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Climatic characteristics of various climatic zones

Tropical Wet / Rainforest Climate (Af)
Temperature /
Precipitation /
Climograph of


Time / month

Example: Singapore (1˚N
Location: 10˚ from equator [eg. Amazon
Total 240cm
Average High
Distributi Very
Annual Low: does not
on of lack
temp vary by more
rainfall: seasonality
range: than 2˚C
Total annual rainfall:
Diurnal Low: 26˚C Due to the proximity of the
temp 34˚C
ITCZ, the Af climatic zone
always receives a high angle of Average monthly temp:
incidence of solar radiation,
Where the angle of incidence
leading to intense surface
heating. This then leads to the is high, more spread out and
development of a very steep atmosphere thinner  less
ELR whereby the fall in scattering and absorption 
temperature with increasing more heating at surface
altitude is very rapid. Whenever
there are irregularities on the
surface and uneven heating of
the air above, pockets of air
that are more heated will rise
because they are less dense.
They will also cool at a rate
slower than the steep ELR so
that at any temperature, a

Diurnal temp range:
Cloud cover: always present
Night: do not have as much
outgoing radiation. Day: do
not have as much incoming


ITC never migrates far from equator and Af climatic zones. Rising air cools adiabatically as it expands. This leads to intense surface heating and hence the formation of convectional rainfall. 2 . increasing relative humidity.rising parcel of air will be more buoyant and warmer than surrounding air leading to unstable atmosphere. Height / km Steep ELR showing rapid fall in temp with increasing Rate at which height rising air parcel cools Temp / C Distribution of rainfall: Lack of seasons / high rainfall due to proximity of Af climatic zones to equator. leading to condensation and rainfall.

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5C) season Distribution of rainfall: Diurnal Low especially Reversals: NE and SW temp compared to Dec: Winter in northern range: drier climates hemisphere. moves into Asia  trade before rainy season. rain can be bigger 4 . wind of southern Hadley cell reaching Myanmar. India. So hemisphere to the north of hottest period is in April India. Bangladesh] Precipitation Temperature Total Among the Average High: mid-20s annual highest in the monthly rainfall: world: 520cm: temp: more than twice Singapore’s Distributi Seasonal: short Annual Low but higher on of and not very temp than Af rainfall: severe dry range: (~7.Tropical Monsoon Climate (Am) Temperature / Precipitation / cm C 7 Climograph of Akyab. Centre part of Sian Annual temp range: continent cools down  high Further away from equator  pressure  Siberian high  more seasonality outflow of wind: dry NE Clouds cooling effect due to monsoon June: ITC in northern reflected solar radiation. Trade wind Diurnal temp range: converges at ITC Dry monsoon season with less Coriolis force  deflection of clouds. 0 Myanmar 6 0 3 5 0 0 2 0 Time / month Example: Myanmar (20˚N 93˚E) Location: Tropical and coastal [eg.

Crosses Bay of Bengal: picks up lots of moisture  deposits on wind  cross equator from SE to SW. *Coastal influence dominant factor  rainfall 5 .

most rain already deposited on monsoon tropical regions 6 . 7 Egypt 0 3 6 0 0 2 5 0 0 1 0 Time / month Example: Cairo. subtropical regions Precipitation Temperature Total 25mm per year Average High annual monthly rainfall: temp: Distributi Little rainfall Annual ~20C on of during winter temp rainfall: months range: Greatest interannual variability Total annual rainfall: Diurnal Large Descending air  temp range: compression of air parcel due to higher pressure above  Annual temp range: adiabatic heating of air Location further away from parcel  relative humidity equator compared to the falls  will not reach dew other regions point  no rain Diurnal temp range: Absence of cloud cover Distribution of rainfall: Region always nearer to subsiding air During summer months. Egypt (31˚N 31˚E) Location: Coastal deserts (Atacama desert).Subtropical Deserts (BWh) Temperature / Precipitation / cm C Climograph of Cairo.

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8 . strong seasonality Annual temp range: exists.Tropical Wet and Dry / Savanna Climate (Aw) Example: Bamako. cm C Climograph of Bamako. Droughts common heat since Time / month variability of rainfall. Mali (13˚N 8˚W) Temperature / Precipitation / Location: Poleward margin of the Tropics eg. Angle of incidence varies When the ITCZ is close by more throughout the year (June). Southern Africa Mali Precipitation Temperature Total 110cm per year Average High (near 3 annual monthly equator) 0 rainfall: temp: 2 Distributi Greater Annual ~10C 0 on of seasonality temp rainfall: than Af and Am range: Diurnal Fluctuates 4 Distribution of rainfall: Due to the location being temp 0 further away from the range: equator. subtropical high arrives and descending air causes adiabatic heating = dry season. Varying cloud cover When the ITCZ shifts to opposite hemispheres (Dec). convectional rainfall is favourable due to strong Diurnal temp range: surface heating.

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