Chapter 9 Short Answer/Essay Questions


What do the results of the Robbers Cave study suggest about the role of conflict in intergroup prejudice?


According to John Duckitt’s extension of realistic conflict theory, what two types of conflict lead to intergroup


Distinguish between stable oppression and unstable oppression and give an example of each.


Define false consciousness and explain how it affects intergroup relations.


Explain one outcome that follows when a dominant group concludes that a challenge from a subordinate group
is legitimate


Define the concept of social identity. Briefly describe one explanation social identity theory proposes for the
link between social identity and intergroup bias.


Briefly explain the relationship between self-esteem and intergroup bias.


Briefly explain how situational factors can influence self-categorization.


List two factors that motivate self-categorization.

10. Briefly explain the concept of optimal distinctiveness.
11. What are chronic social identities? Give an example.
12. “People who favor their ingroup do not necessarily penalize outgroup members.” Defend or refute this
13. What is vicarious retribution? Explain the factors that cause it.
14. Briefly describe one way that social identity might result in tolerance for outgroups.
15. Explain the concept of relative deprivation.
16. List two factors that can lead people to conclude they do not have what they deserve.
17. Distinguish between distributive justice and procedural justice.
18. Distinguish between personal relative deprivation and group relative deprivation. Which has been found to be
related to prejudice?
19. What is relative gratification? Does it lead to prejudice? Why or why not?
20. What is scapegoating? Give an example.
21. List two problems with the frustration-aggression-displacement theory of scapegoating.
22. List two characteristics of outgroups that, according to ideological theory, are likely to lead to scapegoating.
23. Distinguish between symbolic threat and realistic threat in integrated threat theory.
24. Briefly describe one reason why people join hate groups.

Do hate groups promote or discourage violence? Why? 29. Give one reason why women are less likely to join hate groups than men. List two methods used to effectively socialize new hate group members. Briefly explain the role of religion in hate group membership. Distinguish between everyday racism and extraordinary racism. 26. 31. List two sources of potential hate group members. . 27. 30. 28. Briefly explain why hate members might leave the group.25.