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Basic electronics Module 1



 When a p-type semiconductor material is suitably joined to


n-type semiconductor, the contact surface is called a p-n


junction. The p-n junction is also called as semiconductor







Characteristics & parameters. Diode approximations, DC load line


analysis, Half wave rectifier. Two diode full wave rectifier, Bridge
rectifier, Capacitor filter circuits. Zener diode voltage regulators
(with & without load).Series &shunt diode clipping circuits,
Clamping circuits, Numerical examples as applicable.
Bipolar Junction Transistors : BJT operation, BJT voltages &
currents, BJT amplification, common base, common emitter,







 The left side material is a p-type semiconductor having –ve
acceptor ions and +vely charged holes. The right side

Text book :
David A Bell, Electronic Devices and Circuits: Oxford University Press,
5th Edition , 2008.

material is n-type semiconductor having +ve donor ions and
free electrons
 Suppose the two pieces are suitably treated to form pn
junction, then there is a tendency for the free electrons from

Chapter 2: 2.1,2.2,2.3&2.4.
Chapter 3: 3.1,3.2,3.3,3.7,3.8,3.9 & 3.10

n-type to diffuse over to the p-side and holes from p-type to
the n-side . This process is called diffusion.

Chapter 4 : 4.1,4.2,4.3,4.5,4.6 &4.7

Note : p type region: Holes are majority charge carrier
n type region: Electrons are majority charge carriers

Vinay H S,Dept.of ECE, CEC.


Basic electronics Module 1
Diode circuit symbol:

Current flows in the arrowhead direction when the diode is forwardbiased: positive (+) on the anode and negative (-) on the cathode.

Biasing: Connecting a p-n junction to an external d.c. voltage
source is called biasing.
Types of biasing:
1.Forward biasing
2. Reverse biasing

2. Reverse biasing
 When the external voltage applied to the junction is in such
a direction the potential barrier is increased it is called
reverse biasing To apply reverse bias, connect –ve terminal
of the battery to p-type and +ve terminal to n-type as shown
in figure below

1. Forward biasing
 When external voltage applied to the junction is in such a
direction that it cancels the potential barrier, thus permitting
current flow is called forward biasing.
 To apply forward bias, connect +ve terminal of the battery
to p-type and –ve terminal to n-type as shown in fig. below.

Vinay H S,Dept.of ECE, CEC.


Basic electronics Module 1


3. Forward Bias – The voltage potential is connected
positive, (+ve) to the P-type material and negative, (-ve) to
the N-type material across the diode which has the effect of
Decreasing the PN junction diodes’s width.

Ge & Si VI Characteristics :

Diode Parameters :

The diode parameters of greatest interest are
VF forward voltage drop
IR reverse saturation current
VBR reverse breakdown voltage
rd dynamic resistance
IF(max) maximum forward current

Note :
 Determination of the dynamic resistance (rd)of a diode from
the forward characteristic.
The dynamic resistance, also known as the incremental
resistance or acresistance, is the reciprocal of the slope of
the forward characteristics beyond the knee.

There are two operating regions and three possible “biasing”
conditions for the standard Junction Diode and these are:
1. Zero Bias – No external voltage potential is applied to the
PN junction diode.
2. Reverse Bias – The voltage potential is connected
negative, (-ve) to the P-type material and positive, (+ve) to
the N-type material across the diode which has the effect of
Increasing the PN junction diode’s width.

Vinay H S,Dept.of ECE, CEC.


Basic electronics Module 1
 Determination of diode forward and reverse resistance.

Determine the dynamic resistance at a forward current of 70 rnA for
the Silicondiode characteristics estimate the diode dynamic
resistance (IF & VF Refer characteristics graph ).

Example :
Calculate the forward and reverse resistances offered by a silicon
diode with the characteristics, at IF= 100 mA and at VR= 50 V.

Diode approximation:
Ideal diode characteristics
We know that a diode is one way device, offering low resistance
when forward biased and a high resistance when reverse biased. On
the other hand an ideal diode (a perfect diode) would, zero forward
drop and infinite reverse resistance and thus behave electrically
open circuit. Figure below shows the characteristics of ideal diode.
Vinay H S,Dept.of ECE, CEC.


Then.of ECE. for example. such assumptions where diodes can be assumed to be near ideal devices.25 Ohm dynamic resistance and a 200 mA maximum Although an ideal diode does not exist. Vinay H S. In situations.Dept. or approximate characteristics for Si and Ge diodes as shown in figure (b) and (c) . demonstrates the process.Basic electronics Module 1 Example: Construct the piecewise linear characteristic for a silicon diode which has a 0. some situations demand forward current. 5 . may be employed. A straight-line approximation. marked on the horizontal axis. a straight line is drawn with a slope equal to the diode dynamic resistance. To construct the piecewise linear characteristic. Also. VF is first. when supply voltages much larger than the diode forward drop VF is used then the diode forward can be ignored without introducing any serious error. Piecewise Linear Characteristic When the forward characteristic of a diode is not available. as shown in Fig. Ex. These assumptions lead to the near-ideal. CEC. called the piecewise linear characteristic. starting at VF. the diode reverse current is normally so much smaller than the forward current that the reverse current can be ignored.

referred to as shockley’s equation.Dept.of ECE.62*10-5eV/oK T – Absolute temperature in Kelvins = 273 + the temperature in oC .Then recalculate the current taking rd= 0. CEC. Vinay H S.7V and rd= 0.25Ω Diode equation : General characteristics of a semiconductor diode can be defined by the following equation.Basic electronics Module 1 Example: Calculate IF for the diode circuit in Fig. for the forward and reverse bias regions:  VF nVT  I F  I S  e  1   (A) Where IS – reverse saturation current VF – applied forward bias voltage across the diode IF – diode forward current η – Ideality factor (1 for Ge& 2 for Si diode) VT – thermal voltage or voltage equivalent VT = kT (V) K =Boltzman’s constant = 8. 6 . a assuming that the diode has VF= 0.

in eqn 1 becomes E= VF When VF =0 in eqn. that is identifying point F equal to V/R and point E equal to VF and drawing line EF which represents the dc load line and represents all dc conditions that could exist within the circuit. (b). The diode forward characteristic is given in Fig. Diode circuit and fig. It is a straight line that illustrates all dc conditions that could exists within the diode circuit. DC load line analysis The DC load line figure shows graphical representations of dc load line drawn on the diode forward characteristics.b. Applying the KVL we get. Plotting the dc load line on the diode characteristics Explanation of a DC load line: Consider the diode circuit shown in figure below. (a). Figure : a. E= IF R1+ VF ……………………(1) When IF=0. There is only one point on the dc load line where the diode voltage and current are compatible with the circuit conditions. The Q point: It is the point of intersection of the diode forward characteristics with the load line The dc load line is explained in the figure above.of ECE. The analysis can best be made by taking a practical example. giving precise levels of diode current and voltage.1 becomes V= IFR1 or IF =V/R Plotting these two conditions as shown in fig. Example : Draw the dc load line for the circuit in Fig. Vinay H S. CEC. This is a straight line that illustrates all dc conditions that could exist within the circuit. 7 .Dept.Basic electronics Module 1 DC Load line : It is a graphical analysis of a diode circuit.

Dept. determine the required load resistance for the circuit in Fig. Vinay H S.Basic electronics Module 1 Example 2. a to give IF= 30 mA.of ECE. CEC. 8 . Using the device characteristics in Fig. b.

1 V.Determination of the required supply voltage for a dioderesistor circuit witha given resistor and a specified load current. Fig . Vinay H S. Point A may now be plotted (on Fig.Basic electronics Module 1 3) Determine a new supply voltage for the circuit in Fig. CEC.and the new dc load line may be drawn through points A and Q.of ECE. 9 .a to give a 50 mAdiode forward current when Rl = 100 Ω.) at IF= 0 and E = 6.Dept.

Dept. is a sinusoidal a. Types of rectifiers  Half wave rectifier  Full wave rectifier (Center tap & Bridge wave) Half Wave Rectifier : The half wave rectifier conducts only positive or negative half cycles of input a.c.c. using one or more p-n junction diodes. Operation of the Circuit: During the positive half cycle of input a. The circuit diagram is shown in the fig To obtain the desired d. being the product of load current and load resistance. If Nlare the primary number of turns and N2 are the secondary number of turns and Epm is the peak value of the primary voltage then. voltage. (a).c.Basic electronics Module 1 RECTIFIER A rectifier is a device which converts a.e.c voltage. The transformer decides the peak value of the secondary voltage. terminal (A) becomes positive with respect to terminal (B). Thus the circuit current. During negative half cycle when terminal (A) is negative with respect to terminal (B). voltage. as shown in the Fig. p-n junction diode. This rectifier circuit consists of resistive load.c. The different waveforms are illustrated in Fig. rectifying element. voltage is applied to rectifier circuit using suitable step-up or step-down transformer. and the source of a.of will also be in the form of half sinusoidal pulses. Vinay H S. 10 .c.c. The input voltage to the half-wave rectifier circuit shown in the Fig. voltage to pulsating d. CEC.c. having a frequency which is the supply frequency. all connected in series.c. with necessary turns ratio. 50 Hz given by. The load voltage. which is also the load current. (b). This current is also flowing through the load resistance RL hence denoted as iL (load current). the a. diode becomes reverse biased. The diode is forward biased and the current flows in the circuit in the clockwise direction. voltage. i. voltage. voltage across the load. mostly a step-down one. Where Esm=Peak value of the secondary a. Hence no current flows in the circuit as shown in the Fig. is in the form of half sinusoidal pulses.

then IDC and from that calculate Edc as Idc RL 11 . CEC.c.c.Dept. If Rs is not given it should be neglected while calculating Im' The average d.Basic electronics Module 1 The peak value of the load current is given by. Load current and load voltage waveforms for half wave rectifier Vinay H S. Fig. The average or d. value of the load current (Idc): It is obtained by integration.C. load current & the load resistance RL The winding resistance Rs and forward diode resistance Rf are practically very small compared to RL hence neglecting them. calculate Im. Note: When Rfand Rs are finite. load voltage (Edc) : It is the product of average D.of ECE.

power to input a.Dept. Vinay H S. but a pulsating d. component in the output to the average or d.c.M. CEC. value of the load current: Rectifier efficiency: The rectifier efficiency is defined as the ratio of output d.c.c. The output contains pulsating components called ripples. It tells how smooth is the output.c.  The measure of ripples present in the output is with the help of a factor called ripple factor denoted by γ.c.c.of ECE.S. power. value of the a. The d.  Mathematically ripple factor is defined as the ratio of RM.S. power output is: Ripple Factor It is seen that the output of half wave rectifier is not pure d. component present in the output. 12 .c.Basic electronics Module 1 The R.c.  Smaller the ripple factor closer is the output to a pure d. Ideally there should not be any ripples in the rectifier output.

Only one diode is sufficient. The circuit is easy to design. This indicates that the ripple contents in the output are 1. to d. The disadvantages of half wave rectifier are 1.e.Basic electronics Module 1 Advantages and Disadvantages This is the general expression for ripple factor and can be used for any rectifier circuit.c. component i.1 % of d. No centre tap on the transformer is necessary. when the diode is reverse biased.  In half wave rectifier. component. The ripple factor for half wave is very high which indicates that the half wave circuit is a poor converter of a.21 times the d.c. 2. 3.c.c. This increases the cost. 13 . 121. 3. The advantages of half wave rectifier are 1. . Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV)  The Peak Inverse Voltage is the peak voltage across the diode in the reverse direction i. CEC. transformer size have to be increased accordingly. The TUF(Transformer Utilization factor) is very low showing that the transformer is not fully utilized.of ECE.21. The d. The ripple factor of half wave rectifier circuit is 1. which is quite high.e.c.Dept. the load current is ideally zero when the diode is reverse biased and hence the maximum value of the voltage that can exist across the diode is nothing but Esm' Vinay H S. The maximum theoretical rectification efficiency is found to be 40% which is very low. 2. To minimize the saturation. current is flowing through the secondary winding of the transformer which may cause dc saturation of the core of the transformer. This is called PIV rating of a diode. 4.

of ECE. 14 .Basic electronics Module 1 Vinay H S.Dept. CEC.

polarity reversesand terminal (A) becomesnegative and (B) positive. while D1 does not. The diode D2supplies the load current. 15 .e. The diode Dl supplies the load current.c.c. In the next half cycle of ac voltage.Basic electronics Module 1 Full wave rectifier:  The full wave rectifier conducts during both positive and negative half cycles of input a.Dept. two diodes are used in this circuit. input. The diode D2 conducts.  The diodes feed a common load RL with the help of centre tap transformer  The a.of ECE. iL = id2 . Hence we get rectified output across the load. iL = id1. i.e.c. The diode D1 will be forward biased and hence will conduct. voltage is applied through a suitable power transformer with proper turns ratio. The full wave rectifier circuit is shown in the Fig Operation of the Circuit: Consider the positive half cycle of ac input voltage in which terminal (A) is positive and terminal (B) negative due to center tap transformer.  In order to rectify both the half cycles of a. Vinay H S. The individual diode currents and the load current are shown in the Fig. It is also noted that the two diodes do not conduct simultaneously but in alternate half cycles. The load current flows in both the half cycles of ac voltage and in the same direction through the load resistance. CEC. being forward while diode D2will be reverse biased and will act as an open circuit and will not conduct. being reverse biased. i. The load current is sum of individual diode currents flowing in corresponding half cycles.

CEC.c.Basic electronics Module 1 The output load current is still pulsating d.Dept.of ECE. Average D C Current (Idc) : 16 . Vinay H S.c. and not pure d.

No d.Dept. The ripple factor is less. load voltage and current are more than half wave. The large d. voltage across half the secondary of transformer. CEC. power output. The efficiency is higher. is better as transformer losses are less. current through transformer windings hence no possibility of saturation. T.Basic electronics Module 1 Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) : Note that Esm = maximum value of a. 6. 5. 3.c. 2. 17 . The d. 4.c.c.F. Advantages and Disadvantages of Full Wave Rectifier The advantages of full wave rectifier are 1. Vinay H S.of ECE.c.U.

The cost of centre tap transformer is higher Vinay H S.Dept. Higher PIV diodes are larger in size and costlier.of ECE. 2. 3. 18 .Basic electronics Module 1 The disadvantages of full wave rectifier are 1. CEC. The PIV rating of diode is higher.

while D3 and D4 reverse biased. The main advantage of this circuit is that it does not require a center tap on the secondary winding of the transformer. Hence the circuit can be used for high voltage applications.of ECE. when the polarity of ac voltage reverses hence point B becomes positive diodes D3 and D4 are forward biased. forming the four arms of an electrical bridge. In the next half cycle. 2) No center tap is required in the transformer secondary. It is seen that in both cycles of ac. Operation of the Circuit: Consider the positive half of ac input voltage. Hence net d.Dept. inverse voltage appearing across diodes get shared. we get a full-wave rectified output. the ac voltage is applied through a transformer ifnecessary. Peak inverse voltage(PIV) : PIV=Esm Vinay H S. the load current is flowing in the same direction hence. and the rectified dc voltage is taken from the other diagonal of the bridge.Basic electronics Module 1 Bridge Rectifier: The basic bridge rectifier circuit is shown in Fig. CEC. component flowing is zero which reduces the losses and danger of saturation 4) As two diodes conduct in series in each half cycle. The point A of secondary becomes positive. Now the diodes D3 and D4 conduct is series with the load and the current flows as shown in Fig. Advantages 1) The current in both the primary and secondary of the power transformer flows for the entire cycle and hence for a given power output. ~ 3) The currents in the secondary of the transformer are in opposite directions in two half cycles. while Dl and D2 reverse biased. The bridge rectifier circuit is essentially a full-wave rectifier circuit.c. 19 . To one diagonal of the bridge. The diodes Dl and D2 will be forward biased. The two diodes Dl and D2 conduct in series with the load and the current flows as shown in Fig. using four diodes. 5) The transformer gets utilized effectively. power transformer of a small size and less cost may be used.

Idc.Edc. equations & Derivations are same Except PIV.of ECE. Ripple factor.Im. NOTE :Bridge full wave rectifier & Center tap full wave rectifiers Efficiency. 20 .Pdc. CEC.Basic electronics Module 1 The waveforms of load current and voltage are shown in the Fig.Dept. Vinay H S.Pac.

CEC. 21 .Basic electronics Module 1 Comparison of HW.Dept.of ECE. FW & BW Rectifiers: Vinay H S.

These circuits are normally connected between the rectifier and load as shown below Filter is a circuit which converts pulsating dc output from a rectifier to a steady dc output In other words.of ECE. is charged almost to the peak level of the circuit input voltage when the diode is forward-biased. which are undesirable or unwanted.b shows the output waveform. termed a reservoir capacitor. The waveform quantities are as follows: 22 . c. and Fig. filters are used to reduce the amplitudes of the unwanted ac components in the rectifier Note: A capacitor passes ac signal readily but blocks dc. Ripple Amplitude and Capacitance The ripple amplitude can be calculated from the capacitor value. Figure A reservoir capacitor smooth’s the output from a rectifier circuit by charging to the peak output voltage and retaining most of its charge between peaks. This occurs at Vpi. Capacitor filter Circuits : To convert to direct voltage (dc voltage). the load the output obtained by the rectifier is not pure d.Basic electronics Module 1 Filters: We know that the output of the rectifier is pulsating d.c. Figure a shows a half-wave rectifier circuit with a single capacitor filter (C1) and a load resistor (R L). a smoothing circuit or filter must be employed. CEC. Consider the circuit output voltage waveform illustrated in Fig. The capacitor. These ac components are called as Ripples.c.Dept. and the capacitor discharge time.a. but it contains some ac components along with the dc o/p. To minimize the ripples in the rectifier output filter circuits are used. giving a peak capacitor voltage: Vinay H S. as illustrated in Fig.

of ECE.Dept. and input frequency. which gives the time per degree as Figure a. Vinay H S. The capacitance value for a reservoir capacitor can be calculated from the load current. Figure b shows that.Basic electronics Module 1 Where f is the frequency of the ac input waveform. because the input wave is sinusoidal. Approximation calculations 23 . The input waveform goes through a 3600 phase angle during time T. CEC. ripple voltage.

24 . CEC.of ECE.Dept.Basic electronics Module 1 Zener Diode:  Zener Diode is a Two terminal semiconductor device  A conventional solid-state diode allows significant current if it is reverse-biased above its reverse breakdown voltage Circuit symbol Vinay H S.

(if IZT = 20 mA.However.). and calculate the circuit current when the supply voltage drops to 27 V. limits the Zener diode current to the desired level.1 V reference source is to use a series-connected Zener diode and resistor connected to a 30 V supply (see Fig. Example A usually employed as a voltage reference source that supplies only a very low current (much lower than Iz) to the output.Dept. CEC.Basic electronics Module 1 ZENER DIODE VOLTAGE REGULATORS Regulator Circuit with No Load: The circuit in Fig. Select suitable components. Iz should be selected as IZT(the specified test current). for the most stable reference voltage. 25 . Resistor Rl in Fig.) Vinay H S. Izis calculated as follows: Solution: The Zener current may be just greater than the diode knee current (IZK).of ECE. Example demonstrates the circuit design procedure.

may be reduced to zero.Basic electronics Module 1 Loaded Regulator : When a Zener diode regulator has to supply a load current (IL).2 v =64.of ECE. Solution IZM =PD/VZ=400mW/6. as shown in Fig.)The circuit is to use a low-power Zener diode and is to produce the maximum possible load current.The diode must be able to pass a maximum current of (IL+IZ).5mA Fig: Zener diode voltage regulator circuit supplying a load current (IL). CEC. Because the voltage drop across Rl remains constant.Dept. In some cases.2 V and PD = 400 mW.the total supply current (flowing through resistor R1) is the sum of ILandIz. the supply current remains constant: IR1=IZ+IL Example Design a 6 V dc reference source to operate from a 16V supply (see Fig. 26 . Calculate the maximum load current that can be taken from the circuit. the load current in the type of circuit shown in Fig.5mW IL(max) +IZ(max) =IZ=64.(Vz= 6.) Vinay H S.

CEC. The' zero level output from a series clipper circuit is not exactly zero. Consequently. Figure a shows a negative series clipper circuit with a square wave input symmetrical above and below ground level. D1is forward-biased and the positive half-cycle is passed to the output. the output remains at zero and the negative halfcycle is effectively clipped off. Types of clippers 1 Series clipper 2 Shunt (parallel) clipper SERIES CLIPPING CIRCUITS (positive &negative ) A half-wave rectifier can be described as a clipper because it passes only the positive (or negative) half-cycle of an alternating waveform and clips off the other half-cycle. the diode is reversebiased. During the negative half-cycle of the input.Dept. 27 .Basic electronics Module 1 CLIPPING CIRCUITS The function of a clipper (or limiter) is to clip off an unwanted portion of a waveform. In fact. While the input is positive.of ECE. a diode series clipper is simply a half-wave rectifier circuit. The reverse saturation current (IR) of the diode produces a voltage drop across resistor Rl: This voltage drop is almost always so small that it can be ignored. Vinay H S.

sinusoidal. or other input waveforms. the upper and lower levels of the output of a positive shunt clipper are approximately + VF and . the positive half of the waveform is clipped off.of ECE. 28 . A negative shunt clipper circuit is exactly the same as a positive shunt clipper with the diode polarity reversed (see Fig.b). When the input is negative. Thus.Basic electronics Module 1 SHUNT(parallel) CLIPPING CIRCUITS Here the diode is connected in shunt (or parallel) with the output terminals.E. The negative half-cycle of the waveform is clipped off. D1 is forward-biased and the output voltage equals the diode voltage drop (+ Vp). shunt clippers may be used with square. The load current on a shunt clipper produces a voltage drop (ILR1) across the resistor. CEC. This means that the circuit output voltage (V0) is approximately equal to the negative input peak ( -E).Dept. Vinay H S. When the input is + E. As illustrated. the diode is reverse-biased and there is only a small voltage drop across R1' due to load current IL. this might be insignificant where the load current is very low: As in the case of series clipping circuits.

CEC. The clipper Vinay H S.of ECE.Dept. 29 .Basic electronics Module 1 Note: Zener Diode Shunt Clipper A Zener diode shunt clipper produces the same kind of result as a biased shunt clipper without the need for bias voltages.

CEC. A minimum level of Iz (greater than the device knee current) is selected. When the input voltage is positive and has sufficient amplitude. and the resistor value is calculated as Example A Zener diode shunt clipper. has two back-to-back series-connected Zener diodes. Select suitable Zener diodes. and determine R1. the output voltage is limited to (VF + Vz2).(VZ=4. A negative input voltage produces a maximum negative output of -(VF+ VZ1) With equal-voltage Zener diodes.Basic electronics Module 1 circuit in Fig.of ECE. the maximum output voltage is VO= ± (VF+VZ) The resistor voltage is (E – V0).The clipper output current is to be ±1mA. 30 . is to be connected between a ±20V square wave signal and a circuit that cannot accept inputs greater than ±5V.3V IZ(min)=5mA) Vinay H S.Dept. as in Fig. and the resistor current is (IL + Iz). D1 is forward-biased and D2 is biased into reverse breakdown. At this time.

while that on the left side is + E. diode Dl is forward biased and the output voltage equals the diode forward voltage drop VF. The capacitance value is determined from the acceptable slope. Thus. A positive voltage clamping circuit passes the complete input waveform to the output but clamps the negative peak of the output close to ground level Shown in below fig Output Slope The output voltage age from a clamping circuit has a slope (ΔVc)produced by capacitor discharge.VF): Vinay H S. When the square wave input is positive.Dept. changes the dc voltage level of a waveform but does not affect its shape. During the positive half-cycle of the input.Basic electronics Module 1 CLAMPING CIRCUITS A clamping circuit. the voltage on the right side of the capacitor is +VF. CEC. 31 . C1is charged with the polarity shown to a voltage: The peak-to-peak output voltage (V0(pp))is the difference between the positive output peak (VF) and negative output peak -(2E . . also known as a dc restorer. Negative and Positive Voltage Clamping Circuits Consider the clamping circuit shown in Fig.of ECE.

npn transistor npn transistor is obtained when a p-type layer of silicon is sandwiched between two n-type silicon materials.pnp transistor pnp transistor is obtained when a n-type layer of silicon is sandwiched between two p-type silicon material.  It is constructed with 3 doped semiconductor regions. 32 . has a ±10V. either two n and one p-type layers of material or two p and one ntype layers of material.Dept.of ECE. TRANSISTORS BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS:  The transistor is a three terminal semiconductor device.Basic electronics Module 1 Example The diode clamping circuit in Fig. CEC.1 kHz square wave input. Calculate the tilt on the output waveform. Below fig shows the schematic representations of a transistor which is equivalent of two diodes connected back to back Vinay H S. 2.  The term bipolar reflects the fact that holes and electrons participate in the conduction process. Transistors are classified into two types 1.

of ECE.  The symbol shown at fig (b). Most of the charge carriers are collected by being drawn across the reversebiased collector-base junction. junction. is used for a pnp transistor and in the symbol shown at fig (a). in which the emitter arrow head is directed towards the base (p to n).Basic electronics Module 1  The terminals have been indicated by the capital letters E for emitter. the base-emitter junction is forward biased and the collector-base junction is reverse-biased. not the electron flow direction. in which the emitter arrow head is directed away from the base (p to n).  The arrow head in the emitter terminal always indicate the conventional current direction. The pn junction joining the base region and the collector region is called the base-collector npn transistor Operations : For normal BJT operation.  Two pn junctions exist in each transistor: The pn junction joining the base region and the emitter region is called the base-emitter junction. pnp transistors Operations : In a pnp BJT. and most of them are collected by the collector region. BJT graphic(Circuit) symbols  The symbols used for bipolar junction transistors in circuit diagrams are given in Fig below. CEC. Vinay H S.Dept. is used for an npn transistor. and B for base. as indicated in above Figure . 33 . Charge carriers (electrons in an npn device) are emitted into the base region from the emitter region. the forward bias on the base-emitter junction causes charge carriers (holes) to be emitted into the base region. Very few charge carriers flow through the base terminal. C for collector.

34 . CEC. BJT voltages and currents: Terminal voltages for npn transistor:  The terminal voltage polarities are shown in fig (a) and the connection of voltage sources is shown in fig (b). Vinay H S.Dept.Basic electronics Module 1 Terminal voltages for pnp transistor:  The terminal voltage polarities are shown in fig (a) and the connection of voltage sources is shown in fig (b).  The arrow head indicates the conventional current direction and arrow head points from base to emitter.of ECE.  The arrow head indicates the conventional current direction and arrow head points from emitter to base.

the base-emitter (BE) junction should be forward biased and the collector-base junction  Both IC and IB flow out of the transistor while IE flows into the transistor. or the ratio of collector current to emitter current i. In the case of pnp transistor this current is due to holes.5V and base-emitter junction will become reverse biased.Dept.. But in the case of switching (1) transistors collector-base junction will become forward biased by 0.Basic electronics Module 1 Note: Normally in the transistor. and the collector current is denoted as IC as shown in fig .  This is shown in fig Transistor currents:  The current flowing into the emitter terminal is called as emitter current. CEC.e. Therefore by KCL I E  IC  I B (CB) should be reverse biased.  dc  Vinay H S. base current is denoted as IB. Almost all of IE diffuses to the collector (around 96% to 99.  The emitter current is denoted as IE. I C   dc I E (2) Where αdc is the emitter to collector current gain. Hence we can write IC as a percentage of IE.5%) and only a small portion flows out of the base terminal. IC IE (3) 35 .of ECE.

CEC.9mA   5mA  dc 0.98 Example 2: Calculate αdc and βdc for the transistor Q1 in fig.Dept.98  dc   dc 0. Determine the new base current to give IC = 5mA.98 I C 4.9mA (1   dc ) 1  0. if IC is measured as 1mA and IB is 25μA. Solution: IC  IE   dc I B 0. Vinay H S. Determine the value of βdc for the transistor. 36 .98 and IB = 100μA.98  100A   4.98   49 (1   dc ) 1  0.of ECE.Basic electronics Module 1 Relationship between α & β Example 1: Calculate IC and IE for a transistor that has αdc = 0.

976 I E 1.e.Basic electronics Module 1 BJT AMPLIFICATION: Current amplification:  Let us assume the common emitter configuration (discussed later)..025mA  dc  IC 1mA   0.025mA IB  IC  dc   So that a small change in base current (∆IB) produces a large change in collector current (∆IC).Dept. Solution:  dc  IC 1mA   40 I B 25A I E  I C  I B  1mA  25A  1. CEC. From this we say that a small input current is amplified to a large output current (shown in fig ).of ECE.  From the transistor operation we found that IB is very small and IC is very large i. 37 . I C   dc I B (output current is βdc times the input current). 5mA  125A 40 Vinay H S.  IB is the input current and IC is the output current.

of ECE. CEC.7V. VCC =20V. ac signal source in series with VB is vi = ±20mV. so Vinay H S. I C   dc I B  50  20A  1mA  DC collector voltage is calculated by using KVL. VC  VCC  ( I C R1 )  20V  (1mA  12K)  8V  If the ac input voltage vi is zero. forward bias voltage VB=0. But vi causes a base voltage variation of ±20mV.  The transistor in fig has  dc =50.  The corresponding IB for the 0. then VC will remains at 8V itself.7V level is 20μA.  Q1 has the IBVs VBE characteristic shown in fig 3-10.Dept.Basic electronics Module 1  In terms of current level changes base to collector current Voltage amplification: gain can be written as  ac  I C I B  Change in IC is denoted as I C =Ic (changing quantities are called as ac quantities)  Change in IB is denoted as I B  I b Now  ac  Ic Ib  Alternate symbol for  ac is hfe. 38 .

Common Base configuration (CB) 2. the change in collector voltage is given by VC  R1 I C  12K  250A  3V 1. 39 . CEC.  Output is taken from the collector and base terminals.  Input is applied between emitter and base terminals. v0 vi Vinay H S.Dept. Common collector configuration (CC)  From this we can conclude that a ±20mV change in input base voltage produces ±3V change in the output collector voltage.of ECE. there are 3 configurations:  Because of this change in collector current.Basic electronics Module 1 that the base current changes by ±5μA (from fig 3-10). Now TRANSISTOR CONFIGURATIONS: the change in collector current is I C   dc I B  50  (5A)  250A Depending upon which terminal is made as common between the input and output. The parameter COMMON BASE CHARACTERISTICS: Common base circuit: to define voltage amplification is called as voltage gain (Av). V  3V Av  C   150 VB  20mV  The equation for ac voltage gain Av   Fig shows a npn&pnp transistor with its base terminal common to both input and output terminals. hence called voltage amplification. Common Emitter configuration (CE) 3.

Vinay H S.e. This is shown in the output characteristics. CEC. the characteristics is similar to that of the forward biased PN junction diode.  It is observed from the graph that there is a slight increase in emitter current IE with increase in VCB. deeper in to the base region. thus shortening the distance and reducing the resistance between the emitter-base and collector-base depletion regions.  This is due to.  VCB is adjusted in convenient steps and corresponding values of IC are noted and the characteristic is plotted in Fig  When the emitter base junction is forward biased and the collector base junction is reversed biased the transistor is in the active region..Basic electronics Module 1 Input characteristics  It is the curve between input current IE and input voltage VEB at constant collector base voltage VCB as shown in fig . the larger collector base voltage cause the depletion region at the collector base junction to penetrate Common base output characteristics  It is the curve between collector current IC and VCB at constant emitter current IE.  After the cut-in voltage IE increases rapidly with small increase in VEB i.of ECE.Dept. 40 . Under normal condition the transistor will be operated in the active region.

CEC. 41 .  Input is applied between base and emitter terminals. breakdown Vinay H S.Dept.of ECE.Basic electronics Module 1 Common emitter circuit:  Fig shows a npn & pnp transistor with its emitter terminal common to both input and output terminals.  Output is taken from the collector and emitter terminals.

increasing collector current. CEC.  VCE is adjusted in convenient steps and corresponding values of IC are noted and the characteristic is plotted in Fig  When we increase the level of VCE the width of the CB  It is observed from the graph that there is a slight reduction depletion region will increase. EB depletion region. but the current IB is only a small portion of the total current IE. increasing collector current and reducing base region.Dept. Common emitter output characteristics:  It is the curve between collector current IC and VCE at constant base current IB. The slope in the output characteristics is and reducing the distance between the CB and EB depletion termed as early effect and the transistor is in the active region. breakdown Vinay H S. current.of ECE. so that it will penetrate more in base current IB for a particular VBE with increase in VCE into the base and reducing the distance between the CB and levels.Basic electronics Module 1 Input characteristics  It is the curve between input current IB and input voltage VBE at constant collector emitter voltage VCE as shown in fig  The characteristics are similar to the forward biased pn junction. so that it will penetrate more into the base characteristics. 42 .  This is because higher VCE will increase the width of the CB  This increase in IC will give some slope in the output depletion region.

VCE = VCB+VBE (shown in fig ). Current gain characteristics:  This characteristics is drawn between output current IC and input current IB with constant VCE. CEC. and at the knee of the characteristics VCE = VBE.Basic electronics Module 1  When we extend the characteristics to the left of the current axis they will meet at a point on the horizontal axis and the voltage at that point is known as early voltage. VCB = 0V and we will get more current at this point. 43 . Vinay H S.  When both the junctions are reverse biased input and output currents are zero and the transistor is said to be in cut-off region. At this point both the BE and CB junctions are forward biased and the device is said to be in saturation region.Dept.  For a given level of IC the ac resistance at the collector terminal is given by rc= VA/IC  Further reduction in VCE will forward bias the CB junction and IC will reduce to zero when VCE is zero.of ECE.  In the output characteristics.

VEB = 0 VEB = VEC-VBC --------------- (1)  From eqn (1) we can say that.Dept.  When VEC increases there is a slight increase in IB. when VBC increases for a constant VEC. VEB will reduce and hence IB reduces shown in fig . Vinay H S. Input characteristics  It is the curve between input current IB and input voltage VBC at constant emitter collector voltage VEC as shown in fig  Apply KVL around the transistor -VBC + VEC .Basic electronics Module 1 Common collector circuit:  Fig shows a npn & pnp transistor with its collector terminal common to both input and output terminals.  Input is applied between base and collector terminals.  Output is taken from the emitter and collector terminals. 44 .of ECE. CEC.

This is nothing but CE output characteristics. Vinay H S. the characteristic is now between IC and VEC.of ECE. (Only Region of Emitter base Collector base operation junction junction Cut-off Reverse biased Reverse biased Active Forward biased Reverse biased Saturation Forward biased Forward biased difference is sign of VEC). CEC.Dept.  VCE is adjusted in convenient steps and corresponding values of IC are noted and the characteristic is plotted in Fig  Since IE ≈ IC. Applications: Active region: amplifier Cut-off region-Saturation region: switch.Basic electronics Module 1 Output and current gain characteristics: Biasing conditions:  It is the curve between emitter current IE and VEC at constant base current IB. 45 .

... 46 ..Dept..END………………………... CEC..Basic electronics Module 1 ………………………….. Vinay H S......of ECE....