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M. Como

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

R. Luciano

DiMSAT, University of Cassino, Cassino (Frosinone), Italy

ABSTRACT: In this paper, a new failure criterion for the concrete is developed. Cement, sand, aggregates

and water are mixed together and, after the setting, the cement paste binds aggregates and hardens to form

concrete. Experimentally, pores of different sizes are diffused in the hardened cement paste and micro stresses

arise in the neighborhood of the small pores when the concrete is loaded. The main idea of the proposed failure criterion is based on the assumption that the macroscopic concrete failure occurs when the maximum tensile stress, around the small pores reaches the local hardened cement paste tensile strength. The proposed

model explains many experimental phenomena as, for example, the different compression and tensile

strengths, the different crack geometries in the tension and compression failures and the experimental failure

contours under biaxial stress.

1 INRODUCTION

The research of a failure criterion for concrete under

multi-axial stresses is a very important task because

of its numerous civil engineering applications.

Nowadays, several concrete failure tests under multiaxial stresses are available and many theoretical

failure criteria have been proposed. These criteria,

on the other hand, have been formulated, as a rule,

by modifying failure conditions concerning other

materials, (e.g. the Coulomb criterion) to the concrete. Among all the criteria available in literature,

the Rankine criterion (Van Mier, 1997, Jirsek &

Bazant, 2001, McClintock & Argon, 1966) seems to

have a physical basis for the concrete. According to

this criterion, in fact, concrete fails in brittle manner

as soon as the maximum principal stress exceeds the

concrete tensile strength. It is well known, on the

other hand, that the strict application of the Rankine

criterion could imply that for a compressed concrete

specimen failure could never occur because no tensile stress develops. On the contrary, brittle failures

are ob-served also in compressive regimes. Tensile

stresses, in fact, can arise at microscopic level and

produce failures. The concrete is a multiscale material consisting of aggregates embedded in a matrix

of binder, the hardened cement paste (Van Mier,

1997). Further, the hardened cement paste is weakened by a capillary porosity, produced by evaporation of the water in excess. Diffused pores are visible with the electronic microscope: they have

irregular shape and are spread up among the needles

hardened cement paste. When concrete is loaded,

high stress concentrations take place at microscopic

level around these small cavities: they produce micro cracks that propagate across the hardened cement paste till they become visible at macroscopic

level.

which use Micromechanics to estimate the mechanical properties of the concrete e.g. the elastic moduli

(Yang & Huang, 1996). In line with this approach,

ere, two steps homogenization technique is used to

evaluate the stresses supported by the cement paste

when the concrete is loaded (Fig.1). In the first step,

the global moduli of the mortar are evaluated. In the

second step these moduli are used to estimate the

behaviour of the concrete made by the mortar and

the gravel. Combining these two results, obtained at

two different scales, we can evaluate the average

stresses in the hardened cement paste. These mean

stresses represent the asymptotic stress state for the

in the hardened cement paste. These local stresses

are responsible of the failure in the concrete: at microscopic level collapse occurs when the maximum

tensile stress around the pores reaches the tensile

strength of the hardened cement paste.

In the above exposed framework a biaxial failure

contour is analytically obtained for concrete. The

comparison of this theoretical criterion with several

experimental results seems to be satisfying.

2 2 STRESS CONCENTRATIONS AROUND

THE PORES DIFFUSED IN THE HARDENED

CEMENT PASTE

Concrete can be considered a material homogeneous

and isotropic at average level. Mean stresses in the

various components can be obtained by using the so

called mixtures law and the elasticity equations.

(Nemat-Nasser & Hori, 1999). In this formulation

strong simplifications can be obtained by assuming

the same average Poisson ratios for the components

of the concrete, as approximately it does occur. In

this case, as stated beforehand, we consider a two

steps homogenization procedure: in the first step, the

mortar is made by sand and hardened cement paste

while, in the second step, the concrete is composed

by mortar and gravel. Thus we get:

xp = K 2 xc ;

yp = K 2 yc ;

zp = K 2 zc

E p (1 2 2 ) Es2 Em Es Es E p + Em E p

=

1 s

Em

D

K 2m ,c =

(3a)

P

P

=

= A( ) zp

z

E

E

RE = 0;

= B( ) zp ;

= C( ) zp

z

(3b)

hardened cement paste and are given by:

(2)

27 15

3 + 15

, B ( ) =

,

2 (7 5 )

2 (7 5 )

3 15

C ( ) =

2 (7 5 )

A( ) =

K 2 = K 2p ,m K 2m,c

K

P

RR

=0

(1)

where:

p ,m

2

Nasser & Hori, 1999). If such a constraint is not satisfied, i.e. Ec and Em are chosen arbitrarily, the results obtained by using the proposed failure model

can be physically uncorrected since the elastic

moduli are meaningless. Therefore in eqs. (3a) and

(3b), concrete and mortar moduli will be suitably

chosen by using micromechanics and accurate test

results in order to effectively represent the elasticity

of the composite materials. Strong stress concentration occurs around the small cavities spread up inside the hardened cement paste. In order to define

these local stresses can be assumed that the mean

stress inside the hardened cement paste is the asymptotic stress acting at large distance from the single pore. Thus, when the concrete is, for instance,

axially loaded by the uniform stresses z, and the

mean stress zP takes place inside the hardened cement paste, by assuming for the pore a spherical

shape, the local stress around the cavity is

(McClintock & Argon, 1966):

at the pole Pz (see Fig.2):

2

Em (1 2 2 ) Eg Ec Eg Eg Em + Ec Em )

Ec

1 g

D

(2a)

(2b)

(4)

where indicates the local Poisson ratio of the hardened cement paste without pores, larger than the average Poisson ratio .

with:

D = Em2 (1 2 2 ) Eg Em (2 2 4 2 )

+ E (1 2 )

2

g

(2c)

m, s, p indicate concrete, gravel, mortar, sand and

cement paste respectively. The elastic moduli of the

constituents and of the concrete are related; in fact

the elastic modulus of the mortar must be the result

of an homogenization process in which the constituents are the sand and the cement paste. In the same

way, the elastic modulus of the concrete is obtained

from the homogenization of mortar and gravel.

Therefore Ec and Em can be obtained by using a micromechanical models and must satisfy the HashinShtrikman bounds which depend on the geometry

and the volume fraction of the constituents (Nemat-

P

P

z

P

E

y

Figure 2. Local stress around the spherical pore under an asymptotic compressive stress.

cement paste have irregular shape. Pores of irregular

shape in plane elasticity can be represented by small

elliptic holes having various orientation. High stress

concentrations occur on the boundaries of elliptic

cavities with the major axis orthogonal to the direction of the applied uniaxial tensile stress. The stress

component y, acting at the end of the major axis, increases strongly while the other ones hold almost the

same (Fig.3).

Failure occurs when the maximum principal tensile

stress around the capillary pores of the hardened

cement paste reaches its tensile strength. This condition, even if of local character, concerns all the cavities continuously diffused in the hardened cement

paste and, when reached, produces the macroscopic

destruction of the binder and, accordingly, the concrete failure.

tz

cz

tz

cz

crete,

, acting at the poles Py and Px, i.e. along

the equatorial circle Ez of the cavities, can reach the

tensile strength of the hardened paste and produce

Ez

failure. Cracks are thus orthogonal to the

, i.e.

Figure 3 Stress concentrations around an elliptic cavity

stress x changes sign but its intensity almost does

not increase. Thus, taking into account the irregular

shape of the pores diffused in the hardened cement

paste, we assume that the long ellipsoids pores with

the major axis orthogonal to the applied tensile

stress, will exhibit the highest stress concentration

and will be the first to fail. To the authors knowledge, there is no simple analytical solution able to

describe the local stress field in the neighbourhood

of an ellipsoidal cavity. Thus, for sake of simplicity,

we continue to use the field equations describing

stresses occurring along the boundary of the spherical pore but increasing the intensity of the stress

component directed as the applied tension. Thus, introducing the intensity factor kB to take into account

the irregular shape of the cavity, we modify the expression of the local stress field (3a) and (3b) concerning the spherical hole in the following way:

at the pole Pz:

P

RR

=0

z

(3a)

P = P = A( ) zP

z

RE = 0;

z

E = k B B( ) zP ; E = C ( ) zP

z

(3b)

uniaxial tension thus fails when

Ez

f rtp,loc =

= k B B ( ) K 2 f rtc

(5)

the hardened cement paste and concrete respectively. Conversely, in presence of uniform compression z, the tensile strength of the cement paste is

reached at poles Pz of the of the cavities. In this case

the failure condition is:

f rtp,loc = A( ) K 2 f rcc .un

(6)

stress z acting on the concrete.

By tests, in the case of uniform uniaxial compression, cracks turn out parallel to the direction of the

applied compression while, in the case of uniaxial

tension, cracks are orthogonal to the applied tensile

stress. These results are captured by the present

model of concrete failure because it takes into account the different local failures occurring at the

pole or at the equator of the pores diffused in the

cement paste.

At the same value of the stress acting on the concrete, the maximum local tensile stress, produced in

the binder when the concrete is in uniaxial compression, is much lower than the maximum local tensile

stress occurring when the concrete is in uniaxial tension. Thus, the intensity of the stress applied to the

be much higher than the stress intensity required to

produce tensile failure. The proposed failure model

is therefore able to explain why the tensile concrete

strength is much lower than the compression one.

In order to validate the proposed concrete failure

model, on the other hand, it is required that the

maximum local tensile stress, corresponding to the

concrete compression failure, is equal to the maximum local tensile stress occurring in the concrete in

uniaxial tension. Thus we have the condition

A( ) K 2 f rcc .un = k B B( ) K 2 f rtc

(7)

and:

A( ) f rcc .un

kB =

B( ) f rtc

CONCRETE

Biaxial stress states are very frequent. The biaxial

stress regimes are of four different kinds: 1. compression-compression (Bcc) 2. compression-traction

(Bct), 3, traction-compression (Btc) 4. tractiontraction (Btt). We will examine the corresponding

possible concrete failures.

4.1 Compression - compression (Bcc)

The uniform vertical compression z is applied on

the concrete perpendicular to the horizontal compression y (Fig.5).

(8)

cz

compression strength f rcc .un is lower than the standard cylindrical compression strength and we can

write

(9)

where depends on the used restraint at the specimen boundary (Van Mier, 1997) and can be assumed

equal to 0,850,90. Further, the tensile concrete

strength f rtc can be evaluated in terms of the cylindrical compression strength f rcc with:

f rtc = f rcc

(10)

(11)

(14)

paste are:

z = cz K 2 y = c y K 2 x = 0

(14)

P = [ A( )cz C ( )c y ]K 2

z

(12)

= [k B B( )cz A( )c y ]K 2

Py

the hardened cement paste, in fact

= k B B ( ) K f

c

2 rt

(13)

Poisson ratio of the hardened cement paste = 0,25,

f rtp,loc 3, 75 f rtc

y = c y z = cz

P = [ A( )cz k B B ( )c y ]K 2

A( )

kB =

B ( )

Thus we get

p

rt ,loc

cy

(13)

i.e. the tensile strength of the binder not weakened

by the diffused porosity, is much higher than the

tensile concrete strength.

= [C ( )cz A( )c y ]K 2

Py

(15)

P = [k B B( )cz C ( )c y ]K 2

x

P = [C ( )cz k B B( )c y ]K 2

x

A(), B() e C(), the higher tensile stress is reached

Pz

by the

at the pole Pz of the pore. On the contrary, with cy dominating, the higher tensile stress is

P

produced by the y at the pole Py (Fig.6). The failure condition will be attained when firstly one of the

following conditions, linear in cy and cz is satisfied:

P

= [ A( )cz C ( )c y ]K 2 = f rtp,loc , cz c y

z

= [ A( )c y C ( )cz ]K 2 = f rtp,loc , c y cz

Py

(16)

cz

(16)

ty

or:

cz +

C ( )

c y = f rcc ,un

A( )

C ( )

cz = f rc ,un

A( )

cy +

(17)

At the poles of the cavities diffused in the hardened cement paste we have the stresses

according to cz cy or cy cz.

P = K 2 [ A( )cz + k B B ( )t y ]

z

P = K 2 [ A( )cz + C ( )t y ]

z

yP

z

y

Px

= K 2 [ k B B( )cz + A( )t y ]

Py

Pz

Ey

Pz

Py

Px

Ez

P = K 2 [ k B B( )cz + C ( )t y ]

x

Ex

yP

P = K 2 [ C ( )cz + k B B( )t y ]

x

failure contours corresponding to eqs.(16) e (16).

As a rule, A()<0 e C()>0 when >0,20. Thus, the

biaxial concrete compression strength is larger than

the uniaxial strength. Particularly, when:

c y = cz = cbiass

(18)

compressions

cbiass = f rcc ,un.biass

(19)

with:

f rcc ,un.biass =

(22)

Py

Px

Px

z

= K 2 [ C ( )cz + A( )t y ]

c

rc ,un

1 + C ( ) / A( )

(20)

the values of the coefficients A(), B() e C(), the

higher local tensile stress is reached at the pole Pz by

the component Pz .(Fig.8). Thus the failure condition is now:

A( )cz + k B B ( )t y = f rtp,loc / K 2

(23)

or

f rcc .un

ty

f rtc

cz = f rcc .un

(24)

Analogously, in the case of traction compression, we have

f rcc .un

tz

f rtc

c y = f rcc .un

(24)

Py

z

y

Px

Pz

Ey

applied on the concrete perpendicular to the horizontal tensile stress y (Fig.7) and we have

z = cz y = t y

Pz

Py

Px

Pz

xP

Ez

Ex

yP

(21)

stresses.

The straight lines BP and AQ of Figure 12 represent the failure conditions (24) and (24) for the

compression- tension and tension- compression regimes. Thus, when a small lateral tensile component

is applied, the strength decreases significantly in the

compressive direction. When the two stresses with

opposite sign have the same intensity, as it occurs in

the case of pure shear (Fig.9),

z = or y = or

(25)

reached by the component Px and occurs at the

pole Px (Fig.11). The failure condition thus is

k B B ( )t z + C ( )t y = f rtp,loc / K 2

(30)

or,

C ( )t z + k B B ( )t y = f rtp,loc / K 2

(30)

or =

f rt ,un

(26)

1 + f rt ,un / f rc ,un

yP

z

y

Px

Pz

Ey

zP

Py

Px

zP

xP

Ez

Ex

Py

The mean stresses acting on the concrete are the tensile stresses (Fig.10)

z = tz

y = ty

(27)

tz

ty

hardened cement paste are

(28)

P = [ A( )t z + k B B( )t y ]K 2

z

P = [ A( )t z + C ( )t y ]K 2

z

= [k B B( )t z + A( )t y ]K 2

Py

Py

P = [k B B( )t z + C ( )t y ]K 2

x

P = [C ( )t z + k B B ( )t y ]K 2

x

ty +

C ( )

t z = f rtc

k B B ( )

t z = t y = tbiass

(31)

(31)

(29)

(32)

Thus we get:

tbiass =

= [C ( )t z + A( )t y ]K 2

C ( )

t y = f rtc

k B B( )

tensile stress:

z = t z K 2 y = t y K 2

tz +

f rtc

C ( )

1+

k B B( )

(33)

segments QW e PW of Figure 12.

Thus the equi-biaxial tensile strength has to be

lower than the uniaxial tensile strength. Each of the

failure conditions (31), (31), (24), (24), (17), concerning the different stress regimes of the concrete,

is linear in the components y, z and define convex

sub-regions in the y, z plane. The intersections of

all these convex regions define the convex safe region in the biaxial stress components y, z whose

boundary is the biaxial failure contour of the concrete (Fig.12).

REFERENCES

5 CONCLUSIONS

Figure 13 gives the biaxial failure contour for a concrete obtained experimentally by (Kupfer, 1973).

Other failure contours have similar behaviour (Van

Mier, 1997). It is immediate to recognize the essential good agreement of these test results with the

contours corresponding to the proposed failure

model of the concrete. In the compression compression regime, when the ratio between the two

principal stresses is about 0.5, the agreement is less

satisfying since in this case the test results seem to

be strongly influenced by the restraints used at the

specimen boundary, as shown in Figure 3.84 of (Van

Mier, 1997).

Figure 13. Failure surface of the concrete in biaxial stress conditions obtained by (Kupfer, 1973)

Press, Boca Raton.

Jirsek M, Bazant ZP. 2001. Inelastic Analysis of structures,

John Wiley, New York.

McClintock FA, Argon AS. 1966. Mechanical Behaviour of

materials, Addison Wesley Publishing Company, inc Reading, Massachusetts.

Yang CC, Huang R. 1996. Double Inclusion Model for Approximate Elastic Moduli of Concrete Material, Cement

and Concrete Research, 26(1): 83-91.

Nemat-Nasser S, Hori M. 1999. Micromechanics: overall

properties of heterogeneous materials, Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Kupfer, H. 1973. Behaviour of concrete under multiaxial short

term loading, with emphasis on biaxial loading, Deutscher

Ausschuss fur Stahlbeton, Vol.254, Berlin (in German)

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