This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION.
table of the Conception
stood on the high altar of the Margaret, Westminster. 25 Conception of our Ladye has been treated in two ways
The historical supposes the representation of events and circumstances under which the mystery was operated, and these visible circumstances denote the hidden mystery. Of these historical representations there are four types r. The first is designed from the account of the Conception of our Ladye which is supplied by the apocryphal gospel of her nativity, and the proto-gospcl of Jacob. 20 It represents St. Anne, in her garden at prayer, receiving by the mouth of an angel the promise of the birth of the Blessed Virgin Maryc, her daughter, and St. Joachim receiving the same promise in the mountains whither he had retired. The "Guide of Painting" of Mount Athos follows this ancient narration almost word for 27 and it appears also in the word; poem of Hrotsuitha, the learned nun of Gandersheim, who died A.D. 2S The
Guide remarks that, in Northern art, St. Anne is represented in her house, and not in her garden, in conse quence of the difference between the customs of the North and those of the East, where people live more in the open air than 29
in their houses.
translator of the
the most ancient.
give another repre
The Greek and Sclavonic diptychs
sentation, which is less happy. St. Joachim and St. Anne meet, after having received the blessings and promise of the angel, and tenderly embrace each other. This, according to the Bollandist,
S. p. 228.
Quoted in the Iconographie dc I Immaadee Conception de la Trcs-Sainte Vierge Marie. Par Mgr. J. B. Malou, eveque de Bruges. Bruxelles, 1856, p. 16. 27 Manuel d Iconographie Chretienne, Didron, Cf. St. John Damascene, p. 279. Clamaverunt just,, Ubinam ? In consentaneus justorum precaproprio horto ttoms locus. In horto preca fundcntes, hortum
DC Nativ. B.M.
huge fdiciorem eenuerunt
n. 5, p. 852).
der Malcrei votn Berge Athos.
Quoted by Malou, ubi sup.
Historia Nativitatis laudabilisque conversations Intacta: Migne, Patrol. Lai. t. cxxxviii. coll. 1067, 1068.
30 Father Papebrooch, was the Greek type of a chaste marriage. Malou justly remarks that this was of all the most difficult Consequently, feature, and the least necessary to portray.
from an iconographic point of view, this type of praise. Although these diptychs are not
not deserving than the
seventeenth century, 31 this representation appears to be the the conversion of the reproduction of a type earlier than Slavonic nation, and consequently anterior to the ninth century. Malou says that it might go back even to the early ages of the Church.
of St. Joachim and St. Anne is given in one of 32 windows of Fairford Church. the It Malou describes as simply hideous. 3. The third type under the form of a little child, nude, and represents our Ladye
denote the instant of her placed in the calix of a flower, to He attributes this composition of design to Father creation. Peter de Alva et Astorga, who gives this representation at the
33 head of his Momimenta Antiqua printed in i664, and of his 34 that this type has But Bourassee says Radii Soils, in i666. 35 Under often been reproduced, and is of a much earlier date.
heading may be classed the stained 36 Waddington Church.
fourth historical representation of the Immaculate 37 is modern. Conception, that of the miraculous medal,
a doctrinal point of view, the Immaculate Conception the mystery of the original holiness of the Blessed Virgin Mother of God. In a word, what has to be represented
the immaculateness of our
wish emphatically to point out that the mere repre sentation of our Ladye, standing, and alone, without any symbol
sacrce en Russie.
1849, P- 45-
Quoted by Malou, ubi sup. 32 Joyce, Fairford Windows,
Virg. Maria:, ex
Monumenta Antiqua Imm. Conceptions SS,
Radii solis zeli seraphici caii veritatis pro Immaculate Conceptions mysterio classes auctorum. Lovanii, 1666. Virginis Maria, discurrentes per duodecim 35 Summa Edit. Migne. urea de Laudibus B.M. V. t. ii, col. 950, note.
S. p. 282.
Malou, ubi sup. pp. 20, 21.
The Immaculate Conception.
or attribute of the mystery, does not, and cannot express her Immaculate Conception. Thus Murillo s so-called Immaculate
Conception is nothing else than a fanciful representation of our Ladye, but not one of our Ladye immaculately conceived. Add the serpent under her feet, and the mystery of the Imma
culate Conception becomes at once symbolized. Indeed I do not hesitate to express my conviction that, wherever the dragon is represented at the feet of our Ladye, no matter under what
has a direct allusion to her Immaculate
The Annunciation is given in the old gate at Conception. Lincoln called the Stonebow. Our Ladye and the Archangel occupy tabernacles on either side of the gate. Our Ladye is
standing, her hands are folded across her breast, and under her feet is the dragon. I have carefully examined this statue.
Our mother Eve sinned by
eating of the apple, and so brought death on her posterity. The Fathers constantly call our Ladye the second Eve, who was to undo the work of the first Eve, and bring life to man.
The second Eve was to be in the state of the first Eve before the Fall, that is, without sin. It is in this sense that Cornelius a Lapide explains those words of the Canticles, Nigra sum sed 8 Our Ladye was dark, as a daughter of Eve, yet formosa? formosa, or beautiful, because she was free from original sin
ct privilcgio, intnitn
Jcsu Salvatoris hinnani generis, as
defined in the
most beautifully expressed
window of the time
the First in the Church of
Margaret, Oxford, but curiously enough the iconographic importance of this representation seems, hitherto, to have It is of the utmost value. The Maiden escaped notice.
Mother of God, the second Eve,
looking with an
ineffably sweet expression towards her Divine Son, Who, with His right hand raised, blesses His Mother, and with His left
places an apple
no longer the
into her right
Commentaria in Scripturam Sacram.
PP- 495. 496.
1)9 From the Qiiando pomi noxialis, In necem morsn rnit, &c. lingua gloriosi lanream certaminis, in the Missal, for Good Friday.
thou art the second Eve,
the Blessed Fruit of thy womb of which thou give thce the apple,
the -window of St.
Church, Oxford, temp. Ed-ward
mayest eat, since by My merits and blessing I have preserved In thee I have made to live again that thee from original sin.
40 From the Hymn Pange Maundy Thursday.
lingua gloriosi corporis mysterinm, in the Missal, for
which Eve killed. I, the Son of God and thy Son am the cause of thy Immaculate Conception." What is this but a literal, early English, pre-realization of the words of the Definition in the Bull Incffabilis ? In this com
I do not, however, position the serpent was unnecessary. wish to be understood as maintaining that the apple alone, which our Ladye sometimes holds in her hand, as in the tale
Mary s Abbey, York, ought to be thus interpreted but bears this construction, when our Lord is represented
His Maiden Mother and giving her
Another symbolical representation of the Immaculate Con 41 ception occurs in two, at least, of the Prymers of Sarum Use, and although it was adopted in England, there is, unfortunately,
no evidence that
was designed by an English
Henry Stephanus, or Stephens, the celebrated Parisian printer, who gives it as a frontispiece to the work of
Puritate Conceptionis beate Marie Virginisf2 Paris in 1513; but it occurs in the Hore dive published virginis marie sccundinu vcruvi nsum romamtm, printed at
1508 by Thielmann Kerver, now in the Museum at 43 and consequently five years previously to the Maidstone, celebrated picture of the Immaculate Conception by Gerolamo
to which Malou attaches such In this composition our Ladye is standing, importance. arrayed in an ample robe, her hair flowing over her shoulders, with no veil, and her hands joined, but not clasped before her.
da Cottignola, 44 dated 1513,
the Father, of only the bust appears, a globe surmounted by a cross in His left, and crowned, holding Beneath Him is a scroll blessing her with His right hand.
containing the words, TOTA MACULA NON EST IN TE.
AMIGA MEA, ET
Our Ladye numerous symbols, each named the sun,
ut sol ;
Those of 1531, Paris, Regnault, f. cxxvi.b, and of 1534, Stonyhurst Library. copy of this rare book is in the Library of the Fathers of the London
Archffologia Cantiana, vol. ix. p. 196. Now in the collection of Mr. Bromley
Davenport, M.P., Wootton Hall, by Mrs. Jameson, Legends of the Madonna.
Edit. 1872, p. 53.
sup. pp. 131, 132.
moon, pitkhra nt
a gateway with turrets, Porta cocli ; a cedar, ccdrns cxaltata ; a rose-tree, plantatio roses ; a well, Pnteits aquantm vivcntium ; a branch bearing flower, Virga
Jesse floruit ; a square garden with a hedge, Jiortus conclnsus ; the lily, sicut lilinm inter spinas; a star, Stella marts; the Tower
of David, turris Davidica
cum propugnaculis ; a
; a city with gates, towers, and buildings, civitas Dei. Passaglia, who has fully explained many of these symbols, 4C develops them as evidences of the Immaculate Conception
says Malou, is sufficient to persuade us that artists of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries may have had recourse to
appears most probable that repre
sentations of our Blessed
Ladye with God the Father
with her Divine Son blessing her and presenting her with an apple, or with the serpent under her feet, all have direct The Mortuary Roll reference to her Immaculate Conception.
of John de Wygenhale, Abbot of West Dereham, Norfolk, represents at the head, God the Father on a throne, with His
raised in the attitude of blessing
our Ladye, arrayed in a partment immediately below mantle, her hair flowing, and her hands joined before her and
although the Abbot is represented as a diminutive figure on his knees at the right of the Throne of God the Father, it is evident that the blessing is given not to him, but to our
Ladye, and consequently, that her Immaculate Conception is here signified. Thus there is evidence that the Immaculate Conception of our Blessed Ladye was represented at an early period in
and such are the types
prior to the year 1540.
About the year return from Rome,
470, St.Pulchronius, Bishop of Verdun, on his built a new church in honour of our Ladye,
and caused to be sculptured an image representing her with
46 Cf. De hmnaculato Deipara: semper Virginis Conceptit, Commcntarins. Carolus Passaglia, S.J. Sac. Romse, 1854.
Ubi sup. Norwich
vol. of the
Institute, p. 99.
the serpent under her feet. 49 The Earl of Warwick, when he was Governor of Calais, presented to our Ladye of Boulogne
image of her with the
the portal of the Chapter House at York is an image of our Blessed Ladye with her Divine Son in her arms. She
standing on a lion and a dragon.
serpent is also represented under the feet of our Blessed the Angels Choir at Lincoln ; which Professor Cockerell so much admired.
Richard Fitz Alan, fourth Earl of Arundel, by his will, dated 4, 1392, leaves to his daughter Alice, the wife of John Charleton, Lord Powis, a diptych of gold enamelled ove un
incarnacioun de notrc
51 Nativity of our Ladye.
dixit: A-ve gratia plena ^ Benedicta tu in mulieribus.
In the Benedictionale of
and wears the
^Ethelwald, our Ladye is seated the Archangel is barefoot. 52
another Anglo-Saxon MS. she is standing up, holding in her left hand a scroll with the words, ECCE ANCILLA DNI In the MS. Horcs of the York FIET M SCDM VBU TUUM. 53
the public library at Boulogne-sur-mer, 54 the Annun represents the Archangel kneeling on one knee,
our Ladye rises from prayer as if disturbed by his words in sermone ejus she has flowing hair, and no veil, before This appears her is a vase with a lily bearing three flowers.
diem 17 Febr. pp. 12, 13. Haignere, Notre Dame de Boulogne, p. 118. Nichols, Royal Wills, p. 133.
Act. SS. ad
Archaologia, vol. xxiv. plate x. p. 50.
Figured by Strutt, Manners and Customs of the