Chapter 1—Introduction

MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. According to a study (Espenshade & Chung, 2010; Jaschik, 2006), growing numbers of four-year
colleges are not relying on the SAT test partly because of
a. budget constraints.
b. diversity concerns.
c. reliability issues.
d. quality control.
ANS: B

PTS: 1

REF: Introduction

2. Psychological tests
a. pertain only to overt behavior.
b. always have right or wrong answers.
c. do not attempt to measure traits.
d. measure characteristics of human behavior.
ANS: D
MSC: www

PTS: 1

REF: Basic Concepts

3. The specific stimulus on a test to which a person responds overtly is called a(n)
a. overt event.
b. answer.
c. item.
d. scale.
ANS: C

PTS: 1

REF: Basic Concepts

4. An individual test
a. involves a single examiner for two or more subjects.
b. involves only tests of human ability.
c. can only be given to one person at a time.
d. involves more than one examiner for a single subject.
ANS: C

PTS: 1

REF: Basic Concepts

5. A group test
a. can be given to multiple people by one examiner.
b. can only be given to three people at a time.
c. involves a group of examiners for a single subject.
d. involves only tests of human ability.
ANS: A

PTS: 1

REF: Basic Concepts

6. Previous learning can best be described as
a. achievement.
b. aptitude.
c. intelligence.
d. ability.
ANS: A
MSC: www

PTS: 1

REF: Basic Concepts

b. human ability. d. require the subject to choose between two or more alternative responses c. ability. covert behavior. intelligence tests. Projective personality tests a. d. ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Basic Concepts 13. One's general potential. achievement. ability tests. aptitude. b. d. ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Basic Concepts 12. involve an ambiguous test stimulus about which the response is structured. d. require you to produce something spontaneously. ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Basic Concepts . The main purpose of psychological testing is to evaluate a. d. provide a statement. b. usually of the self-report variety. b. independent of prior learning. and intelligence can be encompassed by the term a. ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Basic Concepts 8. achievement. b. Achievement. c. group tests. c.7. ability. human personality. c. overt behavior. personality tests. d. human potential. ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Basic Concepts 9. human traits.. ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Basic Concepts 10. intelligence. b. b. are structured. individual differences. c. c. involve an ambiguous test response. Tests that measure an individual's typical behavior are called a. are unstructured. aptitude. can best be described as a. d. c. ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Basic Concepts 11. require you to choose between two or more alternative responses. Structured personality tests a. intelligence. aptitude. The potential for learning a specific skill can best be described as a. personality traits.

14. Personality tests in which the test stimulus and/or required response are ambiguous are called a. projective personality tests. interview. The general potential to solve problems. structured personality tests. projective personality tests. and profit from experience is called a. reliability d. theories ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Basic Concepts 18. Tests can provide insight into overt but not covert behavior. Tests are successful in separating prior learning from potential for learning. individual tests. individual test. scales b. adapt. ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Basic Concepts 17. are called a. To differentiate among individuals taking the test ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Basic Concepts 20. transforms c. ability c. Which of the following is true of tests? a. c. When you gather information through verbal interaction. prediction b. b. ANS: A MSC: www PTS: 1 REF: Basic Concepts 16. intelligence ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Basic Concepts 19. To discriminate among related constructs d. achievement d. achievement personality tests. c. d. and require the subject to choose between two or more alternative responses. Tests that provide a statement. usually of the self-report variety. To develop accurate portraits of individuals c. b. d. brainstorming. you are using a(n) a. Which of the following is the most important function of testing? a. ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Basic Concepts 15. d. d. c. b. group test. Which of the following relates raw test scores to theoretical or empirical distributions? a. group tests. structured personality tests. Tests produce explicit data that are subject to scientific study. Very few tests can actually predict behavior. b. c. To determine what sort of treatment or other intervention is appropriate b. ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Overview of the Book . unstructured personality tests.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Overview of the Book 26. valid. b. dependability. the test can be said to be a. Test administration refers to the a. objectivity. If a particular test "X" has been shown to accurately predict success in a particular job. meaning. The validity of a psychological test refers to its a. d. b. ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Overview of the Book 24. d.21. random differences and population variation d. validation of the test. then the test is said to be a. objective c. d. c. c. If one can depend upon the results of a particular test to be consistently accurate. reliable d. survival of the fittest and individual differences c. valid. act of taking a test. ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Overview of the Book 25. reliable. c. What evolutionary constructs did Galton apply in his book “Hereditary Genius? a. structured. reliable. evolution and selective breeding ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective . construction of the test. b. A test that yields dependable and consistent results is ____. c. unambiguous. structured. d. fairness. valid ANS: C MSC: www PTS: 1 REF: Overview of the Book 23. b. genetics and epigenetics b. ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Overview of the Book 22. meaningful b. a. act of giving a test. ambiguous.

that some humans possessed characteristics that made them more fit than other humans. c. The work of Weber and Fechner represent which foundation of psychological testing? a. Russia. c. Alfred Binet. Sir Francis Galton. c. structured. that the concept of survival of the fittest was essentially incorrect. c. James M. unstructured. Charles Darwin. Han Dynasty. Cattell . individual differences b. The use of test batteries was common by the time of the a.27. Cattell. b. b. England. Which of the following scientists is credited with founding the science of psychology? a. Sir Francis Galton set out to show a. d. The term "mental test" was coined by a. China. batteries. Weber d. b. survival of the fittest d. The origins of testing can be traced to a. Wundt c. ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 28. d. Herbart b. d. b. ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 29. psychophysical measurement c. Tam Dynasty. ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 32. Egypt. d. c. that life evolved on this planet partially because of individual differences among individual forms of life within a species or type of animal. d. portfolios. b. Darwinian evolution ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 33. Nam Dynasty. Two or more tests that are given together and relate seemingly diverse topics are called a. ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 30. ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 31. Ling Dynasty. that humans did not differ significantly from each other.

b. Strong Vocational Interest Bank d. b. d. ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 35. to ensure the representativeness of a sample. standardization c. d. a. 1911. The first intelligence tests were developed for the purpose of a. Army. ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective . 1905. This group is called a(n) ____ group. c. a large group of people is being given a test under the same conditions in which the test will actually be used. c. Carnegie Interest Inventory ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 36. Binet-Simon Scale b. d. c. has been subjected to rigorous experimental control. to separate the intellectually subnormal from the normal individual.S. The first version of the Binet-Simon scale was published in a. ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 37. Seguin Form Board Test c. measuring emotional instability. It is important to obtain a standardization sample a. ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 38. experimental ANS: B MSC: www PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 39. identifying intellectually subnormal individuals. consists of a great many individuals. identifying gifted children. A standardization sample is representative if the sample a. Which test represented a major breakthrough in the measurement of cognitive ability? a. In order to establish norms. to prevent bias in the development and scoring of the test. b.ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 34. to provide a reference sample to which the results of a new subject can be compared. d. reliability b. is administered in the same way as the actual test group will be. 1908. consists of individuals that are similar to the group to be tested. 1896 b. c. finding the most suitable candidates for the U. random d.

He determined that 50% of the people in the standardization sample should be Hispanic. 1911. has been chosen in a completely random fashion. L. d. norms should be established using a representative sample that a. d. ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 44. He is creating a a. mental age scale. 20% Caucasian. normalization group. Simon. The concept of mental age was introduced in a. normative conditions. d. c. 1916. Terman. b. representative sample. b. Dr. random sample. represents all segments of the population in proportion to their numbers. A. c. d. outcome measure. ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 42. is comprised of a great many individuals. has been administered the test under standard conditions. b. This is an example of a(n) a. Binet and T. Johnson is trying to establish norms for his new test. group administration. b. b. facilitative conditions. Administering a test with precisely the same instructions and format is giving it under a. population statistics. ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 43. d. c. T. When a test is administered to the general population. Binet. restandardization. c. Eight-year-old Daniel was administered the Binet-Simon Scale that suggested he was functioning at the same level as a senior in high school. 1905. ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 45. ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective .40. d. ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 41. c. The Stanford-Binet intelligence scale was developed by a. Simon. M. c. A. standard conditions. 1908. 15% Asian. b. norm. and 15% African American.

b. c. The Wechsler-Bellevue scale ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective . Army Beta d. ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 47. Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale. can only be determined from large representative samples. Which of the following tests produced both a verbal and a performance IQ? a. c. selecting soldiers to fight for the U.46. b. c. A child's mental age a. ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 48. Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 50. Which of the following is a group test of human ability for an adult that does NOT require the subject to be literate? a. d. Seguin Form Board c. evaluating which students should be admitted to public universities. Seguin Form Board. ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 49. cannot be determined independently of the child's chronological age. Army Alpha and Army Beta.S. d. Army Alpha b. selecting pilots for advanced training in the World War II. c. The Army Beta d. cannot be determined from a child's test score. screening intellectually subnormal school children. provides a measurement of a child's performance relative to other children of a particular age group. in World War I. d. b. Stanford Achievement Test. Army Alpha. Stanford Binet test. d. ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 51. The first group tests of human abilities were developed for a. The use of standardized tests after WWI culminated with the publication of the a. The 1908 Binet-Simon scale c. Yerkes Personal Data Sheet. b. Robert Yerkes led the team of psychologists that developed the a. Army Beta. Terman's Stanford-Binet b.

A major problem with the Woodworth Personal Data Sheet was that a. David Levy. strongly impacted by changes in the environment d. c. ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 58. 16 Personality Factors test. dependent upon the situation b. Which of the following is an example of a trait? a. a. relied on the face value of responses. pessimism d. Sam Beck. Woodworth Personal Data Sheet. were too subjective. Thematic Apperception Test. Herman Rorschach. there were too few questions. This is an example of what kind of test? a.52. fear c. the normative sample was too small. anger ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 57. ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 54. d. b. Structured personality tests became unpopular in the 1930s and 1940s because they a. b. b. structured . b. The Rorschach was introduced into the United States by a. depression b. it assumed the answers were acceptable at face value. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. c. it was difficult to administer. d. c. The first structured personality test was the a. c. were not standardized. defined as the motivating force behind behavior c. d. were difficult to administer. Henry Murray. d. ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 56. ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 55. an enduring disposition that distinguishes one individual from another ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 53. A trait is ____. The Rorschach presents ambiguous stimuli to an individual who then provides his or her own personal interpretation.

Rorschach ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 62.R. multiple regression. factor analysis. Guilford. b. the Rorschach and the TAT c. Henry Murray.B. R. ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 65. c. MMPI d. projective c. d. abilities ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 59. the Rorschach and the MMPI b. d. Thurstone d.B. A method for finding the minimum number of dimensions to account for a large number of variables is called a. J. Which of the following tests is purported to measure human needs? a. Guilford b. L. the Rorschach and the Woodworth Personal Data Sheet d. 16PF b. ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 64. Cattell. c. Terman & Binet c. . intelligence d. The first attempt to apply factor analytic techniques to test construction were made by a. J.b. correlational analysis. Factor analytic techniques were employed in the development of the a. the TAT and the MMPI ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 61. Who is associated with the development of the TAT? a. TAT c. Morgan & Beck ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 60. Sam Beck. analysis of variance. Cattell c. Levy & Beck d. Who developed the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire? a. R. Which of the following are both projective tests? a. Murray & Morgan b. R. MMPI. b.L. Sam Beck ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 63.

16PF. Their objectivity and ease of administration and scoring b. abnormal behavior. Jeremy lost his job very unexpectedly last year. Jeremy lost his job very unexpectedly last year. d. Which individual developed tests to evaluate persons with emotional impairments? a. CPI. Kraepelin b. b. Galton c. The Shakow report emphasized that a. is regarded as having little room for improvement. and for a short while he was not as confident as usual. I. Today. most personality tests were invalid. Which of the following is one criticism of early personality tests? a. ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 69. is mostly ignored because insurance companies will not pay for it. Weber ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 71. Their ability to measure learning independently of intelligence c.Q. state. The questions were too complex to grade objectively. testing is a unique function of doctoral-level clinical psychologists d. Which of the following contributed to the popularity of standardized achievement tests? a. The tests made too few assumptions about the meaning of a test response.b. Their relationship to objective measures of neurological functioning d. remains one of the most important yet controversial issues. Seguin d. b. c. ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 66. b. ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 70. d. c. is losing its credibility. d. psychological testing a. ability. c. c. ability. tests should not be used to place children in special classes. d. TAT. abnormal behavior. c. This change in his level of confidence was representative of a(n) a. ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 67. . This change in his level of confidence was representative of a(n) a. b. trait. ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 68. state. all tests must have normative samples. but he was as confident as usual. Their importance to psychological theories ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 72. b. trait.

ANS: Answer not provided. Give examples of each from your life experience. The tests did not accurately reflect modern testing theories. TAT c. Describe the difference between measuring traits and state. The responses may not be interpreted in the same way by the test administrator. MMPI d. Make note of significant historical events that played a part in the development of testing as a major field. PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 2. relies on empirical research? a. Trace the rise and fall of testing in the last century. d. ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 73. but instead.c. PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective . In what settings are psychological tests most likely to be found today? What role does psychological testing play in contemporary society and how has this role changed since the inception of testing? ANS: Answer not provided. 16PF b. PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 4. PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective 3. What was the original purpose of intelligence testing and how is it used now? How has the modern cultural context influenced intelligence testing? ANS: Answer not provided. Describe the evolution of intelligence testing. CPI ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Historical Perspective ESSAY 1. Which of the following tests makes no assumption about the meaning of test responses. ANS: Answer not provided.