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Transformation of Tribal Society
Integration vs Assimilation
K S Singh
This paper attempts to set the current changes that are taking place in tribal society in India
wider perspective of social, economic and political changes.
The paper is in four sections.
Section I
perspective of the changes that are taking place, and Sections
II and I I I discuss the economic transformation of tribal society and its impact on the social stratification among the
The final section discusses in
detail how these social and economic changes
have given rise to, and are reflected in, various ethnic based solidarity movements as well
sociocultural movements revolving round the question of tribal
whose demands range from
greater political autonomy
to Independence and whose methods
This is the first part of the paper which is being published in two instalments.


away from the stereotype of a tribe as
an isolate, and has focused on interaction
and interdependence of tribes
and peasants.1
Speaking on a similar
theme, Transformation of Tribal Society
in Modern India, Surajit Sinha had delineated the process of the assimilation of
tribes into caste-peasant base of Indian
civilisation through the adoption of
agricultural technology and linguistic
cultural norms of the peasant
castes. The varna-jati model of absorption has given way to the search
for political status as an ethnic minority w i t h i n a constitutional framework
informed w i t h an egalitarian democratic ideology. This inspired the rise of
solidarity movements led
by an educated elite, there being a
broad correlation between the intensity
of the separatist solidarity movements
and the degree of spatial and cultural
isolation from the regional caste/peasant society.2 The social historian has
seen this process of integration within
the framework of the political economy
of feudalism and colonialism. 3 What
Nirmal Kumar Bose described as the
Hindu mode of absorption was neither
H i n d u nor absorption, but a process of
integration into the production system
of colonialism. 4 This
secular process
has sometimes been oversimplified; the
transition of tribes into peasants and of
depeasantised working
class is generally described as a unilinear process.6 Such studies of a tribe
as a class or one ethnic community
overlook the , complexities of tribal
social formations
and situations, the
pull of ethnicity amidst growing differentiation, etc. G S Ghurye, who had
propounded his anti-isolation and pro1318

assimilation viewpoint regarding tribals
in 1942, has recently not only reiterated his views but has also questioned
the related policy and programmes and
the social anthropologists' commitment
to the concept of
integration instead
of assimilation of tribes into the larger
society.6 What irks him is that the
American model of ethnic-cum-cultural
pluralism has been unabashedly applied
to the Indian situation, even though it
has failed in relation to the American
Indians. Ghurye notes that while the
Russians have set out to Russianise
their nationalities,
the Chinese have
Sinified their minorities and the Americans did try to Americanise their
ethnics once upon a time, there is also
a case for the assimilation of the scheduled tribes, a process which has been
held up by the faulty policies of the
government out to appease the tribals.
Therefore, it w i l l be appropriate to
set the 'tribal transformations' in a
wider perspective. I w i l l first deal w i t h
the perspective and ideology, economic
transformation and social stratification
in tribal society in India. I w i l l then
discuss how these processes are reflected not only in ethnic-based solidarity
movements but in a whole range of
Prespective a n d I d e o l o g y
We are by
now familiar w i t h the
stories of the annihilation of indigenous
peoples and the formation of the reservations for the 'Red Indians' in the
New World, under various treaties concluded between
their chiefs and the
colonisers' governments, continuing encroachment on reservations and restric-

of the native's rights in them,
etc. The.
encounter w i t h the white
settlers and Christianity gave rise to
many a movement the study of which
has generated a good deal of information and stimulated a lot of theoretical
model-building. In the United States
which has an Indian population of
800,000 divided into 300 tribes living
in 300 reservations about 40 per cent
of them are living below the poverty
line. This is in spite of the fact that
the Federal government spends an incredibly large amount on their welfare
and the Indians enjoy full rights as
American citizens. The Indians have
refused to be assimilated and to give
up their identity in spite of the Americanisation of their life-style. The process of grabbing of the Indian land
In a damning indictment,
the W o r l d International Tribunal at
Rotterdam (Holland) in November 1980
held the governments of the United
States and
Canada guilty of stealing
the land of the Indians and charged
them w i t h following a systematic policy
of genocide
against the Indians, of
having illegally deprived them of their
lands and of unleashing violent repression against
their protest movements.
The tribunal also condemned the activities of various multinational corporations in the Indian settlement
which have resulted in reckless mining,
despoiling of the land
and utter callousness in waste disposal
on the part of t h e - M N C s and have
caused serious environmental and health
hazards leading to innumerable diseases
and, in the long run, physical deformities and deaths.7
The North American model of reservations travelled to Latin America. A

The policy has been to promote the echoed in one of the objectives of the full development of cultural autonomy Tanganyika African National Union. Similarly the Government of South Australia handed over to the Pitjantiatiara tribe title deeds to about 40.000 Indians under tutelage none has applied for emancipation.000 today. tribal forms and preas a key element in socialist reconstruc. In general the picture "which emerges is dismal.can be contrived out of our many 12 This is also publics and autonomous territories. The African experience is relevant The third world under the colonial system. preferred a system of direct or indirect ride or a combination of both for the indigenous population. Therefore while tion. and the Commonwealth assumed concurrent 'jurisdiction over matters relating to them which earlier fell within the purview of the state regimes. In Brazil the Indians who are not integrated w i t h national life are held under tutelage and thus denied the exercise of full civic rights. of the nationalities while integrating which is "the creation of a nation out them fully within the politico-economic of more than 120 tribes. conducted by the International Labour Organisation shows that they were still governed by the 19th century attitude of complete assimilation and denied right to a share in administration of their affairs.Many of these countries are grappling w i t h colonial backlog of discrepancies ed at the time of the formation of the state or the nation-state. sharpened as the process of develop- and profits are disbursed annually as dividends. and the euphoria over the unity socialistic concept of self-determination of ethnic communities forged in the of nationalities which was formulated course of the freedom struggles gave as part of the debate on the 'national way to a mature understanding of question in the second and t h i r d deinter-ethnic relationship and the need cades of the present century. Soviet for its development in the process of ethnographers recognise ethnicity as a national consolidation. prevent another man from his tribe M the same time there have also been from using land. for example. There are Maori incorporations in New Zealand in which the Maori landowners have become shareholders farming is determined by a managing committee in the countries of tropical Africa and South Asia. While they have carried out expensive farming operations. the handiwork of neocolonial forces. 8 In Australia.lems is linked with the socio-economic cognised and their union into the great transformation of nation-state. legislatioa and administration of welfare measures for these people. family was considered a voluntary act. the aboriginese were pushed off their ancestral land and herded on to reservations. in a tribal milieu: In the past when our population W i t h the growth of the socialist ecowas divided into different tribal nomy. ethnic conflicts and contradictions. After attaining independence. These countries shared the experiences of national oppression. Of the 180.solution of ethnic probpolitical and economic status was re. 1982 ECONOMIC A N D P O L I T I C A L W E E K L Y recent study of the policy.and have inherited the colonial backgenous population was not as direct log of ethnic conflicts which have and as -bloody. Secessionism has no place in the In consonance w i t h this principle the As Jomo Kenyatta said: ethnic boundaries were regorously de. movements of separatism and secessionism. however. The colonial svstem. It is reported that about 25. It was not until 1967 that equal citizenship rights were given to the aboriginese. Of particular interest is President of private property and social differenJulius Nyerere's socialistic experiments tiation.620 square miles of rock and shrub. out of peoples system of socialism. alienation of the upper crust from the working populations.000 aboriginese acquired freehold title to roughly 28 per cent of Northern Territory's 523. The ownership of land however remained the key issue and it was not until 1977 that the government enacted a law whereby the aboriginese could fay claim to any crown land not already occupied. the primitive communities have groups.judices survived. and a nation in which have noted that the pre-Revolution race is of less importance than a record social system of many of these national of service and13 an expected ability to minorities was characterised by the rise give service". and continued to be exterminated until 1928 when the last official killings were reported. tribes and cultures". secession.10 1319 . While describing of different religious and different this process the Soviet ethnographers social groups. the widespread use another tribe from using land that of the Russian language as the medium is actually the property of the naof communication.August 14. they hardly claim to be a vital link of New Zealand's economy. marcated and made co-tennious w i t h "Nationhood and familyhood must and the administrative boundaries of re. the land belonged to the been generally urbanised and their particular tribe living on it in pastoral or agrarian economics have future.system. and has been slowly increasing since then. Alongside the reservations. so also tomorrow the strong centralising influences at one tribe w i l l not be able to prevent work. too. The aboriginese customary law is being integrated into Australian jurisprudence. arisen in this regard as Australia has struck rich o i l and mineral deposits in the aboriginese' homeland. Other administrative changes are creation of a Department of Aboriginal Affairs. having reached 161.000 square miles of territory. inter-tribe conflicts. In Columbia the general law of the State does not apply to the 'savages' who are being reclaimed to civilisation by the missions. Their number fell from 300.between ethnic and political boundarism is out of question and is seen as ies. etc. and industrial complexes leading to a phethe land w i l l belong to the nation. was generally spared the trau.because we too are faced w i t h the matic experiences of the reservations. which have contributed significantly to the overall growth and productivity.000 in 1901. there is also the model of incorporations established for indigenous people. Although many process of social consolidation working African states had passed the stage of at a level lower than nationality and tribal formation. our population been integrated into the macro-level w i l l be united as one nation. 1 A n d today just as one man cannot nomenal rise of productive forces. Once the choice tions a whole. problem of consolidating a nation-state The colonial encounter w i t h the i n d i . 9 Complications have. their languages were recognised. 11 of sell-determination has been exercis.000 in the late 18th century to 67. At the time of the foundation of ethnic goups were exhorted to give up the USSR the right of the nationality their tribalism. the role of the ethnic factor or factors in their freedom Against the capitalistic models of restruggles. servations and incorporations based on many of the African states faced the the concept of the assimilation of i n task of forming a nation out of myriad digenous peoples could be pitted the tribes. however. it was generally underand national minority to determine its stood that the . an Aboriginal Development Commission and an elected National Aboriginal Conference.

they have been part of the Indian civilisational universe. The colonial system ended the relative isolation of the tribal society. even though they were divided between more than one state. brought it into the mainstream of. policy and programmes. The Agency system established w i t h the objective of quelling rebellions was the earliest mode of protective administration. Our founding fathers too sought to create and consolidate a nation-state out of a congeries of communities including tribes. India had inherited the boundaries of the p r o vinces fixed with an eye on administrative convenience. While one school contended that the aborigines formed a distinct element in India and should be placed in charge of the British government. established chatties along highways to supply the army which brought in merchants. While including Adivasis Welfare as the fourteenth item the Mahatma said: Adivasis have become the fourteenth item in the construction programme. followed the dual policy of strengthening the feudal crust of the tribal societies. because while pluralism stresses cleavages and discontinuities between the sections of people differentia'ed by race. as elsewhere. cannot know all there is to know of men and their condition. the nationalists saw in this proposition the continuation of the imperial policy of divide and rule. The Agency settled tribes opened up the tribal world. never absolute. we too are confronted like others w i t h ethnic problems. However the application of the principle of tribal ethnicity elsewhere in middle India is fraught w i t h difficult i e s because nowhere except in two districts and a few talukas are the tribals in matority. 16 On the eve of the transfer of power the most scathing indictment of the colonial policy of isolation and status quo for tribals came from the last British Governor. "that they had allowed them to be treated like that. he told social workers. The 'Excluded Areas' were placed under the government's direct administration: the Adivasis were put into watertight compartments and classified as tribal people by the government. However the .August 14. Language and not ethnicity determined the reorganisation of states in the 1950s.strategically situated Assam. 17 The need to provide' adequate safeguards for the tribal was again extensively discussed in the Constituent Assembly. rule through the traditional chiefs of territories. under the dangerous spell of the policy of the 'isolation and status quo'. there has been an all pervasive sense of cultural unity. In . even though certain ethnic areas are still to be integrated. traders and pedlars and set up cantonments and centres of administration and trade. formed by the rajas. a wide ranging sharing of its idioms and symbols. and the liberalism of the tribal leaders themselves. even acted as the agent for the tribal regions. the tribal and non-tribal areas were both partly and fully 'excluded' in the Government of India Act of 1935. laid lines of communication. put an end to the political dominance of the tribes in the region. the new administrative set-up. in spite of diversities in our country. 1982 meat intensifies. namely. ho reminded the people that " i t was their shame that the' Adivasis should be isolated from the rest of the nation of which they were an inalienable part''. Our country is so vast and the races are so varied that the best of us. Short of providing a measure of protection for tribals in middle India under the Fifth Schedule and of autonomy in the North-East under the Sixth Schedule. The Act of 1935. Ethnicity influenced the formation of the states in the Nor:h-East in the 1960s and 1970s. " I t was a shame". Tribals were not aliens: their isolation was relative. one realises how difficult it is to make good our claim to be one nation whose every unit has a living consciousness of being one w i t h one another. unlike Africa which adopted the system of indirect rule. It was within the political and cultural system of the states that the tribals in middle India were sought to be integrated. However. and roped the tribal communities which had been spared the strain of surplus generation by their states into a new system of production relations. in some cases. It was in these enclaves that the concept of protection of the tribes as an ethnic community developed in stages. in 1946. The tendency on the whole has been to treat them as delightful primitives whose simplicity and customs are a welcome relief from the sordid details of administration among the ordinary Hindus and Muslims. Whether or not this principle should continue to be applied was a matter that figured in a most lively debate in the early 1930s. As one comes upon layer after layer of things one ought to know as a national servant.15 That the normal laws should not automatically apply to the tribal areas was the principle that underlay the passage of the Scheduled Districts Act (1874) and shaped the concept of the backward areas in the Government of India Act of 1919. in spite of every effort. the unfolding of the profound humanism of the freedom movement. he would recall. This was an index of the profound change that had come over the nationalist opinion in regard to the tribal question awing to the efforts of Gandhi and Thakkar Bapa. it was neither possible nor practicable to create a tribal state out of the adjoining tribal major i t y areas of the provinces at the time of the transfer of power. ethnicity. Gandhi reacted sharply to the segregation of various communities. It was up to them to make the Adivasis feel one w i t h them". To go back to the colonial experience of the subcontinent. a large part of the tribal region and most of the tribal population in India were integrated w i t h i n the administration of the provinces of British India or within that of the Indian state's where the British Resident kept a watch on the tribal situation and. India is not the best example of a plural society. There were areas of tribal concentration which were enclaved to 'reclaim to civilisation' the tribes who had rebelled or were difficult to pacify. religion or culture. The colonial system. particularly the tribals. among others. chiefs and zamindars and simultaneous1820 ECONOMIC A N D P O L I T I C A L W E E K L Y ly created conditions in which their economy and political system were undermined by the rampaging market forces. However. However. But they are not the least in point of importance. separated tribals from the rest of the inhabitants. and the nationalist opinion favoured incorporation of far more radical provisions for the safeguards of the tribals' interests in the forms of the V and VI schedules of the Indian Constitution. This appreciation of the uniqueness of tribal factor within the framework of Indian nationalism and the extension of political rights to tribals were beyond the expectations of the colonial administrators and anthropologists. T G Rutherford of Bihar: While we [the British] have been in power we have not done much for them beyond a certain amount of protective legislation which functions effectively when the officers responsible are really sympathetic and — largely w i t h the aid of missionaries — we have done a little to educate them. as a nation-state in the process of consolidation.

and the other approach which sought to destroy their individuality. (v) We should judge results. has been acclaimed as a unique experiment. (iii) We should try to train and build up a team of their own people to do the work of administration and development. but by the quality of human character that is evolved. 1982 ECONOMIC A N D P O L I T I C A L W E E K L Y Chotanagpur Development Authority presents an interesting model of. We should rather work through.000 to 10. tribals should develop in their own way without let or hindrance. The chiefs enjoyed a great deal of power in the Mizo and Khasi hills and therefore. In certain respects I am quite certain theirs is better. for study and observation. It still provides the sheet anchor of I n dia's tribal policy though in recent years there has been a considerable broadening and deepening of the structure of the policy and programmes. and organise labour. these are compiled into the sub-plan. a new strategy of development was drawn up combining the twin elements of protection and development. Uttar Pradesh appeared for the first time on the tribal map of India. We should t r y TO encourage in every way their own traditional arts and culture. all w i t h i n the framework of the Nehruvian policy. their own social and cultural institutions. development of a programme of social forestry under which the tribals could become the owners rather than remain workers in forests. distort the process of their development and absorb them in a culture and way of life that was alien to them. The Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes Commission (1961) evaluated the working of constitutional safeguards for the tribals and tribal development programmes. namely. the anthropological approach which sought to treat the tribals as museum specimens to be kept apart. their transformation from peasants into labour. particularly in the North-East. and areas of tribal concentration were enlarged to bring within the ambit of planned development the populations ranging from 50. This resulted in the curtailment and abolition of the power of the tribal chiefs who had acted as the natural leaders of their community. It noted the changes of farreacting character introduced in tribal areas by the development process.000 Each tribal region prepares its own sub-plan. and (c) the diversities of tribal situations. no doubt.. The process of decolonisation which began after the transfer of power i n volved enfranchisement and grant of full citizenship rights to tribal communities and setting up of democratic instiiutions. (b) the growing incidence of exploitation of the tribal people. Its performance deserves to be watched for some time before the concept of regional autonomy is examined for application elsewhere in middle India. A plethora of legislation has been enacted to prevent alienation of land. investment of the Centraf government ministries. There is no point in trying to make them a second rate copy of ourselves. The resources being mobilised for the development of the tribal regions from many sources. The Nehru era laid the foundation of tribal policy. it is grossly presumptuous on our part to approach them w i t h an air of superiroty or to tell them what to do or not to do. their loss of land.. Therefore.18 Therefore. More backward communities have been identified as tribes. Gradually and towards the close of the 1950s. . I am alarmed when I see not only in this country but in other great countries too — how anxious people are to shape others according to their own image or liveness and to impose on them their particular way of life. be needed. Almost all over the country this class of tribal elite exploits the national stereotypes of tribal society to secure benefit and acts as the mediator w i t h the government. abolish bonded labour system. Each project in the sub-plan region -there are 180 intensive tribal development projects . especially in the beginning. tribal chieftainship was abolished w i t h the zamindari and intermediany interests in the first flush of land reforms. We enter upon a more intensive phase from mid-60s. which called for a more area specific approach to planning and development. when threatened with Joss of power they joined hands w i t h the anti-national forces in the early 1950s. regulate money-lending. (i) People should develop along the lines of their own genius and we should avoid imposing anything on them. application of a simple and relevant technology to agriculture. Jawaharlal Nehru's philosophy and vision shaped the tribal policy in the 1950s. and not in rivalry to. outlines of a policy emerged. instinctive and not based on any knowledge or experience. The Commission while endorsing Jawaharlal Nehru's approach made wideranging recommendations involving protection of tribals' land. Some technical personnel from outside w i l l . to begin w i t h . which forms a part of the plan of the state. As a corollary to this a new leadership came up through elections and as agents of development process which control the apparatus of p o l i t i cal power and corner a good bit of development benefits today. (iv) We should not over-administer these areas or overwhelm them w i t h a multiplicity of schemes. Seen in the perspective of the t h i r d world. In middle India.its own project report with reference to the special needs of the areas. The new package of programme seeks to tackle more effectively on a wide front the programmes of credit and marketing. their indebtedness. these reactions were. Secondly. I am not at all sure which is a better way of living. That they should be "engulfed by the masses of Indian humanity" was a prospect that appalled Nehru. and further development of communications. He avoided the extremes of the two standpoints. This means a gradual moving away from the schematic pattern of the earlier plan and formulation of a more integrated approach to the tribal problems. The framework of policy and strategy imbued with Nehru's Humanism held the ground for about 15 years. As Nehru admitted. in spite of its limitations.regional autonomy.August 14. while isolation was equated w i t h the status quo in the colonial society. the Indian strategy of tribal development. institutional 1321 . it has more in common w i t h the middle class elsewhere than w i t h its own people. particularly in the Zones of intensive industrial activities. The formulation of the Fifth and Sixth Five Year Plans showed perception of (a) the deleterious effects of the disturbance of the environment consequent upon the intensive exploitation of the natural resources of tribal regions on the tribal communities. not by statistics or the amount of money spent. which is a part of the plan prepared by the state. health and education. while tribal identity should be preserved. (ii) Tribal rights in Kind and forests should be respected. their rehabilitation etc. Bur we should avoid introducing too many outsiders into tribal territory. In consonance w i t h this philosophy a strategy of tribal development was framed. of their right in forest. outlay in the state plan. which have already made an impact. while the educated tribal elite favoured union w i t h India.

integrated w i t h the market system Wet terrace cultivation has developed across the Inner Line. ticular interest is the extension of agritribes on the mainland. shifting and operations introduced in unsurveyed terrace cultivation is confined to the tribal regions acted as an instrument heavy monsoon zone covered by for the transformation of tribes into tropical forests in the North-East. A firm fer of technology from peasants to indication of the extent of dependence tribes.high altitude of the sub-Himalayan teria determine the definition of the regions. a primary source nology by government agency. barring a couple of islamite communities. The colonial system followlor a few isolated and small communi.7 per like middle India. North-East tion of new technology the shifting India and in a couple of pockets in cultivation is being increasingly comBihar and Orissa. The hunting and resources for commercial exploitation.nial period witnessed an accentuation logy and small population. Shifting culture technology into the tribal ecocultivation is being practised by 2. the former are characterised by low Rajasthan. settled dry cultivation has emerged as and settlement in a well-defined ha. Since Independence this process of the Sulung in the North-East who are transformation has intensified. Foodgathering is has diminished. next only to the Harijans. . On the positive side the tribes who are full citizens have. determined tribals' the Nilgiris and the Andaman Islands. non-economic c r i . which is an administrative Rajasthan. Of parof food for most of the primitive. no tribe in India today subsists to civilisation through the adoption on a single techno-economy of produc.37 per cent in the Sixth Plan. the sure of tribal population on land has Choianickans in Kerala and the Birhors grown as the carrying capacity of land in Bihar and Orissa. We are in backwardness and treating the com. To these are added criteria i n . gories of land. Therefore there is no substance in the allegation that their population has declined and. rights in land. the arid zones of Gujarat and 'tribes'. the administration in tribal areas has to be so reoriented and the technology of development so evolved that the tribals are able to absorb and take advantage of the development programme. economic from tribes into peasants. They identified different catepart of Fastern and Central regions. A l l over tribal India tribals' relative isolation. homogeneity. while the Indian experiment with tribal development has been hailed as unique in the t h i r d world perspective of the treatment of the indigenous peoples. They have also participated in the democratic processes and have a share in the control of the apparatus of political power. 1982 ECONOMIC A N D P O L I T I C A L W E E K L Y finance and the special central assistance for development of tribal areas have reached an all time high. fixed rent and thus While there is historical evidence of grafted the concept of private property the practice of shifting cultivition in land on to the tribal system. peasants. technology of market. and in a small pocket in category. but they did rise to 3. recognition of the tact that there is The colonial administration built up a not one tribal system but many. their distinct way of life. The survey and settlement hunting. it is t i o n to settled agriculture was also no longer practised in the arid and helped by the conservation of forests semi-arid regions. By the end of the the more primitive groups have been 18th century communities of peasandistinguished from the less primitive. The funds allocated for tribal development by successive governments since independence might not have been commensurate w i t h the proportion of the tribal population and they were very low up to the Fourth Plan. The traditional criteria are the Nilgiris.a position today to trace the process munity as a whole notwithstanding the of transfer of technology from pealevels of advancement of its strata as sants to tribes in the pro-colonial and a unit of development planning.ed the policy of reclaiming the tribes ties. that they have been prevented from acquiring real political powers. The primitive . foodgathering tribes are the Onges which pushed the tribals off their land and Jarwas of the Andaman Islands in reserved forests.involving nearly 60 per cent of the fluenced by administrative convenience tribals. though critical gaps exist in the utilisation of these facilities by t r i bals as compared to non-tribals. no inter-ethnic participation in on this mode of production w i l l production. that hierarchy of tenures for the upper there is not one but several tribal crust of the tribal society which coneconomies. The development experience shows that even where ample funds are available. pre-agricultural techno. foodgathering. and the compulsions of rural deveThe major thrust of change has been lopment : primitiveness.19 On the negative side however they remain the most backward. Before we turn to the sisted of the tribal chiefs and recogspatial distribution of tribal economies.August 14. Presnow taking to shifting cultivation. They have also maintained their identity. the most exploitd community. W i t h introducin western Himalayas. etc. Separation of craft from emerge after the completion of the agriculture occurred w i t h i n the tribal Anthropological Survey of India's' curcommunity itself and its economy was rent project on shifting cultivation. under-developed and. there was no transcent of the tribal population. middle India. tised tribals had emerged in Assam.6 nomies of the North-East because unmillion tribals who constitute 8.the primary mode of food production bitat. II Economic Development and Change We now turn to an analysis of the 1322 processes of economic transformation. maintained their demographic growth rate. They have also remained in good parts of the North-Hast and a large part of middle India an agrarian community in possession of their lands.of plough culture and integration into tion. the tribal population survives in the Both economic and. durfusion of improved agricultural teching the lean months. The cololiteracy rate. one has to take a balanced view of its processes. thus inching very close to their share in the plan efforts. There has been difnow generally a subsidiary and. Thus colonial societies. Implicit in of this trend as movements of peathis two-fold division has been the sants into tribal regions continued. From almost the zero level in the 1930s progress in education and literacy. and the Shompens of Nicobar Island. To sum up. although they have not remained affected by the storms blowing around their country. Pastoral economy bined w i t h terrace and wet cultivation which constitues about 10 per cent of in the foothills and low-lying areas. nised the occupaincy rights of tribal it should be noted however that except peasants. Transihaving prevailed in western India.01 per cent in the Fifth Plan and 4. even though the incidence of land alienation has sharply increased in and around urban anas. health care and communication has been remarkable.

In the North-East while the two forms of collective and private ownership exist side by side.626 kg per hectare) while the corresponding figures for Meghalaya and Tripura were 1. increased use of inputs and labour.152 kg and 1. The average family income has thus gone up. Out-migration has slopped. ducks and goats.88 lakh hectares to 31. They mostly belong to the primitive Kharia tribe.100 quintals. This process may be discussed at some length. About one-third of the area under the improved variety of crops and a substantial area under the high yielding varieties is owned by tribals. even triple cropping instead of the traditional mono cropping and the area under both is progressively being extended. yet evidence suggests that the latter preponderates in areas of wet cultivation. Much the same k i n d of technological structural changes are taking place. There are many such success stories which suggest that the first 'green revolution' has spread to the backward tribal tracts creating pockets of affluence. It introduced the new agriculture strategy. The plateau regions of Orissa have reported a substantial rise in the yield of these crops benefiting tribals. much of settled cultivation is at subsistance level and the majority of the tribals produce not a marketable surplus but 'marketed surplus' which they are forced to do to buy their necessities. and peopled by the Ho and Munda communities. pockets of modernised agricultural farming are emerging among the Munda and Oraon of Chotanagpur.39 lakh hectares. They have used the i n creased income to buy land and fancy goods. (ii) that surpluses which have emerged arc being used for creating productive assets. foodgrain production rose by 16 per cent between 1972-73 and 1977-8. Manipur reported the highest yield (1. the lndo-Gcrman Project. a major innovation has been the arrangement for easy f l o w of credit from co-operative institutions and banks on furnishing personal or collective security by t r i bal farmers. while the average production rose to 1. in the regions of dry cultivation. The project has spent Rs 40 lakh which works out to a per capita investment of Rs 4. Rajasthan. Like the T D A . big diawells a few of which were energised w i t h pumps in rivulets and streams. The technological innovations have brought about a change in social relationships. was started in A p r i l 1979. which embraces remotely situated tribal regions lying on August 14. The emphasis has shifted from the construction of weirs and large irrigation works to the exploitation of underground and surface water resources through a chain of intake wells constructed in river beds.000 families participated in the programmes. their distribution helped boost agriculture. it has only shortened the tribals' hunger period. the areas under which have multiplied. There has been a noticeable increase in the area under cultivation and consumption of fertilisers by farmers has gone up. Orissa and (Chotanagpur. Altogether they irrigated 700 hectares owned by tribal families. Cash cropping of coconut has turned the Nicobarese into an affIuent community. The other project. covering about 30 per cent of the area. there were also mobile pumping sits. An evaluation of the impact of this intensive programme of development suggests (i) that the traditional lean and hunger period has been shortened.44 lakh acres of tribal land was brought under various improved agricultural techniques in all eight tribal development 1323 . Tirbal peasants have taken to double. smaller in size. a major part of which went into developing a minor irrigation system in the undulating terrain and application of the new agrcultural strategy. There is no starvation. repay debt. The increase in production of cereals and vegetables has not resulted in generation of surplus.224 kg respectively. thus reducing their dependence on moneylenders. or meeting higher consumption requirements. maize and minor millets has been developed and is being introduced. and aided by subsidies this programme has become very popular enabling a tribal family to earn an additional yearly income of Rs 2. 1982 the borders of Ranchi and Singhbhum. As a result of the introduction of the new agricultural technology. The small peasant sector in tribal areas has become dynamic. The application of the techniques of dry land farming has substantially helped agricultural development. As the dry farming technology is developed and applied to settled agriculture. Over 52. As tribal economy is traditionally deficit in draught cattle. it constructed big dia-wells (160) and set up lift irrigation schemes (4). aided by minor irrigation.000 making it an essentially capital-intensive project. There has been a rise in the production of vegetables and wheat and summer crops. The technology of the second green revolution in pulses and seeds. This would not have been possible without the reorientation of irrigation policies. and methods of farming suited to the north-eastern region.000. the Badagas and M u l l u Kurmbas of the Nilgiris.000 out of 70. They have constructed thousands of wells helped by the voluntary agencies and government. Chakradharpur (1972-8). the area under various crops increased during the same period from 30. thus mono crop areas were brought under double (525 ha) and triple cropping (100 ha). The first is based on the study of the working of the Tribal Development Agency ( T D A ) . as part of the overall process of the transformation of rural society. Andhra. As tribal economy is starved of credit because of the legislative restriction on the transfer of land.500 to Rs 4. The systems of terrace and wet cultivation are associated w i t h the emerging trends of private ownership of land. In Chotanagpur. Tribals have always been responsive to the programmes concerning rearing of pigs. However. and the role of market. acquire assets. the pace of the transformation of tribal agriculture is quickened. and.130 kg from 989 kg in 1972-3 an increase of 14 per cent.80 crore. Incidence of cash cropping has been reported from parts of tribal Gujarat. It is however in the area of wheat cultivation that the most spectacular results could be seen. It covers 709 families in the Simadega block. accounting for a total production of 26. in some cases. and (iii) that there has been visible affluence among a few middle level tribal peasants who have benefited most from the development process. though on a smaller scale. supported by a vigorous irrigation programme. tribals have taken up cultivation of wheat as a second crop. The upland was treated for acidity and cropped w i t h high yielding varieties which became instantly popular. particularly in Ranchi.ECONOMIC A N D P O L I T I C A L W E E K L Y i r o n implements have replaced the wooden tools and a variety of new crops is grown to suit the market. During the last six years the T D A spent Rs 1. food gathering and shifting cultivation technologies were associated w i t h the system of communal or collective ownership of land and use of labour. In this connection the findings of two micro-level case studies in the transformation of tribal economy are interesting. At present. the Gonds and Korkus of middle I n dia. Hunting. etc. For the country as a whole about 7.

none of from the north-east : the Nayakas are rich peasants.800 pairs) and saplings and grafts (7.531 acres). though in a limited way. etc. roads and arterial loads and (c) distribution of plough bullocks (12. to improve-productivity of land. agriculture and forest produce comprised (a) allotment of land for cultivation (18.73. The middle pealander also grew up as the unintended sants got equally divided between the Congress and Janata Morcha. A critical study of the physical achievements of their programmes during the Fifth Five Year Plan shows that notwithstanding a wide range of variations in performance. Tribal areas in middle India have witnessed a rapid growth of urban population and industrialisation. 30. and a new phase of social karyokiBut. considerand moneyleuding in the district ing the ruling party as corrupt.5 per cent are agricultural private property in land is welt labourers. 25 classes. There always existed Behaviour.4 per cent are middle peasants tribe comes into existence. place. These attitudes reflected in the well-to-do headmen in the middle the 1975 state Assembly elections to some extent. A similar pattern has also been observed in the other districts. However. (c) extension of minor irrigation (60. the entire thrust of the programme appears to be to peasantise the tribals. The danger of displacement still haunts them. The strategy of relief and rehabilitation therefore w i l l have to be re-oriented w i t h the objective of recreating community settlement in appropriate environment.21 III which 97 per cent of the district tribal population belong to Bhil tribe. some of of purity and pollution. 71 per cent of the targeted beneficiaries (3. The other dimensions of the agricultural strategy for the tubals who subsisted on. In some and 1.1 per cent are poor peasant.36 lakh) have benefited from these programmes. They become nomads. on the rich peasant. A rich stratum of tribal larly most of the educated Chaudhris. in Census Reports suggest a three-tier perception. At the bottom of the stratificatory system are the tribal agricultural labourers. In fact. a Gujarat tribe again. joining hands w i t h the classes of peasants among tribals. draw them closer w i t h i n the network of the new agricultural policy and programme. The majority of the and the general mass at the bottom. voted against the ruling Congress on moral issues. w i t h i n a tribe a measure of distinction The rich Chaudhris identify their between the high and the low in terms interests w i t h those of the nonof social and physical distance. (b) land-development and soil conservation programmes (23. Thus. behaviour and life style. their dependence on forest as a source of food and earnings is in many ways as crucial as their dependence on land. believing that it was a diku and professional tribal moneyparty of the poor. 1982 agencies. Financing of the scheduled tribes /castes by the commercial banks as on December 31.253 acres).6 per cent are agricultural labourers. in Vadodara. 65.3 per cent are poor peasants. life style and ecosolely occupied a particular class nomic interests and integrates some position: but they are generally of its sections w i t h the larger distributed among all the four society.20 Yet -tribals' transition to the peasant system is not yet complete.80. An i m mediate result of this has been the immigration into tribal areas of nontribals in search of job. society in terms of its cultureIn no region has a single tribe customs. 1324 This means that some land w i l l have to be given for the land to be acquired. boys. 23 In a perceptive analysis cated and rich peasants in partiof emerging stratification in tribal cular are becoming part of the larger Gujarat. Educatcolonial system created and strengthed Chaudhri boys identify themened a threefold division w i t h the selves w i t h the urban middle-class feudatory chief zamindars at the top. middle peasant. poor peasants voted for the ruling As mentioned earlier a class of insider Congress. and displaced persons will have to be assured opportunities of employment or self-employment. Again. 22 division of votes stratawise in the tribal society also reflects the geneThis process has developed further ral voting pattern among the caste in the post-colonial phase. 24 In a restudy of the Chodhras.78 crore.29. Such process. we find that 11. Another result has been the displacement of tribals from lands which have been acquired for setting up industries and constructing projects. poor. one hand. This is all the more necessary because there has been a steep decline of village industries and traditional crafts. from the same tribe we find nesis within the members of a single 33. bridge the foodgap. The 1961 Hindus in South Gujarat.6 per cent are rich peasant. This settlement reports.ECONOMIC A N D P O L I T I C A L W E E K L Y August 14. Simito non-tribals. habits and customs. some tribes are in better position than the others. and a charge on it as has been the experience of socialist countries. The demographic pattern has thus been disturbed and tribal population is declining. of one by the other having performed while all the rich peasants in this ils historic role lapses into oblivion district belong to the Bhil tribe. In the early phase of industrialisation the tribals were given handsome compensation for land which they did not know how to use. disintegrates the tribal peasant. the majority of the rich peasants which restricted transfer from tribals voted for the Janata Morcha.6 per cent are rich peasants. buyers of land emerged as suggested like the urban and rural educated by the data on transactions in land youths. rituals. and result of the anti-land alienation laws.803 in 1971. Mishra reports a similar process For instance. In fact. the programmes have succeeded in achieving their objectives. increase earnings from land etc. Absorption into industrial culture of the indigenous people through training and education should be a part of i n dustrial project. similar secular strata outside the tribal society. a few of them have less than one acre of land of poor quality which virtually means having no land at all and like landless labourers they also live by selling their labour power. pattern of landholding in tribal members of the different straa among the Chaudhris in general and edusociety. on the other. Bose identifies four distinct society. 21.3 The special division of labour per cent of them are labours and between tribes and the subjugation 54. (d) construction of tank. and agricultural labourer. in Sabarkantha in Social Stratification . 1978 was of the order of Rs 36.7 per cent are middle peasant and 1. notion tribal rich farmers. as in the Khasi hills. where and 10. prestige and them supported the Khedut Samaj (rich peasant organisation) against status.000 acres) through wells (5600). The paddy levy and land ceiling. A majority of agricultural labourers are landless.3 lakh).000 in 1951 to 10. Shah tells us The political and economic processes about the emerging differentiation of tribal transformation described based on landownership and education above have been reflected in social which reflect in political attitudes and stratification. The inflow of institutional finance explains the success of the new agricultural strategy in the tribal areas.920 in 1961 and to 14. In Chotanagpur the level of immigration jumped from 4.

University of Delhi. 1981. I H. T h e Alienated "Regional Distribution of Economic Aborigines'.August 14. Pradip Kumar. 1981. New Delhi. and the protions in India". A n d it is through the forece operating in this endogenous process that the landlord. Fthnic Modes of Production in Tribal Societies in Northw i t h all its merits and shortcomings. 1968. Rupa. February 22-26. Also Agricultural Changes in Tribal see "The Schaduled Tribes". 'Latin Ameri. Simla. 1981. Manila. Presidential A d dress. Problems of the ConRestudy Centre for Social Stutemporary W o r l d " . Also see Sharma. 1963..27 Singh. 'The Mahatma and the nagpur'. "Jawahar)al Nehru. peasants. A Case Study of Oreams for Old'. 1973. Brom. trader and money-lender. Madras. "Colonial Transforin New Zealand". "Socio-Econoley. ludo-Soviet Symposium in Bhowmrk. A 13. tenant and labourer come into being to perform their roles as assigned by the great social division of labour. ' I n d i a n Feudalism. New Also see by the same author. Here the first group of citizens discriminates against the second. a creature of the colonial system. 1325 . the 1978. "Class FormaSocial Sciences. Problems of the Tropical Africa : Fast India'. they had the unintended result of spawning a class of tribal moneylendeis or the insider diku. Steves. Moscow.A (i). Surajit. March 1976. Volume V I I . Le . because their ouster w i l l mean the collapse of the m a r k e t w i t h which tribal economy is being increasingly linked. Academy of Sciences. 'Transformation of Tribal Eco6 Ghurye. Problem" * International Labour 1961. and 'Pattern of Prakashan. Bhubaneswar. "Trends of Sociolar Prakashau. Volume 1. Also see. February 7. P e o p l s Publishing House. [This paper is based on the eighth Devraj Chanana Memorial Lecture delivered under the auspices of Delhi University on December 10-11. Identity and Interaction". While the protective tenancy laws sought to curb this class. R S. 1974. the alien. models of tribal transformations. "The Unsolved T r i bal Problem". N and Sahay. G S. Census of India. 1981.25 . Seminar on Nehru and Village. 18 Quoted in Singh. "National Relations in the 24 Bose. paper presented to UN Institute for Economic Planning and Development. India. Chinai. Datta-Ray. Communist Party Publication. "The Burning Caulnomy Two Case Studies' (undron of North-East India". "Social processes in the Review. Moscow. Rani Frasanna. 1968: Vidyarthi. The Searchlight. 1978. Also see PraDecember 1 and 2 1981. 1977. Sharit. and Plant" (mimeographed). 1977. 1961. MarchIndustrialisation of Rourkela" April. Also see dban. 1981. USSR We have described above various ed). 1982 ECONOMIC A N D P O L I T I C A L W E E K L Y developed. 'Kirata uniqueness of the Indian experiment 13 Oimted in Tsmagileva. New Zealand mation of the Tribal Society". R N. 1973 (unpublished). December 1981. V o l 50. A Mid-Term Appraisal. Government of India. No 2. 4 Ibid. H Prasad and N Sengupta.] 1 Dube. in A r v i n d N Das and Can they be solved? Progress The social impact of the transfer of V Nilkant (ed) "Agrarian RelaPublishers. 25 However it should be noted in evaluating the findings of these studies that there are also contrary pulls in the opposite direction. cesses are reflected in a wide ranging Trends in Ethnic Group Relations No 1. blems of the Contemporary W o r l d " . Tribals and their Transformation".21 Prasad. cess of transformation of tribes into 14 Ibid. "Maori Incorporations 22 Singh. Popular published). Therefore. Moscow. and all discriminate jointly against the rest. institute of Advanced Study. Bombay. Volume 1. Surat. K S. Freedom Jubilee Series No 5. 20 Singh. A l l these pro. Manohar. Tribal Ethnicity in a Multi-Ethnic Society: A Study in factors which have contributed to tion of the Tribal Society. op 'ciK Colonial and Post-Colonial Chotasocial stratification. it appears that no matter strong the sentiments against these aliens in the North-East and elsewhere may be they are for too deeply entrenched in the economic system of the region to be expelled.16 Singh. 3 Singh. February 22-27. Vol 117. Yu V. March 8. 13 Ibid p 126. 2 Sinha. W. 23 "Land Tenures in India" Census 11 USSR Academy of Sciences. 'New sation in India. S C. The Statesmen. the division of labour takes a new shape. Seminar on Environment and Poorly Integrated Socities in Africa (Mauritius. " I m pact of Industrialisation on Bihar can Approaches to the "Indian Tribes". 1981. p 122. agricultural technology. EPW. Transformation of Tribal Society in Modern India'. 1979. K S. variety of tribal movements which are 17 Quoted in Singh. This process operates in the North-East also where the business and trading communities across the Inner Line have maintained close relations w i t h their tribal agents. c 300-1200". Ministry of Home Affairs. Second Indo-GDR History Seminar. the second against the third. Man in India. 1980. discussed in the following section. Editorial Part X I . Social Sciences dies. "Colonialin Asia. Delhi. January-March. acted as the middleman. "Soviet Ethnography: mic Condition of Chodhras: A Main Trends. A. September 15. National Commission for UNSCO op cit. Tribal Economy in India'. 8 See. Bombay 1980. Anthropology and Primitive Society: The Indian Scenario (1928-47)". Social Sciences Today. Sunanda K. Tribal Bihar 1970". "Tribal Heritage of India. Delhi. This has inhibited the development of tribals w i t h non-tribals. Indian Council of Social Science Research funpublishTodaxu "Editorial Board. McEwen. Sunday Standard Benefits arising from a Steel Plant: Magazine. Also see a rejoinder by Bhupender Singh. 27 Diku. Ethnicity. K S. 26 Misra. (To be concluded) Notes ism. Planning Strategy for Tribal Development in Retrospect and Prospect. Swepston. Winiate. 1978. 1978. of India 1961. 19 Junes. K S 'Colonial Transformation of the Tribal Society in Middle India'. Even the most primitive economic system of the Cholanaickans has been drawn into the vortex of market forces. Visva-Bharati. Environment Training Programme. (unpublished). Ghanshyam. 1969. Also see. t i o n in the Plantation System". Transactions of the Indian live on the Land of Ancestors'. University of Calcutta. In addition to this the law of female ultimogeniture in matters of i n heritance has a built-in-tendency to create both propertied as also dispossessed section of society. K S. 1970. PopuChotanagpur'. 1976). An interesting intra-tribal contradictions which are overshadowed by the confrontation of aspect of stratification is the developing nexus between the insider and outsider'. J M. Board. K S 'Colonial Transforma. 1965. K S. A p r i l . Recent settlement operations in Chotanagpur have revealed extensive transaction in land between tribals and tribals. We have also discussed the 15 Singh. L P "Industriali9 . UNESCO Seminar on Adivasis'. 5 Bardhan. Vikas 1977. A Case Study of Rourkela Steel 10 Kawharu. 'economic Change in India 18717 'Red Indians tight for the right to 1961". K S. Occasional Papers on Tribal Development 29. 'Tribal Underdevelopment in India'. Santiniketan. Stratification USSR: Theory and Practice Proamong Tribals in Gujarat'. The bonds of ethnicity and the appreciation of the political advantages of the tribe as an ethnic minority are still strong. Fifth Devraj Chanana Memorial Lecture.