You are on page 1of 15

King Hammurabi

of Babylon

ACCORDING TO HIS own testimony, Hammurabi
(Hammurapi) was destined for kingship since
time immemorial, when two powerful gods,
Anu and Enlil, entrusted to a third god, Marduk, control over destiny, on Earth as in
heaven. At that time, too, the gods set Babylon
above all other lands, and its rule was made
everlasting. Here is how Hammurabi describes
himself on an inscribed black basalt stele we
have come to call the Code of Hammurabi:

propriate to Hammurabi is doubtless because
in books on world history, on the art of antiquity, on the evolution of consciousness, or on
the spirit or ethics of law, we have long since
conceded to this Babylonian king the third
attribute: champion of justice. Indeed, "Hammurabi" and "Lawgiver" have come to be practically synonymous in most modern publications.

At that time, to give happiness to the people,
Anum and Enlil pronounced my name "Hammurabi," me, the pious and god-fearing ruler, to decree equity in the land, to eradicate the wicked
and the evil so that the powerful might not oppress the powerless, to rise like Shamash and illumine the land for the black-headed (people).

Hammurabi, who ruled from 1792 to 1750 BCE,
came to the throne almost a hundred years after
his ancestor Sumu-abum established his dynasty at Babylon in 1894. At that time Babylon
was no major power, but its political history
went back at least to the time of the Agade (Akkadian) Dynasty. One of its kings, Shar-kalisharri, built a temple to the deities Annunitum
and II-aba in Babylon. During the Ur III period
diverse persons were appointed ENSi, "governor," of Babylon. The name of the city was
written KA..DINGIR. (RA) in Sumerian, equivalent
to bab ilim in Akkadian, meaning "God's
Gate," a name it held throughout its history.
Whether or not "God's Gate" is itself folk etymology on a very ancient and no-longerunderstood name is still under discussion. During Hammurabi's time, Babylon was also
known in written form as TIN.TIR, and there is a

Primordial selection, self-praise, and dedication to justice combine readily in Mesopotamian tradition: before Hammurabi at least
two kings, Ur-Nammu of Ur (III) and LipitIshtar of Isin, cover the same ground, albeit
more succinctly, in the prologues to legal prescriptions they issued for their own people. If
we treat the three components of such sentiments separately, we may note that the first
two items-divine preference and boast-are
quasi-formulaic in Mesopotamian monumental
royal inscriptions; indeed they are featured in
inscriptions of rulers who, we now know, had
every reason to be modest about themselves.
That these two elements seem to us more ap-


meaning "The (Divine) Kinsman/Uncle heals. nation" or "paternal uncle. Babylon sat astride the Arakhtum-either a branch of the Euphrates or the great river itself before it shifted its route-and its soil could be among the most fertile in the ancient world if constantly worked and watered. it had a name that was pronounced *Baballr but written BAR. The most famous example in the last category Moral: It is all right for people to use either spelling. The issue has gotten complic~ted because some would treat the name as Babylonian (East Semitic) and others as Amorite (West Semitic). provided that they not become dogmatic about their choice. but because of the rise of subsoil water levels in the region. the speech of the whole earth" (Genesis 11:9). copies done in antiquity of inscriptions no longer extant. in Babylonian traditions. so it is not well suited to represent a number of consonants that occur in Semitic languages. however. kinsman" if heard as an cayin. they opted for -rapi as the second element. at this point the problems mushroom. is significant because the "hammu-" element would mean "heat" (hence "Sun") if the first consonant was heard as a het (but possibly also "father-in-law"). thus leading many to read his name cammu + rapi. the traditional "Hammurabi" is kept because there is no reason to assume that in different cultures names with homonymic components must have the same meaning. allegedly because God "confounded (balal) . but "people. Its ruins are divided among a number of tells that are now partially walled-off for display to tourists visiting Iraq. but something to do with healing if read -rapi. a number of its kings of the second half of the second millennium were seen to be named cmrp. "Hammurabi" was understood as kimta rapastu. large." Finally. and monuments taken elsewhere as spoils of war. As the first element is undoubtedly West Semitic." This interpretation is possible. Mesopotamian scribes exclusively used the sign for the syllable -bi in "Hammurabi" (as almost always in other names with -rabi) even when they had another sign for -pi. For this reason almost all of our information on Old Babylonian Babylon. The difference between them. The cuneiform script itself was invented for Sumerian and adapted for Akkadian. In older literature. and this spelling was retrojected on the name of the famous king of Babylon. must have been much more modest in size. scribes would sometime use GAL.KI. the second should also be treated as such." again favoring -rabi as the second element. where it was written babylon. 9 02 . But because some scholars con- nected the Babylonian Hammurabi with a king of Shinar named Amraphel (Genesis 14).BAR. comes from material excavated in other sites under Hammurabi's control. it is now largely heyond archaeological inspection. and for this reason you will often find two spellings: "Hammurapi" and "HammurabL" It is generally accepted that the name contains two elements: hammu and rap/bi. The sign that we transcribe h"a represents a number of Semitic phonemes am~ng which were /:tet (a voiceless pharyngeal) and cayin (a voiced pharyngeal).History and Culture "Hammurabi" or "Hammurapi"? There is still a debate on how to read the king's name. in Alalakh (modem Tell Atchana). In Hebrew the city was called babel. "Vast Nation. likelihood that before the Agade period. but in this chapter (as in the Cidlizations of the Ancient Near East reference set).) Hammurabi's own capital. most often spelling it ha+am+mu+ra+bi. the tendency was to differ on the meaning of the first element (hence "Sun" or "[Divine] Kinsman") but to understand the second element as -rabi. "mighty. When documents in alphabetic cuneiform were recovered from Ugarit (Ras Shamra) in the 1930S. (See "Nabonidus" below. but the immense remains that are still to be seen there are those of first millennium Babylon. presumably closer to a truer understanding of the meaning of the name. the Sumerian word meaning "vast. the Septuagint. correspondence recovered at capitals of powers friendly or hostile to Babylon. vast" would be its meaning if read -rabi. Scribes use five to six different cuneiform signs to write the name. But. that is the Babylon of Hammurabi's dynasty. but we get our own name for the city from the Greek translation of the Bible. Moreover. In the West. For the second element of the name." instead of the -rabi element in "Hammurabi. lying beneath the present remains.

Kutha Babylon . When in the twelfth century. in 1902 French archaeologists retrieved the Code of Hammurabi. the new state was recognized as a joining of two groups: the urbanized Akkadians of previous generations and the Amorites who became sedentary when in the region. Most of our information on what happened during his reign and that of his immediate successors comes from what we call "year-dates.) As the new dynasty was settling in Babylon." In some cases an event was deemed so spectacular that scribes would initiate a rising count from that moment. came to Babylon. II. From there.King Hammurabi of Babylon ~7 46" E ~Y·Eshnunna cSf o Baghdad Sipp{lr. Vol." "year-names. now one of the treasured objects of the Louvre. year: Sumu-abum captured Kazallu. After the Elamites sacked Ur toward the end of the third millennium." It was a common practice in southern Mesopotamia for scribes to label each year of their king's reign after a major royal activity occurring the previous year and to use such a "year-date" when dating a legal or administrative document. AKKAD Kazallu~7. they took to their capital Susa (biblical Shushan. For example. the second of which was produced in at least two copies. they would write: "Month Abum. in the formulation of the year-dates Rim-Sin used after he conquered Isin. the major powers in the region were Isin (at modern Ishan Bahriyat) and Larsa (at modern Senkereh). We suspect that he was one of many Amorite tribal leaders who chose to move his dwelling from a tent beyond the city walls to a palace within it. the dynasty's founder.Kish 200 km """'"":========100 mi • Dilbat MESOPOTAMIA IN THE AGE OF HAMMURABI EMUTBAL • Mashkan-shapir : NiPpur Isin 300 mi 35'N 34' N 1 12' N Uruk •• SUMER Lars~ Ur • Malgium? Uncertain location o Baghdad 30'N Modern location area of detail 45'E is the Code of Hammurabi." . the Elamites raided Babylon. day 12. Thus. modern Shush) one or perhaps two copies of the second version." or "yearformulas. Well after Hammurabi's own day. BABYLON BEFORE HAMMURABI We do not know how Sumu-abum (1894-1881). itself likely promulgated in two versions over a ten-year period. a rising count was kept for the thirty-one years remaining in his reign: from "year: He conquered Isin" to "year 31 after: He conquered Isin. these two cities successively-for a while even alternatingly-took control of southern Mesopotamia. (See the chapter on the Amorites in Part 5.

Sumula-EI (1880-1845). founded military outposts bearing their names ("Fort-Sumu-Ia-EI"). How much effective control he had over these towns cannot be easily stated. and the venerable city Kish. we can draw more or less similar profiles: they (re)built fortifications. and (re)dug canals. He built temples to Sin (the Ekishnugal and Enitenna). some of which also were Old Babylonian and Old Assyrian Periods Isin Ur-Ninurta (1923-1896) Bur-Sin (1895-1874) Larsa Abi-sare (1905-1895) Sumu-EI (1894-1866) Lipit-EnliI (1873-1869) Irra-imitti (1868-1861) En iiI-bani (1860-1837) Zambiya (1836-1834) Iter-pisha (1833-1831) Urdukuga(1830-1828) Sin-magir (1827-1817) Damiq-ilishu (18161794) 1793 Larsa annexes Isin Nur-Adad (1865-1850) Sin-iddinam (18491843) Sin-eribam (18421841) Sin-iqisham (18401836) SilIi-Adad (1835) Warad-Sin (1834-1823) Babylon Sumu-abum (18941881) Sumu-Ia-EI (18801845) Sabium (18441831) Eshnunna Ekallatum Ipiq-Adad I Sharriya Warassa BeIakum IbaI-pi-EI I Ila-kabkabu Aminum Ipiq-Adad II Naram-Sin Apil-Sin (1830-1813) Dannum-takhaz Shamshi-Adad (1830-1776) Rim-Sin (1822-1763) Sin-mubaIIit (18121793) Hammurabi (17921750) Dadusha (?-1780) Yasmakh-Adad at Mari (c. carried out raids against neighboring towns. Kazallu. Vol.History and Culture Sumu-abum's first act was to begin rebuilding Babylon's fortifications. and Apil-Sin (1830-1813). built levees. Elip. and Elam capture Eshnunna 1763 Babylon annexes Larsa 1761 Hammurabi defeats Zimri-Lim of Mari Samsu-iIuna (17491712) 1738 Babylon loses southern Sumerian city-states 1720 Babylon loses Nippur and Isin Ahi-eshllkh (17111684) Ammi-ditana (16831647) Ammi-saduqa (16461626) Samsu-ditana (16251595) 1595 Hittites raid Babylon (Adapted from "The History of Ancient Mesopotamia" in Part 5. a task that occupied almost everyone of his successors.Dagan (1775-?) 1766 Babylon. Of his successors. walls. II) Akhll"hina . Mari. Sabium (1844-1831). and temples in Babylon and at neighboring towns. such as Dilbat (modern Tell Dulaim). 1796-1776) IbaI-pi-EI II (1779-1765) Ishme.

that until there is a "touching of the throat" ritual. we do know that it contained a palace and many temples. Anu. Kar-Shamash (Sabium). We have a very long letter that Anam (An-anam). And if we add to this list of temples in Babylon itself those patronized in controlled territory-the temple of Shamash in Sippar (Sabium). but everyone except Babylon paid dearly for it. You must certainly know that before there could be peace and goodwill. quoting from it can illustrate the ethos of power politics of the time. dedicated to the triad Ishtar. For these reasons. biblical Erech). Adad and Sons" above. A generation or so before. With Sin-muballit. modern Tell Asmar). Anam writes. He consolidated his hold on the throne by issuing a misarum (see below) in his first full year and. ruler of Uruk (modern Warka. a sacred oath was never urged upon you by word of mouth or in writing. Occasionally we find Babylonian rulers attacking a major power such as Larsa (Sabium) or meeting allies (Sabium. ("Temple: Base for the Universe"). and that any sacred oath must be renewed yearly.) To the east. We soon find Sin-muballit joining a coalition that included Isin and Uruk to check the rising power of Rim-Sin' s Larsa at Babylon's southern flank. from Uruk). We cannot say too much more about these kings for they left us very few monumental inscriptions. feed and clothe their resident gods. at least since Sumu-laEl's time. you must try to make things turn out well. To his north a powerful kingdom was being forged by Shamshi-Adad who. Babylon really strove for panregional status. Under these circumstances. Sin-muballit himself spent the last of his twenty years on the throne strengthening the walls of cities within his territory. (You also know) that while for the past three to four years. my opinion and yours should be the same. Hammurabi took power under these circumstances. (See "Shamshi- 90 5 .King Hammurabi of Babylon named after activities of kings. a sacred oath must be taken. and of Zababa at Kish (Sumula-El)-we would recognize that only a state· with significant resources could build and maintain them. the same as those listed above. Although archaeology cannot reconstruct what Babylon looked like then. and by critically reviewing the formulas that were used from one year to the next. by refurbishing. we acquire a fairly comprehensive picture of his career. a power that rarely held back its armies. each with its own name: Apil-Sin had rebuilt Eturkalamma ("Temple: Cattle-Pen of the Land"). of Ishtar at Elip (Apil-Sin). featured in the names of his God knows that since we have come to know each other I have trusted in you as one would trust in Ishtar. and Durmuti (ApilSin). soldiers from Amnan-Yakhrurum (tribes) have been constantly in this very House (dynasty). a major force that repeatedly struck into Mesopotamia. wrote to Sin-muballit. for Marduk. and the documents stemming from their reigns tend to be singularly circumspect about any information beyond trade agreements and juridical decisions. although he once took refuge in Babylon. plus Barzi (= Borsippa. Enamkhe ("Temple of Plenty") had been consecrated to Adad. could not be trusted to respect its frontiers. there can be no mutual trust. endowing. for us to be in harmony. the moon-god. or building diverse temples in and out of Babylon. THE REIGN OF HAMMURABI Hammurabi by no means inherited a "bad" situation. there was Eshnunna (Eshnunnak. and support the priesthood they required. Hammurabi's father. including the Ekishnugal (folk etymology: "Temple: Universal Protection") for Sin. Sumu-Ia-EI outfitted and Sabium rebuilt Esagila ("Temple: Lifted Head") and its ziggurat Etemenanki. a daughter of Sumu-Ia-EI had married a king of Uruk and the two powers felt strongly enough about their bonds that they spoke of being "one House. Hammurabi eventually reigned for fortythree years (1792-175°). One hundred bv forty miles (160 by 60 kilometers) would be ~ plausible estimate of the size of his kingdom. Sumu-IaEl). because this House is speaking frankly with you and respects your reputation. no doubt awaiting a Larsa onslaught." Although there are reasons to take this particular letter to be fictive. during the next four. They defeated enemies of nearby towns. and Nanay. and my head has rested on your very own lap. Farther away in the same direction loomed Elam.


Hammurabi would commission inscriptions in which he lyrically harked back to primordial moments when gods such as Shamash of Sippar." But there is more: during his thirty-first year. Only to the west of that river. When. including Isin. After Hammurabi and because of the· prestige of his precedence. The C ode itself is Hammurabi's most impressive monumental inscription. In Babylon and in towns under his control. less so. During his thirty-second year. two years later. Babylonian armies reach from one edge of Assyrian territory to another (Turukku and Shubartu). neither Yakhdun-Lim nor Zimri-Lim of Mari. Hammurabi gives us principles by which the just society he is fashioning will continue to find its equilibrium. Just months after coming to the throne. an edict meant to stem economic and social disintegration by reverting to earlier (presumably less unstable) conditions. Hammurabi proclaims a misarum upon ascending Larsa's throne. In comparison. internal evidence makes it unlikely that the copy we have now was consecrated before his thirty-ninth year of reign. Each of these categories of information allows us a different angle by which to focus on the ideology and style of Hammurabi' s rule. after excavating or dredging canals. In fact. As to the Code. These principles are intended not just for the ruling classes. priestly refugees from diverse defeated cities. Nergal of Kutha. are allowed to build temples in which they could continue the worship of the gods of their ancestors. could we find a force that compared to Hammurabi's Babylon. legal and administrative documents. and Larsa. Echoes of his devotion to justice again occur in such inscriptions and.King Hammurabi of Babylon Hammurabi can now deservedly assume the ancient title "King of Sumer and Akkad. Mari falls to Babylon. and Inanna of Zabalam (modern Ibzaykh) decide to favor him over all others. in the rhetorically related hymns and prayers that are extant. and dedicating shrines or temples. solidifying fortification walls. Marduk of Babylon and Borsippa. the arrears of state agents would be excused and personal debts between private parties would be erased. Hammurabi can be said to have become the dominant power between Elam and the Euphrates. However. Hammurabi undertakes major rebuilding projects in areas that were probably devastated by floods or by constant war making. Inspired by the gods. the issuing of such decrees became more common during unstable periods. but for all those thirsting for justice: "Any person feeling wronged in a legal matter should go in front of the statue of me as 'King of Justice' and also . Similarly. He also resettles people deported from conquered territory. and letters exchanged with contemporaries. is on another plane. the formula for his twenty-second year recalls the dedication of a "statue of Hammurabi (as) king of justice. ASPECTS OF HAMMURABI'S RULE I nternal Rule We learn how Hammurabi ruled from consulting a variety of material: monumental inscriptions. however. sincere. Zababa of Kish. who were equally devoted to righting wrongs. when such conventional themes are replayed in the prologue and epilogue of the Code of Hammurabi. chose to mention justice among their many yeardates. Uruk. Thus. or merely ingenious in using the Code as a vehicle by which to proclaim his attachment to justice? Ancient rulers would obviously never espouse injustice or inequity as a guidepost for their reign. Was Hammurabi traditional. Eshnunna and its allies are once more defeated. in 1756. for he chose to publicize this attachment a number of times during his reign. In the remaining years of his reign. There are a number of monumental inscriptions that replay the themes mentioned earlier in this essay. earlier kings of the Old Babylonian period occasionally proclaimed an anduriirum or a misarum. Hammurabi claims to have "established justice in his land" (first full year of reign = second year-date)." Characteristically. in the kingdom of Yamkhad with its capital at Halab (Aleppo). they emerge more concrete and persuasive because they are set within an imaginative retelling of Hammurabi's historical triumphs. Immediately following such a decree. such as Kish and Ur. Hammurabi's own absorption with justice.

not at all the persons who normally sat in judgment at the city or temple gate. the first apparently entrusted with higher authority than the second. son of Maninum. (See also "Legal and Social Institutions of Ancient Mesopotamia" in Part 4. taxation. (no.History and Culture have my inscribed stela read out to him so that he can hear my precious words and my stela can explain the case to him. for there is no easy match between our vocabulary and our principles of law and those of the Mesopotamians. Additionally its form (an eight-foot tall black basalt stone). or he can simply issue a judgment. the Code was to be a measure by which future kings could gauge their own commitment to equity." As well. and the like. who prompted it. Once the Code was read to them. but they would fail to do so unless they embraced his drive for justice and kept true to the divinely set standards he enunciated in the Code: "If (such a leader) has intelligence and wishes to guide his land aright. and their correspondence therefore reflects conditions in that area during the last decade of Hammurabi's reign. that Hammurabi's Code contains immensely useful information about Old Babylonian society and provides cultural anthropologists with precious details on its behavior. he should heed the words which I wrote on my stela." This is what they wrote me. its location (probably in a temple. but handed it over to farmers who did. You and Shamash-mushallim must stand by. 9 [1981]): To Lushtammar-Zababa and Belanum: Re: Sin-ana-Damru-lippalis. keep control of his field as he did of old. however. 190) . Pay 10 shekels from the (treasury) of the Sin temple to the merchant and (thus) ransom him. 188) To Shamash-khazir: Qishtum and AwiI-iIi wrote to me. 1. Then send me a report on that final judgment. and Shamash-shatakalim should be summoned before you. Qishtum. Don't take a single square foot from him! (no. He did not farm what they gave him. Look into their grievance and come up with a final judgment for them. It cannot be doubted. Sin-iddinam and Shamashkhazir. completion of ilkum-duty (work or money owed the state for diverse privileges). including what is found in the Hebrew Bible. AwiI-iIi. Altbabylonische Briefe.) The largest number of extant documents on internal administration from Hammurabi's reign was exchanged between the king and g08 two of his officers. and it shall surely show him the road and the way. Here are four brief notes of Hammurabi (treated by M. These qualifications have caused a major debate about how precisely to deal with the Code: Does it collect laws or merely precedents? Was it ever consulted or did it delight only the gods. next to a statue of Hammurabi as "King of Justice"). These communications also reveal him to be immersed in even the most trifling of decisions. "30 bur of land assigned to us was taken from us and given to Shamash-shatakalim. They themselves were probably Babylonians who were given posts in Larsa after the city was annexed by Hammurabi. price control. (no. Stol. and the circumstances they describe are stated so precisely that they could provide guidance only by example or analogy. he can decide on a case pending more specific information. mercantile prerogatives. and its script (highly archaic) must have made it accessible only to the very learned. The problems these two officers handled reflected a postwar reconstruction period when an administration that was not familiar with the local situation nevertheless had to arbitrate among claims for landownership. and the same debate can be raised about most legal formulations from antiquity. and the master scribes. conversely they indicate how little room to maneuver Hammurabi gave his administrators. Vol. captured by the enemy. 32) To Shamash-khazir: Let Ea-kima-iliya. Its provisions are framed hypothetically ("if this condition occurs then this is the consequence"). he can be comforted. Relevant to the theme we are pursuing here is the pivotal role of Hammurabi in resolving legal situations: he can remit a case to local authorities. naturally they would want to equal the political success Hammurabi had. vol." The Code covers legal matters partially or selectively. the musician. who drew from its pristine rhetoric fine exercises for advanced students? There is no simple answer. By understanding his legal situation.

as they often shared common goals and common enemies. pulled no punches: "My lord sent me the gist of the letter that Hammurabi. I shall indeed be enemy of Siwa-palar-khukhpak (king of Elam). (no." showing him to be a man of many moods. discusses the movement of a caravan passing through Babylon when returning from Tilmun (Dilmun). was also sent to Zimri-Lim. a woman not allowed to have her own children.''' A letter from Mari diplomats reads almost comically as Hammurabi and a delegation from Mari try to maneuver each other into a more advantageous formulation of the sacred oath that preceded the ratification of a treaty. If I plan to make peace with Siwa-palar-Khukhpak. and he kept on begging God to despise my lord. A letter from one of Zimri-Lim's most trusted omen interpreters. A dispute over control of a town on the Euphrates named Hit. king of Mari and the Khana-Iand. From other sources. received from his ambassadors at the court of Hammurabi. that he lived in one of Mari's provincial palaces (at nearby Terqa) where his household included a group of Babylonian artisans. We have learned that Hammurabi's eldest son. his "brother" (that is. wrote to him. "From now on. simmered for a long time. But in the brutal political games that characterized the Old Babylonian period. Sumu-ditana. for he soon became a victim to his own father-in-Iaw's machinations-an arrangement that was not unusual in a period when many kings used Swear by Shamash of Heaven! Swear by Adad of Heaven! These are the gods that Hammurabi. invoked (when taking the following oath). The relationship between Zimri-Lim and Hammurabi was friendly. A traveling merchant sent Zimri-Lim a report that cannot be given a specific date: "As Hammurabi issued orders. I shall not let my servants or my messengers mingle with his servants. This is what he also said. we know that Hammurabi had a sister who lived in a cloister at Sippar and at least one daughter whom he married off to Silli-Sin. we shall make peace (only) jointly. 192) Politics: Babylon and Mad We have relied on Hammurabi's year-dates and inscriptions to follow his fortunes in conquests and annexation of territories. therefore. Another son. whose rise was as quick as his fall. '2 months is long enough for me to return the favor and force him squat to the ground. We do not know whether it was during his reign that a Mari princess (possibly Yakhdun-Lim's daughter) was sent as a naditum. We are.King Hammurabi of Babylon To Shamash-khazir: daughters to solve short-term political problems. Such documents are not likely to be revealing about the king's personality. They also give us information on his inner circle of advisers and ministers. The provincial leaders of Emutbal have not yet brought into Babylon their barley tax. an ally of equal status). Hammurabi was in communication with Mari kings from his earliest years on the throne. very fortunate that letters from the archives of Mari have come to fill that gap. Zimri-Lim. important as a trading as well as a religious center. as long as I live. A brief note from Yasmakh-Adad. Mutu-numakha. son ofYakhdun-Lim. king of Babylon. If it is not a peaceful condition. he could not shed enough tears. My lord will surely come to realize how exaggerated is his information and how full of lies are his words! Does my lord not know how badly Hammurabi king of Babylon wants to make an alliance with my lord?" Zimri-Lim indeed knew it and in the Mari archives was found a rough draft for an oath to seal a treaty that read. king of Mari and the Khana-Iand. a king of Eshnunna. I shall not make peace willi Siwa-palar-khukhpak williout the approval of Zimri-Lim. frequented Mari officials. and they paint a vivid portrait of the "Lawgiver. But we are best informed through the numerous and often loquacious dispatches the next king. What I have sworn by my gods. You will be punished for their failure. Put pressure and check on them so that they bring their barley tax into Babylon promptly. king of Babylon. to a Sippar cloister dedicated to the worship of Shamash. but with a plea to send him to Yamkhad or Qatna (modern Tell Mishrifeh in Syria) ifZimri-Lim did not wish to keep him. the two kings had reason to be suspicious of each other. gog . who could turn mercurial and affable within the same interview. Asqudum. I shall certainly consult with Zimri-Lim. and I shall not dispatch them to him. son of Sin-muballit.

then or now.History and Culture This is what I told him and he answered me. without objecting. how he sent a loyal minister to advise Rim-Sin's brother. how skirmishes at Babylon's frontier were deemed a reason for war. and the two allies remained suspicious of each other even as they cooperated on many of the fronts Hammurabi opened. we gather details about Hammurabi's strategy: how he lulled Rim-Sin into imagining him an ally against Elam. battering rams. he cap- 9 10 . but mention the cities for which I must take an oath. I will faithfully fulfill. give him satisfaction: put yourself under oath regarding the towns that the viceroy of Elam. As Shamshi-Adad's garrison stayed there ever since then. my lord's servant. review the previous stipulations before I answer you. no transgression or attack on him has been attributed to me. Mashkanshapir (Tell Abu Dhuwari). An eternal bond must keep us together. accept its truce. against Eshnunna. pp." Once he said these and many such agreeable words. Upon your request. "Among my allies there is no one who could compare to how much Zimri-Lim has done me favors and honored me." "You must not mention Hit!" he said. 364-367. Please." At one point during the dispute. and my lord has in no way transgressed against you. Even as now Zimri-Lim keeps me abreast of every event and is forthright with me. From his diplomats and generals. and towers. there is not one who has been more beneficial to you and has honored you more than my lord. Since then my garrison stayed there and must remain there even now. in no way should you violate this city. As he was doing it. I replied. But if the city does not open its gates. "Hit. Hammurabi was very attentive." he was quoted by one Mari official as telling his troops setting forth on their journey. "Has this House.' has given my lord. delivered my lord's message to Hammurabi. son of Yakhdun-Lim. ever transgressed against Mari? Furthermore. Archives epistolaires de Mari I/z. who ruled from Larsa's other major fortification. Charpin. Hammurabi felt justified to open major hostilities. matching the favors my lord has showered on you and the way he has honored you. is worth sampling because it captures the flavor of Hammurabi's speech making. you have been well-disposed to my lord and he has been well-disposed toward you. "The situation is similar to what had happened when Shamshi-Adad forced Rapiqum out of the king of Eshnunna's control and gave it to me. then as now are one House-and one finger-that cannot be led astray(?). Hammurabi kept on listening. I will do so." The letters also tell us that Hammurabi accepted the surrender of Mashkan-shapir and. Sin-muballit. Previously did not his father and grandfather (Yakhdun-Lim and YaggidLim) keep this House abreast of every event? Ever since Zimri-Lim moved to support me and began to communicate with me. and when he said. during the entire message.. after subjecting Larsa to a six-month assault with ramps. Of the kings allied to you . "Go. We reached Greater Sippar." The dispute about Hit seemed beyond solution. where the god Shamash resided. and how. Hammurabi met two of Zimri-Lim's ambassadors in Sippar." (Published by D. Elam. "Indeed you have in no way transgressed against my lord. although accented to display their own cleverness. and Yansib-Adad. but then he addressed us. joyfully and in complete sincerity. send me a message. and the report they sent back to Mari. He has honored you and has promoted your excellent reputation. Just as my garrison and his have stayed jointly there. and Yabliya. ." I replied. Even if he had broken the oath of Shamash and Marduk. If as you reach (Mashkan-shapir). he once arrested and conveyed to you ambassadors from Eshnunna! . and Ekallatum ("Assyria"). no. I have been entirely beneficial to him and he is deeply aware of how beneficial I have been to him. "Very well. For the conquest of Larsa-a defining moment for Hammurabi and his dynastyZimri-Lim dispatched troops to Babylon. "may God guide you. Now then." I said. has there ever been a single conflict between Mari and this House? Mari and Babylon. Zimri-Lim's garrison can stay also. it opens its gates for you. after consulting the gods Shamash and Marduk. "It is for you to review them". year after year. Until Yansib-Adad completed his report. 449) Shamash and Adad.. to Zimri-Lim. Kharbe. . and may utter sincerity prevail. these garrisons (of ours) should be merged as one. your 'father. king of Mari and the KhanaLand. I want to satisfy him by matching his favors.

The rebellion. will he besiege us? What?" Ask about his man." for his name was assumed by a regional king of Khana less than a century later. Martial activities did not stifle the creativity of Babylonian scribes as they prepared a series of inscriptions to commemorate diverse building activities. (no. In that text. pp. barriers be- Shiptu to Zimri-Lim: Regarding news of Babylon. will Hammurabi not stir it to revolt. In the Code. They then dismantled its walls and put it to the torch. a remarkable series of letters was exchanged between Zimri-Lim and trusted palace officials. Zimri-Lim to Shiptu: Make an oracular inquiry about Hammurabi of Babylon: "Will this man die? Will he come to terms with us? Will he start a war against us? When I go north. My lord will see what God will do to this man. not crush it. My lord should know this. Hammurabi's son. including his wife Shiptu. times immemorial and historical cannot be parted from each other. undoubtedly a very old man after sixty years as king. As the siege stretched out. lOob. (no. Hammurabi prides himself on having spared the people of Mari. 18Sb. 9 11 . His days are numbered. have survived that are dedicated "for the well-being of Hammurabi. 368-369) HAMMURABI'S SUCCESSORS Hammurabi became gravely ill late in his reign and was forced to hand over power before he died. Among the more striking is one dubbed today "Samsu-iluna C" that was composed in two languages (Sumerian and Akkadian) to celebrate his fortification of Kish. rather. but we can only guess about his fate. You will capture him and stand over him. he will not prevail. trying to pin down Hammurabi's intent. Samsu-iluna (1749-1712). Zimri-Lim began to worry about a timely release of his men. Archives epistolaires de Mari Ill): The archaeology of Mari itself has produced no evidence of a siege or a brutal attack. The political story they reveal is that of a dynasty that experienced numerous ebbs and restorations. lasted at least four years. and it was led by a Rim-Sin who obviously took up the name of Larsa's final king. but we do not know what he did with its population: did he move it to another corner of his realm? What we know. (Why Hammurabi was not. will it reenter Mari in full force? (no. Here are brief excerpts (published in J." They may have come from this period. a diviner. and the city opened its gate to the Babylonians? We know that tradition did not deem Zimri-Lim a "loser. methodically catalogued and carted away Mari's treasures and useful archives. for he faced difficulties with a number of vassal states. originally attached to gifts to the gods. one of many more to come. began to experience problems within a decade of his father's death. to Zimri-Lim (The report is sent from Babylonian territory!): Yet another time. as he did many other cities. we learn that Rim-Sin. pp.King Hammurabi of Babylon tured the city. is not at all clear: had Zimri-Lim died while campaigning elsewhere. succeeded by his oldest son Sumu-ditana is a minor puzzle: did the latter not survive his father?) At that time a major insurrection took place throughout the empire. Our documentation on the kings that followed him includes several royal inscriptions and is rich in private letters and contracts. we do not know why Hammurabi decided not to annex it. I gave potions to the men and posed my (oracular) questions. 212. 440-441) Erih-Sin. and write me whatever you gather about him. I repeated the (oracular inquiry): "The army which my lord dispatched to Hammurabi: This army. A number of inscriptions. the extensive administrative documentation we have from Zimri-Lim's final year on the throne does not indicate that the palace was preparing for warfare. was taken alive. 264-266) Yet. From yet another Mari diplomat. not have it crushed? Will he not detain it in captivity-whether harmful or peaceful? Having left Mari's gate intact.-M. Durand. (Their answer:) Though this man is plotting much against this land. Furthermore. during the next two years (1760-1758). pp. he will not live long. From this period. and when a first time you have inquired. is that he dispatched a number of administrators and scribes (two brothers among them) who. then. then do so once more. How Mari fell to Babylon.

we have a hymn and fragments of love lyrics addressing the erotic divine pair. Ishtar of delight-wrapped in love. May she be praised. would certainly want to grant Samsu-iluna. he slew 26 rebel kings who opposed him. The king. Her heart's desire. On hearing praise for her. Ammi-saduqa (1646-1626). numerous years of life. less obviously. . the inscription anticipated. "their twin brother. Of the reigns of the remaining kings in the dynasty. and rebuilt fortresses. eyes speckled in many hues. celebrating frankly her instinct for vigor and pleasure. "May he live long. and ordered Zababa and Ishtar (its patrons) to inspire his favorite king." and Ishtar. he fulfilled the command ofEa (who). his king (Anum) should always love him. . but few that make any ruler stand out: they fought rebellions and incursions. and it deserves our momentary attention. Ammi-ditana. From his reign. a song to charm her Being perfect at his mouth. redug canals. Abi-eshukh is remembered in the chronicles and in an as yet unplaced year-date as a king who tried but failed to capture an enemy by deflecting the waters of the Tigris. Thus. Glorify Ishtar. desire. Nanay and Muati. mistress of mankind. favorite of the gods and love of their hearts. your loving king. we can give many political and economic details. Happy to comply. From her consort Anum. she makes submit The Earth's Four Corners." a Ishtar. Ammi-ditana. may she be praised. healthy and long. for obvious reasons. As a result. On Ammi-ditana. The god Enlil wished to strengthen and beautify Kish.") Within the same year. the moon-god Sin was often called "30. with beads set on her head. likewise. Dazzling. The first is the best preserved text of the three extant misarum edicts (the others come from Samsu-iluna and a third king whose name is lost). Babylonians symbolically matched numbers to their gods. charm. Honeyed of lips. Zababa and Ishtar. healthy and long. Samsuiluna. picking up on tradi- 9 12 . Ishtar bestows and awards.History and Culture Glorify the Goddess. was equated with "15. Munificently immolates undefiled animals. Abi-eshukh (1711-1684). The world's inhabited regions She hitches to his yoke." a healthy and long life that matched that of the gods Sin and Shamash. the gods told Samsu-iluna ("of divine seed eternal. and actual events are telescoped into a perfect realization of one hero's unmatched deed. she asks for him Life. although neither he nor his contemporaries might have granted them the merits that we do. Grant life. Laughter sweeps over her body. most exalted of goddesses. Ammi-ditana (1683-1647). as the pure sacrifice of his hands." This poem consists of 15 stanzas and begins as a hymn to Ishtar. and Samsu-ditana (1625-1595). her faithful lover. greatest of divinities. ("The year was not half over when he slew Rim-Sin . It then describes her place among the gods before settling on the business at hand: a plea for Ammi-ditana. desire. The following selections are taken from the beginning and end of the poem. life at her mouth. and heaped dirt upon his cadaver. has left us one of the best-crafted Akkadian prayers. May he live it full! Ammi-saduqa succeeded Ammi-ditana. to his feet. and from his period come two documents that are of capital importance. Mistress of womankind. tween gods and people are dropped. At her beck. greatest among divinities. most exalted of goddesses. and to vanquish his enemies so that he could rebuild a temple worthy of them. Samsu-iluna overwhelmed his enemies quickly. lauded Ammi-ditana. Adorned by allure. She of delight-wrapped in love. Thus fortified. charm. for Ammi-ditana. Glowing with blush. Adorned by allure. of royal stock") to fear nothing for they would fight on his right and humble his foes. Gorges them with fattened bulls and sheep. Samsu-iluna rebuilt Kish and dug a moat around it. His successor.

Vol. who loves you. drink this (beverage). Babylon. most comprehensive studies of Hammurabi's politics are out of date: HORST KLENCEL. meaning "Hammurabi is my god. Thus. eat this (food). princesses. Konig Hammurapi und der Alltag Babylons (199 1). III. from East to West. around 1595. Several administrators had the name Hammurabi-ili:. his name was preceded by the sign of divinity DINGIR/ilum. Think also of my family. In the "acuum that ensued. CADD. Vol. his reputation was such that in his own lifetime he was occasionally treated as a god (that is. an army from the distant land of Khatti attacked and captured Babylon. are conjured: The turn of Amorite tribesmen. took over the shrunken remnants of Hammurabi's empire. who have no one to provide for them (in the afterlife) or invoke their names: Come close.King Hammurabi of Babylon tional themes. to absolve my sin. BIBLIOGRAPHY General Because during the 1980s new documents for Mari have featured extensively Babylon and its king Hammurabi. than that he left us no major inscription and that we are still sorting out the sequence of his thirty or so year-dates and evaluating the worth of the information that they carry. Samsu-ditana.) Nothing suits better the reign of the dynasty's final king. (See also "Astronomy and Calendars in Ancient Mesopotamia" in Part 8. Hammurabi had attained a level of personal prestige not seen since the schichte. Two hundred years after Hammurabi came to power. and bless Ammisaduqa. Especially after his conquest of Larsa. the Kassites. In truth. II. its territory shrunken to a fraction of the size Hammurabi left at his death. but was recovered from the palace of Assurbanipal of Assyria. son of Ammi-ditana. Berichte zur WeltgeHARTMUT SCHMOKEL. A third document is not contemporaneous to Ammi-saduqa. Their story is told in another chapter of Civilizations of the Ancient Near East. Hammurabi-bani ("Hammurabi is a creator") was a name adopted by a cultic functionary commissioned to transport Larsa goddesses back to Babylon. Perhaps it is during this period of hard times that a certain Apil-Adad wrote a touching appeal to the "God of my father": Why are you so unconcerned about me? Who could give you anyone like me? Please write (the god) Marduk. Hammurabi von Babylon: Die Errichtung eines Reiches. but we could note that such names were much rarer later on. J. princes. It belongs to the astrological series Enitma Anu Enlil and records the appearance and disappearance of the planet Venus. also any soldier who has fallen on a difficult mission for his master. IIIl of The 91 3 . and "Chronology: Issues and Problems" in Part 5. days of Agade. 11 (1958). vol. chroniclers of much later times kept his memory alive. c. so that I can face you and kiss your feet. This spectacular raid ended the dynasty that had ruled from Babylon for three centuries. and Isin: sweethearts took oaths about their love by "Nanay and Hammurabi the king". poets credited him with inspiring divine poems ("Agushaya. People began to fashion names in which "Hammurabi" replaced the names of other gods. just as were those of gods). May your help reach me. an alliance of tribes that came from the east.) The second document probably reflects a memorial ritual (kispum) for which Ammi-saduqa's ancestors. the turn of Gutu. of those old and young." a poem about the warrior Ishtar). then for their sake have mercy on me. seems to have reached political and economic exhaustion. "Hammurabi and the End of His Dynasty" in vol. the turn of all those not mentioned on this tablet. Ur. The most accessible overviews are still to be found in diverse encyclopedias or compendia (for example. the turn of Khanatribesmen." Whether obsequiousness (if not sycophancy) or sincerity inspired such naming practices cannot be decided. all people. harking back beyond Sumu-abum to personalities legendary or eponymous. (See above. EPILOGUE Before he died. thus giving us a choice of several precise dates for his reign. carrying away its treasures.

FALKENSTEIN. KUPPER. vol. Old Babylonian Period (2003-1595 BC). S. see MCGUIRE GIBSON. "King Hammurapi as Judge. edited by I. Vol. Altbabylonische Briefe in Umschrift und Obersetzung (since 1964). STOL. Monumental inscriptions of the Old Babylonian period are collected in DOUGLAS O. R." Journal Asiatique 243 (1955). R. A. Universite des Sciences Humaines de Strasbourg. FINKELSTEIN. brd ed. "Les archives epistolaires du palais de Mari.. see w. WARDS Babylon Before H ammurabi A comprehensive new treatment is not yet written and the major book to consult is DIETZ O. For a bibliography on legal matters see "Legal and Social Institutions of Ancient Mesopotamia" in Part 4. Babylonian Topographical Texts. "Les Decrets royaux a I' epoque paIeo-babylonienne." Journal of Cunei- form Studies 13 (1959). On Babylon and its physical location. OPPENHEIM. H. FREEDMAN [1992]). with Shamash-khazir. "Sur Ie nom de Hammurabi. J. 1973]) and specialized dictionaries (for example." in Le systeme palatial en Orient. I. 1972). On the year-dates of Samsu-ditana. vol. 1968) and 9 (M. "Le role economique du palais en Babylonie sous Hammurabi et ses successeurs. B." Symbolae iuridicae et historicae Martino David Dedicatae. A. Letters written during the Old Babylonian dynasty are published in the series edited by F. R." Syria 19 (1938). EDZARD. The Reign of H ammurabi The year-dates of Hammurabi and of Samsu-iluna are given by A. He thinks it is possible that there was such a version. For focus on individual city-states. w. 1969). LAW AND JUSTICE The quotations from the Code are adapted from "The Code of Hammurabi. 40 (1992)." Bibliotheca Orientalis 48 (1991)." Aula Orientalis 9 (1991). MEEK. PRITCHARD (3rd ed. On the name "Hammurabi. GEORGE. BUTTRICK [1962]." Archiv fur Orientforschung 34 (1987). Annales de Recherches Interdisciplinaires 6 (1990)." Journal of Near Eastern Studies 38 (1979). Travaux du Centre de recherche sur Ie Proche-Orient et la Grece antiques. N. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta. "Was there a Sumerian Version of the Laws of Hammurabi?" is a question A.-R. "Hammurabi. F. "The Year Dates of Sa msudi tan a. The letter Sin-muballit received from Anam is edited by A. vol. "Hammurapi. see RIVKAH HARRIS. 1966) and 5 (F. On royal involvement in legal decrees. L. MEIER. Excellent illustrations of Hammurabi's personal involvement in solving legal matters are given in w. doing so by name and alphabetically. PRITCHARD (3rd ed." in Ancient Near Eastern Texts. L. FRAYNE. A. "ZU den Inschriftfunden der Grabung in Uruk-Warka 1960-1961. LEVY. A. R. edited by J. R." Iraq 34 (1972). 3 of The Anchor Bible Dictionary. and "L' andurarum a Mari. SJOBERG poses in Aula Orientalis 9 (1991). DOSSIN. Die Zweite Zwischenzeit Babyloniens (1957). 5 (1993). EDet al. Tannenbaum (1967). and in E. ADMINISTRATION DOMINIQUE CHARPIN. The letter comparing the various powers at the time of Hammurabi was published by G. 1981)." in vol. in the second book. 2 (1968). E. Our information on royal edicts has increased in the time since N. "Quelques considerations a propos d'une etude recente du droit du Proche-Orient ancien. vol. pp. and House Most High: The Temples of Ancient Mesopotamia. see ZHI YANG. 1969). in volumes 4 (F. upon finding a fragment with Sumerian and Akkadian phrasings for material now found in the prologue of the Code. en Grece. THEOPHILE J. On whether or not the Code was a practical document. LEMCHE'S "Anduriirum and Misarum: Comments on the Problem of Social Edicts and Their Application in the Ancient Near East. VEENHOF. edited by E. in J." Baghdader Mitteilungen 2 (1963). edited by G. B. vol. apropos d'un ouvrage recent. The Near East: The Early Civilizations. 4 (1990). discusses the temples of Babylon. in Studies in the Akkadian of Ugarit: Dating and Grammar (1991). Mesopotamian Civilizations. LEEMANS. KRAUS. F. et it Rome. Netherlands Institute of History and Archaeology in ." in vol. BOTTERO et aI. Ancient Sippar: A Demographic Study of an Old-Babylonian City (1894-1595 BC).History and Culture Cambridge Ancient History. VIROLLEAUD. edited by D. Most of the correspondence with Sin-iddinam is given in volumes 2 (R. OPPENHEIM has translated some private letters largely from the post-Hammurabi period in his Letters from Mesopotamia (1967). FRANKENA. 26g-271.. See now two articles by DOMINIQUE CHARPIN. KRAUS and now by K. Inscriptions royales sumeriennes et akkadiennes (1971). F. see J." MARl." see c. "King of Justice. KRAUS. Edzard has contributed an overview of the period that is still very useful. 9 (1987). LEO OPPENHEIM in Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. eds. edited by J. LEEMANS. The City and Area of Kish (1972). and "The Archaeological Uses of Cuneiform Documents: Patterns of Occupation at the City of Kish. translated by R. The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia: Early Periods. SOLLBERGER and J. 2 of The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible. and SAMUEL A. VA~ SOLDT argues for -rapi as second element. w.

"Immigres. vol. On census taking at Larsa after its conquest. Apil-Adad's letter is treated as no. TUNCA (1990). 383. "Sumero-Akkadian Hymns and Prayers. Steve. 1 (1993). 384-388. B. see A. see J.A.' " Journal of Cuneiform Studies 15 (1961). J. IV). II). Archives royales de Mari. BONECHI." in Opera Minora (1953)." Arts and Facts 3 (1984). see D. du Bronze. FINKELSTEIN remain significant. and HORST KLENGEL. The poem to Ishtar is partially translated by FERRIS J. VAN DE MIEROOP. Hammurabi's tirade against Zimri-Lim is cited from J. "Conscription a Larsa apres la conquete babylonienne. KUPPER (1971). vol. CHARPIN and F. ." in Florilegium Marianum: Recueil d'etudes en l'honneur de Michel Fleury. pp. Actes du colloque de Liege (21-23 avril 1987)." Revue d'Assyriologie 87 (1993). GASCHE. SOLLBERGER and J. On Babylonian scribes in occupied Mari." Journal of Cuneiform Studies 20 (1966). see H. Berliner Beitrage zum Vorderen Orient. vol. "Halab-Mari-Babylon: Aspekte syrischmesopotamischer Beziehungen in altbabylonischer Zeit. I (1972). see MARC VAN DE MIEROOP. On prayers to Hammurabi. KRAUS. refugies. and F. "The Reign of Rim-Sin.-M. vol. Annales de Recherches lnterdisciplinaires 6 (1990). O. cited in the general bibliography above. 36 (1975). R. JOANNES. Altbabylonische Briefe. edited by O. The Successors of Hammurabi "Samsu-iluna C" is translated in the volumes by D." Journal of Cuneiform Studies 28 (1976). w. and in E. On the final days of Mari. Vol. 1965. MARGUERON. FOSTER. 223-227. and "La mine du Palais de Mari. 16 (1965). "Fragments rejoints pour une histoire Elamite. edited by J. April 21. M. see M. and "Some New Misharum Material and Its Implications. 26 part 2 (1988). 65-67. et des idees dans le Proche-Orient ancien. FRAYNE (1990). see DOMINIQUE CHARPIN. Archives epistolaires de Mad Ill. but articles by J.U. STEPHENS. 38 (1992). A. F. Society and Enterprise in Old Babylonian Ur. 9 (1981). For a general overview. vol. Vol." in La circulation des biens." in Fragmenta His- toriae Elamicae: Melanges offerts a M. 26 part 1 (1988). Vol." MARl 7 (1993).-]. "Untersuchungen zu den sozialen Verhaltnissen im altbabylonische Dilbat. VALLAT (1986).-M. a fuller treatment in English is in BENJAMIN R. edited by D. vol. DURAND. SEE ALSO Legal and Social Institutions of Ancient Mesopotamia (Part 4. PRITCHARD (1969). Recontre Assyriologique Internationale. FOSTER. Memoires de N. Kupper a l' occasion de son 70e anniversaire. IV). The Deeds of Ancient Mesopotamian Kings (Part 9. chapter 3. vol. FINET. en passant par Mad: Melanges offerts a Monsieur ]. "The Genealogy of the Hammurapi Dynasty. edited by L. pp. p. and The Historiography of the Ancient Near East (Part 9." Altorientalische Forschungen 4 (1976). On the last days of Larsa." Studies in Honor of Benno Landsberger on His Seventy-fifth Birthday. The History of Ancient Mesopotamia: An Overview (Part 5. "Prayers for King Hammurabi of Babylon. Mari and Babylon The best overview of the relationship between Babylon and Mari as revealed by the Mari letters is by DOMINIQUE CHARPIN in Archives epistolaires de Mad 1/2. Alter Orient und Altes Testament. et deportes en Babylonie sous Hammu-rabi et ses successeurs. "King Hammurabi of Babylon in the Setting of His Tim-e (about 1700). DURAND. "Espionnage et guerre froide: La Fin de Mari. Vol. For the kispum funerary ritual cited. On Marduk and his cult in Babylon. CHARPIN "L' occupation babylonienne du palais de Mari. 1 (1992)." MARl 5 (1987). see J. DE LIAGRE BOHL. H. "Usages et rites funeraires en Babylonie. see FRANZ M. 12 (1992)." in Ancient Near Eastern Texts. Konigliche Verfugungen in altbabylonischer Zeit (1984).-R. On Ammi-saduqa's edict there is a very difficult book to consult.-M. edited by R. I). Assyriological Studies." MARl. LAFFINEUR (1987).-R. Die Aufstieg Marduks. For names with "Hammurabi" replacing the names of gods. DURAND. The Mari prophecy and omens relating to Babylon are edited by J. vol. KLENGEL. SJOBERG. STOL. "Les derniers moments du palais de Mari. edited by J. vol. see WALTER SOMMERFELD.B. KLENGEL. pp. "Hammurapi und seine Nachfolger im altbabylonis~hen Onomastikon. vol. Miscellaneous On whether Hammurabi is mentioned in the Bible. vol. J. see also p." Ex Orbe Religionum: Studia Ceo Widengren Oblata." in Thanatos: Les coutumes funeraires en Egee a ['age. Archives royales de Mari. FINKELSTEIN. see H. des personnes.. The draft of a treaty between Hammurabi and ZimriLim is published by J. 213 (1982).King Hammurabi of Babylon Istanbul. DURAND. 157 in B. TH.-M. On resettlements of refugees. "Ammi~aduqa's Edict and the Babylonian 'Law Codes. 1 (1993). 141 in M. DE MEYER. Before the Muses." in De la Babylonie a la Syrie. Before the Muses.