# 1

Unsymmetrical
Bending

Review of Centroids & Moments of Inertia
Centroids and moments of inertia are used repeatedly
throughout this chapter, and must therefore be clearly
understood

to

efficiently

tackle

problems

involving

“unsymmetrical bending” of beams.
Essential

definitions

and formulas

must

be

accessible.
Topics covered in this introductory part include:
• centroids and how to locate them
• moments of inertia
• parallel-axis theorem
Only plane surfaces are considered

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Mechanics of Materials & Machines III

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CENTROID OF PLANE AREAS

A centroid is an important geometric property. The area of the
above geometric figure is defined by

A = ∫ dA

1st moments of area w.r.t the x and y axes?

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• First moments represent the sums of the products of the
differential areas and their coordinates (Pytel & Kiusalaas,
2010).
• First moments may be positive or negative, depending
upon the position of the xy axes.
• Also, first moments have units of length raised to the third
power; for instance, m3.
The coordinates x and y of the centroid C are equal to the 1st
moments divided by the area of the shape.

Centroids of some simple geometric shapes

In engineering work, we rarely need to locate centroids by
integration. Centroids of common geometric figures are already
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known and tabulated. For objects composed of several parts of
familiar geometric shape (rectangle, circle, ...), the integral form
is rarely used to find the position of the centroids.
1. The overall shape is broken down in simpler ones
2. The centroid of the overall shape is calculated using a
summation
e.g:

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Problem 1. K. .1 Locate the centroid of a right angled triangle with baseline a and height h. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 6 .A.

A.K. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 7 .

Locate its centroid (find the coordinates) by breaking rectangular the L-shape elements into and applying the summation principle.A.Problem 1.2 – Centroid of a composite area Consider the L-shaped area in the given figure. K. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 8 .

K. e. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 9 .A.g.Note that absence of an area can be handled by using subtraction.

A. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 10 . K.Homework – Centroids Locate the centroids of the profiles shown (dimensions in mm).

MOMENTS OF INERTIA OF PLANE AREAS The moments of inertia of a plane area (see figure) with respect to the x and y axes. respectively. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 11 . are defined by the integrals: NB: Moments of inertia are always positive.A. K.

t the y-axis 3) w. 1) w.t the x-axis 2) w.3 – Moment of Inertia Calculate the moment of inertia of the given rectangle.A.r.Problem 1.r. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 12 .t the baseline BB K.r.

K. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 13 .A.Note that the moment of inertia with respect to axis BB is larger than the moment of inertia with respect to the centroidal x-axis. In general. The moment of inertia of a composite area with respect to any particular axis is the sum of the moments of inertia of its parts with respect to that same axis. the moment of inertia increases as the reference axis is moved parallel to itself farther from the centroid.

r.Problem 1. K. the x-axis.t.4 – Moment of Inertia Calculate the moment of inertia of the given box w. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 14 .A.

the parallel axis theorem provides a way to calculate the moment of inertia of the same shape with respect to any parallel axis.PARALLEL AXIS THEOREM Given the moment of inertia with respect to some arbitrary axis.A. The parallel axis theorem states that the moment of inertia Ix1 of the object with respect to X1 (parallel to X) is given by Show the proof on board K. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 15 . Let I0 denote the moment of inertia (2nd moment of area) of the object shown with respect to the x-axis.

structure.(position the baseline of the structure.A.(position the x-axis x along a) Find the centroid of the structure. K.Problem 1. and the y-axis y axis along the line of symmetry) b) Find the momentt of inertia of the structure about the neutral axis (NA).5 – Parallel axis theorem Consider the built-up up beam structure shown in the picture below. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 16 . Note that the NA runs through the centroid.

| MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 17 .K.A.

A. Area lies entirely in 1st quadrant: Ixy positive Area lies entirely in 2nd quadrant: Ixy negative Area lies entirely in 3rd quadrant: Ixy positive Area lies entirely in 4th quadrant: Ixy negative Product of inertia: Symmetry The product of inertia of an area is zero with respect to any pair of axes in which at least one axis is an axis of symmetry of the area. referring to the figure. negative. K. Thus. or zero. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 18 . depending upon the position of the xy axes with respect to the area. the product of inertia (or product moment of area) is defined by the integral: Ixy can be positive.PRODUCT OF INERTIA The product of inertia of a plane area is defined with respect to a set of perpendicular axes lying in the plane of the area.

| MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 19 .A.Parallel axis theorem K.

| MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 20 .Problem 1.A.6 – Product of inertia Determine the product of inertia of a rectangle with respect to xy axes having their origin at point O at the lower left-hand corner of the rectangle. K.

Problem 1.A. height h and constant thickness t.7 – Product of inertia Determine the product of inertia Ixy of the Z-section shown. K. The section has width b. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 21 .

If we now consider loads being applied simultaneously to the beam in the z and y directions resp. For a beam loaded in the y-direction. the bending is referred to as unsymmetrical bending. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 22 . K. will apply to the beam. This type of bending occurs when the beam: 1.Unsymmetrical Bending Frequently.A. carries loads along two perpendicular directions 2. diagram). there is a moment about the z-axis (cf. moments about the y and the z-axis resp.. In this case. cross section is not symmetrical Unsymmetrical bending can be considered as the superposition of 2 simple bending problems. a beam undergoes a simultaneous deflection in two different perpendicular directions.

and therefore. K. and the results added together to obtain the overall bending stress.e loads act through the centroid. ASSUMPTIONS a) We consider that the beam cross section has an arbitrary shape. b) We assume that loading is such that there is no twisting of the beam cross-section. no particular symmetry is present.A. section. section e) Changes in the cross-sectional cross sectional dimensions of the beam are negligible. d) Plane sections of the beam remain plane (do not warp) and perpendicular to the deformed axis of the beam. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 23 . NB: Observe that we use a right-handed right handed coordinate system c) The axis of the beam bends but does not stretch. (Each cross section of the beam rotates as a rigid entity about a line called the neutral axis of the cross section). i.Each direction can be solved separately for bending stress.

A. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 24 .The deflection of the beam is caused by a moment which is perpendicular to the load. K.

y I Iz σ z : bending stress M z : bending moment about Z I z : moment of inertia w.r.y = − M z .t. add the stresses Recall from the simple bending theory σ z = − M .SOLVING THE PROBLEM a) Resolve esolve the load into 2 components b) Find the corresponding moments and stresses c) Use the principle of superposition.e. Z K. i..A. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 25 .

the bending stress due to bending moment around the y-axis axis only is given by σy = M y .A. Similarly.z Iy σ y : bending stress M y : bending moment about Y I y : moment of inertia about Y K.The bending stress in the x-direction x is caused by a bending moment about the Z-axis. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 26 .

z M z .Principle of superposition The total bending stress is given as σb = σ y + σ z M y .y σb = − Iy Iz unsymmetrical bending equation K. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 27 .A.

| MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 28 . K.Neutral axis: board show how to find. line of ZERO stress.A.

its equation can be determined by setting σ = 0 .z M z .I z     = tan −1   K. y − Iy Iz 0 = The angle between the neutral axis and the Y-axis is given by α   z  = tan −1  M z .A. the neutral axis for unsymmetrical bending is not parallel to the bending moment M.INCLINATION OF THE NEUTRAL AXIS (NA) In general. Because the neutral axis is the line where the bending stress is zero.I y     y  M y . | MECH3001Y |  Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 29 . which yields M y .

8 – Unsymmetrical Bending Two distributed line loads act on a cantilever beam as shown in the diagram on the left. Both loads act through the center of the rectangular cross section in the directions shown.A. What is the maximum absolute bending stress in the wall? K.Problem 1. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 30 .

| MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 31 .K.A.

A. K. Show that the neutral axis lies along the other diagonal.Problem 1.9 – Unsymmetrical Bending A cantilevered beam of rectangular cross section supports an inclined load P having its line of action along a diagonal of the cross section (see figure). | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 32 .

K.A. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 33 .

| MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 34 .A. the y and z axes.10 – Unsymmetrical Bending The W250x32. K. b) the angle between the neutral axis and the z-axis. c) the largest bending stress acting on the section.Problem 1.m bending moment inclined at 16.7 section carries a 32kN.t.r. Determine a) the moments of inertia of the section w.2° to the z-axis as shown.

K.A. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 35 .

A.K. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 36 .

( x . y ) and rotated through an angle θ w.r. K. y ) . Consider a set of axes ( x . the values of Ix.A. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 37 . and Ixy for a plane area depend on the location of the origin of the coordinate system and the orientation of the xy-axes. Here we investigate the changes caused by rotating the coordinate axes. Iy. v ) having the same origin as ( x .t.TRANSFORMATION OF SECOND MOMENTS OF AREA In general. y ) and a second set of axes ( u .

t. y) axes. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 38 .r.r. the (x. (u. K. find the moments of area w.Given the second moments of area w.v).t.A.

A.K. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 39 .

for which at least one of the axes is an axis of symmetry of a given plane shape.PRINCIPAL AXES The principal axes are the set of axes ( u . the pair of axes are also principal axes for the given shape. Finding the principal axes Iuv = 0 0= K. | MECH3001Y | Ix − I y sin 2θ + Ixy cos2θ 2 Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 40 .A. v ) for which the product moment of area is EQUAL TO ZERO. It follows that for a couple of perpendicular axes.

the 2nd one is at 90° to the first one. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 41 .tan 2θ = − 2 Ixy Ix − I y Note that having found 1 principal direction. K.A.

have two perpendicular axes about which the product second moment of area is zero. K.A. All plane sections. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 42 . whether they have an axis of symmetry or not.z M z . y − Iy Iz Choosing the axes for resolving forces/moments y and z are chosen such that they are principal axes.PRINCIPAL AXES AND BENDING Recall the unsymmetrical bending equation σb = M y .

| MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 43 . 4) Calculate moments of inertia of section with respect to principal axes. 5) Find bending moments / stresses for each principal direction. 3) Resolve load along principal axis directions. 6) Superimpose solutions for each direction to obtain the overall solution of the problem. 2) Find the principal axes.A.BENDING OF BEAMS HAVING UNSYMMETRICAL SECTIONS 1) Find moments of inertia (including product moment of inertia) of section with respect to a set of known axes. K.

18x10-6 m4 Iyz = 2.11 – Unsymmetrical Bending // Principal axes A couple of magnitude M0=1.25x10-6 m4 Iz = 4.87x10-6 m4 K. Determine a) the moments of inertia of the section w.5 kN.r.m acting in a vertical plane is applied to a beam having the Z-shaped cross-section shown. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 44 .A.t.Problem 1. y and z axes b) the directions of the principal axes c) the stress at point A d) the angle that the neutral axis forms with the horizontal plane The moments and product of inertia of the section with respect to the y and z axes have been computed and are as follows: Iy = 3.

A.K. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 45 .

A. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 46 .K.

K. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 47 .A.

| MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 48 .K.A.

Taking E = 200GPa .A. The beam carries a central concentrated load of 400N acting along line YG . a) Calculate the positions of the principal axes. Point G is the centroid of the section.Problem 1. b) Calculate the principal moments of inertia. d) Find the position of the neutral axis. midway between the two supports. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 49 . c) Show that the bending moment at the midpoint between the supports is given by WL and calculate the corresponding 4 stress at point C. K.12 – Unsymmetrical Bending // Principal axes The angle section shown below is used as a simply supported beam over a span of 2.4m .

| MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 50 .Solution: K.A.

A.K. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 51 .

K. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 52 .A.

A.K. | MECH3001Y | Mechanics of Materials & Machines III — Page | 53 .