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इंटरनेट

मानक

Disclosure to Promote the Right To Information
Whereas the Parliament of India has set out to provide a practical regime of right to
information for citizens to secure access to information under the control of public authorities,
in order to promote transparency and accountability in the working of every public authority,
and whereas the attached publication of the Bureau of Indian Standards is of particular interest
to the public, particularly disadvantaged communities and those engaged in the pursuit of
education and knowledge, the attached public safety standard is made available to promote the
timely dissemination of this information in an accurate manner to the public.
“जान1 का अ+धकार, जी1 का अ+धकार”

“प0रा1 को छोड न' 5 तरफ”

“The Right to Information, The Right to Live”

“Step Out From the Old to the New”

Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan

Jawaharlal Nehru

IS 7182 (1973): Methods of tests for aluminium collapsible
tubes [MTD 32: Metal Containers]

“!ान $ एक न' भारत का +नम-ण”
Satyanarayan Gangaram Pitroda

“Invent a New India Using Knowledge”

“!ान एक ऐसा खजाना > जो कभी च0राया नहB जा सकता ह”
है”

Bhartṛhari—Nītiśatakam

“Knowledge is such a treasure which cannot be stolen”

.

(Reaffirmed 2001) .

Calcutta SHRI A. G. K. DIVEKAR Zenith Tin Works Pvt Ltd. L. MENEZES ( Afternate ) Railway Board ( Ministry of Railways ) SHRI P. KUDALKAR ( Alrernate ) Poysha Industrial Company Ltd. 1 .IS : 7182. I? DUGGAL SHRI P. CHANDY SHRI A. K. R. BALASUBRAHMANYAMDirectorate Food ( Ministry of Agriculture ) SHRI F. A. Sikand ) of Sugar & Vanaspati. Bombay SHRI P. CH~NOY India. Thana SHRI G. KAP~~R ( Alternate ) Federation of Associations of Small Industries of SHRI N.1973 Indian Standard METHODS OF TESTS FOR ALUMINIUM COLLAPSIBLE TUBES Metal Containers Chairman Sniu L. IYENGAR SHRI K. MCPD 12 Representing The Metal Box Co of India Ltd. KADBET SHRI S. C. S. Day & Company. BHAGWAT Hindustan Steel Ltd. Rourkela SHRI J. CHANDRAN ( Alternate ) Tri-Sure India Pvt Ltd. LAKSHMIKANTAN Foreign Trade ) SHRI P. Calcutta Members A. C. Calcutta SHRI S. R. BHAMBRY SHRI P. BHA~T Ltd. Naihati SHRI 0. KA~RAK ( Alternate) Containers & Closures Ltd. K. Anand SHRI T. N. N. PRADHAN ( Alternate to Shri L. WAND Sectional Committee. M. DAY M. D. Bombay MAJ N. New Delhi SHRI M. RAO ( Alfernafe ) Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union SARI P. Tatanagar SHRI KIRPAL SINGH Ministry of Defence ( DGI ) SHRI A. DAS I Alremote ) SHRI ( Confirrued on page 2 ) @ CopyrighI 1974 INDIAN STANDARDS INSTITUTION This publication is protected under the Indiun Copyright Act ( XIV of 1957 ) and reproduction in whole or in part by any means except with written permission of the publisher shall be deemed to be an infringement of copyright under the said Act. KUVAVALA Indian Paint Association. MOUL~K ( AIternate) Indian Institute of Packaging. KRISHNAN MAJ B. P. CHATTERJEE( Alternate ) Tin Plate Co of India Pvt Ltd. V. L. Bombay SHRI C. BHATTACHARYA ( Alternate) Export Inspection Council of India ( Ministry of SHRI S. T. H. V. R. V. S. V. B. SI~ZGH( Alfernate j SHRI H. Department of SHRI S.

CI~OKSI Ciba of India Limaed. K. SUBRAMANIAM. Bombay AII India Food Preservers’ Association. SUNDARAM ( fibtTt?flfe ) Central Food Technological Research Institute. MUKHERIEE SHRI M. CHIBA ( Alternate ) Lyka Laboratories. G. RAUT Bombay Directorate of Industries. ISI MCPD 12 : 3 Convkner SHRI A. GOTH~SKAR SHRI B. New Delhi Members V. SHRI P. S. Calcutta Members DR S. YAJNIK SHRI V. NAIK ( Alternare ) Colrige Limited. New Delhi Chief Inspectorate of Explosives. Bombay SRRI A. New Delhi DR S. P. Oficer on Special Duty ( MCPD ) Secretary SHRI T.4~ ( Alternate ) Bharat Containers Private Limited. VERONA( Alrernate ) Director General. J. KOTHARI 2 . S. Bomba) SHRI G. SKIVASTAVA SHRI K. Calcutta SHRI G. Nagpur Vanaspati Manufacturers Association of India. Bombay SHRI P. I. PRADHAN The Metal Box Co of India Ltd.IS : 7182. V. N. MALHOTRA ( Alternate to Shri A. Bombay SHRI D. ). Bombay SI~RI G. V. B. KAPOOR ( Alfernate ) Organization of Pharmaceutical Producers of India. Pvt Ltd. Faridabad SENIOR MARKETINGOFFICER Esso Eastern Inc. Government of MahaSHRI N. DR V. PURNANANDAM Deputy ( Director MCPD Collapsible Tubes Subcommittee. BARODAWALLA SHRI A. S. L. DESPANDE DR S. Bombay SHRI V. KUMAR ( Alternare ) Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. MAINKAR SHRI A. R. S. S. Pradhan ) Zenith Tin Works Pvt Ltd. VERGHB SHRI B. Be. S. VEERRAJU Mysore I. S. R. Bomba) SHRI S. P. MUKHERJI Dr\ S.1973 ( Continued from page 1 ) SHRI Representing Directorate of Weights & Measures ( Ministry of Industrial Development ) Directorate General of Technical Development. PATKI ( Aiternare ) Directorate General of Health Services. PATEL SHRI I. J. KADBE?SHR~ T. M. C. SATPIJ~E rashtra Directorate of Marketing & Inspection. S. PIJRI SHRI Y. T. IS1 ( Ex-oficio Member ! SHRI K. ( India ). P. S.

ALUMINIUM COLLAPSIBLE TUBES 0. .2 Following tests are recommended collapsible tubes: to assess the functional quality of a) Collapsibility test b) Leakage test ( test for closure effectiveness ) cj Lacquer curing test: 1) Power of adhesion test 2) Flexibility test d) Lacquer porosity test ej Lacquer-product compatibility f) External decoration test test: 1) External decoration . tsarnpiing impection Tables: Part iI Inspection 3 by attributes by variables and by COUIX of for percent defective.4 The leakage test ( see 3 ) is applicable only for tubes having the caps design to give leak-proof closure. after the draft finalized by the Metal Containers Sectional Committee has been approved by the Marine. FOREWORD 0. Cargo Movement and Packaging Division Council.IS : 7182.1973 Indian Standard METHODS OF TESTS FOR. the user and the manufacturer are advised to reach a prior agreement on quality standards and sampling procedures using IS: 2500 (Part I)-1963* and IS : 2500 (Part II)-19657 respectively for attribute and measurable quality characteristics listed above. 0. *Sampling inspection Tables: Part I Inspection defects.Product compatibility 2) Flexibility test test g) Metal particles test 0. 0.3 For the purpose of routine quality control of incoming supplies.1 This Indian Standard was adopted by the Indian Standards Institution on 20 September 1973.

0.2 ) may be considered only when decorations are snecified to be alkali and soao1 resistant.7 The metal particle test ( see 8 ) is primarily ointment tubes. or in the case of tube of 2.ameter 13. 1.5 mm on top of the auxiliary base plate. mm Collapsibility Readings. deviations from this test are not considered for rejection of supplies.5 7 10 16 4 6 19 5 22 6 8 10 . COLLAPSIBILITY TEST ( TEST FOR DEGREE ANNEALING ) 2. the tube on the groove.1 and 5.1 Apparatus -The tube of diameter 13. the minimum and maximum limits for collapsibility readings which can be used for fixing suitable acceptable quality level ( AQLS ) between the manufacturer and the user shall be as shown below: Diameter of Tube.2 are being done with a view to determine whether the requirements of this test are attainable with the indigenous raw materials and till such a time a definite decision is taken. SCOPE 1.6 The external decoration test ( see 7. apparatus used shall be as detailed in Fig.IS : 7182. meant for long nozzle eye 1.1 This standard prescribes methods of tests and requirements for assess- ing the functional quality of aluminium collapsible tubes. 1 0. 2.2 Procedure -Place di. Release the shutter and allow to fall upon the tube. Read on the scale the position of the top of the shutter.When collapsible tubes are tested in this manner. such as toothpaste and shaving cream.1973 0. For 2.3 Acceptable Quality Levels .5 As regards the lacquer porosity test ( see 5 ) extensive tests using the methods under 5. mm ~~~~~~__~~~ Min Max 13. 2.0 Principle -A standard load is allowed to fall on the empty tube and the resistance offered to this load is measured. the auxiliary base plate as shown in the figure shall be inserted in the apparatus.5 mm. on the base of the apparatus with the open end touching the stopper.

a tube along the length and flatten it. Place the tube in an inverted position with a filter paper fixed at the base of the cap.35 NOTE 1 - Use supplementary Nom 2 - This test is not applicable to tubes of diameter greater than 45 mm. of water 4.The tube is tightly closed and placed in an inverted position. resistance to flakes cracking of internal lacquer. Allow the tube to stand for one hour.2 Requirement -Lacquer cotton wool shall remain colourless. Water absorbed by the filter paper placed around the base of the nozzle will indicate leakage. LEAKAGE TEST (TEST base plate for tube diameter 13.0 Principle .7. the surface and the 4. 5 . FOR CLOSURE EFFECTIVENESS ) 3. that is. LACQUER CURING TEST 4.0 Principle -The to the internal tube surface is determined by rubbing the lacquered surface with cotton wool soaked in acetone.1.1 Procedure -Split cotton wool in acetone and rub it on lacquered surface of the flattened tube I?0 times.2.0 Principle .1973 Diameter of Tube. 1 ).1. 3.The filter paper shall not show any absorption at any time during the one hour test period.2 Requirement . 3.Fill the tightly closed tube with water.This test determines flexibility.IS : 7182 . shall not lift from 4. Wipe the external surface of the tube thoroughly to make it dry. mm / 25 30 Collapsibility Readings.1. Dip 4. 3.5 mm ( see Fig.1 Power of Adhesion Test curing of lacquer layer and its power of adhesion 4. mm iuin 11 L- Max 15 16 20 35 40 21 24 25 28 45 30 .1 Procedure . Flexibility Test 4.

/ SLIDEABLE SHUTTER AUXILIARY BASE PLATE 3mm THICK FDR TUBE 13*5 mm O~AMETERJ 108 mm Height bottom of shutter from base plate 5-&O-2mm Groove depth 32 mm Groove radius Distance between stopper and plane of shutter 32 mm 70flg Shutter weight FIG. 1 COLLAPSIBSL~TY TEST APPARATUS -6 .

This test is designed to assist in the quantitative determination of the porosity of the internal coating by determining the amount of fiow of electric current which is proportional to the area of the pores on the surface.1. O-50 and O-500 mA with a range selector >w. 7 .The diagram of the instrument is given in Fig. 3.05 percent ( m/v ) 0.0 TrincipIe .1. Connect the 3-pin plug to the mains supply and s&t& on the mains switch. and the instrument is ready for use.0 percent ( m/v ) 0. Tht. Sharpen the fold by passing it between the finger and finger nail. LACQUER POROSITY TEST 5.2 The apparatus shall have three fuses to protect the instrument. Fold the tube in such a manner that the internal lacquered surface is on the outside. 5.1 The instrument shall be capable of giving readings within three ranges of current.3 Procedure 5.945 percent ( m/v ) Distilled water 5. 5. Switch off the check switch.1.1973 4. O-5. must not peel off when the 5.1.. 5Hz0 ) Glacial acetic acid Sodium dioctylsulphosuccinate composition shall be 1.1 ilppartiius -.ch f~. Repeat the procedure three times at different places of the tube. selecting the appropriate range. indicated by the glow of red lamp on the front panel.1.1.1.131 Ascertain the correct mains voltage and adjust the transformer tanping accordingly. and the 50mA and 500mA fuses on the front panel protect the ammeter from being overloaded.2 Tesl bolution -The used for the test: solutions of following Copper sulphate ( CuSO4.1 Current Through-Fbw Method 5.2. 2 and the wiring diagram to make clear the construction of instrument is given in Fig.1 Procedure-Cut the tube from the open end and make it flat. namely.005 percent ( m/v ) 98.1. 5. i A fuse situated on the back of the instrument. 4.2 Requirement .2. Check the circuit by switching on 5. 5.The lacquer coating sharpened fold is rubbed with the fingers. next to the mains on-o$ switch is the mains fuse.50 and 500mA positions.IS : 7182 .

2 INSTRUMENTFOR TESTINGCONTINUITYOF INTERNALCOATING 5.- IS : 7182.1973 CHECK SLIDING TOP ELECTRODE WITH V-SLOT L f-PIN MAINS SOCKET 0 0 MAINS SWITCH’ DETAILS L 1A MAINS OF BACK FUSE PANEL FIG.1._. to be tested with cap and fill the tube to within 25 mm of the open end with the test solution.3. Fit the nozzle shoulder portion of the tube to the V-slot in the stand electrode and lower the sliding top electrode into the 8 .’ .2 Set the range selector switch to SOOmAbefore commencing the Fit the tube readings in order to safeguard the meter from overloading.

3 WIRINGDIAGRAM 9 ANODE .Is:7182-1973 tube. the cone holding the tube coaxially with the top electrode. The same solution shall not be used more than six times. The sliding cone height shall be adjusted automatically. AC MAINS ONLY L N E VOLTAGE SELECTOR INDICATOR LAMP COPPER FIG. Switch the range selector to the range and take the reading after 5 seconds. Press the test switch and check the appropriate range for test as quickly as possible.

O ) Glacial acetic acid Distilled water shall be 5. 5.IS : 7182 .--_-. NOTE2 later stage.2.1 Test Solution -The used for the test: solution of following composition Copper sulphate ( C&04. Connect the negative pole of the current with the ____ __.5 amperes from a battery charger shall be used.0 parts ( m/v ) O-5 parts ( m/v ) 94. 5. Spongy copper is deposited on the pores from the io.2.Lacquered tubes when tested in this manner shall comply with the requirements specified below: Tube Diameter. mm Permissible Current Flow.2. .3 Procedure-Split open the tube and flatten it.tjcr sulphate solution.2.The pores in the lacquer layer are detected by elz~~~olytic method with the help of direct current of a certain voltage and ampere. The size o: the trough should be constant for all tubes of the same size.Max 13. 5 H.2 Source of Current . The permissible current value for dia 45 mm will be included at 5.2 Electrolytic Deposition of Copper Method? 5.0 Principle .. Bend up about 1 cm of each of the four sides and squeeze the corners together in such a manner that an internally lacquered through 1s formed.5 16 19 22 25 30 35 40 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 values of current should be regarded as upper specification NOTE 1 -These limits when variable sampling inspection plans are agreed between the manufacturer and the user according to the procedure given in IS:1500 (Part II)-1965*.4 Requirement ._ *Sampling inspection tables: Part II Inspecc!ion by variables ror pe~‘ccrrt defective tThe test may be carried out if agreed between the pitrchaser and SII~~!ET 2nd is is not a mandatory test.1.1973 5. Fill the trough with the test solution.Direct current of 6 volts and a maximum of 2. mA.5 parts ( mjv ) 5.

1 Procedllre -Take stoppered tubes. 6. Crimp the openend of the tubes properly. the contents are washed from the spread open tube body with water at about 45°C. mm 13. a suitable control test in a stoppered neutral glass test tube may be carried out simultaneously. Attach the wire to the positive pole and immerse into the test solution for 10 seconds. Bend a copper wire approximately 4 mm in diameter so as to run parallel to the lacquer surface and extend over at least half the length of the trough.The contents of the tube should not show any discolouration.1 Product Compatibility .12 Lacquer Compatibility . The maximum number of porosity deposits for each diameter of tube shall be as given below: Tube Diameter. . ten tubes for testing.1. The lacquer coat is dried with cotton wool avoiding rubbing and scratching.5 16 19 22 25 30 35 6. 6.4 Requirements .5 mm Diameter and Above 5 10 10 15 15 20 COMPATIBILITY TEST lacquer is brought in contact with the product to be 6.2. After this period the tubes are allowed to cool to room temperature and then are carefully cut open lengthwise. 5. screw the cap on and cut the tube round up to a height of about 2 cm above the shoulder. . To evaluate the porosity in the neck and shoulder region. The lacquer is visually examined for any damage.lS:7182-1973 aluminium side of the tube. change in odour.1 is recorded. A dark deposit of copper is formed at porous points.After the observation in 6.If no copper is deposited. leaving a small projection to connect the negative pole. LACQUER-PRODUCT Maximum Number of porosity Deposits of Size 0. With this test.0 Principle -The packed and maintained at a -fixed temperature and time. gas formation or signs of decomposition compared to control sample kept in the sealed neutral glass test tube and subjected to identical conditions at the same time. the tube is entirely free from pores. Fill the tube with solution and dip the copper wire inside zilmost to the nozzle. Subject these tubes to 45°C in an oven for a period of 72 hours. Fill the product in tightly 6.1.

c Fold the tube in such a manner that the external surface is on the oi!ts.IS : 7182.1.The external coating is brought in contact with an alkaline solution and kept at a fixed temperature for a fixed time. EXTERNAL DECORATION 7.The test given in 6 is primarily meant to detect only gross irregularities in the quality of lacquer or lacquering process. NOTE-The test describedin 7.ccCY’c products and kept horizontally for 48 hours at 40”Cand 90 percent relativehuzlldi:y. bhall not .2 Flexibility Test 7.Product Compatibility Test 7.-g of the external decoration or bleeding of coating or inks to any noticeable extirit. The manufacturer and the purchaser are advised to conduct long term storage trials to examine the compatibility of the product with the lacquer in a more realistic manner. to 7. 7. l.2 Rec$remPnt .~-ei . Prepare 2 percent soiution of pure sodium hydroxide in water and keep al 4VC.1.III portion of the tube so as to cover the undecorated portion.1. NOTE 1 .0 Principle . peeling of lacquer when the lacquered surface is examined in each tube.3 Requirement -There shall be no visible signs of softening with scratching. 14ottums of the tubes should be folded and crimped and bodies smeared with the res. lmniei~~ :At: tubes in the solution for 15 minutes. s:gn ->f Iorvrr.Cut the tube from the open end a& ~~~ikc ) ::.c?e Sharpen thr fold by passing it between the finger and finger nail.This test determines flex-cracking of the coating.L :‘:. Fold ihi >u:~~. ten tubes should be tested. the adhesion and resi*lz~c.These spread open tubes may be used in carrying out lacquer curing test (4) and lacquer porosity test (5) if agreed to between the user and supplier. the alkaline solution. they should nrt show an:.0 Principle .1 is for general testingof decorated coll~psihic ru:>‘ s.2. 7. NOTE 2 .~Y 1~11 decoration or bleeding of coating or inks to any noticeable extent.i.1. 7.The: coating on the external surface off when the fold is rubbed with the finger.2.1 Procedure .Take ten tubes for testing. 7.There shall be no bhsteriitg or ~oo%%iJlg o: c.\. For testing specific product compatibility.. .1 External Decoration .1973 6.1 Procedure ..2. lifting. Wash the tubes after rczI:o*. On washing the tubes after 48 hours. 7.II. ->‘he coating is examined for any damage.2 Requirement .q:cat the procedure three times at different places ot the ruba.

1 Apparatus 8. eye ointment basis by any suitable method ( see Note ).2 Metal Bacteriological Filter-With a 4.1.1 or other suitable machine. METAL PARTICLE TEST 8.2 Procedure -Select a sample of 50 tubes from the lot to be tested.2. NOTE 1 . 8. the outside possi- of the tube during 8.It includes filling the tube with molten eye ointment basis and cooling at a fixed temperature overnight.A suitable apparatus is shown in Fig. 8. and allow the filled tubes to cool overnight at room temperature ( 15-20°C ).In use of the handle should be pulled down gently to avoid the bility of the ointment being forced past the roller or bursting the tube. the nozzle of the tube under test being held in this slot whilst the closed end of the tube is gripped between the roller and the block.5 mm diameter hole so that it can be mounted on a standard laboratory retort stand.2 mm squares. A slotted stop is required at the lower end of the roller’s travel.IS : 7182 . and Fill the tubes with molten clean each tube by vibration and/or ‘blowing’. The metal particles collected over the filter are observed through a magnifying glass and particles counted. close the open end of the tube by a double fold. Apart from the block all parts should be made of brass with the exception of the roller bearing and the springs which should be steel.2 Remove the caps from the cooled tubes and apply uniform pressure. 8.25 cm Whatman No. NOTE - Precautions duced into the ointment should be taken to ensure that metal particle are not introbase during the filling operations or from any other source. either manually or by means of the apparatus described in 8.With a graticule of 1 mm squares one of which is sub-divided into 0.0 Principle . formaldehyde laminated or polymethyl methacrylate) 25 mm thick. 4 and 5. 8.2.1 Extrusion Apparatus .3 Magnifying Glass . NOTE 2 - the extrusion Care should be taken to avoid scoring of the ointment.1973 8. through one short end of which is drilled longitudinally a 12.1 Heat the filtering apparatus in an oven at 80°C for 10 minutes or by circulation of hot water in a heating jacket surrounding the filter. to the closed end of each tube in such a manner 13 . It consists of block of about 190 mmx 100 mm made of a hard material ( for example.1. 541 filter paper supported on a suitable perforated plate in place of the standard sintered carbon disc. The ointment is squeezed out of the tubes and passed over a special filtering medium. 8.1. The other short end of the block should be curved in such a way that the spring roller moves smoothly over it when the handle is pulled vartically downwards. phenol.

5 mm. 4 EXTRUSION APPARATUSASSEMBLY 8. and c\i ?I:: number in the range of C. and immediately mount it between glass for examination.IS : 7182 . FIG. .2 mm to less than 0. b) The number in the range ofG.1973 that the time taken to express as much of the basis as possible through each nozzle is not less than 20 seconds in each case. allow the filter paper to dry. wash the walls of the filter and the filter paper with three successive 30 ml portion of chloroform.5 mm to less than I mm. Collect the extruded basis from the fifty tubes in the heated filter.3 Examine the filter paper under oblique lighting with the aid of the magnifying glass and note the following: a) The number of aII metal particles 1 mm in length and longer. applying suction to the stem of the filter in order to draw the molten basis through the filter paper.2. When all the melted basis has been removed.

4 Carry out two further examinations with the filter paper in two different positions._ --- r 12. l-209 100 I Ail dimensions in millimeters. so that the lighting comes from different directions.62 __-_--_____+__ ________ ---_I__. FIG.59f LO 1i _ -20-d .2. and calculate the average number of metal particles counted in each of the three ranges specified. 5 DETAILS OF EXTRUSION APPARATUS 8._. .

if the total score is more than 150 points the batch fails the test. If the total score is between 100 and 150 points both inclusive.2 mm 8.5 mm 50 10 2 Nil Particles less than 0.3. 16 .1 If the total score is less than 100 points.2 mm but less than 0. the test is repeated on a further sample of 50 tubes and the batch passes the test if the sum of the total scores in the two tests is less than 150 points. the batch of tubes passes the test.IS : 7182.1973 8.3 Expression of Results -The metal particle content is assessed by giving each metal particle detected on the filter paper a score as follows and adding the scores together: Particles 1 mm and above Particles O-5 mm but less than 1 mm Particles 0.

PUSHI The Pharmaceutical & Allied Manufacturers & Distributors’ Association Ltd. D. M. SHAH DR M. I. I. SUKHTHANKER( Alternate) Members SHRI S. PATEL SHRI I. K. A. Bombay SHRI P. Calcutta SHRI L. and DR S. NABAR ( Alternate) Extrusion Process Private Limited. Bombay DR N. M. M. PAR~KH SHRI S. Bombay SHRI B. BHARDWAJ ( Alternate ) Geoffrey Manners & Co Limited. Bombay. Bombay Glaxo Laboratories ( India ) Limited. DOSHI ( Alternate ) Colgate-Palmolive ( India ) Pvt Ltd. Bombay SHRI K. V. PATEL ( Alternate ) Glaxo Laboratories ( India ) Limited.IS : 7182. C. D. K. MAZU~~DAR 17 .1973 ( Continued from page 2 ) Representing Dunlop Rubber Company ( India ) Limited. BASURAY ( Alternate ) Boots Pure Drug Co ( India ) Pvt Ltd. Bombay SHRI M. WARRIER SHRI S.