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Power System Protection Studies and Relay

CASE STUDY : Protection Co-ordination Study
In any power system netowrk, protection should be designed such that protective
relays isolate the faulted portion of the network at the earliest, to prevent equipment
damage, injury to operators and to ensure minimum system disruption enabling
continuity of service to healthy portion of the network.
When relays meant to protect specific equipments, transmission/distribution
lines/feeders or primary zone protective relays, do not operate and clear the fault in
their primary protection zone, backup relays located in the backup zone, must operate
to isolate the fault, after providing sufficient time discrimination for the operation of
the primary zone relays.
The protective relays must also be able to discriminate between faulted conditions,
normal operating conditions and abnormal operating conditions and function only
for the specific protection for which they are designed, without operating for any
normal and short term acceptable abnormal events for which they are not intended to
act and provide protection.
The term or phrase relay coordination therefore covers the concept of discrimination,
Selectivity and backup protection as explained in the foregoing discussion. Further the
coordination is not confined only to relays and equipment operating characteristics,
but also includes other protective device characteristics such as Fuse, MCB's, Circuit
Breakers as applicable.
Relay coordination calculation module must consider the operating characteristics of
the relays, normal operating and thermal or mechanical withstand characteristics of
the equipments and must determine the optimum relay settings to achieve the
objectives stated to protect the equipments and to ensure continuity of power supply
to healthy part of network.
Apart from the fault or short circuit conditions, protection system must also be
designed to provide protection against thermal-withstand limits, motor stalling,
negative sequence current with-stand limits, protection against abnormal frequencies,
and protection against unbalance operating conditions as applicable to various
equipments and operating situations.

 Automatic generation of TCC’s showing all relevant coordination.  Coordination with safe stall limits for Motors.  Coordination with thermal withstand capabilities ([I-square]t = K characteristics).  Coordination with maximum motor starting current and time.  Coordination with maximum load current.  Provision for user defined back up relays for specific primary relays.Frequency Control Engineering .  Overcurrent earth fault relays.  Coordination with primary-back up pairs.  Automatic identification of primary and back up relay pairs.  Multiple study cases for different network and source configurations in a single execution of the program. such as transient stability analysis. Transient Stability Analysis Overcurrent Phase/Earth Fault Relays  Overcurrent phase fault relays.  High set relay settings to ensure protection against primary zone faults.  Solution for multiple island networks.Frequency relay settings can be determined by using a dynamic simulation tool. .  Coordination with fuse characteristics.  Coordination with transformer inrush current.

. Polygonal . Built in libraries of commercial relays.  Different relay characteristics MHO . Circle . IEEE and IEC characteristics.  Zone 3 setting calculations based on inbuilt short circuit calculations. R/X Blinder. Lens .  Settings for different commercially available relays. Offset characteristic. Distance Relay Settings  Zone setting calculations for zone 1 and 2.  R/X diagrams.

Often information about contributions to a fault from rotating machines such synchronous machines. Short Circuit is the PowerApps analysis module dedicated to simulating fault conditions in three-phase electric power systems. Solution for multiple islanded network in a single execution of the program. a multitude of reports and flexibility in applying all industry-accepted standards are features that make it an Indispensable . Fault conditions can be balanced or un-balanced shunt faults or series (open conductor) faults.  Solution for multiple study cases with different network configurations in a single execution of program. large motors would be required as a function of time to determine making and breaking requirements. Short Circuit Studies. User friendly data entry. Fault Calculations Short circuit calculations provide currents and voltages on a power system during fault conditions. This information is required to design an adequate protective relaying system and to determine interrupting requirements for circuit breakers at each switching location. Fault calculations may consider or ignore pre-fault power flow conditions.

Short circuit studies for minimum fault level condition at the main switch board may be of interest in relay coordination to check. fault kA for both conventional and IEC 60909 type calculations . it may be necessary to suggest voltage restraint for relays to ensure that the relays will operate only for fault conditions and not for healthy full load conditions.Report on single line diagrams showing fault levels. These results are typically given as fault MVA’s.5. The deliverables from the short circuit studies will include the following - Tabular report of conventional short circuit levels at all buses - Tabular reports of Making/Breaking Current levels at all the buses . .Recommendations with respect to operating strategy. whether relays can distinguish between the maximum load currents and minimum fault currents. ANSI C37. It also supports conventional short-circuit studies without reference to any particular standards. on a single line diagram for various operating conditions. Short circuit studies provide post fault bus voltages at different busbars in the network for a fault at any one of the location in the network. the minimum fault currents in the relays are very close to the maximum load currents. fault currents in kA at different bus bars and fault contributions from adjacent bus sections to the fault.  IEC standards including 363 and 909.tool for these very common and important system studies. PowerApps Short Circuit Module adheres to North American ANSI C37. to limit short circuit levels where needed General Features of Short Circuit Study/Calculation Software  Fault levels for asymmetrical and symmetrical faults including bolted faults.  ANSI/IEEE standards.13 and International IEC-60909 guidelines. In the event. ANSI C37.010.

 Automatic generation of reports for all the specified study cases on the single line diagram. transfer impedances. a computer algorithm based standard for IEC 909 standard.0 pu positive sequence bus voltage based calculations.  Induction motor models.  Results of fault calculations with mutual coupling matches perfectly with published examples.  Fault calculations for network with multiple islands with sources in each island. IEC 909 standard specified multiplication factors based on hand calculation procedures and simplifying assumptions. .  Option to consider pre-fault bus voltages from load flow along with the sequence impedances for loads.  Detailed system wide post fault bus voltages and flows for specified bus faults along with impedance seen at each relay locations.  Output contains.  Automatic one line diagram creation.  Short circuit analysis of multiple-islanded systems with solution for each of the islands. sequence quantities of voltages. G74 British standard. contribution from sources. driving point impedances.  Multiple case studies in single execution of the program for different network configurations and/or different source impedances or ratings. detailed phase quantities. currents.  Default flat 1. and contribution from adjacent buses.

The general electrical protection provided to a transformer are related to the following - overload protection protection against short circuits (internal / external) protection against ground faults transient over voltages (switching. our services are related to the protection against the electrical disturbances.Transformer Protection Although transformers are generally provided with both electrical and mechanical protection schemes. lightning ) .

Out of step 13. Protection against external short circuit condition is achieved by fuses.Inadvertent energization 15.Subsynchronous oscillations 14.Nonsynchronized connection We generally evaluate the protection settings based on relay application manuals provided by the relay manufacturers and use variety of analytical tools and calculations where needed for further . Overspeed and underspeed 8. Unbalanced current operation 12. Rotor (due to overexcitation. Stator (phase and ground faults) 6. Protection against over voltages due to switching. lightning. Overheating 2. switching of capacitor banks or other system disturbances is achieved by proper insulation coordination. overcurrent relays with are without instantaneous settings. Winding faults 5. Stator (due to overload or loss of cooling) 3.Motoring 11.Protection against overload is achieved using overcurrent relays and details of thermal with stand capability curves of the transformer. Rotor (ground faults and shorted turns) 7. Suitable differential protections are needed separately for phase and ground faults. The abnormal conditions that may occur with generators include 1. Loss of excitation 10. loss of cooling . Protection against internal short circuit is achieved by proper application of differential protection. negative sequence stator currents) 4. Generator Protection Generator protection requires the consideration of many abnormal conditions that are not present with other system elements. Overvoltage 9.

investigations to assess the adequacy of protection and relay performance. .