TQM Tools and Techniques I - The seven tradition tools of quality, New

management tools, Six sigma, Concept and methodology, Application to
manufacturing, Service sector including IT, Benchmarking, Reasons to
benchmark, Benchmarking process, FEMA, Stages of FMEA and types.
The seven major SPC problem solving tools proposed by Prof. Ishikawa.
1. Process flow-diagrams
2. Cause and Effect diagram
3. Histogram
4. Pareto diagram
5. Check sheet
6. Scatter diagram and
7. Control Charts
i) Process flow-diagrams:
1. These diagrams show the flow of the product or service as it moves through
the various processing operations.
2. It shows the overall picture of the sequence of operations connected with
the manufacturing process graphically or diagrammatically.
3. The diagram makes it easy to visualize the entire system, identify potential
trouble spots and locate control activities.
4. Improvements can be accomplished by changing, reducing , combining or
eliminating steps.


ii) Cause and Effect diagram:
1. A cause-and-effect (C&E) diagram is a picture composed of lines and
symbols designed to represent a meaningful relationship between an effect
and its causes.
2. Prof. Ishikawa of the University of Tokyo developed this tool and hence it is
also known as Ishikawa diagram.
3. It is known also as Fish bone diagram because of its appearance.
4. The following fig. Illustrates a C&E diagram with the effect on the right and
causes on the left.

Steps Involved In Constructing A Cause And Effect Diagram:


6. It also illustrates the various measures of central measures of central tendency. Uses: 1. Introduce the changes. services etc. These causes are identified through a brainstorming session. Look for possible solutions for these causes. marketing. 2. These reasons are called as subcauses and these are otherwise called as small bones and they are drawn from the major bone. 5. Identify the major causes for the particular problem. Draw and label the major bones as diagonal lines as shown in the fig. 5. 3. Applications: 1. This is the backbone of the diagram. To analyze the cause of any quality problem identify the factors leading to better results (effect). manufacturing. office operations. 3 . To organize everyone’s active participation in the brainstorming process in order to get free flowing ideas.1. Now go in for further brainstorming session to identify the reasons for the major causes. It is a pictorial diagram showing the visual representation of spread or distribution of data. 8. To educate and train personnel in decision-making and corrective action activities. These major causes are called the major bones of the diagram. To eliminate conditions causing non-conformities and customer complaints. Now the picture is ready so that interpretations can be made based on this. 4. Median: the middle value of all data points. iii)Histogram: 1. To standardize existing and proposed operations. Mode: the values repeated most often in the raw data 5. 3. Draw a broad arrow going from left to right. 2. The first step is to clearly define the problem to be studied. 7. 3. Mean: Sum of all the measured or counted data divided by total number of data points. also known as average 4. 4. 2. The CE diagram has unlimited application in research. Write down the effect at the tip of the arrow.

of <100 100-500 > 500 Values No.20 Classes 4. The data values (observations) are divided in groups and the number of values are counted in each classes. The data are collected to be charted and the total number of data values are counted. of 5-9 8-17 15. The width of the class is determined by the following formula Width = Range / No. No. A frequency table is drawn for all values 6. of classes selected from the table 5. 3. Types of Histograms and their interpretations 4 . The class intervals are placed on the horizontal axis (X axis) and the frequencies on the vertical axis (Y axis) 7.Steps Involved In Constructing A Histogram: 1. the height of each bar is to represent thee number of values or the frequency of class interval is marked on the diagram. The range of data is determined by subtracting the smallest data value from the highest data value. A histogram is drawn based on the frequency table. 2. Finally.

The method for classifying the data is determined by means of problem . Pareto diagram for reports of troubles with telephones Steps Involved In Constructing a Pareto Diagram: 1. Draw a bar above each item whose height represents the number for that cause. The Pareto diagram is based on the Pareto principle. mark the measured values for each cause. This analysis is a method of classifying items. A bar chart with two vertical axes is drawn. i) Along the left vertical axis. The data (frequency) is arranged in descending order starting from largest to smallest category 4. 8. Help to identify the root cause. This axis displays the cumulative percentages. The required data is collected by using check sheet or use historical data 3.Uses of Histogram: 1. 7. The percentage of total is calculated for each category 5. It is a prioritization tool used for problem identification and also for measuring the progress of corrective actions. 3. from left to right in descending order of frequency or costs. events or activities according to their relative importance. List the different kinds of causes along the horizontal axis. 3. Pareto analysis is also called as 80/20 rule and as ABC analysis. It helps to identify the most significant problems so that effort can be concentrated to get the maximum benefit at the least cost. cause. 4. ii) starting from zero till the total number of causes. failures. complaints and non-conformities 2. iv)Pareto Diagram: 1. It is a powerful tool used for quality improvement 3. 5 . Used to monitor a process in order to meet the customer requirements 2. It means that 80% of the problems (effects) are due to 20% of the causes (defects). It is a tool for determining the variation from the allowable specification and suggest the ways of keeping a process in control. The right vertical axis should have the same height and should go iii) from 0 to 100% . 2. Uses of Pareto Diagram: 1. which states that a few of the defects accounts for most of the effects. Plot a cumulative percentage line. The information in histogram help in understanding the extent to which a process is operating normally or out of control. A pareto diagram is a graph that ranks data classifications in descending order from left to right. It gives sufficient information about a quality problem to provide a basis for decision making 4. 2. The cumulative percentages are computed 6.

Check sheets are used to ensure that the necessary procedures are completed correctly before the operation begins. A check sheet format is drawn to record the data 5. It can also be used to maintain stocks and machinery 3. 7. Defective item check sheet-It is used to collect the data to specify the defects occurring along with their frequency of occurring 3. The sub total and the grand total number of facts are marked on the list Types of Check Sheets: 1. |. Defect location check sheet-It is used to identify &locate where defects occur on the product 4. Process distribution check sheet-It is used to collect the data on process variability 2. 6 . The required data is collected and relevant data is chosen 3. Now draw a horizontal line from 80% (on the right vertical axis) to the left till the point of intersection with the cumulative line and then draw a vertical line from this intersection downwards till the horizontal axis. It is useful for getting immediate inference and taking corrective actions 4.9. V)Check Sheet: 1. Each data is analyzed before entering the record 4.|||. Start counting by tallying on the list. It is also known as Tally Sheet 2.4 and 5 respectively. Steps to construct check sheet? 1.||.|||| and |||| represent the numbers 1. It is used to record the variables in a production process to improve the quality 2. intersection point are the 20% of Left from this the causes which causes 80% of the damages. 6. The objective is specified clearly and concisely 2.2. Defect factor check sheet-It is used to monitor the input parameters. Record data problem-wise by putting tally lines.3. It is a systematic way of recording direct observations and helping to gather facts in the process Uses of Check Sheet: 1.

VI)Scatter Diagram: 1. 5. why particular variations occur and how they can be controlled. The relationship between Car speed Vs fuel consumption per kilometer 2. Examples: 1. Positive Correlation – if an increase in variable X depends on an increase in variableY 2. Uses of Scatter diagrams: 1.if an increase in variable X depends on a decrease in 3. It is used to determine the relationship of one variable with the other variable 2. 3. I. 4. 5. The purpose of the scatter diagram is therefore to display what happens to one variable when other variable is changed. The measured values (cause) of one variable (independent) are plotted on the horizontal axis and the other measurement values (effect) of variable (dependent) are marked on the vertical axis. It is simply a graphical tool used to examine the relationship between two variables 2. The diagram is used to understand. It is also used to determine the cause and effect relationship between the two variables Types of Scatter Diagrams: 1. Negative Correlation. variable Y No Correlation-if the correlation is close to zero Positive Correlation may exist Correlation by stratification Curvilinear relationship 7 . Cutting speed Vs tool life in the manufacturing Division. The density and direction of the cloud indicate how the two variables influence each other. This diagram displays the paired data as a cloud of points. 4.

7. performance over time) of the process. The control chart is based on a series of random samples taken at regular intervals. and the bottom line represents the Lower Control Limit (LCL). A histogram gives a static picture of process variability. These two lines are generally set at ±3sigma from the sample means.e. 3. Effect : Y axis Steps Involved In Constructing A Scatter Diagram: Select variables which are related to each other Collect data Create Scatter diagram X axis -> Cause or independent variable Y Axis-> Effect or dependent variable Examine the shape of cloud of points vii) Control Charts: 1. 4. 6. It is the most the widely statistical process control which was Determine type andused strengthtool of theinmutual relationships introduced by Walter A. whereas a control chart illustrates the dynamic performance (i. Three horizontal lines are drawn on the control charts. 2. The centre line is the average mean value of the characteristic usually set at the normal design value 8 . Control chart is aimed to monitor the quality of process continuously. Shewart in 1926. 5.Cause : X axis . The top line represents the Upper Control Limit (UCL).

 Control Charts for Attributes – For quantifiable data such as number of defects. It is used to improve the process capability by reducing the variability in the process adopted. 2.8. temperature. typing errors in a report etc. To constantly monitor a process to determine whether the process is controlled statically or not 4. To provide the basis for taking decisions related to the acceptance or rejection of products being manufactured 2. the process is said to be within control 10. To evaluate process stability and to decide when to adjust the process 5. X-Chart 2. 9. To improve the existing production procedures by analyzing the capability of the machine and the process Types of Control Charts:  Control Charts for Variables – For measurable data such as time. Sigma Chart 9 . R-Chart 3. If the sample value lies inside the ±3sigma limits. Objectives Of Control Charts: 1. pressure etc. To determine and eliminate the assignable causes of variations in a process 3. (i) Control Charts for Variables: 1. Control charts are used to improve the quality of the product and also to reduce certain unwanted cost 3. These are line graphs that are used to track a process trend or process performance in order to control the process characteristics. length. If the sample value lies outside the ±3sigma limits. The samples are plotted one by one the control charts and these are connected with straight line segments. the process is said to be out of control Uses Of Control Charts: 1. weight.

10 .(ii) Control Charts for Attributes: 1. problem solving and new product development. utilization information of from the available data. These tools are also used for top and middle management of the organizations for strategic planning.2 NEW SEVEN MANAGEMENT TOOLS 1. Japanese developed seven more tools for 2. These tools are used in the Area of product quality development.No 1 Variable Charts Attribute Charts Variable data are usedAttribute data are used with the help of GO and (ie) the qualityno GO characteristics are Gauges. goal setting. 3. U-Chart Difference between control charts for variables and attributes SI. NP-Chart 3. In addition to the 7 SPC tools. C-Chart 4. 3. P-Chart 2. measurable and can beExample : p. Example : Mean-Chart R-Chart Sigma Chart 2 It provides maximumIt provides overall picture of the quality. np.C and U charts expressed in terms of numerical values. quality improvement. These are called as the New seven Management Tools. cost reduction and system improvement.

vii. It is a tool used to collect a large amount of data (ideas. observations etc. Matrix Data Analysis Diagram (Prioritization matrices) Process Decision Program Chart (PDPC) [Decision tree] Arrow Diagram (Activity Network diagram) i. opinions. It is used to find out the root cause of the problem by focusing on the processes. The visual representation of affinity diagram gives a large amount of ideas. Affinity Diagram (KJ-Method) Relations Diagram iii. Matrix Diagram v. Tree Diagram (Systematic diagram) iv. vi. 3. 11 . 2. So that these data can be analyzed systematically for finding solution to the problem. It is also known as KJ-Method because of its inventor name Kawakia Jiro. 4.) and organize them in groups based on natural relationship between each items.. 3.i. It is used to understand and organize problems that are not clear. ii. 2. 4. 5. Affinity Diagram 1. individually and record on the cards Sort cards into groups and discard those with no affinity Label the groups and organise the cards under them to form chart Analyse the results and plan action-points Uses of Affinity Diagram 1. It is a special kind of brainstorming method. It encourages team work with critical thinking. Step – by – Step procedure Identify the problem and phrase it without biases Brainstorm ideas and opinions.

Relationship Diagram [ Inter-Relationship Diagram] 1. It helps to identify the key problem from a list of important problems ii. These intermediate causes are connected to the effect by a straight line. It is used to identify the key factors needed to make a decision. The first step in the process is to identify the main problem [i. The relationship diagram not only clarifies the relationship between cause and effect bur also between the various causes. iii. v. iv. Steps involved constructing a relationship diagram i. vi. [Outcomes or results] 12 . 7.effect].e. 3. It clarifies the interrelationship of many factors of a complex situation iv. ii. Uses: i. It is used to identify the root cause of existing problem iii. It is a tool finding solutions to problems that have complex relationship. The next step for the group members is to identify the immediate reasons [i. 2. These causes are placed by rectangles around the centre as dark rectangle. Finally.causes] for the given problem. system or simulation. 4. Arrow in the line pointing towards the effect is marked. The possible causes are noted down in a card. ii. 6.e. It creates a sense of ownership of the process. It is also known as interrelationship diagram. it is enclosed in a dark bordered rectangle. Purpose: The main purpose of relationship diagram is to generate a visual representation of the relations between an affect and its causes as well as the interrelationship between the different causes of the problem.5. 5. The intermediate rectangle with most outgoing arrows indicates the root causes and the rectangle with most incoming arrows indicates the root effects. It is a graphical representation of all factors in a complicated problem.

The tree diagram for how to improve customer relations for any organisations to survive and succeed. the ways and means for resolving the problems have not been developed. Each branch of the completed tree diagram is analyzed in order to achieve the objective. It gives a bird’s eye view of the whole situation at a single glance. The most important tasks are identified to place these tasks at the first level of the tree diagram. All possible causes are brainstormed to determine the tasks that are involved to reach the end objectives. The other name for this method is dendrogram. 2.iii) Tree Diagram 1. ii. These tasks in a sequential order are arranged to the right side of the main tasks. The ultimate objective to be achieved is clearly fixed and stated. Steps involved in a Tree Diagram i. 4. 5. 3. The sub-tasks that are needed to complete the primary task are identified. Eg. This can be used to determine the ways or means needed to achieve a specific goal or objective. v. This diagram is mostly used when the cause that influence the problem are known but. iv. 13 . iii.

Steps for matrix diagram are: i) First decide on the two sets of factors to be compared. ii) Place the main factors vertically (features) on the left hand side of the matrix and the dependent factors(characteristics) horizontally on the top of the matrix. study and rate the relationship between two or more variables. It is used to compare different competing alternatives with multiple characteristics. 5. etc. 3. It is used to show the relationship between the two variables iii. This diagram can be used to understand relations between customer satisfaction and product characteristics. iv) Now score relationships and select most important relationship for analysis. place appropriate symbols at the intersecting square boxes denoting the relationship between the two factors. It is a tool that is used to find out. Matrix diagram sometimes referred as ‘quality table’ is the starting point in building a ‘house of quality’. 4. iii) In the main body of the matrix.iv)Matrix Diagram 1. between complaints and product groups. 14 . For eg. 2. Uses: i. It is an effective problem solving tool that is used to assign tasks to complete the project ii.

It is almost similar to a matrix diagram but the difference is that the numerical data is used instead of symbols indicating the existence and strength of relationship. 15 . ii) This tool is used in “Principal Component Analysis” where only two characteristic can be studied at a time. in analyzing market information etc.Types of Matrix diagrams 1) L-Shaped matrix ( 2 Variables are used) [Most Common type] 2) T-Shaped matrix ( 3 Variables are used) 3) Y-Shaped matrix ( 3 Variables are used) 4) X-Shaped matrix ( 4 Variables are used) 5) C-Shaped matrix ( 3 Variables are used) V)Matrix Data Analysis Diagram 1. 2. iii) This tools is advantageous in studying the parameters of production processes. 4. It is the only tool among the ‘New Seven Management Tools’ which uses numerical data and produces numerical results. The other factors are listed in relation with the important factors in the first row of the matrix. Steps in constructing a matrix data analysis diagram i) The important factors to be considered is listed in the first column of the matrix. Purpose: i) To present numerical data about two sets of factors in a matrix form and analyse it to get numerical output. 3.

ii.ii) The numerical data with weightage corresponding to these factors are entered. the order of priorities of these factors are as follows. Uses: i. the factor with the next highest total is to be ranked and so on. iii. It is used in production processes where the complicated problems arise. 1. It is used to analyze only two characteristics at a time. The rankings are shown in the last column. iv) The factor with least total is to be ranked first. use 1 for the most important factor and 6 for the least important factor. iii) The weightages are added horizontally against each row factor and the values are recorded in the last column. 5. Very tough question 16 .  If 6 factors are present. It is used to prioritize issues using a weighted criteria. v) Now the factors are analyzed separately in the order of the obtained ranking.  From the above example matrix.

3. 3. 4. The brainstorming is conducted in order to find what is wrong. The ultimate objective to be achieved is determined. The countermeasures for each ‘what if’ are evaluated and are placed in a balloon in a bottom level. Syllabus is more 4. this tool helps to anticipate undesirable occurrences and enables one to prepare with plans to neutralise their effect. 5. In other words. 17 . while carrying out the first level of activities. The second level of activities to be completed is listed out to achieve the first level activities. Uses: 1. Students preparation is not enough 6. 2. It encourages team members to think about what can happen to a process and how counter measures can be taken 5. It is also known as Decision tree which is used to identify the possible deviation from the actual plan of the objective.2. Inefficient teacher 3. when the new or unique task involves great risks 2. It is used to identify the undesirable occurrences and avoid them by planning appropriate counter measures 3. The first level of activities to be completed to attain the overall objective. It is used for decision making. It is used in new product development. vi)Process Decision Program Chart (PDPC) or Decision tree 1. The staff member has finished less portions in the syllabus 5. The PDPC forces proactive thinking on what can go wrong with one’s plan and what would one do to overcome the effect of such adverse occurrences. It provides the mechanism to effectively minimize uncertainty in an implementation plan 4. Very strict valuation. data processing systems and building construction Steps for constructing the PDPC Chart 1. This is called ‘what if’ level. 2.

Each event is numbered by using Fulkerson’s rule and the connecting arrows are drawn iv. ii) To find the shortest time possible for the project. It is a technique of planning. earliest finish. 4. The earliest start. CPM (Critical Path Method) and PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) charts are the best example of arrow diagrams. The main purpose of the arrow diagrams are : i) TO show the paths to complete a project. Steps involved to construct a Arrow Diagram i. It is a graphical representation of the sequential steps that must be completed before a project can be completed. This arrow diagram is indispensable for long term projects such as the construction of a plant or the development of new products. latest start and latest finish are calculated for each activity 18 . 6. The time duration to each activity is fixed. The sequence of activities is determined one after another. 3. The various activities (tasks) are identified and listed out to complete a project ii. 2. 5. iii) To display graphically simultaneous activities. scheduling and controlling of all the activities of a project.vii)Arrow Diagram 1. iii.

Construct an arrow diagram i. 3. this quality level is not enough to meet the actual requirements.000 different parts. The critical path that is. we are implementing 6 sigma quality level 19 . 2.  In some exceptional cases. 3.e. according to 3sigma quality level. 25 defective assembled parts are accepted  This should not be accepted because. the path with longest possible time duration is determined on the network 7. this may cause to a major incident. Hence it is necessary to increase the sigma level in order to reduce the defectives in to a few parts per million.27% of points to fall outside the control limits.  For example. It is used to find the possible time duration to complete the project.3 SIX SIGMA:  The 3 sigma quality level accepts only 0.D 4 Write equipment F C. if an aircraft consists of 9.D 7 report G E.  Therefore .F 2 Write methods report Write final report Uses : 1.v. It is used for planning and scheduling the projects. CPM network for the following data: Activity Designation Immediate Time in weeks Design A Predecessors - 16 Build prototype B A 6 Evaluate C A 7 equipment D B 3 Test prototype E C. It is used to find the critical path of the process or a project.

Measure 3.  It provides extensive training to the project team hence. cycle time is reduced with more profit  It improves the work systems. Control Define :  The goal of an organization is defined  To set the policies and procedures 20 . training and the work environment  It decreases the cost of inspection and reduce the rework Disadvantages of Six-Sigma:  This approach is very attractive but in practical it is very difficult to achieve. Steps involved in 6-sigma state/Process of 6-sigma (DMAIC): 1.807 20-30% of sales 4-sigma 6. Improve 5.4 defects per million opportunities with 99. Under this six sigma level 3.537 30-40% of sales 3-sigma 66.210 15-20% of sales 5-sigma 233 10-15% of sales 6-sigma 3.000 40-70% of sales Product Status Non-competitive 2-sigma 3. Quality Defects per million Cost of Poor level parts produced quality 1-sigma 6. Define 2.4 Less than 10% of Industry Average World Class sales Advantages of Six-Sigma:  It is used to indicate the extent to which a process can vary without causing errors in the operation  This approach aims to reduce the defect levels into only few parts per million parts inspected  It aims to achieve zero defects  It identifies and eliminates causes of defects in the process/operation.90. Analyze 4.99966% of accuracy  This six sigma quality level is developed by the world class company Motorola in the Year of 1987.08.

Benchmarking is a systematic search for the best practices. . SERVICES SECTOR INCLUDING IT 3. 3. 21 . I.T Chennai is the benchmark for technical education. better and faster manner Control:  After improving the system. employees and suppliers. Benchmarking is a systematic method by which organizations can measure themselves against the best industry practices.American Productivity and Quality centre: Benchmarking is defined as “ the continuous process of measuring products. understanding and adopting outstanding practices and processes from organizations anywhere in the world to an organization to improve its performance”.I. innovative ideas. it is very essential to control the system level parameters in order to maintain better outputs.  Finally the system is standardized by the way of communicating the benefits of the new system to the customers. Example:  In quality education. Identifying the customer requirements Measure:  The existing system is well measured and displaying data Analyze :  The gap between the current performance of the system and the aimed target is identified  These data are analyzed and then the improvement opportunities are determined Improve:  Planning and project management tools are improved to fill up the gap identified in the previous step  The present system is improved by adopting creativity to do things in a cheaper.4 APPLICATION TO MANUFACTURING. services and practices against the toughest competitors (or) those companies recognized as industry leaders” – David Kevin 1. 2.  IIM Ahmadabad is the benchmark for management courses. and highly effective operating procedures.5 BENCHMARKING: Benchmarking is defined as “the process of identifying.

It encourages regular monitoring of process and continuous improvement. iv. 3. Process Benchmarking i. processes. Types of Benchmarking: Classification Based on the Object to be benchmarked I. Product benchmarking i. It measures all the different kinds of system performance variables such as efficiency. etc. It can help in identifying activities where improvement is possible. 5. flexibility iii. Performance Benchmarking i. 2. It is also called as ‘customer satisfaction benchmarking’ or ‘customer value profiling’. It is a very important tool to identify different functional areas iv. of perception of customers. effectiveness. It helps the organization to reach the level of the best practices in the industry 4.Concept of Benchmarking: 3. This refers to comparison of processes 22 . III. quality. It helps to set the new goals and adopts the best practices in the organization. II.5 Reasons/Objectives of Benchmarking: 1. This refers to comparison of performance indicators related to a business as a whole or to the group of critical activities or ii. It helps to identify the current position of the business and determine the practices for improvement. This refers to comparison of different features and attributes of ii. It helps the organization to develop their strengths and reduce their weakness. It also provides external feedback to the concerned persons involved in the process or in any of the constituent activities. 6. It is a powerful tool to achieve business and competitive objective. It is done through either engineering analysis or through analyses iii. where scope for improvement is high. productivity. competing products and services.

This refers to examining competitive position in the market place ii. V. etc. 3. 5. It is applied to any business or production process.ii. joint ventures arrangement etc. The current level is measured: a. Identify world-class company. Studying others v. Expressed in terms of mission and vision statements. ii) Understanding the current performance: 1. IV. determine the data to be collected and prepare a list of questions. Using the findings and vii. Planning iv. II. 2. Understanding the current performance iii.6 BENCHMARKING PROCESS i. 2. 3. subsidiaries. Best-in-class Benchmarking It refers to comparison of performance with best practices prevalent in an organization irrespective of products and services. Internal Benchmarking It refers to comparison of performance between departments. Learning from the data vi. tasks. 6. Competitive Benchmarking It refers to comparison of performance against direct competitors. plants. Determine which functions. Check the current level (gap between organization and best-in class). Strategic Benchmarking i. IV. Implementation & taking action i) Deciding what to benchmark: 1.. 23 . III. 3. product and service. Industry Benchmarking It refers to comparison of performance by the organizations producing the same class of products and services. Examine a process & working methods & check the products are same or not. It helps the company to study the business strategy of another successful business and use the strategy for becoming more competitive. Formulate the project goals. processes to be used. Classification Based on the Organizations against whom one is Benchmarking I. 4. Complete measurement. Relationship Benchmarking It refers to comparison of performance with the benchmarking company which already has a relationship like customer-supplier relations. within the organization. It identifies a more effective and efficient process to be implemented. 7. The analysis is based on process. Appoint team. Deciding what to benchmark ii.

Competitive. Specify tasks.Beast practices. Organizations that are candidates to serve as a benchmark. iv) Studying others: 1. 3. 3. c. Two groups: i. 3.b. ii. what would be the resulting improvement? 2. Collect feedback and determine customer satisfaction index. Two types of information: a.preparation. v) Learning from the data: 1. Three outcomes: Negative gap (external better than internal). Findings must be communicated to the people for improvement. Process – Improve performance d. What is the gap? How much is it? c. 4. Internal. iii) Planning: 1. what type of data and method. Why there is a gap? What does the best-in-class do differently that is better? d. 2. If best-in-class practices were adopted. 4. 24 . Focus groups – panels of benchmarking partners to discuss mutual interest. Questionnaires. Internal process is needed to conduct the study. Measurable results of these practices. Conformation with procedure manuals. 4 types: a. the process owners. People (upper management) who can enable process by providing changes to planning and provide resources. vi) Using the findings: 1. Strategic – Winning strategies. 2. Use internal sources. How best-in-class processes are practiced.Easy to obtain data b. 5. Parity (both are equal) and Positive gap (internal better than external). It involves answering a series of questions: a. Three techniques: a. checklist b. & action plans be developed to implement new processes. It is used to avoid negative gap. original research. c. data in public domain. vii) Implementation & taking action: 1. b. Is there a gap between the organization’s performance and the performance of the best-in-class organizations? b. Timetables to be agreed for benchmarking tasks and desired output from the study. Team to be chosen to decide what type of benchmarking. Generic steps: i. c. People who will run process. Site visits – opportunity to see processes. Draw flowcharts. It must translate to goals & objectives. 2. d.

Helps in understanding the best industry practices.However. 2. v.ii. iii. 3. 2. strategies. iv.These studies can be applied at any stage of design.It is analyzing the effect of failure of product or process of the system 25 .For example. vii. best industry practices etc.. 3. FMEA is a “before-the-event” action requiring a team effort to easily and inexpensively alleviate changes in design and production. It is a process of learning from others and it does not develop any new andimproved approaches. It is a structural analytical technique that combines the technology and experience of the people to identify the failures in a product (or) process and goes in for planning to eliminate the failure. 2. 4. Failure effect analysis: 1. Repeat the process. So benchmarking should not be a substitute for innovation. Determine resource needs. Company would become competitive. Pitfalls/Disadvantages of Benchmarking: 1.It is analyzing the operation of the product (or) process to see what are the most likely modes (causes) of failure. Electrical short circuit. 3. Failure criticality analysis 1. b. It helps the organizations to develop their strengths in order to achieve their goals and objectives. 3. 2. results are achieved when process owners participate in design & execution. Establish task schedule. Recognize the potential failure of a product or process. break failure etc. 2. Specify methods for monitoring results. Failure mode analysis ii. It prioritizes the areas that need further improvement. 2. Best Sequence the tasks. It is a group of activities comprising the following : a. Failure effect analysis iii.7 FAILURE MODE AND EFFECT ANALYSIS (FMEA): 1. If all the industries employ the benchmarking approach. Benefits of Benchmarking: 1. Document the process. development and production. the study is mostly applied at the design stage Failure mode analysis: 1. c. vi. It is a never-ending process improvement tool. Assign responsibility. Describe expected results. 4. since the objective of FMEA is to prevent failure before occurring. it will lead to stagnation of ideas. Identify actions that eliminate / reduce the potential failure. Three Principal Study areas of FMEA: i.

26 . FMEA Team: 1. System FMEA is a combination of design and process FMEA. The other types are 1. The team members should design and manufacture using this collective group of thoughts. Design FMEA: a) It aids in the design process by identifying known and foreseeable failure modes and then ranking failures according to the relative impact on the product. 2. maintaining FMEA form. 2. 4.For Example. They are Design FMEA and ProcessFMEA.Equipment FMEA 4. 3.8 Types of FMEA: 1.System FMEA 2. The other FMEA types are nothing but small variations of process FMEA and Design FMEA.Environmental FMEA 6. Document should be effective. The FMEA methodology is a team effort. completion of form.2.Service FMEA 5. how critical the failure would be? How these critical failures can be minimized (or) eliminated? 3. b) Similarly. records.It is analyzing the potential failures of the product (or) process to determine. The purpose of FMEA document is to allow all involved engineers have to access others’ thoughts. Effect of failure of a carburetor in a car Failure criticality analysis: 1.Concept FMEA a) Equipment. The types of FMEA can be broadly classified into two types. People Inputs : a. 2. Process FMEA: a) Process FMEA is used to identify potential product failure modes by ranking failures and helping to establish priorities according to the relative impact on the internal or external customers. Every activity should be recorded in the form. Service and Environmental FMEA are slightly modified versions of Process FMEA. thus promoting a team approach. It must be continually updated as changes occur throughout the design and manufacturing process. Inputs for Preparation of FMEA 1. FMEA Documentation: 1. The team is responsible for conducting meeting.Process FMEA 3.

Probabilityof cause b. service engineer. quality engineer. 2. Functions b. Detailing action c. customer priority data. Detection / Prevention Stage 2: Quantifying risk: a. 2. Process variability data. Process descriptions and inspection data. Create a block diagram of process – Logical relationships of components and establishes a structure. They are Stage 1 :Specifying Possibilities: a. Possible failure modes c. Failure rate can be expressed as Rt= = Where Rt = the reliability or probability of survival t = the time specified for operation without failure = the failure rate = the mean time to failure 3. manufacturing engineer. Root causes d. Reliability Reliability is defined as “the probability that a product or a system will perform its intended functions for a specified period of time. Failure rate: It is the measure of tendency of a product failure.b. Effects e. under the stated operating conditions”. reliability data. Severity of effect c. 27 . The FMEA team should have assembly engineer. Describe the product / process. The data inputs needed to prepare FMEA are product and process specifications. Check points on completion Stage 4: Revaluation of risk: a.8 Stages of FMEA (FMEA Methodology) The FMEA methodology has four stages. Effectiveness of control to prevent cause d. Data Inputs: a. Assigning action responsibility d. Recalculation of Risk priority Number FMEA Form: [FMEA CHART OR FMEA DOCUMENT] The basic steps for implementation of a FMEA are outlined below: 1. materials engineer. Prioritizing work b. suppliers and the customer. Risk Priority Number (RPN) Stage 3: Correcting high risk causes: a.

Wear out 28 . Describe the potential failure effects:  For each mode identified the engineer should determine what the  ultimate effect will be. noise.  1 – not likely. sub-systems(CLASS column).  1 – detection. Injury to the user. Three categories of Failures: Debug Indicates high failure rate at the initial stages because of inappropriate use in the design of manufacturing. ‘Failure Effect’ is the result of a failure mode on the function of product as perceived by a customer. List product functions. 10 – absolute uncertainty. Potentially fail to meet design purpose. Establish a numerical ranking for the severity(S):  ‘S’ is an assessment of seriousness of failure effect. subsystem.3.  A common industry standard scale uses 1(no effect) & 10(very serious effect). 17. Prepared by. Determine the detection(D):  It is an assessment that the current controls will detect cause of failure mode. Ex. 15. Indicate actions taken – Re-asses the S. 11. Classify product characteristics for components. 10 – inevitable. Complete a header of worksheet – Item. Ex. Update the FMEA – as the design changes. 4. 16.O. 8. poor maintenance etc. Review RPN. 13. 7.D and review the revised RPN’s.. Assign responsibility & a target completion date for actions. 9.Product of severity. Identify the potential causes / mechanisms of failure:  ‘Failure Cause’ use to represent design weakness. Corrosion. Key date. Design Responsibility. occurrence & detection. RPN=S*O*D 14. cracking 6.. Ex. Chance Failure of the product due to accidents. Determine recommended actions. 10.… Modify these headings as needed. Identify current controls. Identify failure modes – Component.to prevent causes of the failure mode from occurring. Improper alignment. the assessment changes.Address potential failures that have high RPN (risk priority number).. system. 12. Enter the probability factor:  Occurrence(O) – specific causes / mechanisms will occur. 5.

It identifies the causes of failures and minimize them 3.It combines the technology and experience of the people in identifying various failure modes of a product / process 2.Documenting the process in a systematic manner 29 .It improves teamwork 8. 5.It provides training for new employees 7.Failure after the product / process has performed as expected for the amount of time given by the manufacturer as the product / process life.It identifies the potential failure modes right at their design stage. it minimizes the design changes and their associated costs 4.It improves product / process reliability and quality 6.Reduce development time and cost of manufacturing. Benefits of FMEA: 1.