You are on page 1of 7

Composites Science and Technology 72 (2012) 908–914

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

Composites Science and Technology
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compscitech

Preparation of porous magnetic nanocomposites using corncob powders as
template and their applications for electromagnetic wave absorption
Xue-Gang Chen a,⇑, Ji-Peng Cheng b, Shuang-Shuang Lv c, Ping-Ping Zhang d, Shu-Ting Liu a, Ying Ye a,⇑
a

Department of Ocean Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, PR China
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028, PR China
c
Department of Nonmetallic Research, Zhejiang Institute of Geology & Mineral Resources, Hangzhou 310007, PR China
d
Second Institute of Oceanography, SOA, Hangzhou 310012, PR China
b

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Received 30 August 2011
Received in revised form 1 March 2012
Accepted 3 March 2012
Available online 10 March 2012
Keywords:
A. Functional composites
D. X-ray diffraction (XRD)
B. Magnetic properties
A. Nanocomposites
E. Heat treatment

a b s t r a c t
Strong absorption, low density, and thin matching thickness are important parameters for electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbers. In this study, we prepared novel porous magnetic nanocomposites using
corncob powders as template. The presence of corncob will significantly decrease the bulk density of
samples from more than 4.0 to about 0.55 g cm3. The porous structures remarkably decreased the permittivity (e) and permeability (l) and enhanced the impendence matching between the absorber and air.
The porous magnetic nanocomposites exhibit enhanced absorption for EM waves at thin matching thickness. The optimum thickness is only 1.0–1.4 mm, with bandwidth of RL < 5 dB of about 8 GHz, covering
the half X-band and the whole Ku-band. The areal density of magnetic absorbers at this study is only
about 0.7–1.0 kg m2 at thickness of 1.0–1.4 mm, much lower than the reported values of other magnetic
absorbers. Due to the strong absorption at low density and thin matching thickness, the porous magnetic
nanocomposites prepared using corncob powders as template are promising light-weight EM wave
absorbers.
Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
Corn is one of the major crops in the world, sharing equal
importance with rice and wheat. Corncob is the agricultural
byproduct of corn produced by peeling off the corn kernels. About
800 million tons of corn is produced per annum all over the world,
which giving about 150 million tons of corncob [1]. The major
compositions of corncob include cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin,
and so on [2]. Therefore, the researches on the utilization of corncob focused on the extracting of organic compounds and preparation of absorbers [3,4]. For instance, high concentration ethanol [5]
and xylose [6] can be produced from pre-treated corncob. Like
other herb husks, corncob can also be activated by acid treatment
[7] or calcination [8,9], the resulting products activated carbon exhibit strong adsorption capacities. Nevertheless, corncob in agriculture is usually abandoned or burnt in air, not only wasted the
resources in corncob, but also polluted the environment. Therefore,
the utilization of corncob is still an important issue for the treatment of agricultural wastes.

⇑ Corresponding authors. Tel.: +86 571 88206399; fax: +86 571 88208890
(X.G. Chen), tel.: +86 571 87984550; fax: +86 571 88208890 (Y. Ye).
E-mail addresses: chenxg83@zju.edu.cn (X.-G. Chen), gsyeying@zju.edu.cn
(Y. Ye).
0266-3538/$ - see front matter Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2012.03.001

Electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbers are widely used in
domestic and military fields, either to protect the human being
from EM wave irradiation or to protect the military equipment
from being detected by radar waves [10,11]. Ideal EM wave absorbers should exhibit strong absorption and broad bandwidth for EM
waves on the basis of thin matching thickness and low density
[11,12]. The requirements of strong absorption and broad bandwidth can be achieved by traditional magnetic or magnetic/carbon
absorbers such as ferrite [13–17], carbonyl iron [18–20], carbon
nanotube nanocomposites [21–23], and so on. However, decreasing the matching thickness and density is still a challenge for the
EM wave absorbers. Various methods have been applied to prepare
EM wave absorbers with wide-band strong absorption and low
density, among which preparation of porous magnetic nanocomposites is an efficient way [24–27]. For example, Liu et al. fabricated porous carbon/Co nanocomposites using a sol–gel method
[28], which present enhanced EM wave absorption with low density. Porous Fe3O4/Fe/SiO2 nanorods were prepared using a series
of heat treatment, showing excellent EM wave absorption properties [29].
However, these methods usually use activated carbon as template or require rigorous reagents and procedures, which increased
the preparation cost of porous magnetic materials. In this study,
we prepared novel low-density porous magnetic (including Fe
and FeNi) nanocomposites using corncob powders as template.

XRD patterns of (a) porous Fe nanocomposite. All reagents are used without further purification. and the content of Fe is much higher than that of Fe3O4. Ferric nitrate (Fe(NO3)39H2O. Japan) at accelerating voltage of 5. the e0 of porous Fe and porous FeNi decrease slightly with the increasing of frequency. EDS results show that all three samples exhibit 18–23 atomic percent of carbon. prepared from cyclo-dehydration of PAA using DMF as solvent) [30. respectively.3.1.. and 220. / Composites Science and Technology 72 (2012) 908–914 909 We examined the complex permittivity (e) and permeability (l). After stirred vigorously. however.1. 3. China. Citric acid (C6H8O7. Polyamic acid (PAA) was obtained from Guangcheng plastic Co. As shown in Fig. morphology. growing according to the VLS mechanism [32]. and (c) FeNi alloy prepared without using corncob powders. In order to investigate the effects of corncob powders on the structure. It is indicated that during the heat treatment.2.0 kV. Nickel Nitrate (Ni(NO3)26H2O. 3. the dielectric loss of porous Fe and porous FeNi . Preparation of porous magnetic nanocomposites In a typical procedure. JCPDF # 47-1417) with characteristic peaks of 111. The operation voltage and current were maintained at 36 kV and 34 mA. 200. The use of corncob powders is found to be essential for the EM wave absorption of porous magnetic nanocomposites which showing enhanced reflection loss (RL) and absorption bands at thin matching thickness. On the contrast.-G.2. When using corncob powders as template. When without using corncob powders as template. Characterizations The phase purity and crystal structure of the samples were determined by a D/max 2550 X-ray diffractometer (XRD) (Rigaku. 3. and was washed thoroughly by water and dried at 60 °C before usage.02 s1. the resulting FeNi particles are melted together. because the presence of pores will significantly decrease the bulk density of samples and enhance their EM wave absorption via scattering effect [33]. The tan de of porous Fe decreases with frequency at 2–13 GHz and increases significantly thereafter..15406 nm) at a scan rate of 0. Chen et al. The obtained samples were calcined at 500 °C for 2 h under air and then reduced at 450 °C for 30 min under mixed atmosphere of 200 mL min1 H2 and 500 mL min1 N2. The relative intensity and sharply shape of the corresponding peaks indicate that both Fe and Fe3O4 are well crystallized. while the imaginary part suggests the dielectric or magnetic loss for EM waves [34]. XRD patterns Fig. forming pores with diameter of 20–200 nm. AR). The filling rate of the samples is 60% with paraffin as substrate. SEM characterizations The SEM images of the samples are shown in Fig. The tan de of porous FeNi increases with frequency and shows a peak at about 14 GHz. The magnetic nanocomposites will benefit from the porous structures. and Dimethylformamide (DMF) were purchased from Sinopharm Chemical Reagent Co. 1 shows the XRD patterns of the samples. China. After cooled to room temperature and coated by polyimide (PI. without showing any pores. A certain amount (20 g) corncob powders were added into the mixture. 2. the product was dried in a temperature-controlled oven at 80 °C for 1 h and then heated at 140 °C for 1 h.. Materials Corncob powders were obtained from Hangzhou.X. corncob will be decomposed to carbon and releasing numerous gases. AR). that prepared without using corncob exhibit similar diffraction patterns. The complex permittivity and permeability were determined by a HP8720ES vector network analyzer at EM wave frequency of 2– 18 GHz and thickness of 2 mm. Shanghai. Japan) with Cu Ka radiation (k = 0. Results and discussion 3. and EM characteristics of magnetic samples. China.. 1. AR). The dielectric loss tangents (tan de = e00 /e0 ) of samples were calculated from the measured e0 and e00 . Ltd. and orientational polarization is the most promising mechanism in this study according to the curves [35–37]. and calculated the EM wave absorption of the porous magnetic nanocomposites as a function of thickness.31]. which may be attributed to the dielectric resonance effect [38]. the obtained Fe and FeNi nanocomposites exhibit similar porous structures. The diameter of Fe and FeNi particles in the nanocomposites is about 100 nm. the e00 of porous Fe and porous FeNi increase with frequency. while other conditions are kept constant. The porous Fe nanocomposite is mainly composed by Fe (Iron. 2. e0 and l0 are the dielectric constant and real magnetic permeability of absorber. Ltd. 3. which may be derived from the carbonization of citric acid and corncob powders. Both porous FeNi and FeNi alloy Fig. The diameter of a single FeNi alloy is about 200– 500 nm. which separated the magnetic particles and construct porous structures.3. Complex permittivity and permeability Relative complex permittivity (e = e0  je00 ) and complex permeability (l = l0  jl00 ) are essential parameters for the EM wave absorbers. The porous nanocomposites maintained the initial plate-like structures of corncob powders. which can be indexed to well-crystallized FeNi (Taenite. JCPDF # 060696) and Fe3O4 (magnetite. porous Fe (or porous FeNi) nanocomposite was prepared. The e of magnetic particles is usually predominated by various polarizations.4 g nickel nitrate for the preparation of porous FeNi nanocomposite) and 20 g citric acid were dissolved in 50 mL deionized water under continuous stirring. 2. Materials and methods 2. Changzhou.6 g ferric nitrate and 8. we prepared FeNi alloy without using corncob powders as template. The surface morphologies and elemental compositions of the samples were studied by an S-4800 scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) (Hitachi. (b) porous FeNi nanocomposite. 20 g ferric nitrate (11. The e0 and e00 of porous FeNi are relative higher than that of porous Fe and exhibit a peak at frequency of 13–14 GHz. According to the tan de values. 2. JCPDF # 72-2303).

however. c is the velocity of light. respectively. The B5 value of porous FeNi absorber increases with thickness from . the magnetic loss of porous Fe and FeNi nanocomposites is manly induced by eddy current loss and natural resonance effect. 4). EM wave absorption properties According to the transmission line theory. Both l00 and tan dm values of porous FeNi are higher than that of porous Fe. The B10 values increase dramatically with thickness from 0. which may be ascribed to the melting and adhesion of FeNi particles.910 X. d is the thickness of the absorber. the as-prepared FeNi alloy shows much higher e. and loss tangent than that of porous FeNi (Fig. the absorption band with maximum RL move to lower frequencies. indicating that porous FeNi exhibit higher magnetic loss for EM waves. increases with frequency and porous Fe present higher dielectric loss for EM waves at 2–13 GHz.7 mm. The maximum B10 values for porous Fe and porous FeNi absorbers are 3.3 mm and 2. natural resonance. respectively. respectively. The l0 of porous magnetic nanocomposite decreases slightly with the increasing of frequency. Fig.6 GHz at 1. the bandwidth of RL < 10 dB (B10) for both porous Fe and porous FeNi is 0 at thickness of less than 0. the l00 and magnetic loss tangent (tan dm = l00 /l0 ) increases with frequency firstly and exhibit maximums at frequency of about 4–12 GHz.8 dB. With the increasing of thickness. Chen et al. The maximum RL values of porous Fe and porous FeNi absorbers are 37.2 GHz.2 GHz. Both porous Fe and porous FeNi absorbers present weak absorption (RL < 5 dB) for EM waves at thickness of less than 1 mm. According to the l values. However. (c and d) porous FeNi nanocomposite. When without using corncob powders as template. The C value with formula of C = l00 (l0 )2 f1. we analyzed the variations of bandwidth of RL as a function of thickness. The magnetic loss types include hysteresis loss. and (e and f) FeNi alloy prepared without using corncob as template.5 GHz. As shown in Fig. f is the frequency of EM wave. SEM images of (a and b) porous Fe nanocomposite. eddy current effect. l.5 dB to 10 dB) but wide-band absorption for EM waves at high frequency (8–18 GHz) and high thickness (4–10 mm).9 dB and 40. 5 shows the calculated three-dimensional and color-filling patterns of RL values for porous Fe and porous FeNi prepared using corncob powders as template. l. 9.3 mm and decrease thereafter.8 GHz at 1.7 mm to 1. [40] indicates that the magnetic loss of FeNi alloy is predominated by natural resonance effect. Both porous Fe and porous FeNi absorbers show low RL (2. Both e and l of FeNi alloy decrease with the increasing frequency and exhibit some peaks. which are the natural resonance peaks of FeNi alloy. The variation of bandwidth of RL < 5 dB (B5) for porous FeNi is similar to the B10 values. 2. The conductive network formed by melting and adhesion will significantly improve the conductivity. 3. respectively. 6a and b. / Composites Science and Technology 72 (2012) 908–914 Fig. which was suggested by Wu et al.-G. To obtain the optimum thickness and frequency of porous magnetic absorbers. The peaks of tan dm appear at frequency of 6. and so on [39]. e and l are the complex permittivity and permeability of absorber. and 12. and therefore increased the e.0 mm.4. and loss tangent. the RL values of single-layer EM wave absorbers can be evaluated from the measured e and l using the following equations [41]: rffiffiffiffi Z in ¼ Z 0   l 2pfd pffiffiffiffiffiffi le tanh j c e   Z in  Z 0   RLðdBÞ ¼ 20 log  Z in þ Z 0  ð1Þ ð2Þ where Zin and Z0 are the impedance of absorber and air.

Frequency dependence of complex permittivity. 3. Fig. The filling rate is 60% using paraffin as substrate. / Composites Science and Technology 72 (2012) 908–914 911 Fig. and loss tangent for porous Fe (hollow patterned lines) and porous FeNi (solid patterned lines) prepared using corncob powders as template. Frequency dependence of electromagnetic parameters for FeNi alloy prepared without using corncob powders as template. 4.X.-G. . permeability. Chen et al. The filling rate is 60% using paraffin as substrate.

It starts to decrease thereafter and maintains at about 1 GHz at thickness of 7.7–10 mm. At the optimum thickness. The maximum B5 value of porous Fe absorber is 6. the extremely poor impendence matching caused by the huge difference between e and l prevented the EM waves from entering into the absorber. Chen et al. it is suggested that porous Fe is more suitable for the application in EM wave absorb- ers.2 mm.) Fig. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend. . exhibit three peaks with the increasing of thickness.3–1. the optimum EM wave frequency should be 10–18 GHz. 6. showing RL values of less than 5 dB. the maximum RL for EM waves at 2– 18 GHz with thickness of 0.4 mm and 1.6 mm to 8 GHz at 1. The B5 values of porous Fe absorber. (d) frequency dependence of RL for porous Fe (hollow patterned lines) and porous FeNi (solid patterned lines) at optimum thickness. l. 7. the resulting FeNi alloy exhibit much lower RL values than that of porous FeNi absorber. As a result. Effects of thickness on the bandwidth of (a) RL < 5 dB and (b) RL < 10 dB. Although the e. and loss tangent of FeNi alloy are much higher than that of porous FeNi.2–10 mm. respectively. Fig. We can conclude that porous FeNi exhibits higher maximum RL value (40. The optimum thickness for porous Fe and porous FeNi absorbers are 1.8 GHz at 1. Three-dimensional and color-filling patterns of RL for (a and b) porous Fe and (c and d) porous FeNi nanocomposites at filling rate of 60% using paraffin as substrate.-G.912 X.1–0. All B5 values of porous Fe absorber are greater than 3 GHz at thickness of 1. According to the higher B5.8 dB). 5. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig.1 mm. and maximum RL values. (c) maximum RL for porous Fe (hollow patterned lines) and porous FeNi (solid patterned lines). 6d.0–1. B10. 6c shows the maximum RL of porous Fe and porous FeNi absorbers as a function of thickness. the reader is referred to the web version of this article.4 mm. / Composites Science and Technology 72 (2012) 908–914 Fig. When without using corncob powders as template.1–10 mm is only about 5 dB. however. but porous Fe absorber shows wide range thickness of RL < 20 dB. 0 GHz at thickness of 0.

much lower than the reported values of magnetic EM wave absorbers [42]. [5] Liu K. The density is of great importance to the EM wave absorbers especially in military fields. Wang L. Zhang QT. The porous magnetic nanocomposites exhibit much stronger absorption for EM waves than the FeNi alloy that prepared without using corncob powders.74 5. McAloon AJ.95 1.06 g cm3. Srisawatdhisukul S. (a) Frequency dependence of RL at 2 mm and (b) three-dimensional pattern of RL for FeNi alloy prepared without using corncob powders.6 2. The matching thickness of the porous magnetic absorbers is only 1. The prepared porous magnetic nanocomposites are potential lightweight EM wave absorber with bright future. The second.2 21.50:548–52. et al. which are much lower than that of FeNi alloy (4.101(13):4952–8. bandwidth of RL < 10 dB and maximum RL of porous Fe and porous FeNi absorbers are much higher than that of the counterpart.0–1. Juang RS. Chen JA. Samples Bulk density (g cm3) Thickness (mm) Bandwidth of RL < 5 dB (GHz) Porous Fe using corncob 0.77 kg m2. we compared our results with other porous EM wave absorbers. As shown in Table 1.506(1):347–50.39 1.26(5):449–57.56 ± 0.28(1–2):29–33.77 1.28 2.7–1. porous structures will be fabricated when using corncob powders as template. respectively. Chandran B. [10] Wessapan T. which will significantly decrease the bulk density of the materials and absorbers.133(5):51101. J Alloys Compd 2010.6 – / 1. Compos Sci Technol 2006. People’s Republic of China. Second.53 ± 0. we have fabricated novel porous magnetic nanocomposites using corncob powders as template in this study.1 ± 0.6 1. [3] Robinson T. Lin X.108 1. this study provides an important method to fabricate porous magnetic EM wave absorbers with low density. [7] Vaughan T. Environ Int 2002.0 20 6.53 ± 0. First. [8] Ioannidou O.0 kg m2.-G. the calculated areal densities of porous Fe and porous FeNi absorbers at optimum thickness are 0. Nigam P.78(2):133–9.82 40. Bioresour Technol 2010.0 2.2 1. Therefore.2 g cm3) prepared without using corncob powders. with areal density of only about 0. Seo CW.0 5. Hicks KB. Xu N.37(1):190–203. Conclusions In summary.11(9):1966–2005. Rattanadecho P. Li X.01 37. Zhang L. Environ Technol 2001.8 4.86 21. First of all.1 2.95 kg m2 and 0.8 2.104(3):1055–62.27 0.35(1):49–56. Bandwidth of RL < 10 dB (GHz) Maximum RL (dB) Areal density of absorber (kg m2) 3.2 – 6. [2] Donnelly BJ. J Therm Anal Calorim 2011. Qin W.6 4. Han JH. [11] Chen XG. Hoogwijk M. the porous magnetic nanocomposites prepared using corncob powders exhibit much higher EM wave absorption because of their improved impendence matching and scattering effect of porous materials. [12] Park KY. Bioresour Technol 2001. Lv SS.4 2. The bulk densities of porous Fe and porous FeNi are only 0. Zhu M.05 g cm3 and 0. Energy Policy 2009. their bulk densities and matching thicknesses are much higher either. Dong B. Marshall WE. which facilitated the applications for EM wave absorbers. The use of corncob powders is found to be essential for the properties of magnetic nanocomposites.85 12. The absorption bands of RL < 5 dB covers half X-band and the whole Ku-band. J Inorg Mater 2011. Cereal Chem 1973. Kim CG.6 8. Cheng JP. Yue J. Zhang J. Fang X. the presence of corncob significantly decreased the bulk density of the samples. [6] Chen Y.53 / the porous structures decreased both e and l values of the samples and the impendence matching between the absorber and air was enhanced as a result. Renew Sust Energy Rev 2007.36 3. strong absorption.101(18):6994–9.4 mm. [4] Wu FC. although the bandwidths of porous carbon fiber and porous cement composite are larger than that of this study. Bioresour Technol 2010. Zhang Q. 4.80 5. .0 3.28(3):451–5.2 0.05 Porous FeNi using corncob 0. / Composites Science and Technology 72 (2012) 908–914 Fig. Zabaniotou A.3 1.6 1. Ye Y. Wang LX.913 X.06 FeNi alloy Porous cement/EPS [26] Porous carbon fiber [27] 4. Lee SE. J Heat Transfer 2011.29 18. Junginger HM. Chen et al. Lee HA. J Rare Earth 2010. Helm JL.56 ± 0. and thin matching thickness. [13] Huang XG. Ye Y. Acknowledgement This research is supported by the ‘‘Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities’’. This study not only fabricated novel porous magnetic nanocomposites with strong EM wave absorption at low density and thin matching thickness.1 ± 0. the use of corncob powders is essential for the EM wave absorption of magnetic absorbers (Table 1). The bandwidth of RL < 5 dB.60 0. The filling rate is 60% with paraffin as substrate. References [1] Hettinga WG. Dekker SC. Zhang PP.0 2.20 15. [14] Song J.5 2. but also utilized the agricultural waste – corncob. When applied as EM wave absorbers. respectively.64 / 10. Xiao D.22(2):205–13.9 15. [9] Chen XG. Furthermore. Tseng RL. 7.9 / Consequently. Table 1 Comparisons between magnetic absorbers of this study and other porous EM wave absorbers.

Gao P. et al.19(1):65–72.134(1–3):58–64. Appl Phys Lett 2009. Wei J. Zhang PP. [32] Givargizov EI. Huang CF. Ge S. He J. Ting TH. Zhu CL. [17] Wu KH.18:275701. Ding X. et al. Liu ST. Appl Phys Lett 2008. [33] Zhou J. Hamid SAA. [19] Qing YC. Ding X. [27] Xie W.24(2):320–4. Zhou WC. Yuan J. J Appl Phys 2002. Hui S. Tian Q. Yu HC. [18] Youh MJ. J Magn Magn Mater 2012.68(1):132–9. Zhou J.42(7):75002. Chambers B. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 2010. Cao MS. Ahmad SH. Appl Phys A 2010.93(22):223105. Fan TX.42(3):363–8. Wang RX.31:20–30. Duan Y. Zhao B. Hsu JS. Suetake K.114(17):7611–7. Wang DK. [40] Wu M. [21] Zhao DL. Polyimide coating process and material. / Composites Science and Technology 72 (2012) 908–914 [15] Costa ACFM. Shen CY. Appl Phys Lett 2008. Dong XL. [16] Shen G. [28] Liu QL. Compos Sci Technol 2009. Liu CI. Chu ZY. Compos Sci Technol 2008. Hu K. .100(4):1177–81. et al. J Alloys Compd 2009. J Phys D: Appl Phys 2009. [26] Guan H. Poliak RM. Zhang YD. Gama AM.93(1):13110.2:4935. Gui X. et al. Jia S.11(3):2315–20. Cheng JP. [30] Angelo RW. et al. Zhang D. Xu Z. Li G. Sun D. Adv Mater 2003. Wu S. He J.29(1):49–54. Han JH. Appl Phys Lett 2002. Lee SK. [42] Lv R. Qiu T. Chen et al. et al. J Alloys Compd 2010. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2011. Barnes A. Chen ZH.-G. [22] Park KY. Lv B. Zhou YJ. J Magn Magn Mater 2006. [29] Chen YJ. Ye W. Ye Y.505(2):712–6. Wang K. J Appl Phys 2009. et al. J Inorg Mater 2009. Cao MS. et al.15(7–8):600–3. Kiminami RHGA. Diniz AP. [41] Naito Y.106(5):54303. Zhang JM. US Patent. Li Y. J Phys: Condens Matter 1990. J Cryst Growth 1975. IEEE Trans Microw Theory Technol 1971.301(2):325–30. Susko JR. 1980. Zhu DM. Fang XY. Xiao TD.445–446:135–40. Yang CC. Chiu SC. Huang H. Yi JW. Li XY. J Phys Chem C 2010. Liu S. Wang LJ. Lee SB. Wu HC. Wei J. Cem Concr Compos 2007. [25] Wang T. Lei JP. [35] Neelakanta PS. Hines WA. Gu J. [23] Gui X. Luo F.95(16):163108. [36] Watts PCP. Silva VJ. Cornejo DR. [24] Tang X. Mansor AA. Li X.29(6):4209–14. IEEE Trans Magn 1993.324(9):1745–51.69(7– 8):1271–8. Zhao Y.914 X.92(2):876–82. [39] Wallace JL. [37] Zhang XF.80(23):4404–6. Cheng HF. Abdullah MH. Kang F. Wang K. Lin WH. Zhao J. [31] Chen XG. Kim JB. Wang T. Nanotechnology 2007. [38] Shi XL. Lv SS.483(1–2):563–5. [20] Feng YB. Zhu H. Mater Sci Eng A 2007. Hsu WK. IEEE Trans Magn 2006. Lv R. Jusoh SF. [34] Yusoff AN. Shen ZM.