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JA509 Engineering Laboratory 1

EXPERIMENT
TITLE
DURATION
PAGE
1.0

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EL3 -1
FRICTION (INCLINED PLAIN)
6 HOURS
1 0F 4

Experiment outcomes
At the end of the lab session students should be able:
a)
Determination of the friction coefficient for different materials.
b)
Force on the incline plane for different materials.

2.0

Theory
When a body slides over another, the motion resisted by a force called the
friction force. The force arises from the fact that the surfaces, though planed
and made smooth, have ridges and depressions that interlock and relative
movement is resisted. Thus the force of friction on a body is parallel to the
sliding surfaces and acts in a direction opposite to that of the sliding body.
Friction coefficient ;
Reaction force,
Movement
direction
External force, P

Friction force, F

FigureMg
1.1
Static friction coefficient from figure 1.1 ;
When a body is a rest on an inclined plane making an angle with the horizontal,
the forces acting on the body in figure 1.2
Movement
Reaction force,
direction
External force, P
Friction force, F
Mg sin

Mg

Mg cos

Figure 1.2

Upward motion the plane equation is given , P =W (sin + cos )


Downward motion the plane equation is given , P = W ( cos - sin )
Movement
direction
External force, P

Reaction force,
3.0

Apparatus/Equipments
i.

Incline plane mechanism


Friction force, F

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Mg sin

Mg

Mg cos

JA509 Engineering Laboratory 1

EXPERIMENT
TITLE
DURATION
PAGE
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
4.0

EL3 -1
FRICTION (INCLINED PLAIN)
6 HOURS
2 0F 4

2 material combination ( steel, brass, polypropylene and aluminium)


A Weight set
A Graduated angle scale
The Support column
The base plate

Safety Precautions
i.

ii.

iii.
iv.

5.0

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Perform only those experiments authorized by your instructor. Carefully


follow all instructions, both written and oral.
Unauthorized
experiments are not allowed.
Be prepared for your work in the laboratory. Read all procedures
thoroughly before entering the laboratory. Never fool around in the
laboratory.
Observe good housekeeping practices. Work areas should be kept
clean and tidy at all times.
Be alert and proceed with caution at all times in the laboratory. Notify
the instructor immediately of any unsafe conditions you observe.

Procedures
5.1
Determination of friction coefficient
i. Set the plane horizontal. This can be achieved with of a spirit level.
ii. Place the sliding objects on plane and hook them to the empty weight
hanger by means of a rope.
iii. Add weights to the hanger until the sliding objects tend to move.
iv. Note down the material combination, weight and rope force.
v. Repeat the experiments with other material combination.
5.2

6.0

Force on the incline plane


i. Set the plane at 30 inclination angle.
ii. Add weight of 4N to the weights hanger.
iii. Place sliding object with aluminum side on the plane and hook it with
the weight hanger by means of a rope.
iv. Add weight to the hanger until the sliding objects tend to move.
v. Note down the materials combination, weight and rope tension.
vi. Decrease the weight gradually until the sliding object tends to move
downward the weights.
Result/Data
6.1

Determination of the friction coefficient for different materials.

The experiment has given the following result:


Measurement of the coefficient of friction.

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JA509 Engineering Laboratory 1

EXPERIMENT
TITLE
DURATION
PAGE

:
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EL3 -1
FRICTION (INCLINED PLAIN)
6 HOURS
3 0F 4

Angle of the plane is 0 , weight (W) = 10N ,


Material combination

Rope force, S (N)

Friction coefficient (

steel
brass
polypropylene
aluminum
6.2

Force on the incline plane

The experiment has given the following result:


Rope force on incline plane , = 30
Steel,

, weight (W) = 10N

Direction of motion

Measured rope (N)

Calculated rope force (N)

Upward
Downward

Rope force on incline plane , = 30


Brass,

, weight (W) = 10N

Direction of motion

Measured rope (N)

Calculated rope force (N)

Upward
Downward

Rope force on incline plane , = 30


Polypropylene,

, weight (W) = 10N

Direction of motion

Measured rope (N)

Upward
Downward

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Calculated rope force (N)

JA509 Engineering Laboratory 1

EXPERIMENT
TITLE
DURATION
PAGE

:
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EL3 -1
FRICTION (INCLINED PLAIN)
6 HOURS
4 0F 4

Rope force on incline plane , = 30


Aluminum,

, weight (W) = 10N

Direction of motion

Measured rope (N)

Calculated rope force (N)

Upward
Downward
7.0

Discussion
i.
Analyze the result with the theory.
ii.
The factor that influence the experimental result.

8.0

Conclusion and Recommendation


Your conclusion should be related to your practical and theoretical
understanding on the related topic.

9.0

References
Joseph Edward Shigley and John Joseph Uicker, Jr. (1995), Theory of Machines
and Mechanisms. Second Edition, McGraw-Hill International Editions.

Version : 021211_0.0 _Effective:Jun 2012