CE-106 Civil Engineering Materials and Concrete

CONCRETE ► everywhere around us
Ancient Roman were probably the first to use concrete a word of
Latin origin based on hydraulic cement , that is a material
which hardens under water.
“ Concrete is a composite material wherein a binding material
mixed in water on solidification binds the inert particles of well
graded fine and coarse aggregates”
CE 106 Civil Engg. Materials and Concrete Technology

By. Dr. Khan Shahzada


By. Dr. Khan Shahzada


Concrete Cont…
Constituents of Concrete
 Cement
 Aggregates
 Water
 Admixtures

CE 106 Civil Engg. Materials and Concrete Technology


Khan Shahzada 3 Concrete Cont… Concrete Concrete should be  Hard  Durable  Strong  Dense  Non porous  Fire resistant  Economical Typical Composition by volume  Cement:  Water:  Aggregate: 7-15% 14-21% 60-80% CE 106 Civil Engg. Dr. Materials and Concrete Technology By. Materials and Concrete Technology By. Dr.Concrete Cont… Uses of Concrete  Roads  Buildings  Bridges  Sidewalks  Runways  Canals  Mines  Tunnels  Dams  Sewer pipes  Railway ties  Manholes  Nuclear Installations etc CE 106 Civil Engg. Khan Shahzada 4 2 .

 Assignment (Setting of cement in detail) CE 106 Civil Engg. Dr. or compacted is known as initial setting time. Materials and Concrete Technology By. Khan Shahzada 5 Concrete Cont… Concrete Versus Steel  USA Concrete consumption 5 times by weight of steel  Other Countries Concrete consumption exceeds 10 times by weight of steel  More than 1 ton/year/person Man consumes no material except water in such tremendous quantities CE 106 Civil Engg.  Final Setting Time: The time at which the mortar or cement paste or concrete gain sufficient strength and hardness. Materials and Concrete Technology By. finished.Cement Cont… Setting of Cement  Initial Setting Time: The time after mixing of cement with water at which the paste or mortar or concrete can no longer be properly mixed. Khan Shahzada 6 3 . Dr.

Materials and Concrete Technology By.   The process of manufacture of consist of essentially of grinding the materials into a very fine powder. mixing them intimately in predetermined proportions and burning in a large rotary kiln at a temperature of about 1400°C (2550°F) when the material sinters and partially fuses into clinker. it can be seen that it can is made primarily from a combination of calcareous material. Materials and Concrete Technology 4 . Dr.  From the definition of port land cement given above.   The clinker is cooled in a ground to a fine powder.and iron oxide bearing materials. such as limestone or chalk. Khan Shahzada 7 By.Cement  Portland cement is the name given to cement obtained by intimately mixing together calcareous and argillaceous or other silica-. Dr. alumina. Khan Shahzada 8 Cement Cont… 2CaOSiO2 oferrite CE 106 Civil Engg. and of silica and alumina found as clay or shale. CE 106 Civil Engg. Burning them at a clinkering temperature and grinding the resulting clinker. and the resulting product is the commercial Portland cement used throughout the world. with some gypsum added.

Heat of Hydration  In common with many chemical reactions the hydration of cement compounds is exothermic and the quantity of heat (in joules) per gram of hydrated cement evolved upon complete hydration at a given temperature is defined as the heat of hydration. Khan Shahzada 9 Cement Cont… Hydration of cement  Chemical reaction between cement and water is called hydration of cement. Materials and Concrete Technology By. Materials and Concrete Technology By. Khan Shahzada 10 5 .Cement Cont… CE 106 Civil Engg.  Assignment (Hydration and Heat of Hydration in detail) CE 106 Civil Engg. Dr. Dr.

C is achieved by a higher C3S content.C is used where a rapid strength development is desired for example. Rapid hardening Portland Cement (Type-III)  It develops strength more rapidly and is also called high early strength cement. CE 106 Civil Engg. or when a very high early strength is required.  In cold areas the use of cement with a high rate of heat of liberation may prove a satisfactory safeguard against early frost damage.C should be stored under dry conditions and it should generally be used with in one month of dispatch from the cement plant. Materials and Concrete Technology By.C is suitable for cold weather concreting. Special Rapid hardening Portland Cement These are specially manufactured cements which are highly rapid hardening. so the extra R. Dr. Khan Shahzada 11 Types of Cement Cont.  where sufficient strength for further construction is required as quickly as possible.H. Extra rapid hardening Portland Cement  This cement is obtained by intergrinding CaCl2 with R. Dr. The rapid strength development is due to the very high fineness of cement (700 to 900 m2 /Kg) and a higher gypsum content.  R. but this does not affect long term soundness. Khan Shahzada 12 6 . Typical uses are early prestressing and urgent repairs.C.H. sometimes as high up to 70 %. but should not be used for reinforced concrete because of the risk of corrosion. and by finer grinding of the cement clinkers.  When formwork is to be removed early for reuse. The increased rate of gain of strength of R.H.H.C should not be used in Massive structure as a high rate of heat development will cause cracking. Ultra high early strength Portland Cement  This cement contains no admixtures and is therefore suitable for use in reinforced and Prestressed concrete. Materials and Concrete Technology By.Types of Cement Ordinary Portland Cement (Type-I)  This is the most common type of cement in use. Extra R.H. CE 106 Civil Engg. The quantity of CaCl2 should not exceed 2 % as CaCl2 is deliquescent (to become liquid). But the R. Ordinary Portland cement is highly suitable for use in general concrete construction when there is no exposure to sulfates in the soil or groundwater.H..

13 Types of Cement Main Types of Portland Cement British Classification American Classification Description BS Description ASTM Ordinary Portland 12: 1991 Type I C 150-92 Rapid hardening Portland 12:1991 Type III C 150-92 Low heat Portland 1370:1979 Type IV C 150-92 Modified Cement --- Type II C 150-92 Sulphate resisting Portland 4027:1991 Type V C 150-92 Portland blast furnace (slag cement) 146:1991 Type IS C 595-93 CE 106 Civil Engg. The setting time (1 to 30 minutes) can be controlled in the manufacturing process of the cement as the raw materials are intergrind and burnt together. Khan Shahzada 14 7 . but the ultimate strength is unaffected low-heat Portland cement was first produced for use in large gravity dams in the United States. Dr. Materials and Concrete Technology By. making the cement of low heat. This cement is expansive but valuable when an external early high strength is required.. and Concrete Technology By. Khan Shahzada to Materials form compounds possessing cementitious properties. Portland blast furnace cement (Type-IS) and Portland Pozzolana Cement (Type-P) can be specified to be of low heat variety. C3S and C3A results in a slower development of strength and low heat generation. Regulated-Set Cement or Jet Cement This cement consists essentially of a mixture of Portland cement and calcium flouraluminates with an appropriate retarder (usually citric acid). Dr. while the early strength development is controlled by the content of the calcium flouraluminate.Types of Cement Cont. Pozzolana: is a siliceous or siliceous and aluminous material which by itself possesses little or no cementitious value but is in finely divided form and in the presence of moisture chemically react with calcium hydroxide at ordinary CEtemperatures 106 Civil Engg. Low heat Portland Cement (Type-IV) The lower content of the more rapidly hydrating compounds.

Types of Cement Cont. Khan Shahzada 15 16 8 .. Main Types of Portland Cement British Classification American Classification Description BS Description ASTM Low heat Portland blast furnace 4246: 1991 -- -- White Portland 12:1989 -- C 150-92 Portland Pozzolana 6588:1985 3892:1993 Type P C 595-93 CE 106 Civil Engg. Dr. Materials and Concrete Technology By.