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Catalytic Processes for
Environmental Use
solution to a high profile
environmental problem.
Based on conventional alkaline bleach scrubbing the
ODORGARD Process utilizes a catalyst to convert
the s o d i u m h y p o c h l o r i t e
molecule into brine and a
highly reactive oxygen
atom held on the surface
of the catalyst. It is this
oxygen species which is
r e s p o n s i b l e for the enhancement in scrubbing efficiency both in the level to
which particular
compounds are oxidized and
the range of c o m p o u n d s
that can be oxidized. The
reaction which takes place
over the catalyst can be
s u m m a r i z e d thus:

n order to develop and
market a range of heterogeneously
cata/ysed processes designed
to s o l v e persistent effluent
p r o b l e m s a r i s i n g in the
chemical and related process industries, ICI Katalco
established its OXISPEC TM
Business. The main aim of
the business is to utilize
catalysis to increase the
efficiency of effluent treatment, thus o f f e r i n g low
capital cost solutions for
the t r e a t m e n t of d i l u t e
s t r e a m s r e m a i n i n g after
waste minimization. Keith
Kelly and Jane Butcher, ICI
Katalco, UK describe some
of the products and processes involved.

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FIGURE 2:TYPICAl. REMOVAl. OFAMMONIA AND AMINES ATA
MEAT RENDERERS (MEAT PROCESSING) USING A SINGLE
STAGE ODORGARD SYSTEM
Conc.ln
(ppm)

Ammonia
Amines
Mercaptans
Hydrogensulphide
Odour

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4
0.5
0.5

Z
m

Conc.Out
(ppm)

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rid ( < 0.05)
nd( < 0.1)
nd ( < 0.05)
none',perceived

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NaOCI + CAT -~ CAT-O + NaCI

ODOUR AND LOW-LEVEL
VOC A B A T E M E N T

Use of the catalytic system
a l l o w s efficient scrubbing
of a wide range of odorous
c o m p o u n d s and low-level
VOCs in a s i n g l e s t a g e
without the by-production
of c h l o r i n a t e d o r g a n i c s
and with h i g h l y efficient
use of the chemicals (sodium hypochlorite).
Effective and retro-fittable to e x i s t i n g s c r u b b e r
systems, the ODORGARD
Process utilises traditional
h a r d w a r e and control systems to add a new dimen-

Developed in conjunction
with Dr F.H.H. Valentin, ICI
K a t a l c o ' s ODORGARD T M
Process offers catalytically
enhanced odour and lowlevel VOC (volatile organic
compound) destruction,
using a heterogeneous supported nickel catalyst in a
fixed-bed reactor.
With patents for both the
catalyst and process being
granted around the world,
the process is recognized
as a unique and practical

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Figure 3: Comparison of efficiency of removal of organicsulphides of
ODORGARD (with catalyst), conventional bleach scrubbing (without
catalyst) and one and two stage biofiltration
s i g n to h i g h e f f i c i e n c y
scrubbing (Figure 1).
T y p i c a l i n d u s t r i e s to
which the process applies
are sewage treatment, ani-

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .',. . . . . . . . !
Sodium
In-Line: . . ..................
Mixer ::i
.
~..,~ Hypochlorite
Solution

Hydroxide
Solution

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Bed
Feed Gas
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plus O ~
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Purge
• Reservoir
To Drain

Bleen
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Liquid ~
Recirculation

Figure 1: Simplified flow diagram of the ODORGARD process

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Scrubbing
lumn

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MeSH .~ M~lhylMnt~apMe
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DMOS
Di~dphiO~
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I 13MS4 Dfffl~thylTeTt~sdph(le
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~ Vent to
Atmosphere

Mist~
Eliminator
Liquid....--'~
Distributor

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Catalytic
Reactor

Reactor ~ '
By-Pass

, ~ MWater
.~e-up
Anti-Scalant
"~- -Solution

mal rendering, leather and
tanning, food and drink, natural p r o d u c t p r o c e s s i n g ,
foundry, paints and resins,
pulp and paper and related
industries (Figure 2), The
typical upper range of applicability for the ODORGARD
technology is 3-5kg/hr of total
odour or VOC.
For odours in particular
the ODORGARD technology
is notable in that it can
remove amines and ammonia plus a wide range of
organic sulphides in a single stage. Traditional chemical scrubbing r e q u i r e s
m u l t i - s t a g e s c r u b b i n g of
such species (Figure 3).
As the system is aqueous based, the destruction
of V O C s d o e s d e p e n d
somewhat on their solubility
and f u n c t i o n a l i t y . Whilst
such c o m p o u n d s as e.g.
phenols, a l d e h y d e s alcohols etc. can be removed,

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~ite customer trial.9% a c h i e v e d on higher H2S Ioadings.e. ° ° . TOC .. UK r e t r o fitted with an ODORGARD system by Alderley Process Technologies. including a sludge press house which gives relatively high levels of odour when pressing is in progress. O 09 o~ tO . The basic chemical reaction is the same as for the ODORGARD system. The column internals were replaced and a control system added along with the catalyst vessel and chemical dosing equipment to give a unit which was expected to treat the foul air stream very effectively. . . The o x i d a n t may be supplied as sodium hvDo- chlorite. The system was being used to treat air from various vessels and tanks on the STW.m O H x C03. but allows oxidation of 'harder to oxidize' organic species and higher hypochlorite selectivity (Figure 5). oooo °eeo°oee O l e o o o o e oeee eJee eeo.tee e o t l l m i c e e e l l e e l a c e l l i .m m .J 0 w l 0i Z 0 o 0 0i TOC TON I-.Total Organic Carbon TON .. The technology may be operated either to render the stream adequately biotreatable (i.'. The efficiency of the ODORGARD system (as measured by H:_~Sremoval) gave an average of 99. Launched this year it offers for the first time a proprietary fixed bed catalytic process to remove organic contaminants (pesticides.Organo-chloride . The previous efficiency of the bio-scrubber was typically of the order of 60-70% in terms of odour removal. colour. The overall chemical reaction may be expressed generically for a chiorocarbon: CxHvCl= + n O C l " t.+ y/2 H20 + z C¿- Figure 6 shows the typical destruction of a series of organo-chlorides at a recent on-. non bio-deg r a d a b l e organic species etc. The ACCENT process is the most recent addition to ICI Katalco's OXISPEC T M range of products. i l l . CATALYTIC DESTRUCTION OF ORGANICS IN EFFLUENT STREAMS iIimlm| I IMaS=|I I xmlmlml Jill n l ]IIiIM C ~ . ° .. a licensee of the technology (Figure 4). .~.w LL O t. The operating cost of the latter Heating Packed Bed Catalytic Reactor '--- Figure 5: Simplified flow diagram of the ACCENT process Aqueous P r o d u c t to Discharge . . The catalyst for the ACCENT process was developed from the ODORGARD catalyst.B Q. An active o x y g e n m o l e c u l e is held on the catalyst surface which is then used to oxidize organic contaminants in an aqueous stream.O LO O O~ 13- very insoluble compounds such as hydrocarbons cannot be destroyed.8% with 99. i"" " r~ ob (33 o t-3 e to . to convert 'hard' COD to BOD or destroy known respiratory or nitrification inhibitors) or c o m p l e t e l y to m i n e r a l i z e the p o l l u t a n t s to c a r b o n dioxide.I . Case Study (ODORGARD) An existing bio-scrubber at a sewage treatment works (STW) in the Northumbrian Water region. Component A Compormnl C Component B Figure 6:l~ypical Destruction of an Organic Compound in the ACCENT Process (Organe-Chlorides). . water and sodium salts if no sewer or biotreatmerit option exists. o . hydrogen peroxide.. . . o ° . The c o l u m n d i m e n s i o n s w e r e s u f f i c i e n t f o r an ODORGARD system. or other oxygen supplying species although the prewailing economics at this time favour sodium hypochlorite.) from liquid streams.Total Organic Nitrogen Components A-C .

We also stock one of th~ largest inventories of corrosion and temperatt resistant metals in the in offer evaporationplantswith acities from 150-25. chemicals. .r. Cleveland. Pulp and Paper. 571459 e -13 . be higher. Billingham. P h a r m a c e u t i c a l s . t . although there is little penalty in installed capital or catalyst cost.Italy ++39 . printing. Benefits over existing technologies include reliability. ++39 . Textiles. Other options are available should 100% availability be n e c e s s a r y . mesh. netics.< --I i 0 z i m 0 .1. The variable treatment cost depends solely upon the mass flow of material to be oxidized. the variable composition of s u c h s t r e a m s usually demands onsite effluent tests to conclusively demonstrate treatability. Toll Free: (800) 321-3234 Cleveland area: (216) 341-1832 FAX: (216) 341-1876 W" . Our large inventory mean fast delivery and reduce down time to you. PO Box 1. Petrochemicals. low operating. Dyes... weave. The ACCENT unit can also be provided with a self-optimizing control system with automated dosing from instantaneous COD duty. :hanical engineering. !' w. 434 . Soaps and Detergents. landfill :hate whatever your innes.. The cheapest systems comprise a single reactor system with no duty standby. S y n t h e t i c Resins. l e o i i i l * l . -t cool |co COO |COO :!:!:!: eeoc coo .. Agrochemicals. but depends upon the d e g r e e of treatment required. it is impossible to predict the likely selectivity of the process and so each stream has to be considered separately. food. Ohio 4410L O C_ {- L E D Italia S. di Corva. Pigments. allow an estimate to be made of the catalyst volume and hence c a p i t a l cost. or call us. TS23 1LB UK Tel: +44 1642 553601. As a guideline. MANUFACTURING COMPANY 573 East 78th Street. Via Nuova 33170 Tel.. • ° .000 % The CE-markedplants use t pumps or mechanical ~ur recompression. l * * l ° l • ° ° . Rubber Chemicals. Custom Weaving. Food and Drink.BOO ego °eeo°o° oeoe oee°o°o o o e . 571055 Fax. 86/D Pordenone -1 (I) . However.. size or design..steam or water a flexible solutionto a e range of our customers' ~lems.e. Initial t r e a t m e n t studies of the effluent stream are often required to check treatability and suitability of the ACCENT Process. will however. Katalco believes ACCENT t e c h n o l o g y is a p p l i c a b l e for the treatment of up to 3000 ppm of the TOC in the effluent.r. "1"1 5" -I go "C3 O Callor Writefora FREEcopyof our capa#/I/tiesbrochure.Figure 7: ACCENTpilot unit used for testing on several customer sites option. 434 . Adhesives. Bulk/Intermediate/Effect Chemicals. Long Screen Life.--L . Applicable industries segments for the ACCENT Process are considered to be anywhere where organic species in liquid cause a problem i. capital and maintenance costs and ease of operation and it well deserves its reputation as 'fit and forget' technology (Figure 7). . water pollution nnseverising costs. in any metal. VACUUM EVAPORATION surface treatment. Because of the infinite combinations of organics in effluent. CLOT. Cleveland. Whatever your applicati~ we can weave and fabri. Fax: +44 1642 522542 Cut the cost of aqueous waste disposal with clean separation technology from Led Italia Fast Delivery. files.' ICI Katalco. The experimental results indicate the deg r e e of t r e a t m e n t achievable. plus the likely hypochlorite and caustic usage rates.