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Unsymmetrical
Bending
Review of Centroids & Moments of Inertia
Centroids and moments of inertia are used repeatedly
throughout this chapter, and must therefore be clearly
understood
to
efficiently
tackle
problems
involving
“unsymmetrical bending” of beams.
Essential
definitions
and formulas
must
be
readily
accessible.
Topics covered in this introductory part include:
• centroids and how to locate them
• moments of inertia
• parallelaxis theorem
Only plane surfaces are considered
K.A.

MECH3001Y

Mechanics of Materials & Machines III
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CENTROID OF PLANE AREAS
A centroid is an important geometric property. The area of the
above geometric figure is defined by
A = ∫ dA
1st moments of area w.r.t the x and y axes?
K.A.

MECH3001Y

Mechanics of Materials & Machines III
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• First moments represent the sums of the products of the
differential areas and their coordinates (Pytel & Kiusalaas,
2010).
• First moments may be positive or negative, depending
upon the position of the xy axes.
• Also, first moments have units of length raised to the third
power; for instance, m3.
The coordinates x and y of the centroid C are equal to the 1st
moments divided by the area of the shape.
Centroids of some simple geometric shapes
In engineering work, we rarely need to locate centroids by
integration. Centroids of common geometric figures are already
K.A.

MECH3001Y

Mechanics of Materials & Machines III
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known and tabulated. For objects composed of several parts of
familiar geometric shape (rectangle, circle, ...), the integral form
is rarely used to find the position of the centroids.
Instead,
1. The overall shape is broken down in simpler ones
2. The centroid of the overall shape is calculated using a
summation
e.g:
K.A.

MECH3001Y

Mechanics of Materials & Machines III
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Page  5
Problem 1. K. .1 Locate the centroid of a right angled triangle with baseline a and height h.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  6 .A.
A.K.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  7 .
Locate its centroid (find the coordinates) by breaking rectangular the Lshape elements into and applying the summation principle.A.Problem 1.2 – Centroid of a composite area Consider the Lshaped area in the given figure. K.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  8 .
K. e.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  9 .A.g.Note that absence of an area can be handled by using subtraction.
A.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  10 . K.Homework – Centroids Locate the centroids of the profiles shown (dimensions in mm).
MOMENTS OF INERTIA OF PLANE AREAS The moments of inertia of a plane area (see figure) with respect to the x and y axes. respectively.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  11 . are defined by the integrals: NB: Moments of inertia are always positive.A. K.
t the yaxis 3) w. 1) w.t the xaxis 2) w.3 – Moment of Inertia Calculate the moment of inertia of the given rectangle.A.r.Problem 1.r.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  12 .t the baseline BB K.r.
K.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  13 .A.Note that the moment of inertia with respect to axis BB is larger than the moment of inertia with respect to the centroidal xaxis. In general. The moment of inertia of a composite area with respect to any particular axis is the sum of the moments of inertia of its parts with respect to that same axis. the moment of inertia increases as the reference axis is moved parallel to itself farther from the centroid.
r.Problem 1. K. the xaxis.t.4 – Moment of Inertia Calculate the moment of inertia of the given box w.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  14 .A.
the parallel axis theorem provides a way to calculate the moment of inertia of the same shape with respect to any parallel axis.PARALLEL AXIS THEOREM Given the moment of inertia with respect to some arbitrary axis.A. The parallel axis theorem states that the moment of inertia Ix1 of the object with respect to X1 (parallel to X) is given by Show the proof on board K.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  15 . Let I0 denote the moment of inertia (2nd moment of area) of the object shown with respect to the xaxis.
structure.(position the baseline of the structure.A.(position the xaxis x along a) Find the centroid of the structure. K.Problem 1. and the yaxis y axis along the line of symmetry) b) Find the momentt of inertia of the structure about the neutral axis (NA).5 – Parallel axis theorem Consider the builtup up beam structure shown in the picture below.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  16 . Note that the NA runs through the centroid.
 MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  17 .K.A.
A. Area lies entirely in 1st quadrant: Ixy positive Area lies entirely in 2nd quadrant: Ixy negative Area lies entirely in 3rd quadrant: Ixy positive Area lies entirely in 4th quadrant: Ixy negative Product of inertia: Symmetry The product of inertia of an area is zero with respect to any pair of axes in which at least one axis is an axis of symmetry of the area. referring to the figure. negative. K. Thus. or zero.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  18 . depending upon the position of the xy axes with respect to the area. the product of inertia (or product moment of area) is defined by the integral: Ixy can be positive.PRODUCT OF INERTIA The product of inertia of a plane area is defined with respect to a set of perpendicular axes lying in the plane of the area.
 MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  19 .A.Parallel axis theorem K.
 MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  20 .Problem 1.A.6 – Product of inertia Determine the product of inertia of a rectangle with respect to xy axes having their origin at point O at the lower lefthand corner of the rectangle. K.
Problem 1.A. height h and constant thickness t.7 – Product of inertia Determine the product of inertia Ixy of the Zsection shown. K. The section has width b.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  21 .
If we now consider loads being applied simultaneously to the beam in the z and y directions resp. For a beam loaded in the ydirection. the bending is referred to as unsymmetrical bending.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  22 . K. will apply to the beam. This type of bending occurs when the beam: 1.Unsymmetrical Bending Frequently.A. carries loads along two perpendicular directions 2. diagram). there is a moment about the zaxis (cf. moments about the y and the zaxis resp.. In this case. cross section is not symmetrical Unsymmetrical bending can be considered as the superposition of 2 simple bending problems. a beam undergoes a simultaneous deflection in two different perpendicular directions.
and therefore. K. and the results added together to obtain the overall bending stress.e loads act through the centroid. ASSUMPTIONS a) We consider that the beam cross section has an arbitrary shape. b) We assume that loading is such that there is no twisting of the beam crosssection. no particular symmetry is present.A. section. section e) Changes in the crosssectional cross sectional dimensions of the beam are negligible. d) Plane sections of the beam remain plane (do not warp) and perpendicular to the deformed axis of the beam.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  23 . NB: Observe that we use a righthanded right handed coordinate system c) The axis of the beam bends but does not stretch. (Each cross section of the beam rotates as a rigid entity about a line called the neutral axis of the cross section). i.Each direction can be solved separately for bending stress.
A.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  24 .The deflection of the beam is caused by a moment which is perpendicular to the load. K.
y I Iz σ z : bending stress M z : bending moment about Z I z : moment of inertia w.r.y = − M z .t. add the stresses Recall from the simple bending theory σ z = − M .SOLVING THE PROBLEM a) Resolve esolve the load into 2 components b) Find the corresponding moments and stresses c) Use the principle of superposition.e. Z K. i..A.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  25 .
the bending stress due to bending moment around the yaxis axis only is given by σy = M y .A. Similarly.z Iy σ y : bending stress M y : bending moment about Y I y : moment of inertia about Y K.The bending stress in the xdirection x is caused by a bending moment about the Zaxis.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  26 .
z M z .Principle of superposition The total bending stress is given as σb = σ y + σ z M y .y σb = − Iy Iz unsymmetrical bending equation K.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  27 .A.
 MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  28 . K.Neutral axis: board show how to find. line of ZERO stress.A.
its equation can be determined by setting σ = 0 .z M z .I z = tan −1 K. y − Iy Iz 0 = The angle between the neutral axis and the Yaxis is given by α z = tan −1 M z .A. the neutral axis for unsymmetrical bending is not parallel to the bending moment M.INCLINATION OF THE NEUTRAL AXIS (NA) In general. Because the neutral axis is the line where the bending stress is zero.I y y M y .  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  29 . which yields M y .
8 – Unsymmetrical Bending Two distributed line loads act on a cantilever beam as shown in the diagram on the left. Both loads act through the center of the rectangular cross section in the directions shown.A. What is the maximum absolute bending stress in the wall? K.Problem 1.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  30 .
 MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  31 .K.A.
A. K. Show that the neutral axis lies along the other diagonal.Problem 1.9 – Unsymmetrical Bending A cantilevered beam of rectangular cross section supports an inclined load P having its line of action along a diagonal of the cross section (see figure).  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  32 .
K.A.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  33 .
 MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  34 .A. the y and z axes.10 – Unsymmetrical Bending The W250x32. K. b) the angle between the neutral axis and the zaxis. c) the largest bending stress acting on the section.Problem 1.m bending moment inclined at 16.7 section carries a 32kN.t.r. Determine a) the moments of inertia of the section w.2° to the zaxis as shown.
K.A.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  35 .
A.K.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  36 .
( x . y ) and rotated through an angle θ w.r. K. y ) . Consider a set of axes ( x . the values of Ix.A.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  37 . and Ixy for a plane area depend on the location of the origin of the coordinate system and the orientation of the xyaxes. Here we investigate the changes caused by rotating the coordinate axes. Iy. v ) having the same origin as ( x .t.TRANSFORMATION OF SECOND MOMENTS OF AREA In general. y ) and a second set of axes ( u .
t. y) axes.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  38 .r.r. the (x. (u. K. find the moments of area w.Given the second moments of area w.v).t.A.
A.K.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  39 .
for which at least one of the axes is an axis of symmetry of a given plane shape.PRINCIPAL AXES The principal axes are the set of axes ( u . the pair of axes are also principal axes for the given shape. Finding the principal axes Iuv = 0 0= K.  MECH3001Y  Ix − I y sin 2θ + Ixy cos2θ 2 Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  40 .A. v ) for which the product moment of area is EQUAL TO ZERO. It follows that for a couple of perpendicular axes.
the 2nd one is at 90° to the first one.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  41 .tan 2θ = − 2 Ixy Ix − I y Note that having found 1 principal direction. K.A.
have two perpendicular axes about which the product second moment of area is zero. K.A. All plane sections.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  42 . whether they have an axis of symmetry or not.z M z . y − Iy Iz Choosing the axes for resolving forces/moments y and z are chosen such that they are principal axes.PRINCIPAL AXES AND BENDING Recall the unsymmetrical bending equation σb = M y .
 MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  43 . 4) Calculate moments of inertia of section with respect to principal axes. 5) Find bending moments / stresses for each principal direction. 3) Resolve load along principal axis directions. 6) Superimpose solutions for each direction to obtain the overall solution of the problem. 2) Find the principal axes.A.BENDING OF BEAMS HAVING UNSYMMETRICAL SECTIONS 1) Find moments of inertia (including product moment of inertia) of section with respect to a set of known axes. K.
18x106 m4 Iyz = 2.11 – Unsymmetrical Bending // Principal axes A couple of magnitude M0=1.25x106 m4 Iz = 4.87x106 m4 K. Determine a) the moments of inertia of the section w.5 kN.r.m acting in a vertical plane is applied to a beam having the Zshaped crosssection shown.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  44 .A.t.Problem 1. y and z axes b) the directions of the principal axes c) the stress at point A d) the angle that the neutral axis forms with the horizontal plane The moments and product of inertia of the section with respect to the y and z axes have been computed and are as follows: Iy = 3.
A.K.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  45 .
A.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  46 .K.
K.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  47 .A.
 MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  48 .K.A.
Taking E = 200GPa .A. The beam carries a central concentrated load of 400N acting along line YG . a) Calculate the positions of the principal axes. Point G is the centroid of the section.Problem 1. b) Calculate the principal moments of inertia. d) Find the position of the neutral axis. midway between the two supports.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  49 . c) Show that the bending moment at the midpoint between the supports is given by WL and calculate the corresponding 4 stress at point C. K.12 – Unsymmetrical Bending // Principal axes The angle section shown below is used as a simply supported beam over a span of 2.4m .
 MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  50 .Solution: K.A.
A.K.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  51 .
K.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  52 .A.
A.K.  MECH3001Y  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page  53 .
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