coatings and coating equipments. Disadvantages • User’s hand may obscure the screen.g?blogID=6982476112972645868&postID=1339780921687839255&from=pencilhttp://ww w.touchscreen.com/postedit. 2008 Seminar report .com/' to remove this watermark.com/postedit.wikipedia.shape {behavior:url(#default#VML). www.Protein memory v\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML). Conclusion Touch systems represent a rapidly growing subset of the display market.} .Please purchase 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. If the red x still Posted by prasanth at 11:05 AM 42 comments http://www.eepdf.com/' to remove this watermark.} o\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML).blogger. The majority of touch systems include touch sensors relying on vacuum-deposited coatings.org 2.

In response to the rapidly changing face of computing and demand for physically smaller. 1. 6. Bacteriorhodopsin as Computer Memory 9. holographic optical memory storage devices. Bacteriorhodopsin as an Intelligent Material 4. This seminar focuses mainly on protein-based optical memory storage using the photosensitive protein bacteriorhodopsin with the two-photon method of exciting the molecules. 5. Photo cycle of Bacteriorhodopsin 6.eepdf. Molecular light conversion Please Demo purchase Watermark 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. the limits of these systems are rapidly approaching. Contents 1.com/' to remove this watermark. Data Writing Technique 10. Intelligent Materials 5. 1. Transportation 12. 3-Dimensional Optical Memories 14. The current work is to hybridize this biological molecule with the solid state components of a typical computer. Bacteriorhodopsin Memory Cell by Bob Birge 12. bandwidth. phycobiliproteins. 3. Protein Memories 4. 2.eepdf. . How fast can data be accessed with this design?. photosystems I and II. Importance 3. Data Stability 12. Data Erasing Technique 12. 1. 2. Will the molecular memory be able to compete against the traditional semiconductor memory? 13. Bacteriorhodopsin Structure 8. First Imaging device and Microfilm 4. memory (RAM) has increased steadily over the past ten to fifteen years. Bacteriorhodopsin is a light-harvesting protein from bacteria that live in salt marshes that has shown some promise as feasible optical data storage. Data Reading Technique 11. 2. Memory Cell Specifications 12. cytochrome c. 3. Electronic Ink 14. greater capacity.Please purchase 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. Introduction 2. and phytochrome. 12. 4. Proposed photo cycle for computing needs 7. a number of alternative methods to integrated circuit information storage have surfaced recently. 4. Optical chameleon 14. 3.com/' to remove this watermark. Storage Capacity 12. and protein-based optical memory storage using rhodopsin . Erasable Holographic Memory 14. photosynthetic reaction centers. Among the most promising of the new alternatives are photopolymer-based devices. Advantages and Applications of Bacteriorhodopsin 14. Need for Molecular Electronics 4.

and the capacities of optical/magnetic storage. These can be arrayed together into a Redundant Array of Inexpensive Tapes (RAIT). individuals are able to publish their own CD-ROMs. Drives can be ganged to improve reliability or throughput in a Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID). Paper was. Today. everyone who took a computer course used punched cards to give the computer information and store data. earlier scholars invented writing to convey what was being said. . . Pictures gave way to letters which represented spoken sounds.all while reducing cost. At first. disk drives cost as little as 25 cents per megabyte and provide access time to data in ten milliseconds. For randomly accessible removable storage. but it is significantly cheaper per megabyte. magnetic media like hard disks and tape. Magnetic storage technologies used for most computer hard disks are the most common and provide the best value for fast access to a large storage space. We contend that three-dimensional optical memory devices made from bacteriorhodopsin utilizing the two photon read and write-method is such a technology with which the future of memory lies. Eventually clay tablets gave way to parchment. the main way people convey information.com/' to remove this watermark. They are the cheapest distribution medium around when purchased in large quantities ($1 per 650 megabyte disk). it was sufficient to paint on the family cave wall how one hunted. Magnetic tape is somewhat slower than disk.Please purchase 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. and optical media such as compact disks. it is no wonder that a number of new storage technologies are developing. reliability.eepdf. Computers have gone through their own evolution in storage media. This explains why so much software is sold on CD-ROM today. in the mid twentieth century computers began to come into general use . and still is. 15. fifties.com/' to remove this watermark. In the forties. These drives can store from 100 megabytes to more than one gigabyte per cartridge. researches are looking at protein-based memory to compete with the speed of electronic memory. Currently. . which gave way to paper. man has tried to record important events and techniques for everyday life. With existing methods fast approaching their limits. However. The fastest and most expensive storage technology today is based on electronic storage in a circuit such as a solid state "disk drive" or flash RAM. and throughput -.eepdf. That mission has produced both competing and complementary data storage technology including electronic circuits. With desktop CD-ROM recorders. the reliability of magnetic hard disks. years later. 2. At the high end. This was called RAMAC (Random Access Method of Accounting and Control) Since the days of punch cards. Plans are underway for putting up to a gigabyte of data onto a single chip. researchers at IBM developed the first disk storage system. This technology is getting faster and is able to store more information thanks to improved circuit manufacturing techniques that shrink the sizes of the chip features. if the throughput needs to be increased beyond the capability of one drive. manufacturers are beginning to ship low cost cartridges that combine the speed and random access of a hard drive with the low cost of tape. Importance Please Demo purchase Watermark 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. Introduction Since the dawn of time. manufacturers are starting to ship tapes that hold 40 gigabytes of data. Then came the people who invented spoken languages and the need arose to record what one was saying without hearing it firsthand. Reference … 1. In 1956. Conclusion 16. computer manufacturers have strived to squeeze more data into smaller spaces. and sixties. At the low end. Standard compact disks are also gaining a reputation as an incredibly cheap way of delivering data to desktops. companies constantly push the limits of these technologies to improve their speed. Therefore.

will offer appreciable reduction in hardware size. Protein Memories The ability of molecules to serve as computer switches has been a major area of scientific research since the middle of the last century. and more affordable memory storage devices. more compact. Under exposure to light it transports photons from the hollow bacterial cell to another medium. These modules can be bought in various capacities from a few hundred kilobytes of RAM to about 64 megabytes. a light harvesting bacterial protein. The limits of making RAM denser are being reached. changes its mode of operation from photosynthesis to respiration. Anything more is both expensive and rare. Small size and fast operation will account for the development of most modern computers. In response to the demand for faster. When this comparison is made. Currently. The lower the nanosecond rating. polymer-based memory. Europe. These modules are generally 70ns. Molecular switches.eepdf.eepdf. Currently. protein-based memory. Also. Whereas a 5 cubic centimeter block of bacteriorhodopsin studded polymer could theoretically store 512 gigabytes of information. and converts light energy to chemical energy thus can be utilized to frame protein memories. In the past few decades. if these become a reality. the RAM used in most computers is the same type of memory used several years ago. and Japan. The protein generates photoelectrical signals upon photo conversion and can be used as optical memory. it generates a chemical and opmotic potential that serves as energy source. the advantage becomes quite clear. RAM is available in modules called SIMMs or DIMMS. Scientists have already sharpened their skills and are now trying to apply their knowledge to bring out the very best in this area.com/' to remove this watermark. Survival in such an environment implies that this protein can resist thermal and photochemical damages. since these are themselves very small.Please purchase 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. Processor speeds are increasing at an extremely fast clip. Please Demo purchase Watermark 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. One can then imagine of bimolecular computer about 1/20th the size of present-day semiconductor-based computers. much research was carried out in several laboratories in North America. All though still a distant dream the use of a hybrid technology in which the molecules and semiconductors combine and share duty could be possible in near future. and our focus. However. Bacteriorhodopsin grows in salt marshes where temperature can exceed 150 degree Farad for the extended time period and the salt concentration is approximately six times that of the seawater. it has the ability to form thin films that exhibit excellent optical characteristics and offer long-term stability. Bacteriorhodopsin. these limits may be economical rather than physical. Among the most promising approaches include memory storage using holography. Several biological molecules are being considered for use in computers. however 60nsand 100ns modules are available. but the bacterial proteinBacteriorhodopsin (bR)-has generated much interest among scientists. Also. . is the basic unit of protein memory and is the key protein in halo bacterial photosynthesis. it can be prepared in mass quantities. Surprisingly. and protein-based neural networks. Upon absorption of light. Such technology would appreciably improve the size of computers.com/' to remove this watermark. A decrease by a factor of two in size will increase the cost of manufacturing of semiconductor pieces by a factor of 5. The demands made upon computers and computing devices are increasing each year. the more the module will cost. threedimensional memories. 3. these bacteriorhodopsin modules could also theoretically run 1000 times faster. All Dimms are 12cm by 3cm by 1cm or about36 cubic centimeters. It functions like a light-driven photo pump. and the scientists become successful in building prototype parallel processing devices. several viable alternatives have appeared in recent years. a 64MB DIMM costs over $400.

Max Plank institute of Biochemistry. decreasing consumption of energy. 4. University of California. This is because a living organism operates with functional elements which are of molecular dimensions (about one thousandth of the size of a transistor) and which actually exploit quantum and thermal fluctuation phenomena.com/' to remove this watermark. a team of soviet scientists headed by Yuri a. which were intended only for military applications. and Dieter Osterhelt. One tends to associate intelligence with what a human brain can do: perception. a decrease in price.1. which is sometimes also referred to as nanotechnology.Please purchase 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. thinking. A human can do much more than "walk and chew gum" at the same time. Need for Molecular Electronics The recognition of these ultimate limits has inspired computer scientists to seek inspiration from biology.eepdf.com/' to remove this watermark. learning. and. Interest in Bacteriorhodopsin date back to the early seventies when Walther Stockenius. problem solving. In the computerese language. appears to surpass the human brain. a personal computer is no match even to a modest human brain. all without the conscious intervention of a human being. 4.the kind of intelligence that allows for learning and innovation. The hope of breaking the barrier of miniaturization seems to lie in the utilization of organic and biological materials. took interest in projects on this protein. soon scientists realized its potential for use in computers. known as ‘Biochrome’. the body parts are quietly performing the diverse tasks of providing oxygen and nutrients to individual cells and managing wastes generated in the process of nutrient utilization. termed ‘Project Rhodopsin’. Details of these project’s achievements remain yet to be revealed. Soviet military was able to make microfiche films out of Bacteriorhodopsin. decreasing size and weight of the finished product. Oschinivhove. It may seem that continuing miniaturization could make possible the implementation of better computer architectures. and allows for decision-making in a fuzzy situation when many conflicting requirements coexist. in performing certain types of tasks. or simply IC) results in increasing capabilities of each device component. . In contrast to humans. The increasing degree of miniaturization of the individual components (integrated circuits. what the human body possesses is the capability of massively parallel distributed information processing. but physicists and engineers see the dead end as the physical limits imposed by quantum and thermal fluctuation phenomena are rapidly approached and the operation of these miniature devices becomes less and less reliable. discovered that this protein exhibited unusual properties upon exposure to light. While a human being is listening. fighting invading microorganisms and repairing damaged parts. Semyakin Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry. talking and thinking. However. As we shall see. However.eepdf. memory. A personal digital computer can do some of these tasks and. creativity. the development of intelligent materials is fundamentally important not just for the goal of further device miniaturization but also for the evolution of the ultimate machine intelligence . last but not least. But in terms of the more sophisticated aspects of intelligence such as pattern recognition in an ambiguous situation and creativity. and the exploitation of their chemistry. Another important determinant in pursuing improved computer performance is miniaturization. and in the utilization of radically different computer architectures. Please Demo purchase Watermark 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. etc. computers have such astonishing raw power and speed in terms of number crunching and chore management that they gave us the illusion of being capable of doing many things simultaneously and serving many users at the same time (time-sharing). increasing speed of operation of these devices. Bacteriorhodopsin as an Intelligent Material Can a single molecule possess intelligence? The answer depends on what one means by intelligence. Latest. a personal computer has a "one-track" mind. innovation. This line of thinking has ushered in a new science and technology: molecular electronics. capable of doing only one thing at a time.

Proteins are particularly suitable to be exploited as intelligent materials. can be elevated to the K state by the primary photochemical event. the bR state.com/' to remove this watermark. . Restart your computer.2. The entire photo cycle takes about 6-10 Please Demo purchase Watermark 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. First Imaging device and Microfilm Until recently. Green light transforms the initial ‘bR’ state to the intermediate state ‘K’.eepdf. Thus. the purpose is to allow the material to sense the changing loads or the condition of external stress as a result of damages. by allowing sensor/processor/actuator capabilities to be packaged into a single molecule or a supramolecular cluster. If the red x still appears. The use of a bacteriorhodopsin mutant as a reversible holographic medium and the use of chemically modified bacteriorhodopsin for construction of "Biochrom" films are existing successful examples. avenues are open in the design of integrated information processing systems with massively parallel distributed processing capabilities. For example.eepdf. Nikolai V sevolodov and his colleagues in the Institute of Biological Physics. Photo cycle of Bacteriorhodopsin Bacteriorhodopsin comprises a light absorbing component known as ‘chromophore’ that absorbs light energy and triggers a series of complex internal structural changes to alter the protein’s optical and electrical characteristics. to store the required information. Russia. The resting state of the molecule. The initial resting state of the molecule is known as ‘bR’. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. 4. which then relaxes to a more stable state ‘Q’. and then open the file again. 5. the progress made in the research of intelligent materials will pave the road towards the development of novel information processing systems so as to overcome the much-dreaded "von Neumann bottleneck" that characterizes conventional computers. biomaterials have not been seriously considered for device construction because they were perceived as too fragile and not durable enough. The other transitions are caused by thermal reactions and result once again in the resting state. Robert Birge's group at Syracuse University has devoted considerable efforts to developing a high-speed optical random access memory based on bacteriorhodopsin. 4. excited the biomedical research community by producing the first imaging device and microfilm made primarily of biological materials and entirely organic materials (named the "Biochrom" film). so as to adjust its mechanical characteristics in order to compensate for the changes. Pushchino. forms another intermediate state ‘M’ and then ‘O’ converts to another intermediate state ’P’. bR. A number of years ago. This phenomenon is known as photo cycle. as they have already acquired significant degrees of intelligence through evolution. This is identified by the P and Q states. <!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]--> As per the photo cycle of bR shown in figure below. Next ‘K’ relaxes. The key substance in this device is Bacteriorhodopsin. the intelligence of a bio-molecule originally acquired through evolution can be further improved by breeding it in the laboratory in a much shorter time.3. Here the idea is to assign any two longlasting states to the binary values of ‘0’ and ‘1’. More recently. molecular engineering will fast become one of the key technologies for the implementation of molecular electronics. Thus. Proteins could be further modified by genetic engineering to custom-tailor their functional properties to suit the intended technological applications. Blue light converts ‘Q’ black to the initial state ‘bR’. or the image may have been corrupted. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. The image cannot be displayed. With the advent of genetic engineering. Intelligent Materials The concept of intelligent materials was initially proposed to promote the idea of designing/ synthesizing materials with a microstructure so that both sensors and actuators are embedded throughout. The development of intelligent materials is in keeping with the goal of miniaturization at the nanometer scale (one nanometer = one billionth of a meter) (nanotechnology). in the construction of airplane wings.Please purchase 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www.com/' to remove this watermark. a branching reaction was identified. For example.

you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. At around the temperature of 80 K. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. O. main photochemical event in this cycle is a trans to cis photoisomerization around the thirteenth Carbon atom to the fourteenth carbon double bond in the chromophore. <!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]--> 7. A conformational change 3. Restart your computer. The interesting reaction which creates this branched photo cycle happens when the last intermediate state. or the image may have been corrupted. The image cannot be displayed. The material must be illuminated a second time while the molecules are in the O state about 2ms after the initial writing pulse. The initial state of the native protein. The main event follows these steps: 1. The polypeptide chain is made of seven closely spaced alpha-helical segments looped across the lipid bilayer. If the red x still appears.eepdf. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image.eepdf. It has a photochemical reaction cycle. For computers. The image cannot be displayed. the native protein undergoes this photocycle andswitches between a green absorbing state and a red absorbing state. or the image may have been corrupted. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. the two or three most stable states of the protein would be used to record data in binary form. This cycle basically transports protons from inside the cell to outside the cell in the bacteria Halo bacterium halobium. which was known as Halo bacterium halobium. If the red x still appears. the protein switches between a green absorbing state and a blue absorbing state. Bacteriorhodopsin Structure Bacteriorhodopsin is a photo chemically active protein found in the purple membrane of the bacteria Halo bacterium salinarium. the chromophore displays several metastable configurations. Some of the intermediates are stable at about 80K and some are stable at room temperature. A change in the shape of the conformational potential energy surface resulting from electron excitation 2. The native photocycle has several spectroscopically unique steps. and then open the file again. is converted by light to P which subsequently decays to Q. If the red x still appears. This is the proposed photo cycle for computing needs. Restart your computer. <!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]--> 6. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. or the image may have been corrupted.com/' to remove this watermark. However. often designated bR. the important. The image cannot be displayed. The Q state is the one used for recording data and is created by a sequential one-photon process. The interhelical space contains the all-trans-retinal chromophore which is linked to lys216 on helix G as a protonated Schiff base.com/' to remove this watermark. the light-detecting pigment found in theretinas of vertebrates (like humans)).Please purchase 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. milliseconds depending on the temperature. The image cannot be displayed. and then open the file again. or the image may have been corrupted. <!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]--> Photo chemically active means that it reacts to light. . which occur in a roughly linear order. At the room temperature lifetime of the written state is roughly five years. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. bR --> K <--> L <--> M1 --> M2 <--> N <-->O. Proposed photo cycle for computing needs The relative stability of some of the intermediate states determines their usefulness in computing applications. and then open the file again. At approximately room temperature. is quite stable. A non-radiative decay to the ground state "Ball and Stick" molecular structure of the transmembrane protein Bacteriorhodopsin is shownbelow. and then open the file again. This implies that the timing of the reaction must be precisely controlled. In both the ground (green) and excited (red or blue) states. or photo cycle. Bacteriorhodopsin is quite similar to rhodopsin. Restart your computer. <!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]--> 8. Bacteriorhodopsin as Computer Memory Please Demo purchase Watermark 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. Restart your computer. The bR state is the protein in its native state and each intermediate is represented by a letter of the alphabet. lending themselves to different types of RAM. If the red x still appears. P and Q are the only states involved in the branched reaction and it exists as its own entity to the original photo cycle.

eepdf. Many of the erstwhile memory devices based on Bacteriorhodopsin could operate only at extreme cold temperatures of liquid nitrogen. We then assign the initially-excited state.or in other words. In this case. This process is now analogous to the binary switching system which is used in existing semiconductor and magnetic memories. which is stable for long periods of time (even up to several years). Birge involves the use of a three dimensional data storage system. where light-induced switching between ‘bR’ and the intermediate state ‘K’ could be controlled. most Bacteriorhodopsin based devices function even at room temperature. . the number of intermediate O stages of bacteriorhodopsin reaches near maximum. will change to between photoisomers during the main photochemical event when it absorbs energy from a second laser beam. as these exhibited the speed of a few trillionths of a second. within the cube. modern research has made use of the different states of bacteriorhodopsin to carry out these operations at room-temperature. The process breaks down like this: Upon initially being struck with light (a laser beam). high-density. and the P and Q states are assigned a binary value of 1.Please purchase 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. Such memories offer over 300-fold improvement in storage capacity over their two-dimensional counterparts. since excess of defect of molecules in one particular region tends to distort the stored information and render the memory cube useless. which quickly reverts to a very stable Q state. Now the other set. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. to a binary value of 0. If the red x still appears. 10. relies on the selective absorption of red light by the O intermediate state of bacteriorhodopsin.com/' to remove this watermark. 9. multiple data locations (known as "addresses") can be written simultaneously . Data Writing Technique Bacteriorhodopsin. all set to green (called "paging" beams). To read Please Demo purchase Watermark 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. switching molecules there to the P structure. Restart your computer. These devices were much faster than conventional semiconductor-based devices. or two photon absorption.this time of red beams . The image cannot be displayed. The second array is programmed to strike only the region of the activated square where the data bits are to be written. Such memory cubes must be extremely uniform in their composition and must be homogeneous to ensure good results. Today.eepdf.com/' to remove this watermark. the O state. after being initially exposed to light (in our case a laser beam). Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. Read/Write operations on these can be performed with the help of colored lasers that are fixed at such points as to direct the beams through the required points in the plane of the cube. or the image may have been corrupted. a cube of bacteriorhodopsin in a polymer gel is surrounded by two arrays of laser beams placed at 90 degree angles from each other. The speed of these memories depends on the number of cubes operating in parallel. highspeed. <!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]--> The data writing technique proposed by Dr. If a number of Bacteriorhodopsin molecules are arranged in a three-dimensional fashion. After a few milliseconds. of lasers . switching between ‘bR’ and another intermediate stable state ‘M’. the bacteriorhodopsin alters its structure from the bR native state to a form we will call the O state. This process is known as sequential one-photon architecture. in parallel. either during processing or extraction of a result. or array. activates the photo cycle of the protein in any selected square plane.is fired. The entire process of data storage or retrieval can be carried out in few milliseconds. the O state then changes to a P form. The P intermediate then quickly relaxes to the highly stable Q state. Data Reading Technique The system for reading stored memory. One array of lasers. because the laser array can activate molecules in various places throughout the selected page or plane. low-cost memories with vast capacities that can handle large volumes of data can be realized. While early efforts to make use of this property were carried out at cryogenic temperatures (liquid nitrogen temperatures). However. or page. After a second pulse of light. and then open the file again.

eepdf. as they have already been excited by the intense red light during the data writing stage. a rate of 10 megabytes per second for each page of memory. The image cannot be displayed. The cuvette has an oblong form 1x1x2 inch in size. M. They built a prototype of memory system where the absorption spectrum stores data in3dimensional matrix. The protein which is in the bR-state is fixed in the space with gel polymerization. It allows easily defining the current state of the molecule with the help of a laser set for the definite frequency. multiple bits of data in parallel. The molecule switches in 500 femtoseconds--that's 1/2000 of a nanosecond. Erasure is a highly efficient process and the memory cuvette must be shielded for protection. or in terms of binary code. Such matrix represents a cuvette (a transparent vessel) filled up with polyacryde gel.eepdf. If the red x still appears. Professor Robert R. the green paging beam is fired at the square of protein to be read. First. a sequence of structural changes that the molecule undergoes in reaction to light.com/' to remove this watermark. that reliably stores data with 10. After two milliseconds (enough time for the maximum amount of O intermediates to appear). there are many advantages to protein-based memory. or change their states. they have made a working optical bistable switch.000 molecules per bit. Keck Center for Molecular Electronics. A detector then images (reads) the light passing through the cube of memory and records the location of the O and P or Q structures. This situation is due. Another important feature of the bacteriorhodopsin is that these both states have different absorption spectra. Individual data can be erased using a blue laser or a global wipe can be performed with an incoherent blue source. the bR (where the state is 0) and the Q (where the state is 1) intermediates are both stable for many years. and memory density. and the actual speed of the memory is currently limited by how fast you can steer a laser beam to the correct spot on the memory. If the red x still appears. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. which appears to have evolved to survive the harsh conditions of a salt marsh. The P and Q states absorb the blue light to return to their original bR state. we start just as we do in the writing process. The molecules that are in the binary state 1 (P or Q intermediate states) do not absorb the red light. Restart your computer. to the remarkable stability of the protein. Clearly. and then open the file again. the molecules which started out in the binary state 0 (the O intermediate state). or the image may have been corrupted. where protein is put. size. there are still several barriers standing in the way of mass-produced protein-based memories. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image.com/' to remove this watermark. <!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]--> However. However. 11. makes it an ideal AND data-storage gate. Data Erasing Technique Blue light erases the encoded data. The cuvette is surrounded with a battery of lasers and a detector array based on the device using a principle of CID (Charge Injection Device). 12. <!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]--> Please Demo purchase Watermark 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. According to Birge. and then open the file again. Using the purple membrane from the bacterium Halo bacterium Halobium.Please purchase 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. Birge. the entire red laser array is turned on at a very low intensity of red light. Birge selected bacteriorhodopsin because its photo cycle. . or the image may have been corrupted. or flip-flop. do absorb the low-intensity red beams. Restart your computer. Bacteriorhodopsin Memory Cell by Bob Birge Even smaller objects might serve as storage devices or replace conventional semiconductor memory. Birge estimated that the data recorded on the bacteriorhodopsin storage device must “live" around 5 years. among the most significant being cost. The process is complete in approximately 10 milliseconds. the detector reads 0's and 1's. fabricated in a monolayer by self-assembly. director of the W. has implemented a prototype memory subsystem that uses molecules to store digital bits. they serve for data recording and reading. The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. in part.

Low intensity is necessary to prevent jumping into Q state. the cuvette can accommodate 1TBytes of data. In order to read the data you will need again the "page" laser which converts the read page into Qstate. 2ms later the page is plunged into low intensive light flux of the red-wave laser. It is assumed that combining 8 storing bit cells into a byte with a parallel access. 12. you can reach. but such method requires a corresponding circuit realization of the memory subsystem. Restart your computer. Considering that a molecule changes its states within 1 ms.000 molecules/ bit • Switching time. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. • Purple membrane from Halo bacterium Halobium • Bistable red/green switch • In protein coat at 77K. The other SLM displays binary data. But similar to the system of a holographic memory this device makes a parallel access in the read-write cycle. Such SLM provides 1ms access but costs four times more. and this way creates the corresponding mask on the way of the beam. 80 Mbps. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image.com/' to remove this watermark. This beam can be obtained not necessary with the laser: you can erase the whole cuvette with a usual ultraviolet lamp.eepdf. 500 femtoseconds • Monolayer fabricated by self-assembly Please Demo purchase Watermark 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. <!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]--> Bob Birge's bacteriorhodopsin memory cell only costs USD 2 but can store 7 Gbyte. 107-108 cycles • 10. Some versions of the SLM devices implement a page addressing. that's why only definite spots (pixels) of the page will be irradiated.The remaining part of the page will come into the initial bR-state and will represent binary zeros. This power active plane is a page of data which can house 4096x4096 bit array. and those that represent a binary one let the beam pass by. and then open the file again. When recording data first you need switch on a yellow-wave "page" laser – for converting the molecules into Q-state. which in cheap constructions is used when sending the beam to the required page with the help of rotary system of galvanic mirrors. what allows counting on the speed up to 10 Mbps. The molecules that represent a binary zero absorb red light.1 Memory Cell Specifications The image cannot be displayed. For erasing information a short impulse of a cyan laser is enough in order to convert the molecules from Q-state back into bR-state. Birge states that the system suggested by him is close to the semiconductor memory in operating speed until a page defect is come across. The SLM which represents an LCD-matrix creating a mask on the beam way stimulates appearing of an active (excited) plane in the material inside the cuvette. The data page can be read without corruption up to 5000 times. It is implemented so that in the future one can identify binary one and zero with the help of difference in absorption spectra.Please purchase 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. it's positioned at the right angle to the yellow one. Each page is traced by a meter and after 1024 reading the page gets refreshed (regenerated) with a new recording operation. or the image may have been corrupted. Theoretically. . Limitation of capacity is mainly connected with problems of lens system and quality of protein. In order to ensure the entirety of data when erasing only the definite pages there used caching of several adjacent pages. The molecules in these spots will convert into Q-state and will represent a binary one .eepdf. If the red x still appears. then. It creates a "chess" picture of light and dark spots on the LCD matrix which takes a page of digital information. On detecting of a defect it's necessary to resend the beam for accessing these pages from the other side.com/' to remove this watermark. the total time taken for read or write operations constitutes around 10 ms. Before returning of protein into the quiescent state (in such state it can remain quite a long time keeping the information) a red-wave recording laser lights on. For read/write operations two additional parity bits are also used to prevent errors.

is designed to store up to 18 gigabytes within a data storage system with dimensions of 1.com/' to remove this watermark. Maintaining this throughput depends on how you implement the memory subsystem. Bear in mind.3 GB. This speed is similar to that of slow semiconductor memory. and he hopes to achieve a storage capacity of approximately 1. however. it won't cause data loss.6. it's safer than using a small hard drive or cartridge. the system can operate in the wider range of temperatures than the semiconductor memory. Storage Capacity Theoretically. Data Stability The data is stable. it also costs four times as much. One of the keys to this process lies in the ability of the protein to occupy different three-dimensional shapes and form cubic matrices in a polymer gel. Secondly. which yields densities of 1011 to 1013 bits per cubic centimeter.5.eepdf. the combined steps to perform a read or write operation take about 10 milliseconds. Birge believes an 80-MBps data rate is possible. like the holographic storage system. In some versions. Less expensive designs use galvanometric mirrors that slew the beam to the correct page. so a 10-MBps rate is possible. Birge has stored about 800 MB on the cuvette. If you turn off the memory system's power.eepdf. However.2 How fast can data be accessed with this design? While a molecule changes states within microseconds.6 cm * 1. 3-Dimensional Optical Memories Three-dimensional optical memory storage offers significant promise for the development of a new generation of ultra-high density RAMs (Birge. The other major component in the process lies in the use of a two-photon laser process to read and write data. This makes for an energy-efficient computer that can be powered down yet still be ready to work with immediately because the contents of its memory are preserved. Storage capacity in two-dimensional optical memories is limited to approximately 1/lambda2 (lambda = wavelength of light). Will the molecular memory be able to compete against the traditional semiconductor memory? Its construction has undoubtedly some advantages. 12. can store data at approximately 1/lambda3. allowing for truly three-dimensional memory storage.3. Transportation You can remove the small data cubes and ship gigabytes of data around for storage or backups. And at last.com/' to remove this watermark. 14. By ganging up eight storage cells so that entire bytes can be accessed in parallel. Because the cubes contain no moving parts. Computer. it's more convenient than usage of portable hard discs or cartridges with magnetic tape.4. 12. the bateriorhodopsin molecules retain their information. the SLM does page addressing. The memory storage scheme proposed by Robert Birge. 63). 12. this memory capacity is well below the theoretical maximum limit of 512 gigabytes for the same volume (5-cm3). Advantages and Applications of Bacteriorhodopsin Please Demo purchase Watermark 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. which comes out to approximately 108 bits per square centimeter. • Speed currently limited by laser addressing 12. 12. this device obtains data pages in parallel. bricks with data which are rather small in size but contain gigabytes of data can be placed into an archive for storing copies (like magnetic tapes). the cuvette described could hold 1 TB. Practically.Please purchase 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www.6 cm * 2 cm. First. data are stored constantly . . Three-dimensional memories. it's based on protein which is produced in large volumes and at low price. 13. While the SLM offers a millisecond response time. Thirdly. Since the bricks do not have moving parts. Problems with the lens system and protein quality limit the system to this amount for now.even in case of power switching off.

14.eepdf. bR can be converted back to its purple form using blue light. which are too unstable to be used in any commercial device. The molecule is the ultimate chameleon and its ability to change state is the basis of several photochromic applications. reversible photo cycle. It has learned to cope with extreme variations in light and heat and its natural function is to provide energy to its host bacterium.Please purchase 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. singlet oxygen and free radicals . forms the basis of a variety of applications and devices based on bacteriorhodopsin that are now beginning to emerge. If the red x still appears. the bR molecule undergoes such severe deformation that its absorption maximum shifts 160 nm towards the red and its colour changes from purple to yellow.which is caused by reactive oxygen. Optical chameleon On absorbing a green photon. 14. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. holograms based on Bacteriorhodopsin are erasable. or the image may have been corrupted. The material was even listed on the "COCOM" list of protected chemicals under export prohibition. Please Demo purchase Watermark 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. and return the closest match. However. thereby permitting simultaneous analysis of large sets of data. Restart your computer. Naturally occurring. coupled with the emergence of genetic engineering. An associative memory device that builds on holographic properties of thin films of Bacteriorhodopsin has been developed.1.eepdf. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. or into a range of states . such as data storage and associative memories. Unlike many other biomolecules. the purple pigment grows in salt marshes and has evolved to exist in half-a-dozen stable states within a convenient. Such holographic thin films allow multiple images to be stored in the same segment of memory.com/' to remove this watermark. He convinced the Soviet military of its potential. Its robustness results from bR's evolution in the tough salt marsh environment. Associative memories take images of data blocks as input.using a red source.com/' to remove this watermark. This robust system. <!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]--> A holographic interferometry camera uses a film of bacteriorhodopsin as an erasable holographic memory. It includes: 1) Reversible holographic memory 2) Ultrafast random-access memory 3) Neural logic gates 4) Spatial light modulation 5) Nonlinear optical filters 6) Photonic-crystal band gap materials. Bacteriorhodopsin is an excellent molecule for photonics. scan the entire memory independently of a central processor for data block that matches the input. in low-oxygen (anaerobic) conditions. From this state. 7) Pattern-recognition systems 8) High-contrast displays 9) Optical switches 10) Pico second photo detectors. . Soviet bioelectronics researcher Yuri Ovchinnikov became fascinated by the molecule.that all absorb at different wavelengths . Erasable Holographic Memory The image cannot be displayed.by its structure.2. Following the discovery of bR's remarkable light-harvesting and colour-changing behavior in the early 1970s. bR is protected against photo-induced breakdown . Halo bacterium salinarum. and millions of roubles were ploughed into "Project Rhodopsin". The range of potential applications for which bacteriorhodopsin (bR) has been Investigated is remarkable. and then open the file again.

Enormous access to information and manipulation and storage of data in minimal time add to their reliability. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. Natl. retrieves. During one intermediate state of this photocycle. much work is still required to make a fully operational computer with memory that mimics human brain. In the last 25 years. Molecular light conversion Colored proteins. sometimes called 'electronic ink' yield new optical devices to molecular light conversion. bacteriorhodopsin has excited a great deal of interest among biochemists.3. Proc. either by genetic alteration of charged groups near the Schiff base or by chemical modification of the retinal chromophore.4. Several research groups have already used bacteriorhodopsin as computer memory and as the light-sensitive element in artificial retinas.com/' to remove this watermark. This protein therefore exhibits a novel form of electrochromism that may find application as "electronic ink" in reflective displays. If controllable. USA 93. transient color change is caused by the removal of a proton from the Schiff-base linkage which binds the retinal chromophore to the protein. as indicated by a pK valuein excess of 12. Evolution has perfected these functions over billions of years. The image cannot be displayed. Sci.eepdf. often performing better than human-designed materials ever could. Electronic Ink Illuminating the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (BR) triggers a photocycle in which a series of conformational and electronic changes results in the translocation of a proton through a channel in the protein. Unlike disk memories where physical contact with the magnetic head is required to Read/Write information. we have found that electric fields can cause deprotonation of the Schiff base and a consequent color change (P. the advantages of optical data storage accrue to such memories. Conclusion Bacteriorhodopsin has attracted the attention of scientists interested in using biological materials to perform technological functions. or any related aspect. Shining two lasers of different wavelengths alternately on the protein flips it back and forth between the two colors. With fast random access capability. 11618 (1996)). this proton is strongly bound. and most recently among companies seeking to build battery conserving. . biophysicists. to build a biological computer. a strong. Bacteriorhodopsin is also an attractive material for all-optical 'light' computers because of its two stable protein forms. one purple and one yellow. They are trying to duplicate the capability of information retrieval by inputting a part of it. USA. Please Demo purchase Watermark 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. instead of specifying the address of the memory location. quick-change proteins like bacteriorhodopsin could also be used in a kind of electronic writing. which improves their life with reduction in wear and tear. the protein's photoelectric properties could be used to manufacture Photo detectors. and transportability protein memories enhance the multimedia capabilities of computers to a great extent. good reliability. and its removal by chemical or electrical means is difficult. Also. and acts on information. Though a group of researchers headed by Robert Birge of Suracuse University.eepdf. Part of the attraction of natural materials is that they often perform very complex functions that cannot be easily synthesized. If the red x still appears. In one such mutant. In natural or "wild-type" BR. <!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]--> 15. has succeeded in developing similar ones. there are several variants of BR in which the pK of the Schiff base is drastically lowered. and then open the file again. or the image may have been corrupted. 14. Researchers are now closely following the way human brain stores. In addition.Please purchase 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www.com/' to remove this watermark. long-life computer displays. However. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. protein memories use laser beams. Kolodner et al. 14. D85N BR. Restart your computer. Acad.

Robert R. Restart your computer. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. Bacteriorhodopsin as an Intelligent Material.in/http://uravitam. www. www.blogger. www.eepdf.cem. and then open the file again. Restart your computer.blogger.blogger. and then open the file again. 4.blogger.blogger. or the image may have been corrupted. Reference 1. we are on the threshold of new and exciting era in the wonderful world of computing. David.msu.com/postedit.. Organic Chemistry Baker.blogger. http://www. www. American Chemical Society 3.com/rearrange?blogID=6982476112972645868&widgetType=Gadget&wid getId=Gadget3&action=editWidget&sectionId=sidebarhttp://www.buzzle.arc. Restart your computer.com/rearrange?blogID=6982476112972645868&widgetType=Gadget&wid getId=Gadget2&action=editWidget&sectionId=sidebarhttp://www.com/chapters/science-and-technology.com/postedit. www. Indeed. and then open the file again.edu 10.blogger. Scientific American March 1995 2.syr.com/rearrange?blogI Please Demo purchase Watermark 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. A. And every possibility is there that in the near future we will be able to carry a small encyclopedic cube containing all the information we need! 16.eepdf. If the red x still http://www. If the red x still http://www.blogger.org 8. or the image may have been corrupted.g?blogID=6982476112972645868&postID=4484080308369439463&from=pencilhttp://ww w. Molecular and Biomolecular Electronics..nasa.nai.org 9. If the red x still http://www.Please purchase 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. and then open the file again.com/rearrange?blogI D=6982476112972645868&widgetType=Gadget&widgetId=Gadget3&action=editWidget&secti onId=sidebar Google Music Search The image cannot be displayed.g?blogID=6982476112972645868&postID=4484080308369439463&from=pencil Labels: Seminar of Electronics and Communication eingineering http://uravitam. If the red x still Posted by prasanth at 10:52 AM 11 comments http://www.gov 11. If the red x still http://www.blogger.com/' to remove this watermark. Birge. www. Restart your computer.com/rearrange?blogI D=6982476112972645868&widgetType=Gadget&widgetId=Gadget5&action=editWidget&secti onId=sidebar National Geographic POD The image cannot be displayed.com/rearrange?blogI D=6982476112972645868&widgetType=Gadget&widgetId=Gadget4&action=editWidget&secti onId=sidebar NASA Image of the Day The image cannot be displayed.com/' to remove this watermark.com/rearrange?blogID=6982476112972645868&widgetType=Gadget&wid getId=Gadget5&action=editWidget&sectionId=sidebarhttp://www. or the image may have been corrupted.asp The image cannot be displayed. Robert R.blogspot.com/rearrange?blogID=6982476112972645868&widgetType=Gadget&wid getId=Gadget4&action=editWidget&sectionId=sidebarhttp://www. or the image may have been corrupted.com (Makers of hard drive) 6.blogger.edu (Department of Chemistry.blogspot. . and then open the file again. Proptein Based Computers Birge. or the image may have been corrupted.quantum. Ed.in/search?updated-max=2008-0807T10:52:00%2B05:30&max-results=7Home Subscribe to: Posts (Atom) Webmaster Search Engine The image cannot be displayed. Hong 5. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. a Nontechnical Summary by Felix T.optics.che. Syracuse University) 7. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image.aps. Restart your computer. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. Robert Engel.

Related Articles » clipped from Google . Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. should pay a dividend to shareholders. D=6982476112972645868&widgetType=Gadget&widgetId=Gadget2&action=editWidget&secti onId=sidebar The image cannot be displayed.blogger. Sprint and Verizon. 2012 .com/' to remove this watermark. 2012 . and then open the file again. Related Articles » clipped from Google . Verizon sold 4. which pay hefty subsidies on the iPhones their customers buy.eepdf. If the red x still http://www.com/rearrange?blogID= 6982476112972645868&widgetType=Image&widgetId=Image1&action=editWidget&sectionId =sidebar NEWS Apple Google Microsoft Apple sues Motorola Mobility over Qualcomm license Reuters . accounting for more than .blogger.Please purchase 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. It hurts because dividends are not only cash in shareholders' pockets. Restart your computer...2/2012 Will Apple's next tablet be the 'iPad 3'? Washington Post ..11 hours ago Please Demo purchase Watermark 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www.Feb 11. . filed in a San Diego federal court. Related Articles » clipped from Google .Apple sued Motorola Mobility in a US court on Friday in an attempt to stop Motorola from asserting some patent claims against Apple in Germany.Feb 11.Feb 11.com/rearrange?blogID=6982476112972645868&widgetType=Image&widg etId=Image1&action=editWidget&sectionId=sidebarhttp://www.10 hours ago By Dan Levine (Reuters) . The suit.eepdf.11 hours ago It hurts me to say this. If the red x still appears. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. Restart your computer.. but I don't believe that Apple (AAPL). or the image may have been corrupted. but they presage above . and then open the file again. or the image may have been corrupted.com/' to remove this watermark. have seen their earnings and stock prices drop since they began offering the Apple handsets. according to the lawsuit. 2012 ..2 million iPhones last quarter. . 2012 . Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image.Feb 11.2/2012 Apple's iPhone takes big bites out of wireless carriers' profits Los Angeles Times ..2/2012 Should Apple Pay A Dividend? Forbes . with one of history's greatest cash hordes ever. The image cannot be displayed.6 hours ago AT&T.

and then open the file again.2/2012 powered by The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image.com/content?url=http%3A%2F%2Furavita m. http://www. Restart your computer.com/content?url=http%3A%2F%2Furavitam. and then open the file again.blogspot.my.ne tvibes. If the red x still appears. or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer. the next iPad will be essentially . Related Articles » clipped from Google .com/ngs/subscriber/subext. Restart your computer.yah oo.blogspot. Restart your computer. and then open the file again. If the red x still appears. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. or the image may have been corrupted.blogspot. Posts The image cannot be displayed. or the image may have been corrupted.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Furavitam.asp x?url=http%3A%2F%2Furavitam.blogspot. If the red x still appears.google.com/rearrange?blogID=6982476112972645868&widgetType=NewsBar&wi dgetId=NewsBar1&action=editWidget&sectionId=sidebarhttp://www. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.netvibes. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.com%2Ffeeds%2Fposts%2Fdefaulthttp://www.com/subscribe .blogspot.com/subscribe. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.com%2Ffeeds%2Fposts%2F defaulthttp://www.blogspot.blogger.com/ngs/subscriber/subext.yahoo.com/feeds/posts/defaultAtom The image cannot be displayed. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. Restart your computer.google. and then open the file again.com %2Ffeeds%2Fposts%2Fdefaulthttp://www.aspx?url=http%3A%2F%2Furavitam. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image.com%2Ffeeds%2Fposts%2Fdefaulthttp://www. .com/rearrange?blogID=6982476112972645868&widgetType=Subscribe&w idgetId=Subscribe1&action=editWidget&sectionId=sidebarhttp://www. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image.Please purchase 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. and then open the file again. The image cannot be displayed.com%2Ffeeds%2Fposts %2Fdefaulthttp://uravitam.com/' to remove this watermark. If the red x still appears. the report is that it's not clear if the device Apple's said to be introducing in March will be called the iPad 3. or the image may have been corrupted.newsgator.google.my.newsgator. If the red x still http://www.eepdf. or the image may have been corrupted.com/ig/add?source=bstp&feedurl=http%3A% 2F%2Furavitam. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Furavitam. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. All Comments The image cannot be displayed. Restart your computer.com/ig/add?source=bstp&feedurl=http%3A%2F%2Furavitam.newsgator.com/ngs/subscriber/subext.com%2Ffeeds%2Fposts%2Fdefaulthttp://www. Posts The image cannot be displayed. and then open the file again.blogspot.com/subscribe.blogspot.newsgator. Restart your computer.google.blogspot.blogspot.com%2Ffeeds%2Fcomments%2Fdefaulthttp://uravitam.com%2Ffeeds%2Fcomments%2Fdefaulthttp://www.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Furavitam.com%2Ffeeds%2Fposts%2Fdefaulthtt p://add.com/ig/add?source=bstp&feedurl=http% 3A%2F%2Furavitam. If the red x still appears. or the image may have been corrupted. http://www. and then open the file again. Over at the New York Times. and then open the file again. If the red x still appears. or the image may have been corrupted. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image.blogspot.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Furavitam.blogspot.com/content?url=http%3A%2F%2Furavitam.bl ogspot.com/ig/add?source=bstp&feedurl=http%3A%2F%2Furavitam.com%2Ffeeds%2Fcommen ts%2Fdefaulthttp://add.com%2Ffeeds%2Fposts%2Fdefaulthttp://add. If the red x still appears.com/rearrange?b logID=6982476112972645868&widgetType=Subscribe&widgetId=Subscribe1&action=editWid get&sectionId=sidebar Blog Archive • August (2) Please Demo purchase Watermark 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. and then open the file again. Restart your computer.yahoo.com%2Ffeeds%2Fcomments%2Fdefaul thttp://www.aspx?url=http%3A %2F%2Furavitam.com/rearrange?bl ogID=6982476112972645868&widgetType=NewsBar&widgetId=NewsBar1&action=editWidg et&sectionId=sidebar Subscribe The image cannot be displayed.my.blogger.aspx?url=http%3A%2F%2Furavitam.blogspot.blogspot.blogger.my. or the image may have been corrupted.com %2Ffeeds%2Fcomments%2Fdefaulthttp://www.com/content?url=http%3A%2F%2Furavitam.com/feeds/commen ts/defaultAtom The image cannot be displayed..com/' to remove this watermark.blogspot. According to an unnamed (and brave!) Apple employee who spoke to the paper.blogger.com /subscribe. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.com%2Ffeeds %2Fcomments%2Fdefaulthttp://www.blogspot.netvibes.yahoo.eepdf.netvibes. Restart your computer. 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Kerala.com/rearrange?blogID=69824 76112972645868&widgetType=Profile&widgetId=Profile1&action=editWidget&sectionId=sidebar Please Demo purchase Watermark 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www.blogger.eepdf.com/rearrange?blogID=6982476112972645868&widgetType=Profile&widgetId =Profile1&action=editWidget&sectionId=sidebarhttp://www.blogger. If the red x still http://www. Restart your computer. and then open the file again. • December (1) • May (1) • April (4) • March (3) The image cannot be displayed.blogger. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image.com/rearrange?blogID=6982476112972645868&widgetType=BlogArchive &widgetId=BlogArchive1&action=editWidget&sectionId=sidebarhttp://www. or the image may have been corrupted. .com/' to remove this watermark. and then open the file again. or the image may have been corrupted. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image.blogger.com/rearr ange?blogID=6982476112972645868&widgetType=BlogArchive&widgetId=BlogArchive1&ac tion=editWidget&sectionId=sidebar About Me prasanth North Paravur.com/' to remove this watermark. IndiaView my complete profile The image cannot be displayed.eepdf.Please purchase 'eePDF Office to PDF Converter' on 'http://www. If the red x still http://www. Restart your computer.