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Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands
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FAO Regional Office, Bangkok, Thailand
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emphasizing trees in our island agriculture.”
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Conservancy, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia
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Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands
edited by Craig R. Elevitch and Kim M. Wilkinson
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Release date: September, 2000
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Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands #2

Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in
the Pacific Islands
by Randolph R. Thaman, Craig R. Elevitch, and Kim M. Wilkinson

www.agroforestry.net

Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific
Islands
Abstract: The protection and planting of trees in agroforestry systems can
serve as an important, locally achievable, and cost-effective step in sustainable
development in the Pacific Islands. Traditional agroforestry practices once
made Pacific Islanders among the most self-sufficient and well-nourished
peoples in the world. Time-tested, locally available species are the most
effective foundation for future agroforestry development. This guide introduces
some traditional Pacific Island agroforestry systems and principles, and
examines important multipurpose trees used in the region.
Keywords: agroforestry, agrodeforestation, diversity, ethnobotany, indigenous
knowledge, multipurpose, Pacific Islands, sustainable, trees

Contents
Introduction 3
Pacific Island Trees and Their Importance 3
Challenges of the 21st Century 4
Definition of Agroforestry 4

Phases in Traditional Pacific Island Agroforestry
Systems 4
Agriculturalization of the Forest 5
Indigenous Agroforestry Enrichment and
Deforestation 5
Colonial Agroforestry Enrichment and
Agrodeforestation 6
Post-World War II Agroforestry Enrichment and
Accelerated Agrodeforestation 7
21st Century MSA 8

Agroforestry Development: Seven Principles Of
Traditional Pacific Island Agroforestry Systems 8
Multipurpose Trees: Definition and Examples 9
Examples of Three Pacific Island Multipurpose Trees 9
Pacific Island Examples of Agroforestry Systems 10

Restoring MSA Systems and Species 13

Selecting Trees for New MSA Systems 14
Planning for the Future: A Note on Genetic
Diversity 16
A Note on Potentially Invasive Species 16
Important Agroforestry Species 17

Products/Use Table 17
Multipurpose Species Pacific Island Uses 18
Multipurpose Species Characteristics and
Tolerances 23
Common Names, Origin and Presence in Pacific
Islands 28

Species Lists by Product 39
Resources and Recommended Reading 41
Local Assistance 41
Resources for Further Reading 41
Organizations 43
Periodicals 44

Acknowledgments 45
About the Authors 45
References 45

Authors: Randolph R. Thaman, Craig R. Elevitch and Kim M. Wilkinson, Illustrator: Christi A. Sobel
Reproduction: We encourage you to share this information with others. All or part of this publication may be reproduced for noncommercial educational purposes only, with credit given to the source. For commercial reproductions,
contact the publisher. © 2000 Permanent Agriculture Resources. All rights reserved.
Electronic distribution: Download this publication and others in the series at http://www.agroforestry.net
Publisher: Permanent Agriculture Resources, P.O. Box 428, Holualoa, HI 96725 USA; Tel: 808-324-4427; Fax: 808324-4129; E-mail: par@agroforestry.net; Web site: http://www.agroforestry.net
Citation: Thaman, R.R., C.R. Elevitch, and K.M. Wilkinson. 2000. Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific
Islands. Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands #2. Permanent Agriculture Resources, Holualoa, Hawaii, USA. Web
site: http://www.agroforestry.net
Sponsor: Publication of this guide was made possible through a grant from the U.S.
Department of Agriculture’s Western Region Sustainable Agriculture Research and
Education (WSARE) Program. This material is based upon work supported by the
Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, U.S. Department of
Agriculture, and Agricultural Experiment Station, Utah State University, under Cooperative Agreement under 98-COOP-1-6481.

3

Introduction
This guide provides an introduction to Pacific Island agroforestry for extension
agents and growers. Species and systems that are time-tested and successful in
the Pacific Island region are examined as a foundation for future development.
Several lists and tables are included in appendices, providing details for 130
multipurpose trees that are important components of existing agroforestry
systems throughout the Pacific Islands.

Pacific Island Trees and Their Importance
Traditional Pacific Island agricultural and land use systems were built on a foundation of protecting and planting trees.
Trees are essential to the life support systems for humans, plants, and animals.
Trees protect the land from erosion, and homes, farms and coastlines from strong
winds and waves. They make soils fertile and keep streams, lagoons, and coral
reefs clean and clear. Trees also provide food and countless other products for
humans, animals, and plants. Most of these products and services are impossible
to replace or purchase. Table 1 presents some of the benefits and of trees.
Table 1. Some ecological and cultural functions and uses of trees in the
Pacific islands
Ecological
Shade
Erosion Control
Wind Protection
Water Pollution Control

Soil Improvement
Frost Protection
Air Purification
Wild Animal Food

Cultural/Economic
Timber (commercial)
Cages/Roosts
Timber (subsistence)
Parcelization/Wrapping
Fuel wood
Abrasives
Illumination/Torches
Fertility Control
Rubber
Insulation
Tools
Decoration
Weapons Hunting
Body Ornamentation
Containers
Cordage/Lashing
Woodcarving
Glues/Adhesives
Handicrafts
Caulking
Fishing Equipment
Fiber/Fabric
Weaving/Plaiting
Commercial Products
Toys
Export Products
Musical Instruments
Ritual Exchange
Tannin
Secret Meeting Sites
Adapted from Thaman and Clarke 1987

Animal/Plant Habitats
Flood/Runoff Control
Weed/Disease Control
Marine Animal Food

Prop or Nurse Plants
Staple foods
Supplementary Foods
Emergency Foods
Wild Foods
Preservatives
Oils
Beverages
Insect Repellents
Scents/Perfumes
Deodorants
Dyes
Medicines
Poisons
Recreation

Because of the importance of trees, Pacific Island peoples have always planted
and protected trees as a part of their multi-species agroforestry and land use
systems. They have also always been willing to accept new trees that can
improve their lives and their island environments.

Thaman/Elevitch/Wilkinson

Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands

4

Challenges of the 21st Century
As we enter the 21st Century, modern development has led to a net loss of trees
in agricultural systems throughout the Pacific Islands. This process has been
referred to as agrodeforestation.
There is an urgent need for the protection and planting of trees as integral parts
of agricultural systems. For the Pacific Islands, appropriate agroforestry development can play a key role in reversing the trends of deforestation, forest degradation, and agrodeforestation.
The emphasis on the protection, as well as the planting, of these species and
agroforestry systems is of utmost importance. Experience has shown that it is far
more difficult to replace forests, agroforests, trees, and rare cultivars (cultivated
varieties) of trees than it is to protect what already exists.
It is stressed that agroforestry development should not be imposed from
outside the Pacific Islands on the basis of exotic species. Rather, it should be
multi-species agroforestry (MSA) based firmly on the many time-tested agroforestry species that already exist in the Pacific Islands, strengthened, where appropriate, with some new introduced trees and technologies. The protection and
planting of these and other appropriate trees could serve as an important, locally
achievable, and cost-effective first step in promoting sustainable development in
the rapidly modernizing island countries of the tropical Pacific.

Definition of Agroforestry
The main objectives of agroforestry activities are to plant and protect trees and
forests, and to ensure the continued provision of the services and economic products they provide. Although there are numerous definitions of agroforestry, one
that reflects the nature of existing Pacific Island agroforestry systems is:
Agroforestry is the deliberate planting and protection of trees and forests in and around agricultural systems in both rural and urban areas, in
order to improve or maintain the short-term and long-term economic
productivity, cultural utility, and ecological stability of agricultural systems (adapted from Thaman and Clarke 1993a).

Phases in Traditional Pacific Island Agroforestry
Systems
Thousands of years of observation, study, and experimentation by Pacific Island
peoples produced a diversity of highly sophisticated multi-species agroforestry
systems. A large body of traditional knowledge relating to these systems was also
developed. The term “traditional,” rather than “indigenous,” is used to stress that
Pacific agroforestry systems have also been developed by nonindigenous peoples
who have acquired valuable agroforestry knowledge and skills through hands-on
experience living in the Pacific Island environment.
The evolution of these traditional systems has taken place over a number of
relatively distinct periods of growth or change. These include:
• agriculturalization of the forest
• indigenous agroforestry enrichment and deforestation
• colonial agroforestry enrichment and agrodeforestation
• post-World War II agroforestry enrichment and accelerated agrodeforestation
• 21st Century agroforestry re-enrichment.

Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands

www.agroforestry.net

000 years ago. hunting. This period commenced in Papua New Guinea.P.000 B. Polynesia and Micronesia. just under 4. firewood. Period Agriculturalization of the Forest Indigenous Agroforestry Enrichment and deforestation Colonial Agroforestry Enrichment and Agrodeforestation Time Frame 40. coastal and inland forests were cleared for settlements and cropping. and inter-island trade between islands occurred. this period began at different times in different island groups. and animals and the continued enrichment of existing agroforestry systems by the Pacific Island inhabitants. boat building. 40. and from about eight hundred to over three thousand years for most of the islands of Melanesia.000 years ago in Eastern Melanesia. Indigenous Agroforestry Enrichment and Deforestation After the first settlements were well-established. and used different species from their inland and coastal forests. and continues in some cases.000 years ago or less in parts Eastern Polynesia and Eastern Micronesia.* 1600 A. They also deliberately or accidentally introduced a range of plant and animal species. and recreation led to some deforestation and the expansion of grasslands and scrublands.D. Western Polynesia and Western Micronesia. rather than elimination. * indicates that. some 40. Thaman/Elevitch/Wilkinson Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands . and as recently as 1. successive waves of new Pacific Islanders voyaging to the islands. and probably Solomon Islands. because different island groups were settled at different times.D. rather than eroded. During this period of low population densities. Addition. onwards Development Notes: B. – late 20th Century** Post-World War II Agroforestry Enrichment late 1940s . plants. ** the colonial period varies in length. for different Pacific Island nations and territories Agriculturalization of the Forest With the first human settlement of the Pacific Islands. This period lasted for tens of thousands of years in Papua New Guinea. The use of fire for agricultural clearance. medicine. = years before present. there began the selective modification of natural forests. Existing multi-species systems were enriched. This led to the introduction of new trees. settlement of new islands by existing islanders.000 – 1. During this era. These first settlers selectively cleared. of species and cultivars took place. protected.5 Table 2. Trees and other plants were used for construction.P. there was a period of indigenous agroforestry enrichment and deforestation. and other purposes.000 – 1000 B.P. Periods of the growth or change in Pacific Island agroforestry systems since the first colonization of the islands by indigenous Pacific Islanders.present and Accelerated Agrodeforestation 21st Century Agroforestry Re-enrichment and Multi-species Agroforestry 2000 A.

cocoa. the spread of treeless grasslands. Hibiscus tiliaceus with: taro. Particularly in the 20th Century until the end of World War II. the introduction of these new crops and animals enriched existing indigenous Pacific Island agroforestry systems. coffee. and a range of vegetables and fruits were also grown as minor export crops in some areas. On one hand.6 Figure 1. bananas. banana. there was very little emphasis on the promotion or the maintenance of existing MSA systems. Livestock schemes. and the destruction of valuable trees in and around existing agricultural lands (i. However. colonial governments actively promoted smalland large-scale monocultural export cropping and livestock grazing. coconut.). agrodeforestation).e. black pepper. sugarcane. plus the development of colonial towns. Extensive multi-species (polycultural) agricultural systems were replaced by more intensive single-species (monocultural) production of crops such as Colocasia taro and sweet potato. mainly involving beef cattle.. were widely promoted during the colonial era. sweet potatoes.agroforestry. and kava. Major export crops included coconut. However. and pineapple. Agricultural intensification began to take place. led to accelerated clearance of forest lands. insects. particularly indigenous smallholder farms. oil palm. the drive to encourage a narrow range of cash crops and livestock grazing. and other plants and animals that depended on trees and forests as habitats and sources of food. Colonial Agroforestry Enrichment and Agrodeforestation For most of the past 200 years. These losses occurred from the highlands of New Guinea to Hawaii and Easter Island in Eastern Polynesia.net . passion fruit. There was also the extinction of birds. tea. rubber. and increasing environmental degradation. Indigenous Pacific Island agroforestry system depicting breadfruit. the planting and protection of a wide range of useful multipurpose trees remained an integral component of these systems. yams (Dioscorea spp. Because export crops Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands www. Growing population also brought increasing deforestation and forest degradation. Cananga odorata. Inocarpus fagifer. Citrus trees.

mango. Hawaii. rather than replacing traditional crops and trees. Adopted species included tropical American crops. coconut palms. pineapple. some crops or cultivars and wild or cultivated trees lost importance relative to the new cash crops and pastures. food gardens (often gardens tended by women) were pushed farther from settlements and onto increasingly marginal lands. Urbanized Pacific Island populations now have some of the highest rates of nutritional disorders and nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases in the world. Tonga. capital cities.7 commonly occupied the best agricultural lands nearest settlements. and cassava. There was an expansion of monocultures of export crops such as coffee. Thaman/Elevitch/Wilkinson Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands . and began to disappear from the Pacific Island agricultural landscape. traditional agroforestry-based food systems have deteriorated. kava. and avocado. at the expense of the traditional systems. Pressures to plant cash crops and to promote monocultural plantation agriculture and forestry intensified. and pineapple. These species were integrated into and enriched existing systems. taro. the Cook Islands. Monocultures replaced coastal and inland forests and trees and food crops in many countries. and goats were integrated into many smallholder systems with limited disruption. and overseas metropolitan areas. Post-colonial/plantation agroforestry showing coconut with understory of coffee. During this period. and tamarind. such as cassava. sugarcane. Agricultural departments almost exclusively promoted export cropping. and increasing access to markets. bananas. horses. as well as other post-European contact introductions from Asia. pineapple. such as eggplant. onions. traditional agroforestry practices were actively discouraged while export cropping was encouraged. Forestry departments promoted the unsustainable felling of indigenous timber trees for export and local milling. At the same time. Figure 2. As a result. Post-World War II Agroforestry Enrichment and Accelerated Agrodeforestation World War II brought the Pacific Islands into greater contact with the outside world. and Kiribati). This led to increasing desire for consumer goods and cash incomes. animals. In some cases (including Fiji. Even cattle. most Pacific Islander agroforesters were able to selectively adopt plants. Links were also strengthened with main islands. or the planting of exotic plantation forests. and technologies that they saw as beneficial.

breadfruit. pineapple. Agroforestry Development: Seven Principles Of Traditional Pacific Island Agroforestry Systems Creating agroforestry systems in the 21st century requires an appreciation of the success of these systems. 18-20 joules of food energy were returned. cassava. and new crops and trees would add to.e. while at the same time minimizing the loss of the existing trees and agroforestry resources and knowledge. papaya. Instead. fertilizers. degrade or destroy the trees and forests that already exist in agricultural areas..net . 21st Century MSA The active promotion of MSA into the 21st Century may be the most economically. The emphasis of MSA is to ensure that additions or improvements maximize the existing plant resources and agroforestry practices as a foundation for sustainable development. and the ability to expand on their success for productive plantings to meet modern needs. new technologies. • Used only renewable resources as inputs—e. Middle story: banana. citrus.. as the older people passed away. Traditional Pacific Island MSA systems rested on seven principles that made their continuous operation possible over centuries or millennia. Figure 3. chili pepper. or other imports were required. tomato.e. and ecologically effective means of addressing the serious trends of deforestation and agrodeforestation. the systems: • Did not depend on external energy subsidies or extra-system nutrient sources—i. • Had strongly positive net energy yields—i. This would be in contrast to the monocultural models now often promoted (Clarke and Thaman 1993). avocado. ash as Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands www. no imported fuel. new sources of cash income. Modern/urban agroforest home garden. there occurred a widespread loss of traditional agroforestry knowledge among the younger generations. for every joule of energy invested.8 Formal schooling in agriculture and forestry ignored the traditional agroforestry systems and the importance of multipurpose trees. Lower story/ edge: taro. trees for fencing. Upper story: mango.. rather than replace. sugarcane. • Did not receive applications of poisonous agricultural chemicals or other pollutants. As stressed by Clarke (1977).agroforestry.g. culturally. Pacific spinach. As a result.

and wildlife habitat. land. The fresh toddy is an important nutritious beverage on atolls and the fermented toddy is a locally available alcoholic beverage. fronds. contain- Thaman/Elevitch/Wilkinson Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands . Multipurpose trees are favored in traditional agroforestry systems because of their ability to provide many different products.. The trunk. Examples of Three Pacific Island Multipurpose Trees To illustrate the concept of multipurpose trees. Coconut (Cocos nucifera) The timber is used for many purposes. and • Were based on a diversity of tree and nontree crops.9 fertilizer—rather than imported. some trees are especially valued for their many uses and products. increase economic security (by providing a continuous supply of both cash and subsistence products). which is an important export product from most island countries. Multipurpose Trees: Definition and Examples While all trees can be said to serve several purposes. Juice from inside the immature green nut is an important drink and source of safe drinking water on dry islands and in times of drought. soil protection. Such trees are called multipurpose trees. The roots are used for making fish traps. The shell is used to make drinking cups. and improve agricultural sustainability due to the relatively permanent nature of trees. improve the overall yields on a single piece of land. often nonrenewable. It is also dried and made into copra. wild plants. attempts were made to preserve for future generations a habitat and set of resources only slightly modified from what parents had themselves inherited. The sap from the flower stalk is used to make fresh and fermented toddy. such as shade. vegetation) were equitably spread throughout the community rather than being concentrated in the hands of a few or in urban areas. Greater detail for these trees and other important multipurpose trees is included in the tables below. They also learned to value the many ecological functions of trees and the services they provide. and the husk fiber is used to make sennit (cord) used for lashing canoes and houses and for other purposes. inputs such as inorganic fertilizers derived from phosphate deposits or fossil fuels that took millions of years to form. Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera) The flesh from the mature brown nut is a major staple food and animal food. • Contained resources that were looked upon as productive capital to be preserved—i. brief examples of the uses and products from three Pacific Island agroforestry trees are provided.e. shells. • Were structured so that the resources supporting agriculture (energy. and animals rather than on monocultures or specialized animal production. and husks are a major source of fuel. Pacific Island peoples discovered many ways to make efficient use of the different parts of useful trees.

As a result of its many uses. The inner bark is processed and used as fiber in dancing skirts and other handicrafts. The leaves are used as mulch and fertilizer. The sheath of flower stalk is used as a torch. and garlands. and other useful items. mulch. for wrapping food. The mango is also an important Hindu religious plant. but also the needs of the system as a whole for fertilizer. The leaves are used to flavor foods in earthen oven cooking. and is a religious plant of spiritual and ritual importance in many areas. The plants are assem- Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands www. Mango (Mangifera indica) The mango is planted as a windbreak and ornamental street tree. The wood is used in construction and for firewood. as toothpicks. shade. fans. food containers. an agroforest is not a mere mixed planting of species and cultivars. The green fruit is used to make Mango (Mangifera indica) pickles or achar by Indians in Fiji. animal food. and deserts. The leaves and fronds are used for weaving baskets. for making tools and as an important source of firewood. floor mats. and its leaves are used in Indian religious ceremonies. The tree also features in many Pacific Islands legends. The timber and branches are used in light construction and in boat building. and sprains. and salt spray. Hau (Hibiscus tiliaceus) The beach hibiscus is planted as living fencing and as a windbreak. charcoal. hats. Pacific Island Examples of Agroforestry Systems Traditional Pacific Island agroforests were developed and managed to meet not only people’s needs for food and other products. for stringing fish. and for other purposes. Almost all parts of the coconut palm are used medicinally. wind. particularly seafood. and the leaves and bark are used medicinally.agroforestry.10 ers. The leaves are also used medicinally to treat broken bones. chutneys. and ripe and green fruit are exported from some countries. and for straining kava and coconut Beach hibiscus (Hibiscus tiliaceus) cream. torn ligaments. The juice. and for lining and covering the earthen oven. fishhooks. the coconut palm is known as the Pacific Islands’ “tree of life. leis. and sold locally as a major source of income. and for shade and mulching in taro gardens.” Beach Hibiscus. The ripe fruit is eaten raw and used to make jam. The trees in the system also provide protection from erosion. puree. The midribs of leaflets are used in brooms. roofing for thatched houses. In other words.net .

animals (both vertebrates and invertebrates). Other valuable trees that are present in the fallow. and. This practice also ensures the continued availability the fish. and many other products. Breadfruit Polynesian plum (Spondias dulcis). crabs. shellfish.2 hectares) or less in size. such as breadfruit. and sometimes bananas and taro (Colocasia esculenta) are also planted in or around pits. as well as being the source of timber for house building. are protected to shelter the inland from salt spray. avocado. shrubs. and people form beneficial connections to support the system as a whole. of course. and many other products are available. When the land is prepared for a new garden. Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense). most shrubs. some of the fast-growing pioneer tree species. birds. medicine. The dried material is placed in piles for burning. Guettarda speciosa. Other culturally important trees. and the mangroves on the lagoon side. In this way. high waves. and grasses are cut and allowed to dry.11 bled in a system where the trees. and from coastal erosion. The pandanus is also a very important staple food plant on the atolls. and short-term ground crops. like koka Thaman/Elevitch/Wilkinson Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands . and the shrub Sida fallax (te kaura in Kiribati or ilima in Hawaii) are protected or planted to provide soil improvement and leaves or mulch (fertilizer) for the swamp taro (Cyrtosperma chamissonis) pits that have been excavated down to the water table. fibre for mat and basket making. native fig (Ficus tinctoria). replanting and re-enrichment of MSA development involves more than simply planting and protecting different kinds of species. citrus trees. slightly pruned to allow the sunlight to enter the garden area. thatch. are protected or. such as pandanus. in some cases. and other animals and small plants that depend on these forests and trees will be protected for future Pandanus species generations. Tongan Agroforestry Example In Tonga the multispecies agroforestry system is a very complex mixture of trees. Other multipurpose trees. mangoes. perfume tree (Artocarpus altilis) or ylang-ylang (Cananga odorata). Because of the many uses that the people of Kiribati have for the pandanus tree. are planted as a major cash and multipurpose crop. they have been referred to as the “Pandanus People.” Breadfruit. other plants. coconut palms. medicines. usually of a number of different varieties. Sometimes they are planted in rows and sometimes allowed to grow in irregular patterns. The coastal forest on both the ocean and lagoon sides of the garden area. extremely high tides. Examples from traditional Pacific Island MSA include: Kiribati Atoll Agroforestry Example Coconut palms. Tournefortia argentea. The protection of these forests and other trees also ensures that wood. It is usually practiced as a short-term shifting agriculture system on pieces of land averaging 8 acres (3. It involves creating connections between these species and the environment to form a sustainable agricultural system that will continue to provide many different products and services for many years. papaya.

when the yams are harvested. the women usually look after the paper mulberry. Pacific litchi (Pometia pinnata).agroforestry. The giant taro and taro that were planted with the yams are then harvested. and taro (Colocasia esculenta). and allows for fresh new branches to grow as the garden matures. the plantains continue to bear fruit.net . Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis). Along the borders. It allows the entry of sunlight needed by the first crop to be planted. and pandanus for weaving. Another crop. are planted in a few rows along the perimeter or along the roadside border of the allotment. The larger branches that have been cut from the trees are used as trellises (felei) over each yam mound. the lower felei trellises are much more appropriate than higher trellises on poles used elsewhere. Because Tonga has frequent tropical cyclones. cut back severely by cutting almost all of the branches off. sweet yams (Dioscorea esculenta) are often planted next to the fence posts. This practice does not kill the tree. and accomplishes a number of objectives. the cycle is extended for a further three to five years by planting kava (Piper methysticum). Finally. are often planted along the borders or fence lines of the garden. maululu (Glochidion ramiflorum). After the yams are harvested.12 (Bischofia javanica). timber trees. or bird-sown chili peppers (Capsicum frutescens) are protected in the garden. the yams are usually intercropped with rows of giant taro (Alocasia macrorrhiza). sweet potatoes are planted. usually cassava. a very important leafy green vegetable. so important for the making of tapa cloth. In some Ti (Cordyline terminalis) cases. is planted after sweet potato. (Aleurites moluccana) the fruit trees and other multipurpose trees Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands www. and are more easily weeded. in some cases. the branches make perfect firewood for the underground oven. such as Australian kauri (Agathis robusta) or West Indian mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla). Yams climbing off the hot volcanic soils on these trellises have higher yields. or paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera). Sugarcane or bush hibiscus spinach (Abelmoschus manihot). Sometimes. ascalonicum). The living fences are often candelnut tree (Aleurites moluccana). taro or tannia (Xanthosoma species) is planted as the next crop in the soft soil left over after the yam harvest. or sometimes as a small woodlot on part of the allotment. plantains (Musa cultivars). which is usually yams (Dioscorea alata). It also allows the leaves to fall providing organic material to the soil. are more disease free. After this crop is harvested. completing the three to four-year shifting agricultural cycle. beach hibiscus (Hibiscus tiliaceus) or coral tree (Erythrina variegata). In the garden. Sometimes new coconut palms are also planted as part of the cropping cycle to ensure that there will be young productive palms in the future. and toi (Alphitonia zizyphoides) are then pruned or. Whereas men plant most crops. As the garden is allowed to slowly return to fallow for four to up Candlenut to ten years. the important social beverage plant. Other shortterm crops such as green onions (Allium fistulosum and A. and corn (Zea mays) are often planted. The second crop of taro or tannia and the bananas remain. such as Casuarina equisetifolia or introduced species. after 7 to 9 months.

traditional MSA is actively practiced in many regions of the Pacific Islands. existing gardens. Other pioneer tree and shrub species that were cleared or cut down when the garden was prepared begin to grow again or recolonize the garden. ylang-ylang (Cananga odorata). The horses are grazed on limited areas of upland pasture. which are commonly used for garlands and fragrant flowers. and rehabilitate existing MSA systems or species to enhance their use and productivity 1 Field Surveys. and sweetsop (Annona muricata and A.500 years since the first arrival of people (Decker 1971). surrounded by a sea of modern single-species agriculture (such as sugarcane fields) or urban development. firewood. laevis). and kapok are also common in home gardens. They may also be a key source of plant materials for future plantings. The cultivated pandanus (Pandanus tectorius var. the common hibiscus (Hibiscus rosasinensis). Marquesan Agroforestry Example Village or home-garden agroforestry in the Marquesas Islands of French Polynesia is another example of MSA characterized by a great diversity of mainly exotic plants that have been introduced during the 1. Many of these plants have been added since European contact. and agroforests and communities to see what trees already successfully grow in a given area. Conduct in-the-field surveys of the local environment. squamosa). protect. or in abandoned areas such as in ravines in grasslands or near abandoned village sites. guava. however. avocado. and what trees are already known and Thaman/Elevitch/Wilkinson Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands . lime. are extensive stands of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala). and the hedge panax (Polyscias guilfoylei). Purpose: To identify. soursop. and the ubiquitous beach hibiscus tree (Hibiscus tiliaceus). These remaining trees or agroforestry systems are usually found in home gardens or on the farms of older or more traditional members of the community. so important in the production of plaited ware. These stands of trees provide the main source of lowland fodder for horses. Home gardens also include a wide variety of staple plants and important fruit trees. protected. mango. Ornamentals planted as hedges or along borders. and along with those trees that were protected. breadfruit. medicines. mango. In other areas. and the flame tree (Delonix regia). and other products. and their diet is supplemented by rotationally feeding on leucaena in the lowlands. include Gardenia taitensis. Immediately surrounding dwelling areas and in fallow places on the islands of Nukuhiva and Uapou. The trees also provide medicines. Common spreading ornamental shade trees include the raintree (Albizia saman). and other products of value to the Tongan people. The presence of these remaining trees and old plantings can provide important information about successful MSA systems. These existing systems can be identified. Restoring MSA Systems and Species As discussed in the examples above. and kapok (Ceiba pentandra) which are both very common. and tamarind. Sugarcane is also common. Sometimes the only evidence of traditional MSA may be individual species in the landscape or a home garden. again provide organic material and recycle nutrients in the garden. with albizia (Albizia lebbeck) also present in dwelling areas. which are highly useful and abundant draught animals in the Marquesas. which forms part of the backdrop of every village. papaya. MSA may only be found in limited areas.13 continue to provide food. and rehabilitated so they can continue to be productive and useful for the future. Dominant species include the important staple food trees coconut. These include banana cultivars.

that are damaging the tree? Are the trees in decline due to lack of maintenance such as pruning. Collect traditional knowledge from both men and women in local communities about the characteristics and use of different trees and their environmental requirements and pests or diseases. planted or re-introduced into a given area. perhaps the best way of finding out what trees will work best. Test species.agroforestry. associated trees. or fertilizing? Are there new pests. such as livestock. 8 Supplement/Enhance. grasses or weedy tree species that are inhibiting the productivity of the tree? Are there animals. the reasons for the loss of these trees. Are there competition problems from invading weeds. identify the priorities with respect to what trees should be protected. publicize them to the public. and possible actions that can be taken to protect or reestablish these trees. Create an inventory or listing of existing trees. timber. This is. Conduct the maintenance necessary to enhance productivity and remove threats. plants. such as seeds. 10Expand on Successes. Determine what existing species could provide for some current or future needs of the local community. rehabilitated. Severe agrodeforestation has probably occurred in these areas. weeding. 9 Trials. endangered. Share species and strategies with neighbors and the community. mulching. and the different mixtures of multipurpose species to see what works best. Identify species that can be added to enhance the existing system and improve its productivity. Perhaps some traditional plants can be added to the understory for garlands (leis) or other ornamental materials. firewood. animal feed. Also include an inventory of seedlings and planting materials that might be available for planting or transplanting. climatic changes. 4 Species Potential. In these areas. Based on the results of steps 1-–4. Is there some product that is currently being purchased that could be provided instead by this tree? Is there an important function this tree could serve on the farm? Could this tree be managed to provide a future economic product. locally extinct or in short supply. 2 Inventory.? (Use tables in this guide as an aid) 5 Prioritize. etc. new varieties. Identify the threats or constraints to the protection and planting/rehabilitation of these species or systems. handicrafts. It may be valuable to highlight a “target agroforestry system” that is appropriate for a given environmental setting or a given size of urban or rural piece of land. animals. usually to make room for industrial agriculture or urban development. 6 Identify Constraints. 3 Traditional Knowledge. Selecting Trees for New MSA Systems Some Pacific Island regions may have experienced a great reduction or even total loss of the MSA systems that thrived there in the past. etc. very few trees remain. etc. This should also include information about important local tree species or varieties that the people would like to see planted and protected and species or varieties that are now rare. and local knowledge of the effective species and systems for the area may also have been greatly reduced. diseases.14 culturally acceptable to the local community. that could affect the trees? 7 Implement.net . Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands www. their habitats. and uses or functions.

When possible. endangered. types of weeds. Rather. Products may include fruits. and situation is both interesting and challenging. 2 Site Assessment. For new plantings involving multipurpose trees. protecting food gardens from salt spray and storm waves. This can include an inventory or listing of existing trees. and site conditions. after steps 1–4 Thaman/Elevitch/Wilkinson Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands . these same trees should also receive the highest priority for protection. the internet. locally extinct or in short supply. the reasons for the loss of these trees. information about successful plantings of potential species from similar environments (e. windiness. and uses or functions. frequency of drought. the site conditions should be considered. 3 Inventory. local growers and farmers must select and test species and strategies in order to determine how to best develop MSA systems. on other Pacific Islands) should be gathered through literature reviews. Purpose: To create an MSA system in an area where traditional plantings and knowledge have been reduced or depleted The process of selecting appropriate multipurpose tree species for a specific need. the goal in the selection process is not to narrow down the choices to one idealized “perfect” tree. perhaps the best way to find out what trees will work best. consultation with appropriate persons or from other sources of information (see Resources and Recommended Reading) 5 Potential Species.. goals. providing materials for handicrafts for social occasions. They should also talk to the few remaining men and women in the local community who still have knowledge about the trees and traditional systems that may have been important in the past. animals. As stressed above. or what trees are already known and culturally acceptable to the local community. there are several general steps that could be followed to select and properly manage the trees that can best satisfy the local needs. social. firewood. timber. nuts. pests. and exposure to salt spray. Third.g. and possible actions that can be taken to protect or re-establish these trees should be taken into account. handicrafts. associated trees. plants. nature of ground water resources. is the need for in-the-field surveys of the local environment and communities to see what trees already successfully grow in a given area. soil conditions.. medicines. the goal is to choose a diversity of tree species whose products. temperature. stopping soil erosion. such as providing animal shelter. This is. Services from trees include the kinds of connections that can be formed between the trees and the other elements of the system. and other environmental factors. Next. 4 Research. animal fodder. Species or varieties that are now rare. The first step is to determine the products or services that are desired from the trees.15 In such cases. and economic needs of the family or local community. garlands. and other economic or farm products. improving soil. functions. distance to the sea. as these will affect the growth of the trees. or other food products. After this information is obtained (i. It should also include information about important local tree species or varieties that the people would like to see planted and protected. and tropical cyclones (hurricanes or typhoons). tools. For MSA. before agrodeforestation took place. This should include the collection of traditional knowledge of local communities about the characteristics and use of different trees and their environmental requirements. site. their habitats. and diseases (including wild or feral animals).e. etc. and perhaps most important. and seasons may overlap to provide a range of products and services that satisfy the environmental. Site conditions include rainfall. 1 Determine Needs.

etc. Often.) 6 Species Trials.16 are completed). Once lost. a farmer will need to obtain the planting materials. costs. a few promising new species can be trialed on a small scale for a year or more. thus. better adapted to local site conditions. Planning for the Future: A Note on Genetic Diversity After selecting the tree species that are most promising. Tree species need a wide. Once it is compiled. However. while remaining resistant to environmental stresses. and better suited to achieve the results planned for the project. By utilizing the highest quality selected seed and planting materials. breadfruit. important that MSA projects include efforts to improve the gene pool by propagating seed from carefully selected trees. A Note on Potentially Invasive Species Ideally. the farmer or local community can then choose which of these species have the most potential for a given situation. For example. The genetic quality of tree seed used in plantings is a major factor in the economic success and productivity of a project. Finally.net . and by planting more than one variety or genetic type of a given species. much genetic diversity has been lost through deforestation and agrodeforestation. and by ensuring that a wide range of genetic types or cultivars are planted. Modern agriculture and forestry development have overemphasized the planting of monocultures of a single variety of food or timber tree. local experience. hundreds of forestry and agroforestry tree species have suffered severe genetic loss. bananas. rigorous. pandanus. in some Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands www. The most successful species from these trials can be distributed. It is important to work toward selecting trees and planting materials that will preserve genetic diversity. Alternatively. sold or outplanted to individual farms or appropriate sites. a preliminary list of potential tree species candidates should be prepared. The short and long term impacts of genetic seed quality. these varieties can probably never be developed again. seedlings or small trees. This may involve the purchase or local collection of seeds. and have long been part of the island environment. important traditional varieties have been lost for many species.agroforestry. It is. if desired. and plantains. As a result. It is impossible to know how many named varieties of traditional agroforestry tree species have been lost over the past century. a temporary or permanent local nursery can be established for the propagation of selected tree species. people can begin to reverse the trends of genetic degradation while improving the productivity and health of our plantings. This initial list may be quite long. such as coconuts. genetically diverse base if the species is to thrive and be valuable to future generations. (Use enclosed tables as an aid. Projects should contain enough diversity of mother trees to reproduce healthy and productive offspring for future generations. and the identification of different cultivars or genetic types requires careful consideration and planning when Koa (Acacia koa) collecting or purchasing seeds. High quality seed may produce plants that are more productive. Unfortunately. species chosen for agroforestry plantings are of traditional importance in the region. the list can be narrowed down significantly based on local availability of the planting materials.

4 = very important in some countries. It should be noted that some of these species may be native or indigenous to a number of Pacific Islands. 1 = suited for this purpose. or offer considerable potential for enriching agroforestry systems in the Pacific Islands. as indicated by blank areas. These agroforestry species may offer the greatest potential to provide a foundation for the promotion of MSA in most Pacific Islands. Information on multiple uses was compiled from throughout the Pacific in order to provide the reader with details about products or functions available from the species. The species table below has a category that denotes if a species is known to be weedy or to have naturalized. cultural. Thaman/Elevitch/Wilkinson Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands . All of these species either remain of economic. includes under-utilized. Products/Use Table Important products and uses of selected agroforestry species found in Pacific Island land use systems 5 = very important throughout most island countries. When considering new species. In these cases.The 130 species detailed in the tables below have been selected out of more than 500 species that are found in MSA systems in the Pacific Islands. and ecological importance in Pacific Island rural and urban agroforestry systems. it is recommended to research and monitor the potential invasiveness of the plant. but may not yet be present or tested in other regions. 2 = minor importance in some countries. the environmental data such as elevation and rainfall should be used only as a general guide. 3 = important in some island countries or of minor importance in a number of island countries. or no information available. for increased planting in some areas of the Pacific Islands. great care must be taken not to introduce a species that may be invasive or potentially weedy. Important Agroforestry Species The following species tables compile information on agroforestry species that are used in the Pacific Islands. or of some importance in many island countries.17 situations a newer species may be considered. Because of the diverse climates and soil types found in the Pacific Islands. Some of the information in the table is incomplete. new or unrecognized species blank space = of no current importance in any islands for a given use or environmental service. offering potential. There are undoubtedly other trees not described here that can also improve existing systems.

widespread.agroforestry. 2 = minor importance. 3 = important. 5 = very important. blank = no importance or information unavailable 18 www.Species 3 2 4 4 2 2 1 3 2 2 4 2 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 4 2 2 3 2 2 4 2 5 5 3 3 2 1 2 3 1 4 5 5 2 3 3 1 1 2 2 1 2 3 2 4 4 3 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 3 4 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 4 3 2 2 4 5 3 2 2 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 3 3 2 3 4 2 2 2 3 4 4 1 2 2 2 4 2 3 2 2 4 2 2 3 1 1 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 3 3 1 1 4 4 3 3 1 1 2 3 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 4 2 3 3 3 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 4 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 1 1 1 4 3 2 3 2 3 2 2 4 4 2 2 1 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 4 4 2 1 3 3 2 1 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 4 4 3 1 1 1 1 4 2 1 1 3 2 2 3 1 2 2 2 2 3 2 4 3 2 3 2 1 1 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 4 3 2 1 1 1 2 2 3 1 1 2 2 3 4 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 2 1 1 4 3 3 4 4 1 = potential. Host Plant/Trellising Fencing/Hedges/Boundary Reforestation/Agroforestation Planted Ornamental Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands Multipurpose Species Pacific Island Uses . underutilized. 4 = very important some areas.net Acacia auriculiformis Acacia koa Acacia koaia Acacia mangium Adenanthera pavonina Agathis macrophylla Agathis robusta Agathis vitiensis Albizia lebbeck Albizia saman Aleurites moluccana Alphitonia zizyphoides Anacardium occidentale Annona muricata Annona squamosa Araucaria cunninghamii Araucaria heterophylla Areca catechu Artocarpus altilis Artocarpus heterophyllus Averrhoa carambola Azadirachta indica Bambusa vulgaris Barringtonia asiatica Barringtonia edulis Bischofia javanica Broussonetia papyrifera Export Cash Crop Local Cash Crop Staple Food Fruit/Nut Home Garden Leaf Vegetable Beverage/Drink/Tea Fragrant/Beautiful Flowers Flavoring/Spice Stimulant/Masticant Medicinal Domestic Animal Fodder Wild Animal/Bird Food Bee Forage Fish/Marine Food Chain Organic Matter/Mulch Wood/Timber Fuel Wood Fallow Improvement/Pioneer Nitrogen fixation Windbreak Shade Erosion Control Coastal Protection Protection from Salt-spray Animal Habitat Woodcarving/Tools/Weapons Canoe/Boat/Raft Making Fishing Equipment Fibre/Weaving/Clothing Rope/Cordage/String Wrapping/Parcelization Thatch/Roofing/Mats Body Ornamentation/Garlands Resin/Gum/Glue/Latex Tannin/Dye Toxin/Insecticide/Fish Poison Cosmetic/Soap/Perfume Oil/Lubricant Illumination/Torches Ceremonial/Religious Import.

5 = very important./harveyi Carica papaya Cassia fistula Cassia grandis Cassia javanica Casuarina equisetifolia Ceiba pentandra Chrysophyllum cainito Citrus aurantifolia Citrus aurantium Citrus hystrix Citrus limon Citrus maxima Citrus mitis Citrus paradisi Citrus reticulata Citrus sinensis Cocos nucifera Cordia subcordata Dodonea viscosa Delonix regia Dracontomelon vitiense Export Cash Crop Local Cash Crop Staple Food Fruit/Nut Home Garden Leaf Vegetable Beverage/Drink/Tea Fragrant/Beautiful Flowers Flavoring/Spice Stimulant/Masticant Medicinal Domestic Animal Fodder Wild Animal/Bird Food Bee Forage Fish/Marine Food Chain Organic Matter/Mulch Wood/Timber Fuel Wood Fallow Improvement/Pioneer Nitrogen fixation Windbreak Shade Erosion Control Coastal Protection Protection from Salt-spray Animal Habitat Woodcarving/Tools/Weapons Canoe/Boat/Raft Making Fishing Equipment Fibre/Weaving/Clothing Rope/Cordage/String Wrapping/Parcelization Thatch/Roofing/Mats Body Ornamentation/Garlands Resin/Gum/Glue/Latex Tannin/Dye Toxin/Insecticide/Fish Poison Cosmetic/Soap/Perfume Oil/Lubricant Illumination/Torches Ceremonial/Religious Import. 4 = very important some areas. widespread.Species 2 1 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 3 3 2 4 2 3 5 5 5 1 2 4 1 3 2 2 2 3 2 4 1 3 2 2 2 3 2 5 3 5 5 5 5 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 4 3 4 3 3 2 3 5 5 5 3 3 4 4 2 2 3 5 5 3 3 3 1 2 4 4 3 3 1 2 2 3 3 2 5 2 5 5 3 2 3 3 2 1 3 3 2 2 2 4 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 3 2 3 1 1 2 3 5 5 4 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 5 3 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 4 3 4 2 4 1 2 2 2 5 5 4 3 2 1 2 2 3 4 3 5 5 3 4 4 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 3 3 3 4 2 1 2 2 2 2 4 3 2 3 3 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 2 1 4 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 5 5 4 5 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 1 4 2 2 2 5 2 3 2 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 5 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 5 3 3 4 3 3 5 5 5 5 3 3 3 3 5 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 5 4 4 2 2 2 4 5 3 2 2 2 2 5 1 1 = potential. blank = no importance or information unavailable 19 Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Calliandra calothyrsus Calophyllum inophyllum Cananga odorata Canarium indicum Canarium spp. Host Plant/Trellising Fencing/Hedges/Boundary Reforestation/Agroforestation Planted Ornamental Thaman/Elevitch/Wilkinson Multipurpose Species Pacific Island Uses (continued) . 3 = important. underutilized. 2 = minor importance.

2 = minor importance. 3 = important. 5 = very important. underutilized. Gnetum gnemon Guettarda speciosa Gyrocarpus americanus Hernandia nymphaeifolia Hibiscus tiliaceus Inga edulis Inocarpus fagifer Intsia bijuga Kleinhovia hospita Leucaena leucocephala Litchi chinensis Lumnitzera littorea Macadamia integrifolia Export Cash Crop Local Cash Crop Staple Food Fruit/Nut Home Garden Leaf Vegetable Beverage/Drink/Tea Fragrant/Beautiful Flowers Flavoring/Spice Stimulant/Masticant Medicinal Domestic Animal Fodder Wild Animal/Bird Food Bee Forage Fish/Marine Food Chain Organic Matter/Mulch Wood/Timber Fuel Wood Fallow Improvement/Pioneer Nitrogen fixation Windbreak Shade Erosion Control Coastal Protection Protection from Salt-spray Animal Habitat Woodcarving/Tools/Weapons Canoe/Boat/Raft Making Fishing Equipment Fibre/Weaving/Clothing Rope/Cordage/String Wrapping/Parcelization Thatch/Roofing/Mats Body Ornamentation/Garlands Resin/Gum/Glue/Latex Tannin/Dye Toxin/Insecticide/Fish Poison Cosmetic/Soap/Perfume Oil/Lubricant Illumination/Torches Ceremonial/Religious Import. 4 = very important some areas.agroforestry.net Erythrina variegata Erythrina subumbrans Eucalyptus citriodora Eucalyptus deglupta Eucalyptus saligna Eucalyptus tereticornis Fagraea berteriana Ficus bengalensis Ficus benjamina Ficus carica Ficus tinctoria Flueggea flexuosa Gliricidia sepium Glochidion ramiflorum/spp.Species 2 1 2 2 2 3 1 2 2 2 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 4 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 4 2 2 3 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 2 2 3 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 4 4 3 2 2 4 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 2 2 3 2 1 2 2 1 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 1 3 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 4 1 3 4 3 3 3 2 3 4 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 4 1 4 3 3 4 4 3 2 2 2 3 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 4 3 3 2 2 2 1 3 4 3 2 3 2 2 2 4 2 4 1 4 3 4 3 2 3 4 3 4 1 3 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 3 2 3 2 3 1 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 2 2 3 4 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 2 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 4 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 2 2 1 1 4 3 3 2 2 5 2 3 2 2 4 4 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 1 2 2 2 1 = potential. Host Plant/Trellising Fencing/Hedges/Boundary Reforestation/Agroforestation Planted Ornamental Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands Multipurpose Species Pacific Island Uses (continued) . blank = no importance or information unavailable 20 www. widespread.

Neisosperma oppositifolium Pandanus dubius Pandanus tectorius Pandanus cultivars Paraserianthes falcataria Pemphis acidula Persea americana Pimenta racemosa Pinus caribaea Piper methysticum Pipturus argenteus Pisonia grandis Pithecellobium dulce Plumeria obtusa Plumeria rubra Polyscias spp. Morinda citrifolia Moringa oleifera Musa spp. 2 = minor importance. Mangifera indica Melia azedarach Metroxylon spp.Species 3 3 4 4 4 1 3 3 3 2 2 4 5 2 3 3 3 2 3 4 3 3 4 4 3 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 4 4 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 5 5 5 2 3 3 3 4 5 4 4 2 4 5 2 1 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 1 2 2 2 1 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 1 2 1 2 3 5 4 1 2 3 5 5 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 4 4 3 4 2 2 5 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 4 5 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 4 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 4 4 4 3 2 4 3 2 3 4 3 2 3 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 2 1 1 4 3 2 3 2 2 2 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 2 5 4 4 4 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 4 2 1 3 3 3 1 1 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 3 3 2 2 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 4 3 3 2 4 2 1 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 1 3 4 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 5 2 4 5 5 2 2 3 2 2 2 1 = potential. Host Plant/Trellising Fencing/Hedges/Boundary Reforestation/Agroforestation Planted Ornamental Thaman/Elevitch/Wilkinson Multipurpose Species Pacific Island Uses (continued) . widespread. Pometia pinnata Premna serratifolia Pritchardia pacifica Psidium guajava Export Cash Crop Local Cash Crop Staple Food Fruit/Nut Home Garden Leaf Vegetable Beverage/Drink/Tea Fragrant/Beautiful Flowers Flavoring/Spice Stimulant/Masticant Medicinal Domestic Animal Fodder Wild Animal/Bird Food Bee Forage Fish/Marine Food Chain Organic Matter/Mulch Wood/Timber Fuel Wood Fallow Improvement/Pioneer Nitrogen fixation Windbreak Shade Erosion Control Coastal Protection Protection from Salt-spray Animal Habitat Woodcarving/Tools/Weapons Canoe/Boat/Raft Making Fishing Equipment Fibre/Weaving/Clothing Rope/Cordage/String Wrapping/Parcelization Thatch/Roofing/Mats Body Ornamentation/Garlands Resin/Gum/Glue/Latex Tannin/Dye Toxin/Insecticide/Fish Poison Cosmetic/Soap/Perfume Oil/Lubricant Illumination/Torches Ceremonial/Religious Import. underutilized. 4 = very important some areas. 3 = important. blank = no importance or information unavailable 21 Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands Macaranga spp. 5 = very important.

Species 2 3 3 3 3 1 1 2 1 3 4 4 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 2 4 3 3 2 3 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 4 5 5 3 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 4 3 3 2 2 3 2 4 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 1 4 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 2 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 4 3 3 3 1 1 3 2 4 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 5 5 5 3 3 3 2 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 1 1 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 4 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 2 4 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 5 3 2 2 2 3 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 1 = potential. Senna alata Senna siamea Sesbania grandiflora Sesbania sesban Spathodea campanulata Spondias dulcis Swietenia macrophylla Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium malaccense Tamarindus indica Terminalia catappa Terminalia samoensis/littora Thespesia populnea Toona ciliata var. Host Plant/Trellising Fencing/Hedges/Boundary Reforestation/Agroforestation Planted Ornamental Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands Multipurpose Species Pacific Island Uses (continued) . Santalum spp. australis Tournefortia argentea Veitchia spp.agroforestry. Scaevola taccada Schizostachyum spp. 5 = very important.net Pterocarpus indicus Rhizophora spp. underutilized. 4 = very important some areas. 2 = minor importance. 3 = important. widespread. Vitex negundo/trifolia Export Cash Crop Local Cash Crop Staple Food Fruit/Nut Home Garden Leaf Vegetable Beverage/Drink/Tea Fragrant/Beautiful Flowers Flavoring/Spice Stimulant/Masticant Medicinal Domestic Animal Fodder Wild Animal/Bird Food Bee Forage Fish/Marine Food Chain Organic Matter/Mulch Wood/Timber Fuel Wood Fallow Improvement/Pioneer Nitrogen fixation Windbreak Shade Erosion Control Coastal Protection Protection from Salt-spray Animal Habitat Woodcarving/Tools/Weapons Canoe/Boat/Raft Making Fishing Equipment Fibre/Weaving/Clothing Rope/Cordage/String Wrapping/Parcelization Thatch/Roofing/Mats Body Ornamentation/Garlands Resin/Gum/Glue/Latex Tannin/Dye Toxin/Insecticide/Fish Poison Cosmetic/Soap/Perfume Oil/Lubricant Illumination/Torches Ceremonial/Religious Import. blank = no importance or information unavailable 22 www.

R S S S C Weediness/Invasiveness Height at Maturity (meters) 0–400 m 600–2000 m 300–1500 m 0–700 m 0–400 m 50–550 m 0–900 m 0–1150 m 0–1500 m 0–1000 m 0–2500 m 0–300 m 0–500 m 0–1000 m 0–1000 m 0–1500 m 0–1500 m 0–800 m 0–800 m 400–1000 m 0–700 m 0–1500 m 0–1000 m 0–20 m 0–400 m 0–900 m 0–1500 m Growth Rate northern black wattle koa koaia mangium. >40 inches. SH. >20 inches. SH H. SH. A H. >68°F) U = Upland ( >1000 mm rainfall. SH U U H H H U H H. SH. C H. kauri pine Queensland kauri Fiji kauri albizia. U H.C. SH. SH H. sweetsop hoop pine.G S.3 meters) yes no no 2-3 H = Humid tropics ( >1000 mm rainfall. often problematic P =Potentially weedy. Moreton Bay pine Norfolk Island pine betel-nut. jackfruit carambola.G S.5+ meters (5+ ft) per year Height at Maturity no in meters (1 foot = 0. >20 C° mean temp.. A H.. SH H.3 meters) Potential Invasiveness yes 3-4 3-4 2-4 no 1-2 P 3-6 3-6 yes no P W = Weedy or extremely invasive in some areas. SH.C.H.75 meters (2 ft) per year M = Medium. SH H. >68°F) A = Arid/semi-arid ( <500 mm rainfall. A H. betel-nut palm breadfruit jakfruit. SH H. naturalized in some areas. 0.G S S.75-1. <20 inches. brown salwood red bead tree kauri.5 meters (2–5 ft) per year F =Fast. less than 0. <20 C° mean temp.. SH C H H. >20 C° mean temp. >20 C° mean temp. SH H.V S. star fruit neem common bamboo fish-poison tree cut nut. SH H. <68°F) C = Coastal Means of Propagation S = Seeds C = Cuttings G = Grafting A = Air layering B = Budding V = suckers R = Root cutting Growth Rate P yes 4-6 P 2-4 P 3-6 P 3-6 P 3-5 P S = Slow growth rate. U H. SH.G S. A H.C S S S S S S S S. 1. siris tree rain tree. katnut Java cedar paper mulberry in meters (1 foot = 0. monkeypod candlenut toi cashew soursop sugarapple. >68°F) SH = sub-humid ( >500 mm rainfall.R.C S S.. U 7 P no 3-4 5-8 P 1-2 P 3-4 Climatic Zones Waterlogging Tolerance 20–30 m 20–40 m 3–5 m 15–30 m 20–30 m 30–40 m 20–35 m 25–33 m 25–30 m 20–35 m 20–30 m 20–30 m 10–12 m 5–7 m 3–10 m 40–50 m 20–40 m 10–25 m 20–30 m 30–40 m 10–15 m 20–30 m 10–20 m 15–25 m 10–25 m 20–30 m 5–15 m Drought Tolerance (months) F F S F F M S M M M M M S S S M M M S M S F F M M M M Salt Tolerance S S S S S S S. SH. SH H. >40 inches. but rarely causing problems no no yes yes or no Drought tolerance in months yes 3-4 Salt tolerance Waterlogging tolerance yes or no blank information unavailable 23 Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands Acacia auriculiformis Acacia koa Acacia koaia Acacia mangium Adenanthera pavonina Agathis macrophylla Agathis robusta Agathis vitiensis Albizia lebbeck Albizia saman Aleurites moluccana Alphitonia zizyphoides Anacardium occidentale Annona muricata Annona squamosa Araucaria cunninghamii Araucaria heterophylla Areca catechu Artocarpus altilis Artocarpus heterophyllus Averrhoa carambola Azadirachta indica Bambusa vulgaris Barringtonia asiatica Barringtonia edulis Bischofia javanica Broussonetia papyrifera Common Names Means of Propagation Species Climatic Zones Elevation Elevation (meters) Thaman/Elevitch/Wilkinson Multipurpose Species Characteristics and Tolerances .

rough lemon lemon pummelo.A S S S. Sh S Drought Tolerance (months) C H. SH S. <20 C° mean temp. >20 C° mean temp.C S. West Indian lime sour orange. galip pili nut.. sweet orange coconut palm. but rarely causing problems 3-4 3-4 3-4 Salt tolerance yes 3-4 yes 3-4 yes yes or no Drought tolerance in months 6-12 Waterlogging tolerance yes or no blank information unavailable 24 www. Seville orange kaffir lime. SH H H. SH C H. pumelo tangerine. SH H.B S. SH H.B S. pomelo.B U S.5 m 10–15 m 5–10 m 6–15 m 10–20 m 10 m 2–8 m 15 m 10–20 m Weediness/Invasiveness M F S F S S F M M M F M M S S M S S S S S S M M M S M Waterlogging Tolerance S S S S S S S S S S S S. SH Height at Maturity (meters) 0m 0–1500 m 0–100 m 0–800 m 0–600 m 0–600 m 0–1000 m 0–1000 m 0–1000 m 0–1000 m 0–1500 m 0–500 m 0–400 m 0–1800 m 0–1800 m 0–1500 m 0–2000 m 0–800 m 0–1000 m 0–800 m 0–1000 m 200–1000 m 0–800 m 0–300 m 0–1100 m 0–500 m 0–300 m Growth Rate Oriental mangrove calliandra portia tree ylang-ylang. SH H.A. <20 inches. canarium almond papaya.5+ meters (5+ ft) per year Height at Maturity no in meters (1 foot = 0. mandarin orange orange. coconut beach cordia. U H. >20 C° mean temp.G S.5 meters (2–5 ft) per year F =Fast.A. A. SH.75 meters (2 ft) per year M = Medium. C H. >68°F) U = Upland ( >1000 mm rainfall.3 meters) Climatic Zones yes P P H = Humid tropics ( >1000 mm rainfall. less than 0.Salt Tolerance 15–20 m 6–10 m 20–25 m 10–20 m 40 m 15–25 m 4–6 m 10–20 m 15–20 m 15–25 m 25–30 m 30–50 m 25–30 m 4–5 m 10 m 12 m 3–6 m 5–10 m 2–7. >68°F) A = Arid/semi-arid ( <500 mm rainfall.3 meters) Potential Invasiveness W = Weedy or extremely invasive in some areas. royal poinciana 3-4 yes no 4-6 no yes P in meters (1 foot = 0. silk-cotton tree caimito. SH H. >40 inches. perfume tree red canarium. >40 inches. SH H. SH.B S. shaddock calamondin grapefruit.agroforestry. A.. starapple lime. <68°F) C = Coastal Means of Propagation S = Seeds C = Cuttings G = Grafting A = Air layering B = Budding V = suckers R = Root cutting Growth Rate W yes 4-6 4-6 3-4 no S = Slow growth rate.. pawpaw golden shower tree pink shower tree pink and white shower tree ironwood.. U H. SH. SH H. SH. SH H.B H.net Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Calliandra calothyrsus Calophyllum inophyllum Cananga odorata Canarium indicum Canarium spp. U H. >68°F) SH = sub-humid ( >500 mm rainfall. H S C. SH. >20 inches. 1. H S SH S H. she oak kapok tree.C.B C. sea trumpet native hop bush poinciana.75-1.A. >20 C° mean temp. naturalized in some areas. 0. SH./harveyi Carica papaya Cassia fistula Cassia grandis Cassia javanica Casuarina equisetifolia Ceiba pentandra Chrysophyllum cainito Citrus aurantifolia Citrus aurantium Citrus hystrix Citrus limon Citrus maxima Citrus mitis Citrus paradisi Citrus reticulata Citrus sinensis Cocos nucifera Cordia subcordata Dodonea viscosa Delonix regia Dracontomelon vitiense Common Names Means of Propagation Species Climatic Zones Elevation Elevation (meters) Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands Multipurpose Species Characteristics and Tolerances (continued) . U H. often problematic P =Potentially weedy.A. C S H. SH H.

A H. >68°F) A = Arid/semi-arid ( <500 mm rainfall. SH H. SH H. C H H. <20 inches. SH H C H. >20 C° mean temp. 1.75 meters (2 ft) per year M = Medium. Gnetum gnemon Guettarda speciosa Gyrocarpus americanus Hernandia nymphaeifolia Hibiscus tiliaceus Inga edulis Inocarpus fagifer Intsia bijuga Kleinhovia hospita Leucaena leucocephala Litchi chinensis Lumnitzera littorea Macadamia integrifolia Common Names Means of Propagation Species Climatic Zones Elevation Elevation (meters) Thaman/Elevitch/Wilkinson Multipurpose Species Characteristics and Tolerances (continued) .C S.5+ meters (5+ ft) per year Height at Maturity in meters (1 foot = 0. naturalized in some areas..lemon-scented gum Mindanao gum flooded gum forest red gum pua tree banyan. SH H H. SH. 0.C S S S S S C S S S S S.G Height at Maturity (meters) Growth Rate coral tree.C S S S S S S S S S. SH C H. >68°F) U = Upland ( >1000 mm rainfall. SH 15–20 m 5-7 10–20 m 15–20 m 30–50 m 2-3 40–55 m 30–50 m yes 3-5 5–20 m 15–20 m yes 10–15 m yes 5–10 m yes 15–20 m yes 3–10 m 10 m P yes 6-8 2–15 m 5–15 m 5–20 m yes 15–25 m yes 15–20 m yes 4–10 m yes 3-4 20–30 m 3-4 15–25 m yes 30–50 m yes 10–15 m 3–10 m W 6-8 20–30 m 2-4 5–10 m yes 15–18 m 3-4 Climatic Zones Waterlogging Tolerance Drought Tolerance (months) Salt Tolerance F F F F F F S F F M M F F M M S M M M F S S F F S S S Weediness/Invasiveness S. <68°F) C = Coastal Means of Propagation S = Seeds C = Cuttings G = Grafting A = Air layering B = Budding V = suckers R = Root cutting Growth Rate yes S = Slow growth rate. SH H U SH. piku.A S S. ice cream bean Tahitian chestnut ipil. lychee Macadamia nut 0–1000 m 0–200 m 0–200 m 0–1200 m 500–2000 m 0–800 m 0–900 m 0–1000 m 0–700 m 300–1800 m 1–500 m 5–350 m 0–800 m 0–1350 m 30–850 m 0–10 m 1–300 m 1–20 m 1–800 m 0–1500 m 1–400 m 0–600 m 10–100 m 0–1000 m 100–1000 m 0m 100–1000 m H. SH.3 meters) Potential Invasiveness yes yes yes W = Weedy or extremely invasive in some areas. >20 C° mean temp. C. island teak kleinhovia. guest tree leucaena. SH SH. >40 inches. Benjamin tree fig.C C S S. A H. Indian coral tree in meters (1 foot = 0. U H. SH H. less than 0. >20 inches. fiku Dyer's fig gliricidia. A H. <20 C° mean temp. often problematic P =Potentially weedy. SH. Indian banyan weeping fig.. but rarely causing problems Salt tolerance yes or no Drought tolerance in months Waterlogging tolerance yes or no blank information unavailable 25 Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands Erythrina variegata Erythrina subumbrans Eucalyptus citriodora Eucalyptus deglupta Eucalyptus saligna Eucalyptus tereticornis Fagraea berteriana Ficus bengalensis Ficus benjamina Ficus carica Ficus tinctoria Flueggea flexuosa Gliricidia sepium Glochidion ramiflorum/spp. C C.. SH H. SH H. madre de cacao gnetum.75-1. >20 C° mean temp. >68°F) SH = sub-humid ( >500 mm rainfall. H H.3 meters) yes yes no yes yes H = Humid tropics ( >1000 mm rainfall. C C C. SH. wild tamarind litchi.5 meters (2–5 ft) per year F =Fast. >40 inches. Borneo teak. H.. joint fir guettarda lantern tree beach hibiscus tree inga.

SH H. U H. 0. SH.net Macaranga spp. SH.S S S. SH H. >40 inches. Pometia pinnata Premna serratifolia Pritchardia pacifica Psidium guajava Common Names Means of Propagation Species Climatic Zones Elevation Elevation (meters) Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands Multipurpose Species Characteristics and Tolerances (continued) . SH. SH H. SH C H. A H. SH H. SH H. SH H. >20 C° mean temp. SH.75 meters (2 ft) per year M = Medium. C H. C A.S S S S. A H C..G S S S S. pride of India sago palm.pisonia. A.. SH. <20 inches.3 meters) yes yes yes 4-6 6-8 2-3 yes yes yes W yes Means of Propagation S = Seeds C = Cuttings G = Grafting A = Air layering B = Budding V = suckers R = Root cutting Growth Rate yes yes 2-3 yes H = Humid tropics ( >1000 mm rainfall.5 meters (2–5 ft) per year F =Fast. Mangifera indica Melia azedarach Metroxylon spp. <20 C° mean temp. less than 0.5+ meters (5+ ft) per year Height at Maturity in meters (1 foot = 0. plumeria panax.75-1. >40 inches. >20 inches.. C H. C H.B. SH H. hedge panax Oceanic lychee Fiji fan palm. often problematic P =Potentially weedy. sweet inga evergreen frangipani frangipani. >20 C° mean temp.S C.C V S C. SH Weediness/Invasiveness Height at Maturity (meters) screw pine pandanus. C. ivory-nut palm Indian mulberry horseradish tree banana in meters (1 foot = 0. but rarely causing problems yes yes W yes 4-6 yes 6-9 yes 6-9 Salt tolerance yes or no Drought tolerance in months yes Waterlogging tolerance yes or no W 4-6 yes blank information unavailable 26 www. Morinda citrifolia Moringa oleifera Musa spp.A.B Salt Tolerance H. naturalized in some areas. >68°F) A = Arid/semi-arid ( <500 mm rainfall. SH H H. C H. >68°F) U = Upland ( >1000 mm rainfall.G S S C S C S C C C S C. white albizia pemphis avocado bay-rum tree Caribbean pine kava.. SH H H.S C. Pacific fan palm guava 10–15 m 15–45 m 10–20 m 10–15 m 3–5 m 10–12 m 2–9 m 10–15 m 5–10 m 5–15 m 2–10 m 20–30 m 2–6 m 10–20 m 5–12 m 30–40 m 2–3 m 2–6 m 10–20 m 5–22 m 5–8 m 5–8 m 2–4 m 25–40 m 4–7 m 10–12 m 5–10 m 4-6 4-6 P Climatic Zones Waterlogging Tolerance F S M S S M F M M M M F S M M M S M M M M M F S M S M Drought Tolerance (months) S S.3 meters) P P Potential Invasiveness W = Weedy or extremely invasive in some areas. >20 C° mean temp. SH. <68°F) C = Coastal 2-3 yes no 3-4 yes S = Slow growth rate.agroforestry. 1. A H. >68°F) SH = sub-humid ( >500 mm rainfall. screw pine screw pine cultivars albizia. SH H. kava root 3–500 m 0–1000 m 0–1000 m 0–200 m 0–600 m 0–1200 m 0–1200 m 0–50 m 0–50 m 0–400 m 0–1500 m 0–120 m 0–10 m 0–1000 m 0–200 m 0–700 m 0–700 m 0–1000 m 0–300 m 0–1600 m 0–700 m 0–700 m 0–800 m 0–500 m 0–400 m 1–200 m 0–1500 m Growth Rate macaranga mango Chinaberry. U C H. SH.B. Neisosperma oppositifolium Pandanus dubius Pandanus tectorius Pandanus cultivars Paraserianthes falcataria Pemphis acidula Persea americana Pimenta racemosa Pinus caribaea Piper methysticum Pipturus argenteus Pisonia grandis Pithecellobium dulce Plumeria obtusa Plumeria rubra Polyscias spp. lettuce tree Manila tamarind.

C S S. >20 C° mean temp. aboriginal bamboo Growth Rate Pterocarpus indicus Rhizophora spp. Scaevola taccada Schizostachyum spp. saltbrush bamboo. New Guinea rosewood red mangrove sandalwood scaevola. SH.3 meters) yes no yes yes yes P yes 4-6 P yes 6-8 P yes 4-6 W 3-4 3-4 P P 4-6 3-4 yes no yes yes yes yes H = Humid tropics ( >1000 mm rainfall. H. less than 0.75-1. SH C C.75 meters (2 ft) per year M = Medium. SH H. SH H. SH H.C Weediness/Invasiveness Height at Maturity (meters) narra.A. pheasantwood sesbania. 0.C S S. SH C. >68°F) U = Upland ( >1000 mm rainfall.A.3 meters) 4-8 yes 2-3 yes yes 6-8 yes no Potential Invasiveness yes no W = Weedy or extremely invasive in some areas. Vitex negundo/trifolia Means of Propagation Common Names in meters (1 foot = 0. SH. >40 inches. U C H. >68°F) SH = sub-humid ( >500 mm rainfall. Senna alata Senna siamea Sesbania grandiflora Sesbania sesban Spathodea campanulata Spondias dulcis Swietenia macrophylla Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium malaccense Tamarindus indica Terminalia catappa Terminalia samoensis/littoralis Thespesia populnea Toona ciliata var. SH H. often problematic P =Potentially weedy. SH H. mountain apple tamarind tropical almond tropical almond Pacific rosewood..5+ meters (5+ ft) per year Height at Maturity in meters (1 foot = 0. H. Santalum spp. joannis) vitex. Malabar plum Malay apple. Java plum rose apple. <20 C° mean temp. SH H. milo Australian red cedar beach heliotrope niusawa palm (V. 1.. naturalized in some areas. SH H.G S. <20 inches. corkwood tree sesban African tulip tree vi apple. blue vitex 0–500 m 0m 0–200 m 0–200 m 0–900 m 1–500 m 0–600 m 0–1000 m 0–1500 m 0–1200 m 0–700 m 0–1500 m 0–600 m 0–1200 m 0–600 m 0–1000 m 0–300 m 0–10 m 0–600 m 0–2000 m 0–10 m 0–900 m 0–900 m H. australis Tournefortia argentea Veitchia spp.5–3 m Drought Tolerance (months) M M S M F M F F F F M M M S M M F M S M S M F Salt Tolerance S.G S S S S S S S.. >68°F) A = Arid/semi-arid ( <500 mm rainfall.B. SH. beach vitex. >20 inches. >40 inches. >20 C° mean temp.5 meters (2–5 ft) per year F =Fast. A H. SH C H. H H. SH H. >20 C° mean temp. SH H.A. SH H.. SH SH. A C. C Climatic Zones Waterlogging Tolerance 30–40 m 2–15 m 2–12 m 2–3 m 5–8 m 2–5 m 15–20 m 8–10 m 6–8 m 20–30 m 20–25 m 30–40 m 10–20 m 10–15 m 10–15 m 15–25 m 15–25 m 3–5 m 10–18 m 30–35 m 3–8 m 5–10 m 1. <68°F) C = Coastal Means of Propagation S = Seeds C = Cuttings G = Grafting A = Air layering B = Budding V = suckers R = Root cutting Growth Rate S = Slow growth rate.C S S S V S S S S S S.kassod. Polynesian plum West Indian mahogany jambolan. but rarely causing problems Salt tolerance yes or no yes Drought tolerance in months Waterlogging tolerance yes or no blank information unavailable 27 Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands Species Climatic Zones Elevation Elevation (meters) Thaman/Elevitch/Wilkinson Multipurpose Species Characteristics and Tolerances (continued) . U H.

Cooks). hickory wattle . tutu'i. ponderosa) apu 'Initia (Samoa). to most of Melanesia. hua. and Samoa) Aboriginal intr. Polynesia. related species in PNG and Hawaii Tonga. Solomon Islands. not found on atolls Tonga. Southeast Asia. lama (Samoa). to most Pacific Islands. Hawaii. Samoa. smoothbarked kauri pine Fiji kauri Albizia saman Anacardium occidentale Pacific Island Names Northern black wattle. Tonga) (kauila is related native Hawaii species A. black wattle. Southeast Asia. Origin and Presence in Pacific Islands Species Names Acacia auriculiformis Acacia koa Acacia koaia Acacia mangium Adenanthera pavonina Agathis macrophylla Agathis robusta Agathis vitiensis Albizia lebbeck Common Names red bead tree. Malesia eastern Australia and Malesia northern Australia. Papua New Guinea New Caledonia Southern Asia and Indonesia Papua New Guinea. woman's tongue rain tree.Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands Common Names. paini (Tonga) Malaysia paina (Samoa). tuitui (Tonga. Richmond river pine Norfolk Island pine betel-nut. recent to Fiji. to Papua New Guinea. red sandalwood. Tonga). Philippines. brown salwood. Malesia Tropical Asia tamalini.agroforestry.Southeast Asia and Malaysia 'ula'ula (Hawaii) Queensland kauri. Tonga Fiji Vanuatu. siris tree. Vanuatu. betel-nut palm Araucaria heterophylla Areca catechu Frequently Used in New Guinea and northern Australia Hawaii Hawaii Southeast Asia and Malesia Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands (western Malesia) Hawaii Hawaii Papua New Guinea Most Pacific Islands. Papua wattle koa koa (Hawaii) koaia koa'ia (Hawaii) mangium. paini (Tonga) nioi-kekela (Hawaii) Sumatra and Philippines Tropical America Tropical America South America Australia. Moreton Bay pine. kauri pine albizia. Polynesian peanut kauri. kasia (Tonga). Saipan. kukui (Hawaii) toi (Samoa. Tuvalu Papua New Guinea (large plantations) Hawaii Aboriginal intr. 'apele 'Initia (Tonga) apele Tonga (Tonga). Fiji. Samoa Pre-WWII intr. Society Islands. 'ohai (Hawaii) Tropical America lauci.net Annona muricata cashew soursop Indigenous to lopa (Samoa. tamaligi (Samoa). 'ama (Marquesas). Kiribati. although not generally found on atolls kauli (Tonga) Solomon Islands northern Australia. Hawaii Most Pacific Islands (especially Polynesia and Melanesia: Fiji. and other areas 28 www. and parts of Micronesia. nameana (Tuvalu) paina (Samoa). recent to Guam Sumatra. and western Micronesia. sikeci (Fiji). ti'a'iri (Societies). 'apu (Tonga) sasalapa (Samoa). Tuvalu. sweetsop Araucaria cunninghamii hoop pine. monkeypod candlenut Aleurites moluccana toi Alphitonia zizyphoides Annona squamosa sugarapple.

katnut Java cedar koka (Hawaii. Uvea. Hawaii. kuru (Cooks) maiore.Thaman/Elevitch/Wilkinson Common Names. star fruit tapanima (Tonga) neem common bamboo. futu (Tonga. kofe. Solomon Islands India. Fiji Hawaii and Fiji Most Pacific Islands Most of Polynesia. tongo. Tonga. to Pacific Islands. ka-la (Hawaii) Nauru) Tropical America Samoa. Hawaii China. Tonga. and Polynesia as far east as Hawaii. Societies) ute (Marquesas). mohokoi Southeast Asia. Melanesia. Vanuatu. Japan. Polynesia. feta'u (Tonga). hutu. Fiji. Indonesia and Fiji. tropical western Polynesia (Tonga. Tonga. western Polynesia and Samoa) and eastern Micronesia tongo buangi (Kiribati). to Yap. to Hawaii and other smaller eastern Pacific Islands Malesia Mainly Melanesia Fiji. kamani (Hawaii) makosoi. beach mahogany ylang-ylang. not in Micronesia or found on atolls togo. Tonga. and Micronesia . kukuna-o. recent intr. Fiji. Indian Ocean. Niue 29 Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands Broussonetia papyrifera Indian Ocean to the Marquesas Frequently Used in Aboriginal intr. fetau tropical Africa. 'o'a (Samoa) paper mulberry malo. Fiji. mei (Tonga. Samoa. Nauru. hutu (Marquesas) te bairiati (Kiribati) cut nut. u'a (Samoa). te itai (Kiribati). Thailand Aboriginal intr. Samoa). jackfruit Southeast Asia and India Averrhoa carambola Azadirachta indica carambola. Cook and Society Islands. East Africa. tongo ta'ane. Origin and Presence in Pacific Islands (continued) Species Names Common Names Pacific Island Names breadfruit uto (Fiji). wauke (Hawaii) aute (New Zealand) Southeast Asia India tropical Asia Bambusa vulgaris Barringtonia asiatica Barringtonia edulis Bischofia javanica Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Calliandra calothyrsus Calophyllum inophyllum Oriental mangrove. Commonly found in Fiji. te bamboo kaibaba (Kiribati). brown mangrove calliandra portia tree. Cooks). Marquesas). aute (Cooks. Alexandrian laurel. feathery ofe Fiti (Samoa). eastern Polynesia Eastern Polynesia. Polynesia. moso'oi (Samoa) northern Australia Melanesia and Polynesia. (Samoa). pitu (Tonga). perfume tree Cananga odorata Canarium indicum red canarium. bitu (Fiji) fish-poison tree vutu (Fiji). Philippines. Hawaii dilo (Fiji). Marquesas). to parts of (Tonga).eastern Micronesia (Marshall and Gilbert Islands. aboriginal intr. pampu (Tuvalu). hotu (Societies). 'uru (Society Islands) Artocarpus altilis Indigenous to Artocarpus heterophyllus jakfruit. to most of Melanesia. not common on atolls Melanesia Melanesia. te Asia. Burma. Hawaii). PNG. Malaysia 'ulu (Samoa. and Micronesia Banaba. Makatea Societies. galip Post-European contact intr. masi (Fiji) hiapo. tutu (Tonga). South China. Fiji. mokosoi (Fiji). recent intr. toto saina (Samoa). 'utu (Cooks). tamanu (Cooks. fa'onelua (Tonga). Samoa. Philippines Futuna. throughout Malesia.

milikana. tipolo patupatu (Samoa). Southeast Asia. beefwood. Samoa. Samoa. moli tipolo (Samoa). pumelo Indonesia Home gardens in many areas of Pacific: Fiji. Indian kasia (Tonga) laburnum. and some areas of Micronesia and Melanesia. Indonesia. to Pacific Islands.Cook Islands Canarium harveyi papaya. Samoa. Samoa. papaia. taim (Tuvalu). te raim (Kiribati) sour orange. Hawaii recent intr. Samoa. Cook Islands. she oak. to Pacific Islands Tropical Asia recent intr. rough lemon. shaddock calamondin. kukane (Hawaii) moli kana (Fiji).net Citrus maxima lemani (Tonga). to Pacific Islands most Pacific Islands Indian Ocean. lesi (Tonga) olesi (Tuvalu). home gardens and roadsides in Tonga. horse kasia (Tonga) cassia pink and white shower tree. pawpaw Carica papaya Cassia fistula Cassia grandis Cassia javanica Casuarina equisetifolia Ceiba pentandra Chrysophyllum cainito Citrus aurantifolia esi (Samoa). Mauritus papeda lemon Citrus limon Citrus mitis Citrus paradisi pummelo. te babaia (Kiribati) mikana. Samoa. Marshall Islands. Common throughout Melanesia. moli tipolo (Samoa). and Niue abundant throughout Pacific Islands Hawaii. Tonga. casaurina Tonga. Java almond. moli lemani. calamondin orange grapefruit. West Indian lime West Indes S. moli laimi (Tonga). silk-cotton tree vavae (Samoa. leach lime. Marquesas) 'aito (Societies) te burukam (Kiribati) kapok tree. Kiribati West Indes 30 www. occasional in Fiji.Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands Common Names. N. not found on atolls The most common "lemon" in many Pacific Islands Southeast Asia Most Pacific Islands Malesia Southeast Asia and Indo-Malaysia Tonga Philippines or Malaysia Tonga. pomelo. lemani (Tonga). moli Tonga (Tonga).agroforestry. Malesia. Seville orange kola (Tonga) Tropical America Tropical Asia Tropical America recent intr. muli (Papua New Guinea) tipolo Iapani (Samoa). New Guinea. and parts of the western Pacific Southeast Asia Citrus aurantium Citrus hystrix kaffir lime. 'alani'awa'awa (Hawaii) muli (Papua New Guinea Pidgin) most Pacific Islands (especially common in the high islands) . Asia or Indonesia tipolo. toa (Hawaii. starapple lime. galip nut ai (Tonga). Origin and Presence in Pacific Islands (continued) Species Names Common Names Pacific Island Names Indigenous to Frequently Used in pili nut. Cooks. Kiribati and atolls Throughout Polynesia. Australia. laim (Tuvalu) moli. Niue. canarium almond. Tonga) India or Africa caimito. nokonoko (Fiji). Rarotonga. laimi. mafoa (Samoa) Malaysia. he'I (Hawaii) golden shower tree. Fiji and Tonga Melanesia and Polynesia as far east as Samoa and Niue. pudding-pipe tree pink shower tree. pink shower tree ironwood. te remen (Kiribati). Fiji. Tonga. moli Toga (Samoa).

Tonga. Australia and New Guinea Australia Southeast Asia.Thaman/Elevitch/Wilkinson Common Names. piku. drala dina (Fiji). New Guinea. Benjamin tree. 'ohai (Tonga). Australia and New Guinea bua (Fiji). Samoa. Cooks. possibly intr. te ni (Kiribati) beach cordia. Bagras eucalyptus. Origin and Presence in Pacific Islands (continued) Species Names Common Names Citrus reticulata tangerine. Hawaii). tamaligi (Samoa). kamarere flooded gum. Marquesas). Caroline Islands. (Tuvalu) 'ohai-'ula (Hawaii) flame of the forest Citrus sinensis Cocos nucifera Cordia subcordata Dodonea viscosa Delonix regia Pacific Island Names Dracontomelon vitiense Erythrina subumbrans Eucalyptus citriodora Eucalyptus deglupta Eucalyptus saligna Eucalyptus tereticornis lemon-scented gum. Hawaii Malesia Indian Ocean and Pacific Islands some areas of Melanesia. Australia Southeast Asia. east to Philippines Queensland. vada tree weeping fig. 'atae (Cooks. Societies). puakenikeni (Hawaii) pulu (Samoa) India banyan. deglupta. gatae tiger's claw. coral wiliwili-haole (Hawaii) Indigenous to . Philippines. Marquesas pua lulu (Samoa). fua I tausaga flame tree. fiku Most Pacific Islands Most Pacific Islands especially Melanesia Most Pacific Islands Most Pacific Islands Most Pacific Islands especially Papua New Guinea Polynesia and Melanesia India Asia 31 Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands Erythrina variegata coral tree. royal poinciana. Marquesas). Samoa). Tonga. pua (Cooks. moli kai. ha'ari (Societies). tou (Cooks. lala vao (Samoa). pua tonga (Tonga). moli peli (Tonga) orange. 'A'ali'i (Hawaii) poinciana. moli inu (Tonga) te aoranti (Kiribati). and Micronesia Burma. sea trumpet nawanawa (Fiji). Polynesia. dadap. to some atolls Madagascar Kiribati. pua. Indian banyan. spotted gum Mindanao gum. moli 'aiga (Samoa). Indian coral tree. puataukanave (Tonga). ovava Fisi (Tonga) waringin fig. Societies. Philippines. tuanave (Samoa). mandarin orange moli Saina (Samoa). flamboyant. coconut niu (Fiji. natae (Marquesas). Asia and Indian Ocean Islands All Pacific Islands Indian Ocean to Pacific Islands Polynesia and Micronesia Native to most Pacific Islands. nu (Cooks). sweet orange moli 'aina. Sydney blue gum forest red gum pua tree Fagraea berteriana Ficus bengalensis Ficus benjamina Ficus carica Frequently Used in Southeast Asia and Philippines Most Pacific Islands South China and Southeast Asia Most Pacific Islands S. 'alani (Hawaii) coconut palm. ngatae. te tua (Kiribati). tropical (Tonga. kou (Hawaii) native hop bush te kai boia (Kiribati). Societies.

southern Asia.agroforestry. East Africa. 'au Pantropical. te bingibing (Kiribati) beach hibiscus tree. tropical Asia to Most Pacific Islands esp. pu'apu'a (Samoa). and Samoa Tropical Africa. puopua (Tonga). Societies). pu'a (Samoa). vili. common on atolls te uri (Kiribati). East Africa to tropical America. Most Pacific Islands Marianas and Caroline Islands in Micronesia gnetum. fau (Tonga. ihi (Marquesas) te ibi (Kiribati) vesi (Fiji). Samoa vilivili. I'I (Cooks) ihi. aboriginal intr. malolo. Samoa. and Fiji Melanesia and Samoa 32 www. Tonga masame (Samoa). New Guinea. purau (Societies). puka (Tuvalu).Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands Common Names. hau (Marquesas). Samoa). masi'ata (Tonga) mati (Samoa. joint fir India. Cooks. fukofuka (Tonga) Central and South America Malesia and possibly Melanesia. masikoka (Tonga) Inocarpus fagifer Intsia bijuga Philippines. puko (Tonga). Origin and Presence in Pacific Islands (continued) Species Names Common Names Pacific Island Names Indigenous to Dyer's fig nunu (Fiji). indigenous to many Most Pacific Islands Pacific Islands mallow (Cooks). mape (Societies). Malesia to the Caroline Islands. Samoa). fau. Madacascar. some lantern tree.net kleinhovia. hau (Hawaii) inga. pua. ifilele (Samoa) fu'afu'a. and Society Islands Polynesia and Melanesia Melanesia and Polynesia. ice cream bean Tahitian chestnut ipil. Tonga. 'ata (Marquesas) poumuli (Samoa. Fiji) guettarda puapua (Samoa). to most of Micronesia and Polynesia Eastern Africa. Nicaragua cocoa shade. Southern Asia and Malesia Most of Micronesia and to Caroline Islands and Fiji Melanesia (Solomons. uli southeastern Polynesia (Tuvalu) wiriwiri (Fiji). Borneo teak. island teak ivi (Fiji). madre de cacao (Mother of cocoa). moa (Samoa) aboriginal intr. Samoa). Gnetum gnemon Guettarda speciosa Gyrocarpus americanus Hernandia nymphaeifolia Hibiscus tiliaceus Inga edulis gliricidia. Tonga. beach vau (Fiji). Solomon Islands. Mexican lilac recent intr. Tonga) Philippines Ficus tinctoria Fleuggea flexuosa Gliricidia sepium Glochidion ramiflorum/spp. Rotuma. to Pacific Islands (Fiji. Chinese pipi (Fiji. puapua. Vanuatu. Vanuatu. Kiribati) Tropical Asia to the Marquesas. ifi (Tonga. Marshall Islands and Micronesia. to Tonga East Africa to Micronesia and Micronesia and Polynesia. especially Samoa. pukovili (Tonga). southeastern Polynesia parts of Melanesia lantern tree fotulona. Hawaii. guest tree Kleinhovia hospita Samoa. Moluccas Central America and northern South America Frequently Used in . Tonga. Tonga. Asia through Malesia to the Caroline Islands and Samoa. fehi (Tonga).

fara (Societies). Kiribati. lychee. thrives on atolls Most Pacific Islands Atolls . niu o Lotuma (Samoa) Morinda citrifolia Indian mulberry. Tahiti) Tonga. throughout high Pacific Islands Old World tropics into Malesia and northern Australia Indonesia. northern Vietnam.fua pepe (Samoa). Marshall and Gilbert Islands in Micronesia north-western India many different Pacific Island India and tropical Asia names depending on cultivar. esp. malunggay (Philippines) kura (Fiji). nono (Cooks. ipil sialemohemohe (Tonga). sita Tonga Indian lilac. intr. laichi hangale (Tonga). meika (Cooks). Samoa). Tuvalu). noni (Hawaii. Tonga balawa. Hawaii. haole koa or koa haole (Hawaii) litchi. aboriginal intr. Kiribati. Queensland nut. Micronesia.Thaman/Elevitch/Wilkinson Common Names. lechee. vadra (Fiji). beach mulberry Leucaena leucocephala Litchi chinensis Lumnitzera littorea Macadamia integrifolia Macaranga spp. Samoa and some parts of western Micronesia Most Pacific Islands esp. ivory-nut palm nui masoa. Melanesia. carolinensis) Mangifera indica Melia azedarach banana Musa spp. Neisosperma oppositifolium Pandanus dubius Pandanus tectorius screw pine pandanus. papata. stipulosa. te mangko (Kiribati) manako (Hawaii) Chinaberry. lau papata (Samoa). Origin and Presence in Pacific Islands (continued) Species Names Common Names Pacific Island Names Metroxylon spp. Tuvalu. Australian bush nut macaranga lau pata. mei'a (Marquesas). hala (Hawaii) 33 Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands Moringa oleifera horseradish tree. nonu (Tonga. lepo (Tonga) mango mago (Samoa. and Caroline Islands in Micronesia Tropical Asia and Australia. te Micronesia kiebutinang (Kiribati) Melanesia. inia (Hawaii). ha'a Micronesia (Marquesas). drumstick tree. including vudi (Fiji). Tuvalu Islands in Micronesia Australia Hawaii Fiji to the Solomon Islands Most Pacific Islands India and Burma Most Pacific Islands (Polynesia. Polynesia (esp. and larger islands of Micronesia Early European intr. te aitoa (Kiribati). loupata. saijan (Hindi). meika. (harveyana. Fiji. mei'a (Societies). Kiribati Most Pacific Islands. fa'a. sita. te kaitetua (Kiribati). Indigenous to most of Melanesia Most Pacific Islands and Polynesia . lau fala. Melanesia. and Malaysia East Africa to Tonga and Marshall Tonga. Marquesas) Indigenous to . Societies). te non (Kiribati). ipil. Tonga). Samoa). fala. screw pine Frequently Used in Central America and Mexico Most Pacific Islands Southern China. fusi (Tonga) fa'i (Samoa). to fasa (Tonga. to southeast Polynesia and Hawaii. mango (Tonga). leechee. bead tree sago palm. mai'a (Hawaii) Indian Ocian to Polynesia and fao (Samoa. Nauru. pride of India. leucaena. sagale (Tuvalu) Macadamia nut. wild tamarind. 'ara (Cooks). Persian lilac.

net Pometia pinnata Manila tamarind. white albizia Paraserianthes falcataria pemphis Pemphis acidula Persea americana Pimenta racemosa avocado. kava (Tonga. te ngea (Kiribati). Tonga. tava (Tonga. Samoa) lychee yaro (Fiji). albidus– mamaki similar endemic species in Hawaii in Hawaii) Micronesia. Polynesia and Melanesia Most Pacific Islands Southeast Asia Modern intr. kalosipani. gagie eastern Polynesia (Hawaii) avoka (Samoa. tropical Asia. graveyard tree pua Palangi (Tonga). Origin and Presence in Pacific Islands (continued) Species Names Common Names Pacific Island Names Indigenous to Frequently Used in screw pine cultivars tutu'ila (Tonga) fala (Samoa). and other Pacific Islands Micronesia (common on atolls) Kiribati. rau'ara. yagona (Fiji). pae'ore (Societies) tamalini. Hawaii). tagitagi (Samoa). 'olonga (Tonga). Tahiti Pandanus cultivars albizia.Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands Common Names. hedge panax tanitani. te Madagascar. alligator pear bay-rum tree Caribbean pine Pinus caribaea kava. lettuce tree Pisonia grandis Pithecellobium dulce Plumeria obtusa Plumeria rubra Polyscias spp. Fiji. sweet inga evergreen frangipani ngingie (Tonga). gigie (Tuvalu). paini (Tonga) pua frangipani. puko (Tonga). and Tonga (extensive monocultural plantations) Domesticated from Vanuatu Papua New Guinea. Premna serratifolia Most of the larger Pacific Islands West Indies and South America West Indies and Central America Fiji. Samoa. Samoa. pae'ore (Cooks) papa. Hawaii. 'awa (Hawaii) in other areas of Polynesia roga (Fiji). New Caledonia. East Africa to Micronesia and gie. puatea (Hawaii) opiuma (Hawaii) Central America paina (Samoa. and Australia Most Pacific Islands 34 www. Kiribati and buka (Kiribati).agroforestry. pua (Samoa). Fiji. island dawa (Fiji). tropical Australia. parts of Melanesia eastern Polynesia. Vanuatu. kava root Piper methysticum Pipturus argenteus pisonia. plantings Marquesas). Polynesia. Vanuatu. mimiki. tamaligi (Samoa). kasia (Tonga) Micronesia. soga. pukavai (Tuvalu) Marshall Islands puka. Philippines as far east Melanesia and Polynesia as Fiji. ro'a (Societies). plumeria. Tonga) Mexico . hoka (Marquesas) (P. tanetane (Tonga) kahili (Hawaii) Oceanic lychee. Malesia through Melanesia to the Polynesia and Melanesia Marquesas and Marshall Islands lausoga (Samoa). tree. temple pua Fiti. (Cooks). to Papua New Guinea. and some pu'avai (Samoa). 'oronga and Kiribati in eastern Micronesia. avocado pear. 'ava (Samoa. Samoa. Most Pacific Islands Melanesia Indonesia. aloalo (Samoa) Tropical America (Mexico to Panama) increasingly common throughout the Pacific Most Pacific Islands (many species) Tropical Asia. and Niue East Africa. Pohnpei in Micronesia. te meria (Kiribati) panax. Tonga. Hawaii and Marquesas).

Tuvalu). Honduras mahogany jambolan. New Guinea. piu. Tonga (Samoa) loulu (Hawaii) kau'ava (Samoa). halfflower Schizostachyum spp. Caroline Islands in Micronesia to Vanuatu and Fiji in Melanesia Indian Ocean to Samoa. naupaka-kahakai (Hawaii) bitu (Fiji). Tuvalu. vi (Tonga. Vanuatu. narra. Micronesia. bluewater. and French Polynesia Southeast Asia 35 Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands Senna alata yasi (Fiji). Vanuatu. Hawaii. New Guinea rosewood. Cooks. Java plum Southeast Asia. Tonga. Melanesia and Hawaii Micronesia. te tongo (Kiribati) Santalum spp. Marquesas. Solomon Islands) South and Southeast Asia ohai-ke'oke'o (Hawaii) India and tropical Asia Africa tiulipe (Tonga) tropical Africa wi (Fiji). Origin and Presence in Pacific Islands (continued) Species Names Common Names Pacific Island Names Pritchardia pacifica Fiji fan palm. to Societies. Samoa. Tonga recent intr. Polynesia. gahu. tropical Asia. Melanesia. Malesia to eastern Polynesia. ngahu (Tonga). Samoa. Samoa Fiji. aboriginal intr. padouk red mangrove. esp. northern Australia. pheasantwood. saltbrush. kohe (Marquesas). 'ofe (Societies). some parts of Melanesia and Polynesia (Fiji. 'ofe (Samoa). piu (Tonga). corkwood tree. Tuvalu) Tonga. Kiribati. native bamboo Pterocarpus indicus Senna siamea Sesbania grandiflora Sesbania sesban Spathodea campanulata candle bush. parts of Micronesia Fiji. aboriginal bamboo. Melanesia and Polynesia (Fiji. American togo (Samoa. kofe (Tonga). mangrove tongolei (Tonga). large-leaved mahogany. Niue East Africa. Tokelau. 'ohe (Hawaii) Indigenous to . Niue. Malabar plum Most Pacific Islands Micronesia. Tonga and Tuvalu in western Polynesia and to Gilbert Islands in Micronesia Pacific Islands rose apple. Niue. ko'e (Cooks). Tropical Asia. Melanesia. Samoa. te mao (Kiribati). ahi (Tonga) 'ili-ahi (Hawaii) to'ito'i (Samoa). Polynesian plum Spondias dulcis Swietenia macrophylla West Indian mahogany. and Hawaii Asia. Thailand shower. Hawaii) tropical America Many Pacific Islands Most Pacific Islands. Nauru. Solomon Islands. 'ohe. minjiri sesbania. kuava (Tonga. the Marquesas. sandalwood Scaevola taccada scaevola. to Pacific Islands Tonga. Tropical America Tuvalu. Tonga) Central and South America India and Sri Lanka to Malesia Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Frequently Used in Western Polynesia. Fiji. bamboo. grandiflora sesban African tulip tree vi apple. Pacific fan palm guava viu (Fiji).Thaman/Elevitch/Wilkinson Common Names. and parts of Micronesia mahokani (Samoa. golden candelabra tree kassod. to Palau and Yap in the Caroline Islands Most Pacific Islands (Kiribati. tongo. Fiji Polynesia. gasu (Tuvalu) naupaka. Vanuatu. Hawaii). Hawaii) Melanesia. te kuava (Kiribati) Psidium guajava Rhizophora spp. Tonga. niu piu Fiji. sand dragon. the Cook Islands.

Indian Toon. telie (Tonga) Eastern Africa and southern Asia through Malesia to eastern Polynesia.Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands Common Names. kehika (Marquesas) 'ohi'a 'ai (Hawaii) tamalini (Tonga. fekika kai (Tonga). to Marshall Islands and Kiribati in Micronesia niusawa palm (V. coastal almond. telie (Tonga). sea almond tropical almond Pacific rosewood. Malabar almond. surian. nonu fi'afi'a (Samoa) ka'ika (Cooks) 'ahi'a (Societies). Vitex negundo/trifolia talie (Samoa). and Melanesia to eastern Polynesia and Micronesia Samoa. Indian mahogany. 'amae (Societies). Papua New Guinea. Nauru. in parts of Polynesia Tahiti. Samoa Terminalia catappa Terminalia samoensis. Fiji. to many Pacific Islands Micronesia and Polynesia Fiji. Kiribati Recent intr. milo (Tonga. Samoa). kamani haole (Hawaii) Tropical Asia Syzygium malaccense Malay apple. tamaligi (Samoa) wi'awa'awa (Hawaii) tavola (Fiji). Tuvalu. Nauru. Tonga esp. Solomon Islands. beach almond. Micronesia Kiribati. Tonga Tropical Asia through Malesia.agroforestry. Marshall and Gilbert Islands in Micronesia Asia. Niue. Hawaii) miro. joannis) . Puluwat. niu sawa (Fiji). merrill palm vitex. kolokolothrough southern Asia. Hawaii. blue namulega (Samoa). Tonga Most Pacific Islands Marshall Islands. Samoa. Melanesia. Samoa. niu kula (Tonga) Fiji Manila palm (V. lala tahi Southern Africa and Indian Ocean vitex (Tonga) polinalina. northern Australia. Malesia. Indian almond. littoralis tropical almond. Nauru. merillii).net . Burma toon beach heliotrope sita kulu (Tonga) wood pikake (Hawaii) Thespesia populnea Toona ciliata var. Origin and Presence in Pacific Islands (continued) Species Names Common Names Pacific Island Names Indigenous to Frequently Used in Most Pacific Islands Tamarindus indica tamarind kavika (Fiji). beach vitex. talie (Samoa). Hawaii 36 www. milo mulomulo (Fiji). kahakai (Hawaii) and northern Australia Samoa. Eastern Africa. Southeast Asia te ren (Kiribati) tahinu (Hawaii) through Malesia and eastern Polynesia. touhuni (Tonga). northern Australia and Malesia tausuni (Samoa). mountain apple tropical Africa and Asia Fiji. mi'o (Marquesas) Australian red cedar. Cook Islands. australis Tournefortia argentea Veitchia spp. T.

Spathodea campanulata Albizia lebbeck Paraserianthes falcataria Calophyllum inophyllum Rhizophora spp.37 Index by English common names aboriginal bamboo African tulip tree albizia albizia Alexandrian laurel American mangrove Australian red cedar avocado avocado pear Bagras eucalyptus bamboo banana banyan bay-rum tree beach almond beach cordia beach heliotrope beach hibiscus tree beach mallow beach mulberry beach vitex Benjamin tree betel-nut betel-nut palm Borneo teak breadfruit brown mangrove brown salwood caimito calamondin calamondin orange calliandra canarium almond candlenut carambola Caribbean pine casuarina cashew Chinaberry Chinese lantern tree coconut coconut palm common bamboo coral tree corkwood tree cut nut dao drumstick tree Dyer's fig evergreen frangipani fig Fiji fan palm Fiji kauri fish-poison tree flamboyant flooded gum forest red gum Schizostachyum spp.net . Spathodea campanulata Araucaria cunninghamii Cassia grandis Moringa oleifera Inga edulis Syzygium malaccense Ficus bengalensis Erythrina variegata Cassia fistula Mangifera indica Terminalia samoensis/littoralis Morinda citrifolia Inga edulis Intsia bijuga Leucaena leucocephala Casuarina equisetifolia Pometia pinnata Metroxylon spp. Musa spp. Gliricidia sepium Syzygium jambos www. Toona ciliata var. australis Persea americana Persea americana Eucalyptus deglupta Schizostachyum spp.agroforestry. Ficus bengalensis Pimenta racemosa Terminalia catappa Cordia subcordata Tournefortia argentea Hibiscus tiliaceus Hibiscus tiliaceus Morinda citrifolia Vitex negundo/trifolia Ficus benjamina Areca catechu Areca catechu Intsia bijuga Artocarpus altilis Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Acacia mangium Chrysophyllum cainito Citrus mitis Citrus mitis Calliandra calothyrsus Canarium harveyi Aleurites moluccana Averrhoa carambola Pinus caribaea Casuarina equisetifolia Anacardium occidentale Melia azedarach Hernandia nymphaeifolia Cocos nucifera Cocos nucifera Bambusa vulgaris Erythrina variegata Sesbania grandiflora Barringtonia edulis Dracontomelon vitiense Moringa oleifera Ficus tinctoria Plumeria obtusa Ficus carica Pritchardia pacifica Agathis vitiensis Barringtonia asiatica Delonix regia Eucalyptus saligna Eucalyptus tereticornis Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands frangipani gliricidia gnetum golden shower tree grapefruit guava guest tree guettarda hedge panax Honduras mahogany hoop pine horse cassia horseradish tree ice cream bean Indian almond Indian banyan Indian coral tree Indian laburnum Indian lilac Indian mahogany Indian mulberry inga ipil ipil-ipil ironwood island lychee ivory-nut palm jackfruit jakfruit jambolan Java almond Java cedar Java plum joint fir kaffir lime kamarere kapok tree kassod kauri kauri pine kava kava root kleinhovia koa koaia lantern tree large-leaved mahogany lemon lemon-scented gum lettuce tree leucaena lime litchi lychee Macadamia nut macaranga madre de cacao Malabar plum Plumeria rubra Gliricidia sepium Gnetum gnemon Cassia fistula Citrus paradisi Psidium guajava Kleinhovia hospita Guettarda speciosa Polyscias spp. Artocarpus heterophyllus Artocarpus heterophyllus Syzygium cumini Canarium harveyi Bischofia javanica Syzygium cumini Gnetum gnemon Citrus hystrix Eucalyptus deglupta Ceiba pentandra Senna siamea Agathis macrophylla Agathis macrophylla Piper methysticum Piper methysticum Kleinhovia hospita Acacia koa Acacia koaia Hernandia nymphaeifolia Swietenia macrophylla Citrus limon Eucalyptus citriodora Pisonia grandis Leucaena leucocephala Citrus aurantifolia Litchi sinensis Litchi sinensis Macadamia integrifolia Macaranga spp.

Scaevola taccada Santalum spp.38 Malay apple malunggay mandarin orange mangium mango Manila palm (V. Pandanus tectorius Carica papaya Broussonetia papyrifera Acacia auriculiformis Carica papaya Pemphis acidula Cananga odorata Senna siamea Canarium harveyi Cassia javanica Cassia grandis Cassia javanica Pisonia grandis Plumeria rubra Delonix regia Spondias dulcis Citrus maxima Calophyllum inophyllum Melia azedarach Fagraea berteriana Citrus maxima Agathis robusta Macadamia integrifolia Albizia saman Adenanthera pavonina Canarium indicum Rhizophora spp. joannis) none none Norfolk Island pine Northern black wattle Oceanic lychee orange Oriental mangrove Pacific fan palm Pacific rosewood padouk panax pandanus papaya paper mulberry Papua wattle pawpaw pemphis perfume tree pheasantwood pili nut pink and white shower tree pink shower tree pink shower tree pisonia plumeria poinciana Polynesian plum pomelo portia tree pride of India pua tree pummelo Queensland kauri Queensland nut rain tree red bead tree red canarium red mangrove Syzygium malaccense Moringa oleifera Citrus reticulata Acacia mangium Mangifera indica Veitchia spp.net . Lumnitzera littorea Pipturus argenteus Araucaria heterophylla Acacia auriculiformis Pometia pinnata Citrus sinensis Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Pritchardia pacifica Thespesia populnea Psidium guajava Polyscias spp. Scaevola taccada Pandanus dubius Pandanus tectorius Pandanus cultivars Cordia subcordata Sesbania sesban Sesbania grandiflora Citrus aurantium Casuarina equisetifolia Ceiba pentandra Albizia lebbeck Citrus aurantium Annona muricata Eucalyptus citriodora Averrhoa carambola Chrysophyllum cainito Annona squamosa Toona ciliata var. Pithecellobium dulce Gliricidia sepium Thespesia populnea Eucalyptus deglupta Albizia saman Araucaria cunninghamii Syzygium malaccense Pterocarpus indicus Scaevola taccada Dodonea viscosa Azadarichta indica Pterocarpus indicus Dracontomelon vitiense Veitchia spp. Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands red sandalwood rose apple rough lemon royal poinciana sago palm saltbrush sandalwood scaevola screw pine screw pine screw pine cultivars sea trumpet sesban sesbania Seville orange she oak silk-cotton tree siris tree sour orange soursop spotted gum star fruit starapple sugarapple surian sweet inga sweetsop Sydney blue gum Tahitian chestnut tamarind tangerine toi tropical almond tropical almond vi apple vitex weeping fig West Indian lime West Indian mahogany white albizia ylang-ylang Adenanthera pavonina Syzygium jambos Citrus hystrix Delonix regia Metroxylon spp.agroforestry. australis Pithecellobium dulce Annona squamosa Eucalyptus saligna Inocarpus fagifer Tamarindus indica Citrus reticulata Alphitonia zizyphoides Terminalia catappa Terminalia samoensis/littoralis Spondias dulcis Vitex negundo/trifolia Ficus benjamina Citrus aurantifolia Swietenia macrophylla Paraserianthes falcataria Cananga odorata www. merillii) Manila tamarind Mexican lilac milo Mindanao gum monkeypod Moreton Bay pine mountain apple narra native bamboo native hop bush neem New Guinea rosewood New Guinea walnut niusawa palm (V.

australis Tournefortia argentea Veitchia spp.39 Species Lists by Product Fruit/Nut species Adenanthera pavonina Albizia saman Aleurites moluccana Anacardium occidentale Annona muricata Annona squamosa Areca catechu Artocarpus altilis Artocarpus heterophyllus Averrhoa carambola Barringtonia edulis Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Canarium indicum Canarium spp.agroforestry./harveyi Casuarina equisetifolia Chrysophyllum cainito Cocos nucifera Cordia subcordata Delonix regia Dodonea viscosa Dracontomelon vitiense Eucalyptus citriodora Eucalyptus deglupta Eucalyptus saligna Eucalyptus tereticornis Gyrocarpus americanus Hernandia nymphaeifolia Hibiscus tiliaceus Inocarpus fagifer Intsia bijuga Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands Ficus tinctoria Flueggea flexuosa Gliricidia sepium Glochidion ramiflorum/spp./harveyi Carica papaya Chrysophyllum cainito Citrus aurantifolia Citrus aurantium Citrus hystrix Citrus limon Citrus maxima Citrus mitis Citrus paradisi Citrus reticulata Citrus sinensis Cocos nucifera Dracontomelon vitiense Ficus carica Ficus tinctoria Gnetum gnemon Inga edulis Inocarpus fagifer Leucaena leucocephala Litchi sinensis Macadamia integrifolia Mangifera indica Morinda citrifolia Moringa oleifera Musa spp. Scaevola taccada Schizostachyum spp. Neisosperma oppositifolium Pandanus dubius Pandanus tectorius Pemphis acidula Persea americana Pipturus argenteus Pithecellobium dulce Pometia pinnata Premna serratifolia Pritchardia pacifica Psidium guajava Spondias dulcis Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium malaccense Tamarindus indica Terminalia catappa Terminalia samoensis/ littoralis Veitchia spp. Senna siamea Sesbania grandiflora Spathodea campanulata Spondias dulcis Swietenia macrophylla Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium malaccense Terminalia catappa Terminalia samoensis/ littoralis Thespesia populnea Toona ciliata var. Vitex negundo/trifolia Wood/Timber Acacia auriculiformis Acacia koa Acacia koaia Acacia mangium Adenanthera pavonina Agathis macrophylla Agathis robusta Agathis vitiensis Albizia lebbeck Albizia saman Aleurites moluccana Alphitonia zizyphoides Araucaria cunninghamii Araucaria heterophylla Areca catechu Artocarpus altilis Artocarpus heterophyllus Azadarichta indica Bambusa vulgaris Barringtonia asiatica Barringtonia edulis Bischofia javanica Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Calophyllum inophyllum Cananga odorata Canarium indicum Canarium spp.net . Leaf Vegetable Adenanthera pavonina Anacardium occidentale Artocarpus altilis Artocarpus heterophyllus Carica papaya Ceiba pentandra Gnetum gnemon Leucaena leucocephala Mangifera indica Moringa oleifera Pandanus tectorius Pipturus argenteus Pisonia grandis Fagraea berteroana Polyscias spp. Guettarda speciosa Kleinhovia hospita Leucaena leucocephala Litchi sinensis Lumnitzera littorea Macadamia integrifolia Macaranga spp. Premna serratifolia Pterocarpus indicus Scaevola taccada Sesbania grandiflora Sesbania sesban Spondias dulcis Syzygium malaccense Thespesia populnea Toona ciliata var. australis Tournefortia argentea Veitchia spp. Melia azedarach Morinda citrifolia Neisosperma oppositifolium Pandanus dubius Pandanus tectorius Paraserianthes falcataria Pemphis acidula Pinus caribaea Pipturus argenteus Pisonia grandis Pometia pinnata Premna serratifolia Pritchardia pacifica Psidium guajava Pterocarpus indicus Rhizophora spp. Vitex negundo/trifolia Nitrogen Fixing Acacia auriculiformis Acacia koa Acacia koaia Acacia mangium Albizia lebbeck Albizia saman Calliandra calothyrsus Casuarina equisetifolia Erythrina subumbrans Erythrina variegata Gliricidia sepium Inga edulis Inocarpus fagifer Intsia bijuga Leucaena leucocephala Paraserianthes falcataria Pithecellobium dulce Pterocarpus indicus Sesbania sesban www.

Scaevola taccada Terminalia catappa Terminalia samoensis/ littoralis Thespesia populnea Tournefortia argentea Vitex negundo/trifolia www. Senna siamea Sesbania sesban Spathodea campanulata Swietenia macrophylla Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Tamarindus indica Terminalia catappa Thespesia populnea Tournefortia argentea Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands Albizia lebbeck Araucaria heterophylla Barringtonia asiatica Calophyllum inophyllum Casuarina equisetifolia Cocos nucifera Cordia subcordata Delonix regia Erythrina variegata Ficus bengalensis Ficus benjamina Ficus tinctoria Gliricidia sepium Glochidion ramiflorum/spp. Guettarda speciosa Gyrocarpus americanus Hernandia nymphaeifolia Hibiscus tiliaceus Leucaena leucocephala Intsia bijuga Lumnitzera littorea Macaranga spp. Pometia pinnata Psidium guajava Pterocarpus indicus Rhizophora spp.net . Premna serratifolia Rhizophora spp.40 Windbreak Acacia auriculiformis Acacia koa Acacia koaia Acacia mangium Adenanthera pavonina Albizia lebbeck Albizia saman Aleurites moluccana Anacardium occidentale Annona muricata Annona squamosa Araucaria cunninghamii Araucaria heterophylla Artocarpus altilis Artocarpus heterophyllus Azadarichta indica Bambusa vulgaris Barringtonia asiatica Bischofia javanica Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Calliandra calothyrsus Calophyllum inophyllum Casuarina equisetifolia Ceiba pentandra Chrysophyllum cainito Cocos nucifera Cordia subcordata Delonix regia Dodonea viscosa Erythrina subumbrans Erythrina variegata Ficus bengalensis Ficus benjamina Gliricidia sepium Glochidion ramiflorum/spp. Mangifera indica Moringa oleifera Musa spp. Guettarda speciosa Protection from salt spray Gyrocarpus americanus Hernandia nymphaeifolia Hibiscus tiliaceus Inocarpus fagifer Intsia bijuga Kleinhovia hospita Leucaena leucocephala Lumnitzera littorea Macadamia integrifolia Macaranga spp. Morinda citrifolia Neisosperma oppositifolium Pandanus cultivars Pandanus tectorius Pemphis acidula Pisonia grandis Polyscias spp.agroforestry. Scaevola taccada Schizostachyum spp. Pandanus cultivars Paraserianthes falcataria Pemphis acidula Pinus caribaea Pisonia grandis Pithecellobium dulce Polyscias spp.

University of Hawaii.hawaii. 1998.M. Hawaii.A. 1994.J.hawaii. 1992.41 Resources and Recommended Reading Local Assistance There is no substitute for direct. 1972.edu Web site: http://www2. Bogor.. Honolulu. Kampong Publications. education. W. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS. E.C. They also have a Forest Incentive Program. Bernice P. Honolulu. and support for forestry. Lore. B. California. Krauss. PROSEA..R. HI 96813-3089 Tel: 808-587-0166.ctahr. Thaman/Elevitch/Wilkinson Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands . Thaman.H. Facciola. formerly the Soil Conservation Service) provides assistance with conservation practices such as windbreaks and contour plantings. Honolulu. and W. To find the one nearest you. locally appropriate experience.hi. R. to increase the supply of timber products from nonindustrial private forest lands. Hawaii 96822. There are CES offices throughout the State of Hawaii. Indonesia. S. 1995. Honolulu. Wong. Landowners are encouraged to contact the local offices of the Natural Resources Conservation Service and/or Cooperative Extension Service for personal assistance.edu The State of Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources Division of Forestry and Wildlife provides information. 5(2): Timber Trees: Minor Commercial Timbers. United Nations University Press. Honolulu. Fax: 808-587-0160 Web site: http://www.C. Lemmens. Box 50004. HI 96822 Tel: 808-956-8397. Fax: 808-956-9105 E-mail: extension@ctahr. Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands: Systems for Sustainability.O. Vista. Room 325. Native Planters of Old Hawai‘i: Their Life. Tokyo. ADAP Project. Some cost-sharing and other partnerships with private landowners are available. Bishop Museum Press.K. Handy. to local one near you contact: Cooperative Extension Service Main Office 3050 Maile Way. Clarke. ADAP Project. Tropical Energy House. Plants in Hawaiian Culture. with M.G.gov The Cooperative Extension Service (CES) of the University of Hawaii can assist landowners with further information. University of Hawaii Press. Soerianegara.hawaii. Gilmore Hall 203. Plant Resources of Southeast Asia No. Honolulu. La`au Hawai`i: Traditional Hawaiian Uses of Plants. and R. eds. Bishop Museum.nrcs. Contact: Division of Forestry and Wildlife 1151 Punchbowl St. I. Cornucopia II: A Source Book of Edible Plants.H. HI 96850-0050 Tel: 808-541-2600. They have offices throughout the American-affiliated Pacific. 1993. I.S. 1993. and Environment. Pacific Islands Farm Manual. Handy. contact: NRCS State Office P.gov/dlnr/dofaw/ Resources for Further Reading Books on Multipurpose Species Abbott.C.usda. Fax: 808-541-1335 or 541-2652 Web site: http://www.. E. Pukui. Honolulu.

A. Goddard & Dobson. A Review of Uses and Status of Trees and Forests in Land-Use Systems in Samoa. Incorporated.M. Systems Design.. An Introduction to Agroforestry. Lawai. and R. Island Press. Greensboro. 1998. Slay. Bishop Museum Press.H. 475 Riverside Dr. Room 1270. 5(1): Timber Trees: Major Commercial Timbers. Plant Resources of Southeast Asia No. Victoria. Indonesia. Agroforestry Technology Information Kit.agroforestry. and M. 1989. PROSEA. Brazil. Landauer. Fiji. Coronel. and Their Uses. National Academy Press. Agroforestry for Soil Management—2nd Edition.net . 2: Edible Fruits and Nuts. Indonesia.E.J. PROSEA. 1996. DC. A. Agroforestry in Australia and New Zealand. Weber.W. 1990. Fiji. Thaman. Agroforestry in Dryland Africa. Bogor. 1992. International Council for Research in Agroforestry. Morton. and W. Suva. Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands www.A. IIRR.. Washington. Field-Juma.M.A.M. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction. Kiribati and Tuvalu with Recommendations for Future Action.M.C. Plant Resources of Southeast Asia No.. E. 1992. In Gardens of Hawaii. Verheij. Australia. South Pacific Forestry Development Programme. R. 1991..R.W. K. Flora Vitiensis Nova: A New Flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes Only): Vol 1-5. Mollison. 1996. and R. W. Honolulu. Kluwer Academic Publishers. and A. Tonga. Media. and R. Hawaii.F. 1987.R. Thaman. Honolulu.C.J. Kiribati and Tuvalu with Recommendations for Future Action.M..S. Hawaii. Tropical Home Gardens. B..E. A. 1993. The Netherlands. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. Smith. Tokyo. PROSEA. M. D. Kenya. Plant Resources of Southeast Asia No. Washington.R. Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands: Systems for Sustainability. and Tree Selection Clarke. United Nations University Press. Burley. 1994. and G. Whistler. Books on Agroforestry.. Eds.. P. Ruberté. P. I. Tagari Publications. Mollison. Kauai. North Fort Myers. Dordrecht. Permaculture: A Practical Guide for a Sustainable Future. Tyalgum. Inc. 1993. International Council for Research in Agroforestry. Fruits of Warm Climates. Washington. NY 10115. R. 1991. Soerianegara. Bernice P. DC. New York. Saline Agriculture—Salt Tolerant Plants for Developing Countries. Verheij.. Rocheleau. New York.42 Martin. 1991.R. CAB International. Neal. 1997. 1979. 1990. A Review of Uses and Status of Trees and Forests in Land-Use Systems in Samoa. and R. Lemmens. W. R. Coronel. F. Bishop Museum. National Academy Press. Nair. North Carolina. Young. Introduction to Permaculture. F. Wilson. Eds. Eds. New York. 1979-1991. 1990. Nairobi. Indonesia. B. Bogor. Wood. Suva. Edible Leaves of the Tropics. Thaman. J. Whistler. R. and R.. A Tree for All Reasons: The Introduction and Evaluation of Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry. DC National Academy of Sciences.. 2: Edible Fruits and Nuts.K. Meitzner. Julia Morton.. South Pacific Forestry Development Programme. Bogor. The Ethnobotany of Tonga: The Plants. E. National Academy of Sciences. Nairobi. Eds. and L. 1990. Florida.W. Educational Concerns for Hunger Organization. 1985.. Australia. and J. 1965. United Nations University Press.C. Their Tongan Names. and W. Tropical Legumes: Resources for the Future. Tonga. Whistler.. Reid. Kenya. Tokyo.

org/ The Forestry Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) addresses how to use trees. Many useful publications are available online. including an extensive offering of hard-to-find publications in its online bookstore. P.ph/~iirr/ The National Agroforestry Center (NAC) of the US Department of Agriculture supports practices which integrate trees and agriculture and publishes many practical agroforestry materials including Inside Agroforestry. Address: FACT Net.counterpart. and develop their forest and tree resources sustainably. Address: Publications and Information Coordinator. USA. Web site: http://www. Inc. Tel: +63-46-4142417.. Web site: http://www.org. Web site: http://www. Fax: 501-727-5417. 17430 Durrance Rd.cgiar. Tel. use. Washington.: +39-657054778. Nebraska 68583-0822. N.pworld. Tel: +254-2-521450 or +1 650 833 6645.net. Box 30677.unl..43 Organizations Educational Concerns for Hunger Organization (ECHO) has many online publications related to agroforestry.org/icraf/ The International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR) conducts workshops and publishes popular practical works emphasizing participatory approaches to development and agroforestry. Forestry Department. including comprehensive fact sheets on many important agroforestry tree species.net. http://www.fao. Kenya. 1200 18th Street NW. Italy.echonet. Arkansas 72110-9370. Web site: http://www.org. USA. social. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Ft. Address: ECHO. Silang. Address: ICRAF. Cavite. Tel: 941-543-3246. Fax: +63-464142420.pworld. Winrock International. E-mail: forestry@winrock. Fax: 202-2969679. Tel: 501-727-5435. Tel: 202-296-9676. DC 20036. Fax: +39-6-57052151. Address: Thaman/Elevitch/Wilkinson Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands . and cultural conditions while ensuring that resources meet the needs of future generations.O. Web site: http://www.winrock. Tel: 402-437-5178. Myers. Fax: +254-2-521001 or +1-650-833-6646. E-mail: echo@echonet. Web sites: http://www. forests. Nairobi.edu/nac/ Pacific Islands Forests & Trees Support Programme (PIF&TSP) works to strengthen national capabilities in Pacific Island countries to manage. USA.org/forestry/factnet. Address: Counterpart International. Viale delle Terme di Caracalla. E-mail: ICRAF@cgiar. E-mail: info@counterpart. Community. 38 Winrock Drive. 00100 Rome. a newsletter for natural resource professionals with a temperate focus.org/fo/ International Center for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF) has extensive worldwide programs in agroforestry research and training. Fax: 941-5435317. East Campus–UNL.org.htm The Forest Garden Initiative Program supported by Counterpart International is developing a model silvicultural system that fosters the restoration of degraded land through the development of family-owned forest rural gardens around the world. Address: USDA Forest Service/Natural Resources Conservation Service.ph. Address: Yen Center and Headquarters. and related resources to improve people's economic. Fax: 402-437-5712. and Tree Network (FACT Net) is dedicated to stimulating the use of multipurpose trees. Philippines 4118.org/. environmental. Suite 1100. USA.org. Morrilton.cav. E-mail: iirr@cav. FL 33917. conserve.org.org/ Farm. FACT Net offers many publications at a reasonable cost. E-mail: Forestry-www@fao.forestgarden. Web site: http://www. Lincoln.

39 Phra Atit Road. Fax: 808-324-4129. Fax: +66-2-280-0445.rbgkew.net . Address: LEISA. produced by Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR). P. Kenya. Web site: http://www.nc/En/forestry. Italy.stm The Overstory. Web site: http://www. E-mail: overstory@agroforester. 3830 AB Leusden. Holualoa.net Periodicals Agroforestry Today carries practitioner-oriented reports from around the world on trees and crops on farms. Thailand. Holualoa. E-mail: iliea@iliea. USA. Web site: http://www. Tel: 808-324-4427. HI 96725.org ILEIA Newsletter covers technical and social options for ecological and sustainable agriculture. FAO. Address: The Overstory. E-mail: par@agroforestry. community workshops.nl The Indigenous Knowledge & Development Monitor focuses on the role that indigenous knowledge can play in participatory approaches to sustainable development. Fiji. Forest Products Division.net. Fax: +254-2-521001.nl/ciran/ikdm/ Non-wood News is an information-rich newsletter produced by FAO's Wood and Non-wood Products Utilization Branch. Address: Non-Wood News.org. and on the people who plant them. and training courses with young ethnobotanists from developing countries and disseminates results and information through their People and Plants Online Program. Suva. Address: APANews. E-mail: aftoday@cgiar. Box 30677. exchanges. E-mail: fao-rap@fao. and training in the Asia-Pacific region.agroforestry.O. USA. Address: Agroforestry Today. Web site: http://www.O.org. P.org/forestry/FOP/FOPW/NWFP/newsle-e.fao. the newsletter of the Asia-Pacific Agroforestry Network (APAN). Fax: +39-06-57055618. is dedicated to the exchange of information on agroforestry research. Web site: http://www. development. Box 428.agroforestry. P.O. providing readers with current information on nontimber forest products and their contribution to the sustainable development of the world's forest resources.44 SPC/UNDP/AusAID/FAO SPC.com.org APANews. Nairobi. The Netherlands. Tel: +39-06-570-52746.O. and has frequent articles on tree-based systems. 00100 Rome. Published by International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF).com Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands www. Tel: +31-33-494 30 86.html Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR) carries out agroforestry education and research in the Pacific. Fax: 808-324-4129. Viale delle Terme di Caracalla. P.uk/peopleplants/index. provides workshops. Tel: 808-324-4427.htm The People and Plants Initiative carries out applied research projects.overstory. a free e-mail journal.nuffic. Fax: +31-33-495 17 79. is a free e-mail journal covering concepts central to agroforestry practices in the tropics including up-to-date references and web links. Private Mail Bag. Box 428. HI 96725. and publishes Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands and The Overstory.spc. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. Bangkok 10200. Box 64. Address: Permanent Agriculture Resources. Web site: http://www. Forestry Department.

an international tropical agroforestry journal. Odo Primavesi. Berkeley. Amy B. He has a M. Hawaii. Thaman is Professor of Pacific Island Biogeography at the University of the South Pacific. Thaman. Academic Press. Brazil. Manager. Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation— EMBRAPA. Suva.. Discorides Press. She holds a graduate degree in Scientific Illustration from University of California. About the Authors Dr. Tokyo. Subsistence and Survival: Rural Ecology in the Pacific. 1971. Field Office Director.C.45 Acknowledgments Special thanks are due to the experienced resource professionals who provided valuable review and feedback for this publication including: Ian Armitage. and S. Craig R. Decker. The Nature Conservancy. A. The structure of permanence: The relevance of self-subsistence communities for world ecosystem management. Kealakekua. man and the landscape in Marquesan valleys. Botanical illustrations are drawn after the originals found in the USDA Forest Service publication. Incremental agroforestry: Enriching Pacific landscapes. Peter Van Dyke. Greenwell Ethnobotanical Garden. Kim M. He also serves as chairman of the Fiji National Food and Nutrition Committee. Randolf R. W. University of California Press. Kew.R. Wilkinson is the Education Director for Permanent Agriculture Resources and editor of The Overstory. Federated States of Micronesia. Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands: Systems for sustainability. W. Pohnpei. Ph. and Polynesians: An Introduction to Polynesian Ethnobotany.. She has B. Forestry consultant. Hawaii. Pago Pago. Bill Raynor. 275– 298. Banack. 1997. New Zealand. Clarke.G. Feachem. and R. Thaman/Elevitch/Wilkinson Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands . Los Angeles and London. People and place: An ecology of a New Guinean community. Clarke. A. degree in Electrical Engineering (Dynamical Systems) from Cornell University. Honolulu. Contemporary Pacific 9 (1): 121–148. New York. and Educational Concerns for Hunger Organization (ECHO). Department of Geography.R. Isle Botanica. The authors accept full responsibility for any errors or omissions. District Conservationist. Agronomist. USDA NRCS. Orlo Colin Steele. Oregon. Portland. References Clarke. French Polynesia. Elevitch is an agroforestry specialist with more than ten years of public and private sector experience in tropical agroforest and forest management. Wellington. P. D. Eds. Bishop Museum. and R. Santa Cruz. degrees in Anthropology and Ecology from Emory University.A. Clarke. New York. W. 1993. American Samoa Community College Cooperative Extension Service/AHNR Forestry. P.H. Agro–Forestry in the Pacific Islands: Systems for Sustainability. Thaman is the author of several important books including. Islands. Christi A. 1977. 1971. Plants. W.C. Kealakekua. Bayliss-Smith and R. Botanist. and Art Whistler.C. thesis.S. B. Cox. Fiji. Common Forest Trees of Hawaii (Little and Skolman 1989). Hawaii. Thaman. Sobel is a freelance scientific illustrator and artist who has been published by the Royal Botanic Gardens.. United Nations University Press. In: T. Steve Skipper. 1991. Berkeley. Plants. American Samoa.C. University of California.

Morton. Economic Analysis of Indigenous Agroforestry: A Case Study on Pohnpei Island. Selection and Management of Nitrogen-Fixing Trees. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Soerianegara. et al. Financial and Economic Analyses of Agroforestry Systems.. 1965. Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA). Ethnobotany of Hawaii. Honolulu. increasing malnutrition and food dependency in the Pacific islands. Institute of Pacific Studies. Rural Fiji. International Institute of Tropical Forestry. Birne. W. 1989. July 1991. In Sullivan. Tropical home gardens. Flora Vitiensis Nova: A New Flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes Only): Vol 1-5. Eds. B.C. Federated States of Micronesia.G. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Plant Resources of Southeast Asia No. Raynor.C. Agriculture Handbook No. Julia Morton. Species Notes. Useful trees and shrubs for Tanzania: Identification.. In Gardens of Hawaii. and R. Indonesia.J. Kauai. United Nations University Press. 1974. A. Wong.F. D. Indonesia. P. Occasional Paper 12. 1994. I. 1994. Field-Juma. Puerto Rico. R.. and B. Tokyo. N. 1989. and Brazil. The Netherlands.R. Lemmens. J. M. 1979-1991. 1995. G. In: Landauer. 5(2): Timber Trees: Minor Commercial Timbers.M.. Agrodeforestation and the neglect of trees: Threat to the wellbeing of Pacific societies. Proceedings of a workshop held in Honolulu. The University of the South Pacific. Nairobi. Media. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. Common Forest Trees of Hawaii. C. Msanga.R.M. Little.C.F. USDA Forest Service. and M.. P. Lemmens R. Thaman. K. 1993. and W.. and R. Ruffo. Neal. Hawaii. F. Lawai. 1987. Fijian agroforestry: Trees.W. Journal of Food and Nutrition 39(3):109–121. Propagation and Management for Agricultural and Pastoral Communities.T. Regional Soil Conservation Unit (RSCU). K. 1989. In Overton. 1978. University of New England. Unasylva 39(55):2–13. Agroforestry in Tonga: A Traditional Source for Development of Sustainable Farming Systems.agroforestry. Rio Piedras. people and sustainable polycultural development.P. Bernice Puahi Bishop Museum. Nair. Mbuya L. PROSEA. A.R. 1992. M. Kunzel. Smith. Thaman.S.C. PROSEA. R. Fruits of Warm Climates. Arkansas USA. Chandler.G. Greensboro. Eds. W. K. King. eds. R. MacDicken.L. South Pacific Smallholder Project. Rocheleau. Plant Resources of Southeast Asia No.R. The Food Production System of the Yap Islands.K. Winrock International. Hawaii. 31–58. Krauss. Ples: An Environmental Education Journal for the South Pacific Region 5:48–64. Ed. An Introduction to Agroforestry. Deterioration of traditional food systems. M. Agroforestry in Dryland Africa.H. Soerianegara. Skolman.. 679. Washington. Hawaii. 1994. DC. North Carolina. USA. 1987. and A. I. Incorporated. Thaman.H. Nairobi. International Council for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF). E. 5(1): Timber Trees: Major Commercial Timbers. 1982. Dordrecht.P. Suva.S. Kenya. Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands www. J.K. Weber. Armidale. 1989-1998.. Eds. Urban agroforestry: The Pacific islands and beyond. Morrilton.R. H.V. Tengnäs. Bogor. Bogor.46 Falanruw. Paia. Australia. 1990.net . The wasted lands: The programme of work of ICRAF.J. Thaman. R. 1989. USDA Forest Service. Nairobi: International Council for Research in Agroforestry. 1989.

Thaman. Verheij. 13(1):8–9 (three-part series). 1990. Eds. 1996. Kenya. Samoan Herbal Medicine. Extension and Training in Agriculture. Nairobi.J. R. 1990b. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP). Thaman. Coastal reforestation and coastal agroforestry as strategies to address global warming and to promote sustainable development in the Pacific Islands. Apia. Defining agroforestry technologies. Honolulu. Tropical home gardens. Global warmingrelated effects on agriculture and human health and comfort in the South Pacific. 1993. Indonesia.R. Atoll Research Bulletin. and R. R. 3. Port Vila. and McGregor. Eds. R. Thaman. November 1990. Thaman. Brazil. Urban food gardening in the Pacific Islands: A basis for food security in rapidly urbanizing small-island states. R. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. Climate change. Apia. and W.. Hawaii.A. and Thorpe. Westley. PROSEA. Plant Resources of Southeast Asia No.M. Thaman. Thaman. forestry and agroforestry in the Pacific Islands: Impacts and appropriate responses.R.R. 13(2):8– 10.. 1990c. Eds.R.47 Thaman. E. Western Samoa. Fiji. R.. 22–26 April.. Tonga. 1996. Agroforestry Today 2(1)(Jan. R. Suva. Nairobi. Whistler. Atoll agroforestry and plant resources: a basis for sustainable atoll agricultural development. Suva.G. Fiji. 1992. 1996.. 1992. Evolutionary agroforestry: Traditional Pacific Island agroforestry as a foundation for modern agroforestry development. In Landauer. Kenya. Eds. Vanuatu. 1992. 1996. and M. In Hughes.. Tokyo.. Noumea. Habitat International 19 (2):209–224. Pacific island agrosilviculture: Systems for cultural and ecological stability. Coronel. and C. R. S. P. Thaman. Noumea and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). G. A review of agricultural development in the atolls: Invited papers from the International Conference on Developing Agriculture Research Programs for Atolls. Climate change and sea level rise in the South Pacific Region: Proceedings of the Second SPREP Meeting. Thaman. In: Hay.E.W. In Rogers. R. Thaman. Mixed home gardening in the Pacific Islands: Present status and future prospects. University of the South Pacific. and W. Fiji. Institute for Research. Ed.. A Review of Uses and Status of Trees and Forests in Land-Use Systems in Samoa. Kaluwin. W. R. PRAP report No. Thaman/Elevitch/Wilkinson Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands .R. Kiribati and Tuvalu with Recommendations for Future Action. United Nations University Press. R. Batiri kei Baravi: The ethnobotany of Pacific Island coastal plants.C.R. P. 1990. Kiribati agroforestry: Trees. Clarke. Eds.R. 1992.A. 6–10 April. J. Whistler. people and the atoll environment. Canopy International 13(1):6–7. 1995.R. Atoll Research Bulletin 361:1–62.R. Agroforestry research and practices in the Pacific: Reports and papers from the Second Annual Meeting of Collaborators. 1987. Pacific Harbour. K. Pacific Regional Agricultural Programme. 2: Edible Fruits and Nuts. B. New Caledonia. South Pacific Forestry Development Programme.–March):21–24. R. Bogor. Isle Botanica. Western Samoa. In Chase.E..R.

and the steps in determining the costs involved. 5. growth rates. mulch/fodder.) and tree characteristics such as height. published by Permanent Agriculture Resources with support from the U. timber. Nontimber Forest Products for Pacific Islands: An Introductory Guide for Producers Discusses the environmental. estimating returns. shrubs. product requirements. live fences. Information Resources for Pacific Island Agroforestry Provides an introduction to agroforestry. 2. 8. organizations. and web sites useful to practitioners of agroforestry in Pacific Islands. Provides a species table with over 130 multipurpose trees used in Pacific Island agroforestry. fruit/nut production. contour hedgerows. detailing information on uses (food. economic.agroforestry. Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands Introduces traditional Pacific Island agroforestry systems and species. Examples of understory intercropping systems in the tropics are included. followed by a discussion of planning considerations for multipleuse windbreaks for timber. or wildlife habitat. Introduction to Integrating Trees into Pacific Island Farm Systems Presents eight Pacific Island agroforestry practices that integrate trees into farm systems. 4. Provides planning suggestions for those starting a nontimber product enterprise.agroforestry. and environmental conditions for a farm forestry or agroforestry project. Also explores the potential of improving economic picture through value-added strategies or agroforestry practices. Includes species table of over 90 windbreak species for Pacific Islands. and web links for further information on the subject. improved fallow.S. Integrating Understory Crops with Tree Crops: An Introductory Guide for Pacific Islands Introduces planning considerations for planting crops with forestry. followed by descriptions and contact information for books. etc. Includes a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of investing in farm forestry. 1.net/afg/ . Master copies are also available to photocopy free of charge from Pacific Island offices of the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) or the Cooperative Extension Service (CES) of the University of Hawaii. Multipurpose Windbreaks: Design and Species for Pacific Islands Covers information on windbreak design. Includes a species table of over 50 Pacific Island agroforestry species that provide quality wood products. orchard. Each guide includes a resource section with books. 6. periodicals. and habitat requirements. Includes silvopasture (trees and livestock). Department of Agriculture’s Western Region Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (WSARE) Program. detailing environmental requirements and uses/products. Economics of Farm Forestry: Financial Evaluation for Landowners Introduces strategies for determining the financial returns of small-scale forestry and farm forestry projects. or other tree-based systems. fodder. windbreaks. and vines used as understory crops in the region. and understory cropping. 7. sequential cropping systems. guides. as well as a species list of over 75 trees. periodicals. 3. Choosing Timber Species for Pacific Island Agroforestry Discusses seven steps for choosing timber species that meet the project goals. detailing environmental tolerances and multiple uses.48 Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands is the second in a series of eight Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands. woodlots. Includes a species table of over 70 traditional Pacific Island nontimber forest products. The guides can be downloaded from the internet free of charge from http://www. and cultural role of nontimber forest products.net. Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands http://www. and comparing farm forestry with other land uses.

Wilkinson Price: $24. North Carolina “A most excellent handbook.agroforestry.” —Developing Countries Farm Radio Network. Program Director.” —The Permaculture Activist.net/afg/ Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands edited by Craig R.” —APANews.” —ILEIA Newsletter for Low External Input and Sustainable Agriculture.95 (plus shipping) Availability: Usually ships within one business day.. Bill Raynor..a resource of lasting value.a wonderful resource.For Educators. Canada “Eloquently makes a case for reintroducing and emphasizing trees in our island agriculture.. Tel: 808-324-4427. HI.. 2000 ISBN: 0970254407 Publisher: Permanent Agriculture Resources. Fax: 808-324-4129. Paperback . Bangkok. Federated States of Micronesia “Provides a real clearinghouse on traditional and modern agroforestry not only for Pacific Islands. Pohnpei.an invaluable practical resource for those working to conserve and expand the use of trees in agricultural systems. The Asia-Pacific Agroforestry Newsletter FAO Regional Office. Box 428.. Toronto. 96725. P. email: par@agroforestry.O.240 pages.net . and Landscapers Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands “Well-researched.” —Dr. Gardeners. illustrated and fully indexed Release date: September. Elevitch and Kim M. The Nature Conservancy.. Thailand “A significant contribution to public education. advancing the cause of integrated agriculture and forestry. Holualoa. USA. concise. user-friendly. Farmers. Foresters. also very useful for other regions. The Netherlands Purchase the book at http://www.