International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.4 (2015) PP.

© Research India Publications;

Ac Grid Connected Photovoltaic Energy System Using 21-Level Multilevel
Cascade H-Bridge Inverter
Asst Professor (SG), Dept of EnEE,
Saveetha School of Engineering
Abstract-In this paper the operation of multilevel cascade HBridge inverter topology has been studied.. The mathematical
model of multilevel inverter has been evolved. The inverter
operation has been analyzed using this model and the resultant
waveform thoroughly studied.. Based on this analysis a new
hybrid multilevel cascade H- bridge inverter model has been
proposed with reduced number of switches. The proposed
model has been developed using Matlab /Simulink software.
An analysis of the proposed inverter model from its resultant
waveforms has established the better performance of the
inverter. This inverter model is being recommended for
studies of systems with grid connected renewable energy
Key words: 21 level Cascade inverter, renewable energy,
Matlab Simulink.

Recently, the need for increasing the power level in industry
has sustained the continuous development of multilevel
inverters because of their capability of handling voltage rating.
A Cascade multilevel inverter
Numerous industrial applications have begun to require higher
power apparatus in recent years. Some medium voltage motor
drives and utility applications require medium voltage and
megawatt power level. For a medium voltage grid, it is
troublesome to connect only one power semiconductor switch
directly. As a result, a multilevel power converter structure has
been introduced as an alternative in high power and medium
voltage situations. A multilevel converter not only achieves
high power ratings, but also enables the use of renewable
energy sources. Renewable energy sources such as
photovoltaic, wind and fuel cells can be easily interfaced to a
multilevel converter system for a high power application.
The concept of multilevel converters has been introduced
since 1975. The term multilevel began with the three-level
converter. Subsequently, several multilevel converter
topologies have been developed.
However, the elementary concept of a multilevel converter to
achieve higher power is to use a series of power
semiconductor switches with several lower voltage dc sources
to perform the power conversion by synthesizing a staircase
voltage waveform. Capacitors, batteries, and renewable energy
voltage sources can be used as the multiple dc voltage sources.
The commutation of the power switches aggregate these
multiple dc sources in order to achieve high voltage at the
output; however, the rated voltage of the power semiconductor

Asst Professor, Dept of EEE
Jawahar Engineering College
switches depends only upon the rating of the dc voltage
sources to which they are connected.
A multilevel converter has several advantages over a
conventional two-level converter that uses high switching
frequency pulse width modulation (PWM). The attractive
features of a multilevel converter can be briefly summarized
as follows.
● Staircase waveform quality: Multilevel converters can not
only generate the output voltages with very low distortion, but
also reduce the dv/dt stresses; thereby reducing
electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problems.
● Common-mode (CM) voltage: Multilevel converters
produce smaller CM voltage; therefore, the stress in the
bearings of a motor connected to a multilevel motor drive can
be reduced. Furthermore, CM voltage can be eliminated by
using advanced modulation strategies such as that proposed
in[8] .
● Input current: Multilevel converters can draw input current
with low distortion.
● Switching frequency: Multilevel converters can operate at
both fundamental switching frequency and high switching
frequency PWM. Unfortunately, multilevel converters do have
some disadvantages. One particular disadvantage is the greater
number of power semiconductor switches needed. Although
lower voltage rated switches can be utilized in a multilevel
converter, each switch requires a related gate drive circuit.
This may cause the overall system to be more expensive and

Multilevel Power Converter Structures 2


A single-phase structure of an m-level cascaded inverter is
illustrated in Figure.1. Each separate dc source (SDCS) is
connected to a single-phase full-bridge, or H-bridge, inverter.
Each inverter level can generate three different voltage
outputs, +Vdc, 0, and –Vdc by connecting the dc source to the
ac output by different combinations of the four switches, S1,
S2, S3, and S4. To obtain +Vdc, switches S1 and S4 are turned
on, whereas –Vdc can be obtained by turning on switches S2
and S3. By turning on S1 and S2 or S3 and S4, the output voltage
is 0. The ac outputs of each of the different full-bridge inverter
levels are connected in series such that the synthesized voltage
waveform is the sum of the inverter outputs. The number of
output phase voltage levels m in a cascade inverter is defined
by m = 2s+1, where s is the number of separate dc sources. An
example phase voltage waveform for an 11-level cascaded Hbridge inverter with 5 SDCSs and 5 full bridges is shown in
Figure 2. The phase voltage van = va1 + va2 + va3 + va4 + va5. For

5.ripublication. . The previous model of cascade multilevel inverter has been analyzed and its performance evaluated. Single –Phase structure of a multilevel cascade Hbridge inverter Figure 2: Output Phase Voltage waveform of a cascade inverter From figure 2 the magnitude of the Fourier coefficients when normalized with respect to Vdc are given by H ( n)  4 n [cos( n 1 )  cos( n 2 )  . http://www. and for battery-based applications. Three-phase cascaded inverters can be connected in wye..4 (2015) © Research India Publications.... 7…….htm a stepped waveform such as the one depicted in Figure 2 with s steps.... ISSN 0973-4562 Vol... or in delta.( 2) Where n=1. V(t)  4Vdc sin(nt) .6. 4. and 13th... θs. .. ... A new cascade multilevel H-bridge inverter has been proposed in this paper. This will enable the manufacturing process to be done more quickly and cheaply. θ1. these angles are chosen so that predominant lower frequency harmonics.. Peng [7] has demonstrated a prototype multilevel cascaded static VAR generator connected in parallel with the electrical system that could supply or draw reactive current from an electrical system..(1) n [cos(n )  cos(n )  .... cos(n )]   1  2 s Multilevel cascaded inverters have been proposed for such applications as static VAR generation.. 11th.. This inverter has been developed by using Matlab simulink soft as shown in figure 3b. The proposed topology results in reduction of installation area and cost maintaining the magnitude of dc voltage source... This structure consists of series connected sub multilevel inverter Figure 1. Advantages:  The number of possible output voltage levels is more than twice the number of dc sources (m = 2s + 1)...International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. Matlab Simulation Of Proposed Inverter Model 2......... θ2.. can be chosen such that the total harmonic voltage distortion is minimum. 5.. Generally. 5th... 3838 . 10 No. the Fourier Transform is as in equation 1....... 7th..  The series of H-bridges makes for modularized layout and packaging.... harmonics are eliminated.... an interface with renewable energy sources.  cos( n s )]. .... The conducting angles.. 3.

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. Figure 4: Proposed model 7level inverter output voltage waveform The output voltage of 7 level stepped waveform is illustrated in figure 4. http://www. it will result in reduction of harmonics and pure sinusoidal wave from. ISSN 0973-4562 Vol.htm Figure 6: 21 level cascade multilevel inverter output voltage waveform Figure 3: a) 7 level Cascade Multilevel H-bridge inverter b) New proposed model with ideal diode Figure 7: The gate pulses for first 1 to 5 MOSFET switches. Simulation model of 21 levels Cascade Multilevel Inverter Figure 8 : The gate pulses 6 to 10 MOSFET switches Figure 5: 21 level cascade inverter H-bridge model 3839 .ripublication.4 (2015) © Research India Newly developed 21 level inverter model using Matlab is shown in figure 5. 10 No. Whenever the number of levels is increased.

an equivalent circuit model is represented with a switch and a gate-source. voltage and current ratings of the switches in a multilevel inverter play important roles on the cost and realization of the inverter. FSW = Switching Frequency. Each switch in the suggested topology is composed of one MOSFET and one anti-parallel diode. Standing voltage For low and medium frequencies. however. Switching losses: PSW = (EON + EOFF) * FSW -------------------------------. PMOSFET = PSW + PCOND -------------------------(3) Conduction losses: The calculation of conduction losses PCOND = I2 OUT * RON * VOUT / VIN ---------------(4) Where RON is the maximum operating MOSFET junction temperature(T).9. Opto-isolators can work in a wide range of input signal pulse width. the currents of all switches are equal with the rated current of the load. Figure 10: gate driver circuit for the switch A comparison of the power component requirements among the conventional and suggested multilevel inverters for the 3840 . a MOSFET can operate as an ideal switch[1][3]. Symbols Cx and Lx represent an external parasitic capacitance and a leakage inductance of the transformer. Thus. 7 and fig 8. In the proposed model the number of switches are reduced and hence the overall switching losses.htm C Comparison of the suggested conventional cascaded multilevel inverter A Switching loss: structure with Table 1 Comparison of power component requirements among conventional cascaded multilevel inverters. B Simulation Result analysis Cost Gate driver Area Control Conventional Cascade Mlevel inverter Proposed Model Vdc(Nstep -1) Vdc(Nstep -1) 24 14 2Vdc (Nstep 1) High More More Complex 2Vdc (Nstep -1) Low Low Less Easy The main purpose of this paper is reduction of the components of the cascaded multilevel inverters. in which the dashed line represent an intrinsic MOSFET. Triggering pulses of MOFSET switches are shown in fig 7 and fig 8. They all have voltage dependencies. Cds are a gate-source. A power MOSFET has a rather large on-resistance. ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. Fig. Therefore. Output voltage waveform is shown in fig 6. each switch requires one gate pulse as shown in fig. not the case for the voltage. Here Ron is an on-resistance.4 (2015) © Research India Publications. Each switch in the inverter requires an isolated driver circuit. 10 shows the isolator and driver circuit of each switch. where Vswitch j represents the peak inverse voltage of the jth switch PIV   Vswitch j j 1 The existing cascade multilevel inverter required more number of switches for getting the desired output voltage waveform. EON = Trun on switching losses in power MOSFET. Description Maximum output voltage Number of switches (MOSFET) Figure 9 : Circuit model of the power MOSFET switch . In other words. a Schmitt trigger and a buffer. This is. a gate-drain and a drain-source capacitance. Cgd. Therefore. This circuit consists of an optoisolator. but a separate isolated power supply is required for each switching device. the MOSFET used in this circuit can be represented as shown in Also. 21 level inverter. The peak inverse voltage (PIV) of all switches is represented by the summation Vswitch j. 10 No. The isolation can be provided using either pulse transformers or opto-isolators. http://www. In the proposed topology. gate-drain and drain-source capacitances.ripublication. The power loss in any MOSFET is the combination of the switching losses and MOSFET’s conduction losses. EOFF = Trun off switching losses in power MOSFET. Symbols Cgs.International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. This also leads to reduction in the installation area and the number of the gate driver circuits. Another important problem in inverters is the ratings of switches. the cost of the suggested topology is less than the conventional topology for realizing Nstep voltages for output. respectively.(5) Where PSW = Switching Power Losses.

. Z. Blaabjerg. Reference Papers: [1]. Henry Shu-Hung Chung on A 31-level cascade inverter for power applications on Industrial Electronics. 1416-1423. 1998. VanCoevering.ripublication. Ebrahim Babaei *. T. 1983.66% less for realizing Nstep voltages for output as compared to conventional inverter.. J. Y. Soumia Mouna Lagoun. [3]. Rec.3 [4]. 11301138. C. pp: 613 – 617 [5]. A. S. Farid Khoucha. I. Bai. 3841 . “A New Medium Voltage PWM Inverter Topology for Adjustable Speed Drives. 1996.C “A novel model for MOSFET switching loss calculation”on Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference. “Hybrid Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel-Inverter Induction-MotorDrive Direct Torque Control for Automotive Applications” on IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS vol 57 . R. IEEE-IAS Annu. Teodorescu. Enjeti. Peng. J. vol.htm same number of the output voltage steps is given in Table 1. F. Lee. 10 No. Woom.Yoshida “Characteristics and improvement of power MOSFET switching loss” Telecommunications Energy Conference. J. The number of switches in the topology recommended in this paper is 41. Feel-Soon Kang. pp.International Journal of Applied Engineering M. E.” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications.Okabe. Man Hyung Lee. S. Lai. ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. Meeting. B.. IEEE Transactions on Vol: 49 2002. Ron Hui. no. pp: 1600 – 1606. Lee.. 32. 508 – 513. Y. CheulU Kim “ An Efficient Multilevel-Synthesis Approach and its Application to a 27 –level inverter” on Industrial Electronics.4 (2015) © Research India Publications. The 4th International Vol:3 2004 . S. [8].. F. W. The resultant waveform obtained has been studied and compared with the existing inverter model to prove the effectiveness of the proposed model. Meng. INTELEC '83. pp: 1669 . Issue: 6 2005.” in Conf.K. 2004. http://www. Oct.2010 pp :892-899 [7]. and F.Katsueda. Louis. U. pp. Sung-Jun Park. St. MO. Fifth International 1983. The proposed inverter model is recommended for grid connected renewable energy sources. “A Multilevel Voltage-Source Inverter with Separate DC Sources for Static Var Generation. Seyed Hossein Hosseini “New cascaded multilevel inverter topology with minimum number of switches” on Energy Conversion and Management vol :50 2009 pp2761–2767 [6]. P. O. Sulistijo. pp.1672 Vol.Q. Conclusions In this paper a new 21 level cascade multilevel inverter model developed using Matlab Simulink has been presented. Cengelci. Sept. Huang. [2]. IPEMC 2004. 5.Y. IEEE Transactions on Vol: 52. McKeever.