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Course

© Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd

July 2002

**Drilling Calculations Course
**

CONTENTS

Section 1:

Units of Measurement

Section 2:

Background Mathematics

Section 3:

Fluid Circulation Calculations

Section 4:

Cementing Calculations

Section 5:

Pressure Control

Section 6:

Hoisting Calculations

Section 7:

Buoyancy Effects

Section 8:

Miscellaneous Calculations

Appendix:

Course Consolidation Exercises

© Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd

July 2002

Drilling Calculations Course

Section 1:

Units of Measurement

Calculations

would

not

exist

without

measurement.

Section 1 covers the most

commonly used systems of measurement

together with basic symbols and common

Conversion Factors.

© Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd

July 2002

chemical and biological properties known as MATTER – which is measurable. The most common measurements taken are: Length Area Volume Mass (weight) Density Pressure Time Some are Derived units: Density is derived from Mass Area and Volume are derived from units of Length There are many more eg: Light frequency. radioactivity. A system was developed by a group of people to fit their needs. heat. Today only two systems survive – the Imperial and Metric.Units of Measurement Science today is totally dependent on measuring systems. What do we measure ? Everything that exists on earth and in space has physical. much like a language. viscosity and reflection © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .

yards are not used and inches are often changed to tenths of a foot. divide by 12 to obtain feet and inches: 2845 = 237 feet 1 inch 12 Second. yards and miles are the most common 12 inches 3 feet 1760 yards 5280 feet Exercise: = = = = 1 foot 1 yard 1 mile 1 mile Convert 2845 inches to yards. 2845 inches = 79 yards 0 feet 1 inch. The Rig Tape is calibrated in feet and tenths. feet. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . divide the feet by 3 to get yards and feet: 237 3 = 79 yards 0 feet Therefore.IMPERIAL SYSTEM LENGTH: inches. feet and inches First. To simplify the system for Rig use.

1.600 square yards 27. 5 sq ft.feet and sq First. sq.846 square inches to square yards.878. divide 644 by 9 = Therefore: 92. 144 square inches 9 square feet 3. 5 sq ft = 71 sq yds. square feet etc As with length. 2.400 square feet Exercise: inches.The same units as length with the addition of the word “square” in AREA: front – square inches.846 sq inches © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd 644 9 = 71 sq yds. 110 sq inches Second. problems arise when converting from one unit to another. divide by 144 = 92846 144 = 644 sq ft. = = = = 1 square foot 1 square yard 1 square mile 1 square mile Convert 92. 110 sq ins July 2002 .097.

16 ounces 112 pounds 20 hundred weight 2240 pounds = = = = 1 pound 1 hundred weight 1 ton 1 ton 1 ton is also called a LONG TON. Density distinguishes different substances. hundred weights and tons. but prefixed by cubic – Cubic inches.VOLUME: The same units as length. pounds. cubic feet etc 1728 cubic inches 27 cubic feet = = 1 cubic foot 1 cubic yard The common term for Mass is WEIGHT. DENSITY: Density is the weight of a given volume of substance and is measured in pounds per cubic foot. (A block of wood will not weigh the same as a block of gold as their densities are different). Weight is measured in MASS: ounces. whereas weight does not take size into account. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .

34 x 7.4 pounds/cubic ft PRESSURE: Pressure is the force applied over a given area and is measured in pounds per square inch.4 pounds).S. With very high pressures. The density measurements are therefore calculated in ppg (pounds per us gallon) and pcf (pounds per cubic ft). gallon of water weights 10 pounds. gal / cubic ft 62.S. how many us gallons in a cubic foot? = 2.4809 U.34 pounds.K. Second.The U. multiply 8. Gallon is a liquid volume measurement and is therefore used in measuring liquid density. The U.( psi) PSI has always been the common unit. gallon of water weighs 8.S. Conversion means changing gallons to cubic feet or vice versa. the pound may be changed to TONS.34 ppg to pcf: First. and U. Convert 8. The U. therefore conversion problems do not exist. oilfield unit is measured in pounds per gallon.K.S.S.4809 = 7. In the case of pressure being expressed in TONS/square ft we need to convert both measurements: Tons to pounds. The gallon is different in the U. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . gallon is standard in the Oilfield. Exercise: 1. and square feet to square inches. whereas the U. (A cubic foot of water weight 62.

© Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . a table of Units and Conversion Factors is included at the end of Section 1.20 tons per sq ft = (20 x 2240) pounds per 144 sq inches 44800 pds per 144 sq inches 44800 144 pounds per sq in = 311 lbs per sq in To make conversion easier.

1 10 1/10 1/100 1/1000 Exercise: in decimal in decimal in decimal in decimal in decimal = = = = = 1.THE METRIC SYSTEM The Metric system covers all units of measurement. LENGTH The fundamental unit is the METRE 1 metre 1000 millimetres 100 centimetres 1000 metres = = = = 39. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .0 0.001 How can 0.0 10. Counting from the decimal point. and understanding of DECIMAL places is essential.01 0.04 can be expressed as 4/100 or four hundredths.04 be expressed in words or as a fraction. 2 jumps = 1/100 Therefore. move to the right.1 0.37 inches 1 metre (milli = one thousandth) 1 metre (centi = one hundredth) 1 kilometre (Kilo = a thousand times) To use the Metric system. until the decimal point is to the right of the last number. 0. 1 jump = 1/10. but makes use easier as it is based on units in multiples of ten.

0.00328 in words or as a fraction.5 centimetres.003 25_ 1000 = 0. 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th = = = = = tenth hundredth thousandth ten thousandth hundred thousandth There are 5 jumps to the right.Exercise: Express 0.000 or three hundred and twenty eight. 025 These are commonly used when measuring small parts of a unit. one hundred thousandth. 3_ 1000 = 0. 0. Most measurements go down to thousandths. Therefore.025 of a metre is 25 millimetres or 2. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .00328 is 328/100.

0001 0.000 sq m 10.000.DECIMAL POINT MOVEMENT: 1 place to the right 2 places to the right 3 places to the right 4 places to the right 5 places to the right 6 places to the right = = = = = = one tenth one hundredth one thousandth one ten-thousandth one hundred thousandth one millionth = = = = = = 0.00001 0.000 sq m centimeter millimeter metre The gram is the basic metric unit of weight 1000 grams 1000 milligrams 1000 kilograms © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd = = = 1 kilogram 1 gram 1 metric ton July 2002 .1 0.001 0.000.000 sq mm 1.000 sq cms 1.000001 AREA: 1 1 1 1 sq metre sq metre sq kilometre hectare = = = = 100cm x 100 cm 1000mm x 1000mm 1000m x 1000m 100m x 100m cm mm m MASS: (Weight) = = = = = = = 10.01 0.

In the metric system. and the smaller units of grams/sq centimetres DENSITY: Defines the weight of a given volume of a substance. Specific Gravity or pounds per gallon. drilling fluid is often measured in pounds/cubic foot. density is measured in kilograms/cubic metre or grams/cubic centimetre.000. Specific gravity is similar to Density is as much as the mud weighing 1gm/cc (water) has a Specific Gravity of 1. of 2 means that the substance has a density twice that of water (of 2gms/cc). On the rig.000 cubic cms PRESSURE: The metric unit of pressure is kilograms/sq centimeters. The Mud Balance gives 3 units of density measurement: Pounds/cubic ft Specific gravity (gms/cc) Pounds per gallon © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . 1 cubic metre 1000cc 1000 litres = = = 100 x 100 x 100 1 litre 1 cubic metre = 1.VOLUME: The metre is again the standard but it is called a CUBIC metre The metric system commonly uses cubic centimeters or cubic metres to express volume and the LITRE when using liquids. A S.G.

ins or ins2 sq.S.I. mm cm m m2 cc or cms3 km gm kg/cm2 bbl July 2002 .COMMON SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS Inches Feet Cubic inches Cubic feet Square inches Square feet Pounds Ounces Pounds per cubic foot Pounds per gallon Pounds per square inch Millimetres Centimetres Metres Square metres Cubic centimetres Kilometre Grams Kilograms per sq centimetre Barrel © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = ins or “ ft or ‘ cu ins or ins3 cu ft or ft3 sq. ft or ft2 lbs oz pcf or lbs/ft3 ppg or lbs/gall P.

COMMON SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS + = Plus 2+6 = 8 - = minus 7–2 = 5 x = multiplied by 3x4 = 12 ÷ = divided by 10/2 = 5 > = greater than 6 > 5 < = less than 5 < 6 ± = plus or minus 60% ± : = the ratio 1:4 ∴ ∴A = therefore C-B A+B = C 42 = square of 4 4x4 = 16 √ = square root √4 = 2 11 = parallel to ⊥ = perpendicular ∆ = triangle = square π = pi % = percent 320 = degree 4” = inches 4’ = feet a-2 = negative exponent 3√ = cube root = © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd 1% 3√64 = 4 July 2002 .

30480 m ____________________________ 100.0 ft 1.2808 ft 1.280.0 cm 39.609.3281 ft 0.280.54000 cm 0.62137 mi ____________________________ 5.34 m 1.0 in 0.609.08333 ft ____________________________ 30.39370 in 0.01 m ____________________________ 25.48006 cm 12.34 km ____________________________ in ft m km mi © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd by by → ← to obtain Divide July 2002 .UNITS AND CONVERSION FACTORS DEPTH/LENGTH: Multiply To obtain → ← cm 0.83 ft 1.936 yd ____________________________ 3.000 m 0.40005 mm 2.370 in 3.

0 ft2 4.00405 km2 0.01 litre 0.5899 km2 _________________________________ cm3 1.6102 in3 0.000.104 acres _________________________________ mi2 640.76387 ft 2 ________________________________ acres 43.0 acres 2.15499 in2 ________________________________ 6.560.UNITS AND CONVERSION FACTORS Multiply To obtain AREA: VOLUME/CAPACITY: © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd → ← by by → ← to obtain Divide cm2 0.873 m2 0.092903 m2 ________________________________ 1.0 yd2 4.9969 in2 m2 10.0015625 mi2 _________________________________ km2 247.480.00003531 ft3 July 2002 .46.549.0341 cm2 0.00 mm3 0.0002642 gal 0.4516 cm2 in2 ________________________________ ft2 929.

0 in3 4.000 ml 61.) 0.2705 in3 1.7853 litre 0.000.4329 gal 0.57 qt 0.20095 gal (U.61458 ft3 0.3531 ft3 _______________________ 3.1638 litre 0.0 cm3 1.0 gal (U.) _______________________ 158.S.13368 ft3 0.) 3.) gal (imp) bbl (U.83268 gal (imp) 0.5787 ft3 _______________________ 1.S.785.9997 bbl (imp) July 2002 .0 qt (U.S.0 cm3 231.26417 gal (U.) 5.38716 cm3 0.984 litre 42.S.) © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd → ← by by → ← to obtain Divide 16.UNITS AND CONVERSION FACTORS Multiply To obtain VOLUME/CAPCITY (cont) in3 litre gal (U.2381 bbl (42) _______________________ 1.S.S.

17 gal (U.) 35.) ________________________________ 3 1.0 gal (U.S.0 in3 ft 28.) 0.S.233.314 ft3 6.42976 lb/cu ft 8.031 litre 42.4809 gal (U.4 bbl (42) 1.758.34544 lb/gal (U.036127 lb/cu in ___________________________________ © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd bbl (imp) July 2002 .2831 m3 _________________________________ m3 264.112 gal (U.290 bbl (42) 1.S.0 ft3 7.49 m3 _________________________________ DENSITY/CONCENTRATION Gm/cc (s.S.) 350.) 43.613.UNITS AND CONVERSION FACTORS Multiply To obtain VOLUME/CAPCITY (cont) → ← by by → ← to obtain Divide 159.) 0.850.3079 yd3 _________________________________ acre/ft 325.g.728.1781 bbl (42) 0.31684 litre 7.51 lb/bbl (42) 62.33 yd3 1.560.S.

220 lb _____________________________________ oz 437.229 oz _____________________________________ gm 15.S.G.g.UNITS AND CONVERSION FACTORS Multiply To obtain → ← by by → ← to obtain Divide DENSITY/CONCENTRATION (cont) lb/gal (U.) ____________________________________ lb/cu ft 5.6146 lb/bbl (42) 0.274 oz 2.) 0.4809 lb/cu ft 0.0 oz 0.) _____________________________________ Grain 0.2046 lb _____________________________________ lb 453.13368 lb/gal (U.4536 kg July 2002 .5 grain 28.S.119826 gm/cc (S.43236 grain 0.0 lb/bbl (42) 7.) WEIGHT/MASS © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd 42.016018 gm/cc (s.59237 gm 16.0625 lb _____________________________________ kg 35.34952 gm 0.3528 oz 0.06479 gm 0.

052 psi/ft Pressure Gradient SG x .00982 K/Pa/m __________________________________ Ft/min x 0.1605 ton (metric) __________________________________ PPG x 119.2808 ft/min __________________________________ Gal/min x 0.3048 m/min M/min x 3.159 m3/m M3/min x 6.2 gal/min M /min __________________________________ July 2002 .00835 lbs per gallon Kg/m3 __________________________________ PPG x 0.8 Kgm3 x 0.433 psi/ft 3 b/ft ÷ 144 psi/ft Kg/m3 x 0.003785 m3/m Barrels/min x 0.000 lb ton metric 0.90718 ton (metric __________________________________ ton (long) 2.12 ton (short) 1.0 lb 1.UNITS AND CONVERSION FACTORS Multiply To obtain WEIGHT/MASS (cont) MUD WEIGHT MUD WEIGHT To PRESSURE GRADIENT ANNULAR VELOCITY FLOW RATE © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd → ← by by → ← to obtain Divide ton (short) 2.2905 bbl/min 3 x 264.000434 Or ÷ 2303 psi/ft Kg/m3 x 0.240.

980665 bar 0.967842 atm __________________________________ bar 106 dynes/cm2 14.6960 psi 1. Ohms m2m __________________________________ psi 70.3323 kg/cm2 1.1972 kg/cm 0.UNITS AND CONVERSION FACTORS Multiply To obtain RESISTIVITY PRESSURE © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd → ← by by → ← to obtain Divide ohms/cm2cm 0.98624 atm __________________________________ July 2002 .1325 bar __________________________________ 14.0680458 atm __________________________________ atm 14.3067 gm/cm2 0.01 ohms m2 m __________________________________ Ohms/m2m 100.0689474 bar 0.0703070 kg/cm2 0.5038 psi 1.22333 psi kg/cm2 0.

373. 273. 0. O0F 0. 293. -17. 520 15. Water freezes 32. 0.UNITS AND CONVERSION FACTORS Multiply To obtain by by → ← to obtain Divide → ← F = 1.56. 460. 0.56. 528. 600F 60. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .8 oC + 32 TEMPERATURE: 0 0 0 0 0 0 K = C = 5/9 (oF – 32) 0 Fahrenheit 0 Rankine R = C + 273 0 F + 460 Centigrade 0 Kelvin Water boils 212. -273. 680F 68. 672. 20.8. 255. 492. 100. 288. Absolute zero -460.

Capacities and how to use Fractions. How to calculate Percentages. Areas. Volumes.Drilling Calculations Course Section 2: Background Mathematics This section covers the basic maths involved in Drilling Calculations. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .

Fractions

What is a Fraction?

A fraction is a part of a whole. Two and a half inches is equal to two inches

plus one half of an inch. This can be represented in two ways.

First:

2½

OR

as a decimal

=

2.5

Second:

5/8

OR

as a decimal

=

0.625

To find 0.625

5 is divided by 8

**Certain conversions leave five, six, seven and above numbers after the decimal
**

point

e.g.

0.28463215

**This is clumsy and should be reduced for most purposes to four figures
**

e.g.

© Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd

0.2846

July 2002

**As most calculations are performed on the calculator it is easy, and accurate,
**

to use four figures. Using four figures in a hand calculation is clumsy and leads

to error. Therefore, use the calculator often.

Measuring in feet and inches presents problems when tallying pipe. To ease

the situation, feet and tenths of a foot are used. You will have noticed the

Pipe Measuring Tape is calibrated in feet, and tenths of a foot.

Diameters are most commonly measured in feet and inches because they are

usually taken on their own. In contrast, length is measured in feet and tenths

of a foot for ease of addition.

When diameters are involved in calculations, for instance in volumes, the inches

or vulgar fraction has to be converted to decimal.

e.g.

**Cylindrical Tank 6ft 4 inches diameter
**

To convert: There are 12 inches to 1 ft,

Therefore, 4 inches = 4/12

Therefore 4 ÷ 12

=

0.3333

Diameter in decimals

=

6.3333 ft

The calculation is recurring therefore four decimal places are used.

© Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd

July 2002

**What is a Decimal Place?
**

When asked to calculate to four Decimal Places your inputs should have four

numbers to the right of the decimal point.

e.g.

**What is 8.32567418 to 3, 4 and 5 decimal
**

3 decimal places

4 decimal places

5 decimal places

=

=

=

8.326

8.3257

8.32567

**Notice that the first three decimal places are 8.325, but the answer above is
**

8.326.

The technique of Rounding-Off is being used.

If the next number is five or greater, then increase your last decimal place by

one.

e.g.

8.32748

**To “round-off” to 4 decimal places, look at the first decimal place. Being 8 it
**

is greater than five, therefore increase 4 to 5

=

8.3275

Examples

“Round off” to 4 decimal places

9.382416

9.221134

9.18796

9.25256

© Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd

=

=

=

=

9.3824

9.2211

9.188

9.2526

July 2002

3-4/16. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . 3) Convert 10ft 6-1/2 inches to decimals. 5-7/13. 2) Convert 42ft 7 inches to decimals. 8-2/6 to decimals.Exercise: (Round off to 4 decimal places if necessary) 1) Convert 6-2/8.

A shape with 4 sides. square mile. Force on a unit area Area of deck space Surface area of pits Area is expressed as a square – a square inch.Areas The use of area is found in many places around the rig. A square inch is the area taken up by a square. ins © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . square foot. There are 3 common shapes that can easily have their areas calculated. square centimetre. each side at 90° to the other – Rectangle Area = Length x Breadth 5 4 5 x 4 = 20 sq. etc. of 1-inch long sides.

ins 3 © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .6 6 x 3 = 18 sq.

angles between each side are variable – Triangle Area = Base x ½ vertical height height base ½ height Area = base x ½ height © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .A shape with 3 sides.

none of the angles are 90° .Trapezium Area = Sum of Parallel Sizes x ½ distance between them. a ht (a+b) x ½ ht b Cut trapezium into 3 parts © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .A shape with 4 sides.

This value is constant and is called PI (π). multiply Diameter by π Or Circumference = π x diameter Circumference = 2 π x radius © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . This has a fixed relationship with the diameter. is the Circle. The area is a relationship between radius. but not readily calculated.1416 times.Another common shape. or diameter and circumference. Radius Diameter = 2 x Radius Radius = ½ Diameter The Circumference is the distance round the edge of the circle. The Diameter is the distance from the edge to edge via the centre. The Radius is the distance from the centre to the edge. The diameter of any circle will go round the circumference 3. To calculate Circumference using diameter.

Unpeeling the circle we get the shape below.each like a triangle. July 2002 .To find the formula for calculating area we can divide the circle into slices like a cake. Circumference = 2 π x Radius For instance the circle has been divided into 32 equal portions . Radius 2πr The base = circumference Each triangle has an area of © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd = π D or 2 π r 1/2ht x base.

= r x π r = π r2 © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .Height = radius ½ Height = Base = or Diameter 2 Radius 2 2πr 32 To calculate for 32 triangles – = 32 x r x 2 π r 2 32 32 cancels out. = r x 2 π r 2 32 2 cancels out.

If using Diameter – Area of Circle = 32 x D x π D 4 32 = D x π D 4 = π D2 4 = π r2 or π D2 4 Exercise: Find Area of Circles with the following: a) b) c) d) e) f) Diameter Diameter Radius Diameter Radius Circumference © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd = = = = = = 12” 7” 4” 7 ½” 3 ¼” 24” July 2002 .

To aid calculation. remember Therefore. For instance hole to pipe or OD of pipe to ID of pipe. ANNULAR AREA The Annular area is calculated by subtracting the small circle from the larger circle With D = Annular Area diameter of large circle d = diameter of small circle = © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd π D2 4 - π d2 4 July 2002 .7854 .7854 x D2 π D2 One major application of 4 is the calculation of Annular Area and Volume. Area = π 4 = . The Annular Area is the area between two concentric circles.

d2) . inches © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .9 sq.7854 x 75 = 58.π Because 4 is common to both the above formula can be rewritten: π 4 or (D2 .7854 (100 – 25) = .d2) Example: Find Annular Area when D = 10” and d = 5” π Area = 4 (102 – 52) = .7854 (D2 .

b=c–a © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . This means rearranging a formula to get the unknown value on one side and the known value on the other side. a=c–b find b: a+b=c Move a across and change + to – i. .e. e. Find a: a+b=c Move b across and change + to – i.7854 (D2 – d2) Calculate the bracket first = = = . Whenever brackets appear in a formula the calculation inside must be done prior to using the values outside.7854 (75) The value outside can now be multiplied with that inside.7854 (100 – 25) .7854 (102 – 52) . First: the use of brackets.e. This can lead to problems unless two basic rules are practiced.g.Formulas and Problems Up to this point the formulas used show division. multiplication and brackets. Second: Solving the equation.

find a:

a–b=c

**Move b across and change – to +
**

a= c+b

**In multiplication the technique is different. Values are moved
**

diagonally.

Find a:

a

b

=

c

**Move b diagonally across = sign
**

a=cxb

Find b:

a

b

=

c

Move b up to c and c to b

© Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd

July 2002

a

c =b

a=bxc

Find b:

=

a

b

(c + d)

a = b (c + d)

(c

If

a

+

=

b

10

(3 + 2)

=

b

10

5

=

b

2

=

b

d)

a = 10

c=3

d=2

What is b:

Pressure

=

Depth

Solve the Equation to find

© Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd

x

Mud Weight

x

0.052

a) Depth

b) Mud Weight

July 2002

a)

Pressure

Mud Weight x 0.52

=

Depth

b)

Pressure

Depth x .052

=

Mud Weight

**Solving an Equation with squares requires the use of Square Roots.
**

Example:

Area =

π D2

4

Find D:

Area x 4

π

to eliminate the square you must square root the other side.

D

=

Area x 4

π

**Square roots are commonly found on calculators today.
**

The square root of

The square root of

© Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd

4 is 2

64 is 8

(2 x 2 = 4)

(8 x 8 = 64)

July 2002

Example: A tank of 12” long x 6” wide x 8” deep = 12 x 6 x 8 = 576 cubic inches This means 576 cubes of 1” x 1” x 1” would fit into a tank 12” x 6” x 8”.Volumes and Capacities With an understanding of how to calculate areas it is a straight forward procedure to calculate the volume of a container. When talking about the capacity of a tank or hole we use barrels. Capacity is the amount of a substance that can be placed in that container expressed in units relating to both substance and container. When calculating volume all units must be the same. To calculate volume we multiply the surface area by the height. and think of common rig substance like oil. Volume is the amount of space in a container. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . mud or cement.

50 30 10 20 Side View Plan View © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd 10 July 2002 .Example: Find capacity in cubic inches of a tank 1’ 2” x 8” x 3’ 6” 1’ 2” = 14” 3’ 6 = 42” Capacity = 14 x 8 x 42 = 4704 cubic inches We have assumed vertical walls. If the tank had sloping walls the following volume calculations would be used.

The area of side A can be found using the formula for a trapezium. inches Then calculate capacity as: Area x sum of parallel sides on wall B 2 20 + 10 2 = 400 x = 400 x 30 2 = 400 x 15 = 6000 sq. Area = Sum of Parallel sides x half distance between them Area = 10 (50 + 30) x 2 = 400 sq. inches © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .

5454 cubic feet/foot of depth The 144 is used to convert square inches into square feet (1 square foot = 144 square inches).7854 (102) 144 x 1ft = .5454 x 1ft = .Calculating volumes of Cylinders or the Annulus the formula is: Area x height Volume π D2 4 = x height Make sure all units are the same π 4(D2 – d2) x height Annular Volume π 4 = .7854 Example: Find a volume of cylinder in cubic feet/foot of depth if diameter is 10” Volume = . © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .

we need to convert feet to barrels. 1 barrel = 5.Example: Calculate Annular Volume if Volume = D = 10” d = 6” depth = 1ft .7854 (D2) 144 x 5.7854 (102 – 62) x 1 144 = .6146 we can simplify the formula to Volume in bbls/ft = D2 1029 Or (D2 – d2) 1029 © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .349 cubic feet/foot The use of cubic feet is not as common as barrels.7854.6146 x 1 Calculating out .6146 cubic feet. 144 and 5. To calculate the volume in barrels. Applying this to the formula: Volume in barrels/ft = .

division and rearranging formula. Percent is the number of parts of 100.5% July 2002 . Example 1 What is 10% of 200 logs? 1% ∴ 10% = 200 100 = 2 logs = 2 x 10 = 20 logs Example 2 How many % is 35 logs of 200 logs? 1% = 200 100 1% = 2 logs 1 log = ∴ 35 logs = = © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd ½% ½ x 35 17.Percentage Calculations Calculating percentages involves simple multiplication.

although different. P=RXB P= R= B= Percentage:-the actual value equaling chosen % Rate in decimals:. use the same formula.What was the value of 100% The above examples. 4% is rate. how many logs are there? 42 logs = 75% = 42 75 = 42 75 = 56 logs 1% ∴ 100% x 100 Each of the above examples tackles the problem differently.What was the % Example 3 . © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .the part of a 100 to be found ie in 4% of 50. Example 1 .What was the value of 10% Example 2 .Example 3 If 42 logs = 75% of the total. Base:.the number of which some percentage is to be found.

In this case 10 parts (10%).Example 1 (Repeat) What is 10% of 200 logs? The question asks you to find a number that equals a %. This being the Rate P © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd = RxB (R is unknown) July 2002 .1 x B Base is the number of which some percentage is to be found.1 x 200 = 200 logs = 20 logs 10% of 200 logs Example 2 (Repeat) What % is 35 logs of 200 logs? The question asks for an actual percentage. Remember Rate is expressed in decimals. P= RxB Rate is the parts of a 100 to be found.1 P= . In this case we want to find 10% of 200 P= . 10% of 100% = . being 10% here.

35 = Rate x 200 Rate = 35 200 Rate = .75 of 1.175 whole (1. In this case 35 logs. how many logs are there? P = Percentage is number of logs © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd RxB = 42 July 2002 . 35 = Rate x Base Base is the whole. .0) Convert decimal to % by multiplying by 100.5% To convert % to decimal ÷ 100 To convert decimal to % x 100 Example 3 (Repeat) If 42 logs = 75% of the total.Percentage means the actual number.175 x 100 = 17. In this case 200.

02 = = = R x B R x 281 48 281 What % of 281 is 48 P 48 R = .75 x B = .Rate is parts of 100 to be found in decimals 42 = 75% ÷ 100 = .75 56 logs Examples What is 42% of 381? P P = = = R x B .1708 x 100 © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd = 17.75 Base is equal to total or 100% Base = = 40 .08% July 2002 .42 x 381 160.

**225 is 15% of what?
**

P

=

R x B

225

=

.15 x B

B

=

225

.15

=

1500

To remember formula use following diagram

P

P

R

P

=

RxB

R

=

P

B

B

=

P

R

© Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd

B

R

July 2002

Drilling Calculations Course

Section 3:

Fluid Circulation Calculations

**This section covers the most commonly used
**

calculations involved with Fluid Hydraulics used

by Drill Crews.

© Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd

July 2002

Fluid Circulation Calculations

**Annular Volume Calculations
**

Using the formula (D2 - d2) x depth, ft

4 x 144

The annular volume in cubic feet can be obtained.

For answer in barrels use:

(D2 - d2) x depth, ft

1029

D

d

=

=

large diameter

smaller diameter

Volumes use:(non annular)

**(inside diameter of the hole)
**

(outside diameter of the string)

D2

1029

x

Depth, ft

**With varying string diameters, casing and open hole it is good policy to draw a
**

fully-labelled diagram before calculation.

Example:

Calculate Annular Volume in barrels of an 8000 ft hole, 12 ¼ inside diameter

with 5” drill pipe.

© Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd

July 2002

1215 x 8000’ = 972.(5)2] x 8000’ 1029 = .3 x 42 = 40.3 bbls 8000’ Convert to gallons.25)2 .836.6 gallons July 2002 .0’ Annular Volume = [(12. Annular Volume in gallon © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd = 972.

52 .28 bbls = 64.52) x 1400 1029 = 64.000 ft Drill pipe 19.28 + 21.842 .14 bbls Vol of OH to Pipe annulus = Total x 600’ (8.84” Open hole to 11.62) 1029 = 21.83 bbls Volume OH to Collar annulus = (8.14 + 464.25 bbls © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .276” x 2 ½” Drill collars Calculate a) b) annular volume in bbls.000’ 1029 = 464.83 = 5520.52 .52) x 9. cu ft and gallons volume of mud inside string in bbls Volume of Casing annulus = (8.5 lbs/ft ID = 4. ID = 8.Example: 9⅝ 8½ 5” 600ft of 6” Casing set at 9000 ft.

52) 2 1029 x 600’ 3.In Gallons = 550.64 Example: 10.400 + + (2.5 galls In cubic ft = = b) 550.25 x 5.2762) 2 1029 = 184. Drill pipe is 5”.276” 600 ft collars 9” x 3” One stand = 90 ft Calculate barrels of mud required to:a) b) Fill hole after 10 stands of drill pipe have been pulled Fill hole after each stand of collars is pulled © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .4 bbls x cap. of collars (id) 2 x length 1029 10.79 = 188. 19.6146 3089.4 cubic ft Capacity of drill string = = (id) 2 x length 1029 = (4.2542 = 23110.5 lbs/ft ID 4. of pipe + cap.000ft well.

2762) 1029 x 900’ = 0.06997 x 90’ = 6.0065 = 61.98 = 103 barrels © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .87 barrels b) Volume of steel in 1 stand for drill collars = (92 .c) d) Total mud required to keep hole full when pulling out Quantity of mud displaced running in the hole with extra 300’ of 8” x 2 ¾ “ collars a) Volume of steel in 10 stands of drill pipe = (52 .32) 1029 x 90’ = .3 barrels c) Total mud to fill hole = Drill pipe disp/ft x 9400’ + drill collar disp/ft x 600 = .1 x 9400’ + .06997 + x 600 41.065 x 900’ = 5.4.

98 = 101.752) x 300 1029 = 59.0065 x 9100) + (.58 barrels 100 COLLARS B B L S 50 PIPE I 50 © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd I STANDS 100 July 2002 .15 + 41.46 = 117.d) Running in the hole = drill pipe (disp/ft x 9100) drill collars + (disp/ft x 600) + new drill collar (disp/ft x 300) = (.548 x 300 + 16.13 + 0.06997 x 600) + (82 .2.

7854) 4 © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd x length (Π D2 x length) 4 July 2002 .7854 (62) x 12) = 3 (. liner size and an Efficiency factor.Pump Outputs Pump output calculations are simply volumes Practical tests for Pump Output per stroke can be made. Triplex has 3 cylinders Volume of Cylinder = Π D2 4 Volume of 3 cylinders = 3 = 3 (.88 cubic inches (Π = . Example: Find pump output/stroke on Triplex with 12” stroke and 6” liners at 95% Efficiency.7854 x 36 x 12) = 3 x 339. manufacturers calculation can be used or you can calculate based on stroke length.29 = 1017.

Convert to barrels = 1017.1049 x 95 100 = .1049bbl at 100% Efficiency 1% Efficiency = .6146 cubic ft = = 1 cubic ft 1 bbl Out put = .6146 1728 cubic inches 5.1049 100 95% Efficiency = .0996 bbls/stk Annular Velocities and Circulation Times Knowing hole volumes and pump output the annular velocity for a section of hole and the time for circulation can be calculated.1049 bbls/stroke .88 1728 x 5. cubic feet etc © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . Annular velocity (ft/min) = Pump output (bbls/min) Annular Volume (bbls/ft) Barrels can be substituted for galls.

not pressure. safety clamps on pipe. If we took pressure gauges and could place them at various points around the system. it will have dropped to near zero. safety chains on hoses. Pumps do not put out pressure. Friction within the system causes pressure. pressure rating of unions. The pressure at the pumps is the sum of all the frictional losses around the system. But stand at the flow line and you notice the mud is moving under gravity. torque required for tool joints and packing required for swivel. we would probably note the following: Assuming pressure at pump is 3000 psi: © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . barrels can be substituted for other units.Bottoms up time (mins) = Annular Volume (bbls) Pump Output (bbls/min) Again. Drill string + Annular Volume + Pit Volume Total Circulation Time = Pump Output (bbls/min) Hydraulics Calculations Observing the size of pumps. we can conclude that mud is circulated round the system at pressure. Disconnect the pump discharge and read pump pressure. they put out flow. It is the restrictions in the circulating system that creates a back pressure against which the pump must work.

2. Pressure losses can be divided into sections thus: 1. The energy is used to create jetting and impact sufficient to clean ahead of the bit. Surface Lines Drill String Drill Bit Annulus P S I 1 © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd 2 3 4 July 2002 . In a good hydraulic system. 3.Pressure inside Kelly Pressure inside near bit sub Pressure in drill collar annulus Pressure at flow line = = = = 2950 2200 200 Zero The energy is progressively lost around the system. 4. pressure losses across the Bit should be approximately 60-65% of Pump Pressure. Most pressure is lost across the bit nozzles.

800 psi HHP = P x V 1714 = 2800 x 350 1714 = 572 HHP © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . Hydraulic Horsepower (HHP) P V = = P x V 1714 Pump Pressure (psi) Pump Output (gallons/minute) 1714 is a constant Due to mechanical inefficiency. the output horsepower is always less than input horsepower. Exercise: Find Hydraulic Horsepower of pump pumping 350gpm at 2. Mechanical Efficiency = HHP Output Mechanical Horsepower Input Most pumps have a Mechanical Efficiency of approximately 85%.The horsepower required to circulate a known quantity of mud at a certain pressure can be calculated using the formula. The same principle applies to volumetric output of a pump – called Volumetric Efficiency.

M. Pressure loss changes cause a change in pump pressure.P. Effect on Pump Pressure By changing Mud Weight or Pump S.8752 = 2450 psi July 2002 . The effect can be calculated using simple formula: New Pressure = Old Pressure x (New SPM)2 (old SPM)2 Example: What is pump pressure if an SPM of 60 giving 2500 psi is changed to 70 SPM? New Pressure = 2500 x (70)2 (60)2 = 2500 x 1.Calculation of Mud Weight and S.M.361 = 3403 psi = 3200 psi Example: Pressure at 80 SPM New Pressure © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd What is pressure at 70 SPM = 3200 x (70)2 (80)2 = 3200 x .. we fundamentally alter the system hydaulics.P.

Changing Mud Weight will affect pump pressure in the following way: New pump pressure = Old pump pressure x New Weight Old Weight Example: Pump pressure = 2800 psi with 10.0 10.5 = 2800 x 1.047 = 2931 psi Both formulae can be written: P2 = P1 x (SPM2) 2 (SPM1) 2 P2 = P1 x W2 W1 P2 = New Pressure SPM2 = New SPM P1 = Old Pressure SPM1 = Old SPM W1 W2 = = Old Mud Weight New Mud Weight © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .5 ppg mud. What will pressure be if weight is increased to 11.0ppg ? New Pump Pressure = 2800 x 11.

You may find the need to calculate square inch area from 32nds or vice versa.1725 sq inches = . diameter π D2 4 = 2 x = .7854 x ( . What is the Total Cross Sectional Area of the nozzles in square inches? First: Calculate the area of 2 x 15’s 15 Area = 15/32 nds of an inch. or the cross sectional area in square inches.345 sq inches © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd x 2 July 2002 .Nozzle Size Calculation Nozzle sizes refer to either the diameter of the hole in 32nds of an inch.7854 x (15/32) 2 x 2 Convert fraction to decimal = .4687)2 x 2 = . Example: A bit is to have 2 x 15’s and 1 x 14 nozzles.

1503 sq inches Total Cross Sectional Area = = . with each nozzle to be as close in size as possible.3137 .7854 July 2002 .e.Second: Calculate for 14 nozzles = .7854 x (14/32) 2 = .1914 = .1503 + .4953 square inches Example Convert Total Cross Sectional Area of three nozzles in 32nds of an inch.3137 square inches . Cross Sectional Area Three nozzles One nozzle Area = = = = .10456 sq inches approximately .7854 x .345 . © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd 2 D = Area .7854 x D2 Solve the equation to get D i.

. 11 To check back if 12. we follow method shown in previous example: Area = . © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .7854 x 112 32 32 = . But from this we can see that the nozzles are approximately 11’s or 12’s.67 of a 32nd.22089 + . and 11 nozzles is correct.0928 = . 12.7854 x 122 x 2 + . 12. The .it has . 12.3649 OR ? = .133138 = .3649 of an inch Convert .67 32 nds This was not a complete number . this is done by writing: ? 32 = .67 is almost 2/3.3649 of an inch into 32nds.10456 . 11 is right. meaning the average nozzle size is 2/3rds of the way toward 12.7854 D = = . This means that the nozzles are 12.3649 x 32 = 11.3137 sq inches Therefore 12.

The most commonly used calculations are used in Single Stage. Multiple Stage and Plug jobs. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .Drilling Calculations Course Section 4: Cementing Calculations The Drill Crew should have an understanding of what is involved in the calculations in order to check the cementing programme.

Single. Multiple stage jobs and plugs are drilling practices which require cement to be placed downhole. but they all require skill at calculating Annular Volumes. This requires accurate calculation that will be checked by 3 or 4 persons – one being the Driller. The calculations are slightly different in each case i.Cementing Calculations Single stage jobs. but most likely the Toolpusher. but accurately positioned in order to perform a specific task. To recap:Capacity of Cylinder = OR Capacity of Annular Space OR ∏D2 4 (Answer in cubic inches. ft etc) D2 1029 (Answer in barrels per ft) = ∏ (D2 – d2) 4 (D2 – d2) 1029 Number of strokes required to pump = © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd Volume______ Pump Output/Stroke July 2002 .e. Multiple and Plug jobs. Not just placed anywhere.

9-⅝ run from surface to 5000 ft. how many sacks will be required? Convert Volume to cu ft and divide by yield.15 x 5.D.Single Stage Job Given 12-¼” diameter hole from surface to 5000 ft Casing O. = 282.6146 1.06 cubic feet. Float Collar set 40ft up inside casing (9.D.252 – 9.15 = 282. Volume of Slurry = Annular Volume + Volume of Casing x 40ft = (12 ¼2 .15 bbls Exercise: If Class D cement at 16.9-⅝2) x 5000’ 1029 + (92) x 40’ = (12.00” I.) Exercise: Calculate number of barrels of cement required to cement to surface.06 © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd = 1494 sacks July 2002 .4 ppg is used and each sack of cement yields 1.6252) x 5000 1029 1029 + 81 x 40 = 279 + 3.

D. 47.00 lbs/ft with 8. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .109 bbls/stroke ? This is the amount of strokes required to pump top plug into place using mud. and multiple 7” string.109 = 3582 strokes The calculations required in the above examples were: Slurry Volume Number of sacks Pump Strokes to bump top plug The following example puts these all together with the addition of an earlier casing string set in the hole.Having mixed all the cement how many pumps strokes will be required to displace cement into position if Pump output = . 95/8” casing was set at 7.2” average diameter. Example: Hole depth = 11250 ft.109 bbls/stk = 390 . the 81/2 hole was found to have 9. Volume inside casing to float shoe Strokes to bump top plug = (id)2 x (5000’ – 40’) 1029 = (9)2 x 4960 1029 = 390 bbls at .100ft using N80. From Electric logs.681” I.

32 lbs/ft with 6.5 bbls © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .201 bbls/stroke Calculate:a) b) c) Slurry Volume required to bring cement to surface Number of sacks required Pump Strokes to bump top plug Hint:.72) x 7100’ + (9.7 = 325. = 6. From 9000 to TD7”.094” I.D. N80. 35. 29lbs/ft with 6.72) x 11250 . N80.21 cubic feet Pump Output = .184 I. X 11250ft Annular capacity = open hole/casing annulua + casing/casing annulus = (8.Always draw a diagram a) Slurry Volume = Casing Capacity x 80ft + Annular Cap.0256 = x 7100’ 181.8 + .D.22 . Float Collar is 60ft above Shoe Cement Yield per sack = 1. N80.7”.6812 .004” From 3000’ to 9000’ 7”.7100 1029 1029 = .00 lbs/ft casing will be run from surface to 3000’ I.0346 x 4150 + 143.D.

73 = 1520 Sacks Casing Capacity = .23 = 327.73 bbls 5.5 + b) = Cubic ft of slurry Yield/sack in cubic ft = 327.0042) x 3000’ 1029 + (6.201 2004 Strokes July 2002 .5 + 81.9 bbls Strokes required = = © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd 402.1842 x 60 Slurry Volume = 325.9 .6146 Capacity of Casing = (Cap of 7” N80) (35 lbs to 3000) + (Cap of 7” N80) (32 lbs x 6000’) + (Cap of 7” N80) (29 lbs x 2190) = (6.4 = 402.21 2.23 bbls x 60 Sacks of Cement x 1.1842) x 2190’ 1029 = 105 + 216.0942) x 6000’ 1029 + (6.= 6.0372 = 2.

000ft Float collar 50’ inside casing. Example: Two stage job using Displacement type Opening Plug for Stage Collar. 95/8” Casing with 8. Calculate: a) b) c) d) Slurry volume for 1st stage Volume of mud to be pumped between top plug and opening plug Slurry column for 2nd stage Volume of mud to be pumped behind closing plug of 2nd stage © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .7555” ID from surface to T. TD = 10. Stage collar set at 5.000ft of 12 ¼” diameter hole.Two Stage (Multiple) Cementing: In these jobs we need to calculate: a) b) c) d) e) Slurry for 1st stage Slurry for 2nd stage Strokes to bump top plug of 1st stage Strokes to bump closing plug of 2nd stage Pump strokes for mud between top plug 1st stage and opening plug of 2nd stage (if opening plug is displaced type).D.

252) .6252) 1029 = 279 bbls x 5000’ Volume of mud behind closing plug.25 2. Casing Volume © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd = 8.9.7 = 282.9. Volume c) (8.625” x 5000 1029 = 279 + 1st stage Slurry Volume b) = = d) x 50 3.7552) 1029 368.7552 x 5000’ 1029 = 372 bbls July 2002 .a) Slurry volume = Annular Capacity x 5000’ + Casing Capacity x 50’ (12.7552) 1029 4950 x (8.bbls Slurry Volume for 2nd stage = Annular Capacity x 5000’ = (12.7 bbls Volume equals capacity between Stage Collar and Float Collar.

105 bbls/stroke © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . Cement Plugs The sketch shows the situation that should exist after plug is pumped into position. Example: Set a plug 500ft long in a 12 ¼” hole with open ended 5” Drill Pipe (4.000’ – 9500’ Pump 8 bbls of water ahead of the plug. MUD WATER CEMENT This is called the Balance Method. Note the height of the cement in annulus equals height in pipe.276” ID) from 10. This gives equal hydrostatic heads thus reducing contamination when pipe is pulled. Also same heights for water. Pump output = .Field Calculations would be further complicated by previous casing string and multiple casing string.

2762 1029 b) = Barrels of water © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd = 0.1215 = 65 ft Third: Calculate barrels of water to fill 65ft in drill pipe Drill Pipe Capacity = 4.252) 1029 = 72. a) Volume Second: = (12.01776 = 1.1776 bbls/ft 65 x .15bbls July 2002 .1215 bbls/ft Ht in Annulus = ____8____ .9 bbls x 500 Calculate height of 8 bbls ahead of water in annulus.252 – 52 1029 = .We need to calculate Volume of Slurry Volume of water behind to balance the plug Number of strokes or volume of mud to displace water into position First: Calculate the number of barrels of slurry to fill hole for 500ft without pipe. Annular Volume = 12.

1215 bbls/ft .9_ .13926 = 523.9 bbls in Annulus and drill pipe.5 ft Volume of mud to displace water after cement Strokes = 167.105 © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd = 9411.01776) = 72.1215 + .0000 – (523.Fourth: Calculate height filled by 72.01776 = 167.5 ft = 65 ft Height filled by 72. .5 + 65’) 9411. filled by 8bbls of water Therefore depth of top water = = 10.5 ft x .15 bbls = 1591 Strokes July 2002 .9_____ (.9 bbls Ht.15 .01776 bbls/ft = = Annulus Volume Drill Pipe Volume = 72.

To height of water in Annulus 7. Add height of slurry with pipe 6. Calculate volume of slurry without pipe 2.To recap: 1. Subtract this value from base of cement plug 8. Multiply this value by pipe capacity to get mud volume to be pumped behind plug © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . Calculate water to give same height in Drill Pipe 4. Calculate height of water in Annulus 3. Calculate height of slurry with pipe 5.

© Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .Drilling Calculations Course Section 5: Pressure Control This section covers a number of the more basic calculations as a preliminary to attending Pressure Control Schools.

because this depends on the base area. hydrostatic pressure. By force. twice as much. pressure is the force in pounds acting on one square inch. over 1 square inch 10 4 = 2. It may not exert more overall weight. square centimetres etc. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . Hydrostatic pressure depends on depth.5 pounds/square inch We mostly talk of pressure in relation to liquids.Pressure Control Pressure Calculations What is Pressure? Pressure is the force acting on an area. Therefore.e. Any substance will exert more pressure if it is taller or deeper. i. A column of liquid 10ft high will exert more pressure than the same column 5ft high in fact. pump pressure. If 10 pounds was resting on a plate 2 inches by 2 inches. we mean weight and by area we mean square inches. Pressure is most commonly measured in psi (pounds/square inch). what pressure would be acting on one square inch of plate? A 2” x 2” plate has an areas of 4 square inches. or the force in kilograms acting on one square centimetre.

**Pressure resulting from a column of liquid.
**

Pressure at any point is Directly Proportional to

Depth below the Surface.

By Depth it is meant Vertical Depth.

**The pressure is the same at the bottom of the two columns although they have
**

different measured depths.

© Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd

July 2002

Why is a dam thicker at its base ?

Pressure is calculated by multiplying the density of a fluid by its depth.

Example:

Water weighs 62.4 pounds/cubic foot. What pressure is exerted at a depth of

20 ft?

Pressure

=

Weight

x

=

62.4 x

20

=

1248 pounds/sq ft

Depth

**There are 144 square inches in a square foot, therefore:
**

1248

144

=

8.67 psi

**Using oilfield units of pounds per gallon, we must have a conversion factor to
**

get psi values.

© Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd

July 2002

Explanation:

1 cubic foot of water weight is 62.4 lbs.

**A cubic foot of drilling mud of 10 pounds per gallon would weigh :
**

10

x

7.4808

=

74.808 pounds

(There are 7.4808 gallons to 1 cubic foot)

**If 1 cubic foot of 10ppg mud weighs 74.808 pounds.
**

Then 1 cubic foot of 1ppg mud weighs 7.4808 pounds.

This means that a 1ft cube of 1ppg mud exerts 7.4808 pounds on a square foot.

12”

12”

12”

© Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd

July 2002

52 = 5.52 psi/ft of depth If the hole was 10.) x Depth (ft) x .052 Exercise: Calculate pressure of fluid: a) b) c) 10.On 1 square inch it would exert 7.280 of 10.000 ft deep the pressure at the bottom would be 10.200 psi The formula can be written: Pressure (psi) = Mud weight (ppg) x Depth (ft) x 0.000 ft of 8.G.7ppg mud What if we are using Specific Gravity or pounds/cubic foot units ? following conversion factors are used: Pressure (psi) Pressure (psi) = = The Mud weight (S.200 ft of 11.5ppg mud 7.007 Using the same mud weight.4ppg mud 14.433 Mud weight (pcf) x Depth (ft) x . it can be seen that pressure will increase with depth. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .4808 144 = 0.000 x .

465 psi/ft. both for formation fluids and drilling fluids. they are said to be NORMAL. These formation fluids will exert pressure according to their depth and density. is called Hydrostatic Pressure. 0’ ft 5000’ 1000 2325 psi 4560 ABNORMAL formation fluid pressure is when fluid exerts a pressure greater than . one of the functions of a drilling fluid is to hold back formation fluids. and as further overburden pressure is exerted at the surface. When formation fluids exert a pressure that is a function of Depth and Density. the fluids take up this weight equivalent.000 parts per million salinity. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . This occurs when fluid cannot escape the formation due to a seal forming. This pressure. NORMAL formation fluid pressure is approximately .On the rig.465 psi/ft that is the pressure exerted by a column of salt water of 100.

Convert this pressure to mud weight (ppg) and add to known mud weight in pipe. 700 6279psi 6979 © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . it becomes necessary to increase mud weight to balance the formation. we can drill ahead safely.(flow of formation fluids into the well bore) or if uncontrolled.As long as the mud pressure is enough to balance these formation pressures. formation fluids enter the wellbore or annulus because this is the line of least resistance. When we go under-balance. How do we know the mud weight required to kill the kick ? When a kick takes place. The pressure on the Standpipe (drill-pipe) gauge will be equal to the imbalance between Mud hydrostatic in the pipe and formation fluid pressure. Our drill string is therefore full of uncontaminated mud. After shutting down the pumps and closing in the well. the conclusion is a kick. the excess of formation pressure will be registered on the Standpipe gauge and the casing gauge. a blow-out. When the kick is taken.

052 Remember to add on existing mud weight.500 ft. mud weight is 10.052 = 10.If Drill Pipe gauge reads 700 psi.052 Rearrange to mud weight = Pressure (SIDPP) Depth x .5 + (700) 11.5 ppg and depth is 11. First. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .052) = 10. the kick fluid has contaminated the hydrostatic head of mud. We can calculate mud weight required to kill the well.5 + (700) (598) = 10.67 ppg In the annulus.17 = 11. Kill mud weight Kill Mud Weight = mud weight + (SIDPP) (Depth x . rearrange formula to get mud weight: Pressure = mud weight x Depth x .500 x .5 + 1.

6145 = 833 psi -11200’ Therefore.67 x 11. Casing pressure gauge will show 833 psi 11.500 x .052 10. If 11.5 ppg = 6978 .1 psi/ft gradient and extending 300 ft up inside the annulus.67 ppg mud will kill the well.5 x 11200 x . then the formation pressure is: = 11.052 = 6978 psi What casing pressure reading will be observed at surface? Mud pressure = = = 10.052 6115 psi 700 Gas Pressure = .500’ © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .1psi/ft x 300 = 30psi Total Pressure of mud + gas in annulus = 6115 + 30 = 6145 psi Difference 833 10.5 x (11500 – 300) x .The diagram below shows an influx of gas. exerting a hydrostatic pressure of .

000 well – Gas influx in annulus is 300 ft high at .5 ppg Find Kill Mud Weight and shut in Casing Pressure (SICP) for the following if: a) b) c) SIDPP SIDPP SIDPP © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd = = = 650 psi 820 psi 300 psi July 2002 .Exercise: 10.07 psi/ft Old Mud Weight 10.

© Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . This calculation uses formula for Pressure v Mud Weight change.Calculations for Circulating Heavy Mud When killing a well using the Weight and Wait method. The heavy (kill) mud is used to kill the formation and chase the invading fluid. only one circulation is necessary. we need to calculate: a) b) c) a) Initial pump pressure Pump pressure with heavy mud at bit When to adjust choke to get smooth transition between a) and b) Initial Pump Pressure: This is pressure required to circulate at the start of the kill procedure. With the heavy mud ready to pump. Example: Slow pump rate test gave 800 psi at 45 SPM SIDPP is 700 psi Find Initial Pump Pressure Initial Pump Pressure b) = 800 + 700 = 1500 psi Final Pump Pressure: This is the pressure required to circulate once heavy mud has reached bit.

the hydrostatic pressure in the drill string increases until the heavy mud reaches the bit. Kill mud weight = Final Circulating Pressure 11. If the pump was stopped the SIDPP should equal zero.2 ppg = = © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd 11.2 800 x 10 896 psi July 2002 . the pump pressure required will be greater. As the heavy mud is pumped down. This can be expressed in the fomula: Final Circulating Pressure = Slow Pump Pressure x New mud wt Old mud wt Example: Slow pump rate test gave 800 psi at 45 SPM with 10ppg mud. The pressure required to circulate will be the pressure at a slow pump rate plus some extra due to the heavier mud. the pump no longer has to overcome any pressure imbalance. Therefore. at which point mud hydrostatic equals formation pressure.New Mud Wt New Pressure = Old Pressure x Old Mud Wt With the heavy mud inside the drill string.

c) Choke Adjustments: As the heavy mud is pumped down the drill string. First: Calculate capacity of Drill String in barrels = Drill Pipe Capacity = 4.2 bbls/strokes = 1200 psi Calculate Pump Pressure every 100 strokes.276” I. 4. the choke operator will have to make adjustments to the choke for a smooth transition from Initial Circulating Pressure to Final Circulation Pressure. Example: T. Initial Circulating Pressure Final Circulating Pressure = 700 psi 5” Drill Pipe.000 ft.2 July 2002 .D. . 600 ft 8” x 3” Collars Pump Output.D.2 barrels © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd x + 9400’ Drill Collar Capacity + 32 1029 x 600’ + 5. is 10.2762 1029 = 167 = 172.

2 . the Choke Operator can make the necessary adjustments.2 Calculate Pressure change every 100 strokes Pressure drop = Initial C.Second: Calculate number if strokes from the Surface to Bit: Surface t bit strokes Third: = = 861 strokes 172. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . Pressure = 1200 . A graph can be used in place of the table.Final C.58 x 100 = 58psi/100 strokes With the table on the following page. Pressure .700 = 500 psi Pressure must drop 500 psi in 861 strokes Every stroke pressure drops 500 861 Every 100 strokes pressure drops = 500 861 x 100 = .

0 Strokes = 1200 psi 100 Strokes = 1142 psi 200 Strokes = 1084 psi 300 Strokes = 1026 psi 400 Strokes = 968 psi 500 Strokes = 970 psi 600 Strokes = 852 psi 700 Strokes = 794 psi 800 Strokes = 736 psi 861 Strokes © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd = 700 psi July 2002 .

Boyles Law states: This means. Oil or Water. Gas behaviour under pressure is defined mathematically in “Boyles Law”. the greater the compression. if the pressure is reduced by one half.Calculating the Effects of Gas Expansion Any type of kick is dangerous. then the volume will double. One barrel of gas at the bottom of the well 10.000 ft deep with a mud weight of 9ppg will expand to 320 bbls at atmospheric pressure. but some are more dangerous than others: Formation fluids can either be Gas. “If the temperature of a gas is kept constant. therefore volume is unaffected by pressure: with gas the greater the pressure. Boyles Law is expressed: V1 V2 V1 V2 P1 P2 = P2 P1 = = = = © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd or V1P1 = P2 V2 Original Volume New Volume Original Pressure New Pressure July 2002 . then the volume will be inversely proportional to the pressure”. Oil and Water are liquids.

000 ft if mud weight is 10 ppg. V2 = V2 = V1 x P1 P2 15 x 4500 (10 x 5000 x .Example A gas invasion of 15 barrels is taken at 8500 ft. The bottom hole pressure is 4.500 psi. V1 V2 = P2 P1 Solve the equation to find V2. What will be the gas volume at the Casing Shoe set at 5.052) = 67500 2600 = 26 barrels © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .

a straight line will not rise.P is the Maximum Allowable Annular Surface Pressure.S.A.P’s Formation below the casing Most often the formation below the Shoe is the weakest point.O. which should be read as the maximum pressure gauge. To find the fracture point a Leak-off Test is run after drilling out the shoe. An excess of pressure would cause the formation to fracture with a resultant loss of mud. there is a danger of breaking one of the weak points in the system.M.P Calculations M.A.A. As pressure in the Annulus builds up.S. With the rams closed. after a short wait. before something breaks down. The weak points are: a) b) c) Casing B. but level off. By plotting volume pumped against Pump Pressure. the process is repeated. This is when the formation is taking mud: The pressure at this point is the Leak Off Pressure. a small amount of mud is pumped into the well.A. 5 4 3 2 1 500 1000 psi © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .

the pressure at the shoe is equal to the Formation Fracture Pressure. the MAASP will change.5 ppg.5 x 5000’ x .The Leak Off Pressure can then be used to calculate Pressure.052) 1500 + 2470 3970 psi Therefore. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . the maximum surface pressure allowed (MAASP) is 1500 psi. Gradient – Mud Gradient) Example: Shoe Depth 400 ft. The following formula can be used: MAASP = Shoe Depth x (Frac. When this value is reached. If Mud Weight is changed when drilling ahead. with a Mud Weight of 9.5 ppg Leak off pressure was 1400 psi with 10ppg mud in the hole.5 ppg = Fracture Pressure = = = 1500 + (9. Formation Fracture Formation Fracture Pressure = Leak off Pressure + Mud Hydrostatic Pressure Example: Shoe Depth 5000’ Leak off Pressure = 1500 psi Mud Weight 9. mud weight 10.

5 x . Pressure = 1400 + (10 x 6400’ x .Calculate Formation Fracture pressure and convert to gradient.546 psi/ft Apply gradients and Shoe Depth to formula for MAASP MAASP © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd = 6400 x (.74 psi/ft Calculate Mud Gradient of mud in the hole Mud Gradient (psi/ft) Third: = = 10. Pressure Shoe Depth Convert to gradient: Gradient Second: 4728 6400 = . First: Frac.74 .193 = 1235 psi July 2002 .546) = 6400 x ..052) = 4728 psi Frac.052 x 1ft = .

Example: Shoe Depth Mud Weight Leak off Pressure 7200 ft 11. In most cases.6885 psi/ft © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd (11.9 = . Formation Fracture Pressure = 1200 + 5505 psi Formation Fracture Gradient = 5505 7200 = .052 = .5 ppg 1200 psi Calculate MAASP if 90% of formation fracture gradient is used. the MAASP had dropped from 1400 psi to 1235 psi.By increasing the Mud Weight from 10ppg (when test was taken) to 10.765 psi/ft Mud Gradient = 11.598 psi/ft Fraction Gradient @ 90% = .052) July 2002 .5 x .765 x .5 deeper down. a safety factor is used to allow for errors when operating the choke.5 x 7200 x . The safety factor is applied to the formation fracture gradient.

© Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 ..MAASP = Shoe Depth x (Fracture Gradient .Mud Gradient) = 7200 x ( .6885 .598) = 7200 x = 651 psi .905 If mud weight was increased then MAASP would decrease.

Wire Rope Design factors and Ton Mile accumulations. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .Drilling Calculations Course Section 6: Hoisting Calculations This section covers the basic theory and calculations behind Lifting Machines.

A machine is normally any device that can be used to gain some kind of advantage. The amount of advantage is called Mechanical Advantage. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd Levers Wheels and axles Inclined Planes Pulleys July 2002 . commonly called a machine. 3. The advantage would be: 200 50 = 4 Lifting systems can be categorized into 4 main types: 1. Mechanical advantage = Weight of Load moved Effort used to move load A force of 50 lbs is used to lever a stone slab weighing 200 lbs. usually due to weight. Here we need a human energy saving device. size or distance to be moved. 2.Hoisting Calculations Hoisting Systems There comes a point where an object cannot be manhandled. 4.

Pulleys are used to lift heavy loads vertically. the greater the co-efficient of friction. Fast Line Tension = Weight of Load x Constant Fast Line Constants No.271 .1882 . divide Load number by the lines strung in Derrick.1062 .0948 July 2002 . A load of 500 lbs can be lifted using a 4-line pulley with: 500 4 = 125 lbs Pull To calculate Pull required.1224 . Below is a table of constants that can be applied to the formula.1469 . of lines strung 4 6 8 10 12 14 © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd Constant . Pull = load x co-efficient of Friction Number of lines The fast line having an accumulation of friction losses has the greatest tension of all lines strung. The more lines strung.

000 3 = 55. what is Hook Load? Fast Line Load © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd = Weight of Load x Constant July 2002 . Fast Line Load = = = Weight of Load 280. with 1-3/8 line. Design Factor = Nominal Rope Breaking Strength Fast Line Load 1-3/8 Improved Plow Steel Drilling line has a rated strength of 167. Design Factor is the ratio of Nominal Wire Rope Breaking Strength to the Fast Line Load. we must not have a fast line load of more than 167.666 lbs. Blocks are strung with 10 lines. Therefore.000 pounds.000 lbs.1224 This value is used in calculating the Design Factor of the system.666 lbs if Fast Load is 55. With 10 lines strung up.272 lbs x x Constant . Calculate Fast Line Load tension.Example: Hook load is 280. The recommended minimum design factor is 3.000 34.

Solve equation to: Weight of Load = Fast Line Load Constant Constant from Table = . For instance.1224 = 454.000 lbs using 12 lines gives a Design Factor of 9.790 lbs Therefore. a Hook Load of 160.799 pounds.1224 Weight of Load = 55.666 . Field experience confirms that the slow accumulation of ton miles will wear out the wire due to the higher number of bending cycles. These calculations show us how loads to string ups can be evaluated. A light load with a 10 or 12 line string up gives high Design Factors.9 This means that it will take a long time to run up the Ton-miles to cut-off. the Hook Load must not go above 454. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .

5 lbs/ft pipe is being used).5 is used. After working pipe. 19.Example: When making a Connection the string gets stuck.000 3. A Design Factor of 3. (5”. the String is calculated to be stuck at 10. Fast Line load © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd = Nominal Breaking Strength Design Factor = 167. Design Factor = Nominal Breaking Strength Fast Line Load Solve the equation to get Fast Line load. The blocks are strung with 8 lines of 1-3/8 Improved Plow Steel Wire Rope (breaking strength of 167. Calculate the maximum over-pull that can be used.5 = 47.280 ft.714 pounds July 2002 .000 pounds).

5 = 200. Hook Load = = Fast Line Load Constant 47. Maximum Hook Load Weight of String Maximum Overpull 324.714 .340 pounds If 5”. Premium can this pull be made safely? © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .1469 = Therefore.280 x 19.714 pounds using 8 lines.800 pounds = 324.460 = 124.460 lbs = 324.Hook Load with the Fast Line Load of 47.5lb/ft drill is Grade E.800 - 200. 19.800 pounds = Length x Weight/ft = 10.

Therefore.000 lbs 1 mile = 5280 ft) July 2002 .000 lbs Calculate ton-miles to pull out of hole. that 1 ton is getting less. Max Overpull = 311. Therefore.400 pounds.000 pounds in mud 45. (1 short ton = © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd 2.400 - = 110. The unit of measurement is the ton mile. we have done ½ ton-mile of work.100 ft Long Weigh 250. Ton-Mile calculations - What is a Ton-mile ? A Ton-Mile of work is said to be done when we pull 1 ton for 1 mile. this pull cannot be made. When we pull 1 ton of pipe out of a hole 1 mile deep. Example: Drill Collars : Drill Pipe: Block and Hook weigh: 900 ft long weigh 100. we only pull half a ton.000 pounds in mud 14. in addition to visual checks a record of use is kept . On average.The minimum Tensile Strength of Grade E 5” pipe is 311. the more pipe pulled.460 Wear on the line has to be monitored and measured .940 pounds 200.

First: Calculate ton-miles for drill pipe Wt of pipe 250.67 miles Second: 125 2 = 62. This is 2.000 2.000 = 50 tons Therefore.100’ 5.67 miles.67 miles © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd = 50 x 2.67 miles Pulling out we have an average of: 62.000 2.280 = 2.100’ before they reach the surface. The weight is: 100.5 tons = 62.5 Ton-miles July 2002 .8 Ton-Miles Calculate Ton Miles for Drill Collars The collars are pulled 14.5 x 2.000 = 125 tons Distance moved is: 14.67 = 133.67 = 166.5 tons pulled 2. 50 tons are pulled 2.

000’ up and 15.Then pulling 900ft of collars out.000 2.000 = 27. 25 tons are pulled .5 + 4.000’ 5.17 miles Therefore.25 = 304.5 Tons Distance traveled is 15.8 + 133.17 miles Ton mile for Drilling String Third: Block weighs = 25 x .25 Ton-miles = 166.000’ down 30.55 Ton-miles Calculate Ton-Miles for Blocks 45. we pull the average of 50 2 = 25 tons 900 ft = .280 © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd = 5.17 = 4.68 miles July 2002 .

2 Exercise: Hole depth 11.5 tons for 5.652lbs © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .68 miles miles = 27. Drill pipe 5”. 1 mile 1 short ton = = 5.55 + = 460. 800 ft of Drill Collars at 147 lbs/ft.8328 165.68 = 156.900 x Buoyancy Factor = .Therefore.7 Ton-Miles 156.5 = 198.000 lbs.5 x 5. Mud Weight 11ppg.000 pounds Calculate Ton-Miles for a complete Round Trip? Ton Miles for Drill Pipe pulling out: Weight of pipe = Buoyancy factor 10. 19.5 lbs/ft. Travelling Block eight 40. 27.000 ft.200 x 19.2 Ton- Total Ton Miles to pull out of the hole = 304.280 ft 2.

93 94.Wt in Mud = Average weight 198.38 2 = 41.9 Tons 2 800 5.5 Ton-Miles = 48.93 = 79.15 miles © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd 48.7 Ton Miles July 2002 .93 Miles 2.8328 2.41 x 1.5 tons moving .900 x .000 = 48.280 = 24.8328 = 82.5 Tons = .000 pounds = 82.9 Ton-Miles Ton miles for drill collars to reach surface: Wt of Drill Collars in mud = 800 x 147 x .41 Tons = 41.83 Tons 41.9 Tons Ton Miles for Collars to be removed: Average weight = Distance pulled = 24.9 Tons moving 1.9 x 1.93 miles = 48.15 miles = 3.41 Tons moving 1.

5 + 79.2 + 3.9 = 261.16 miles = 8325 Ton Miles Total Ton Miles to pull out = 83.Ton Miles for Blocks: Travel twice 11.280’ = 4.16 miles Weight = 40.000 2.000 = 20 Tons 20 Tons moving 4.3 July 2002 .000 = 22.6 Ton Miles For running in hole.3 Ton Miles = 522. is the same again Total Round Trip © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd = 2 x 261.7 + 94.000’ 5.

© Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .Drilling Calculations Course Section 7: Buoyancy Effects This section covers the calculations used to measure string weight when immersed in mud and the number of Collars required to give selected Weight on Bit.

Archimedes also noted that a body immersed in a liquid becomes lighter. a hole full of mud will discharge mud equal to the volume of steel (pipe and collars) run in during a trip. Fresh water has a specific gravity of 1 and a weight in ppg of 8. the Hook Load would be 100 x 10 = 1000 pounds Less than in air. if drill pipe displaced 100 gallons of 10ppg mud. Steel pipe has an average Specific Gravity of 7. By calculating steel volume we can accurately measure FILL up.9 times the weight of an equal volume of water. Therefore 10 ppg mud has a specific gravity of 10/ 8.33 = 1.BUOYANCY Archimedes first made scientific observations of Buoyancy. It in fact loses weight equal to the volume of liquid it displaces. To calculate the Buoyancy Effect.33 . This means steel has 7. To convert mud weight in ppg to specific gravity devide by 8.2 © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . The use of a Trip Tank will help in monitoring these volumes.9. Therefore. pulling out and OVERFLOW. we need Pipe Density and Mud Density.33. running in. He stated that a body immersed in a liquid displaces a volume of liquid equal to the volume of that body. Therefore.

2 7.33 Specific Gravity of Steel Example: If mud weight is 10 ppg calculate Buoyancy Factor Buoyancy Factor = 1- 10 ÷ 8. then multiply dry weight by Buoyancy Factor. Buoyancy Factor = 1- Mud Weight ppg ÷ 8.33 7. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .9 = 1- .1519 = . first calculate dry weight.848 To find Hook Load in mud.9 = 1- 1.Apply the values to formula to get the Buoyancy Factor.

Example: How many 30’drill collars of 112 pounds/ft would be required to give a Weight on Bit of 50.848 Immersed Weight = (10.360 pounds Buoyancy factor tables are found in most rig handbooks.Example Calculated The Immersed Weight of 10.000 ft of 5”.000 x 19.5 ppg mud. The Buoyancy Effect is very important when considering Drill Collar length required to give required Weight on Bit.5 pounds/ft drill pipe Buoyancy Factor = .825 July 2002 . 19.33 7.000 pounds in 11.9 .000 x . First: Calculate the Buoyancy Factor = 1 - = 1 - = © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd 11. but keep a copy of the formula in your notebooks just in case.848 = 165.5 ÷ 8.1747 .848 = 195.5) x .

Second: Calculate the immersed weight per ft of drill collar = 112 x .4 lbs/ft to get length of collar string = 50.000lbs by 92.4 = 541 ft Fourth: Divide by collar string by 30’ lengths to get the number required = © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd 541 30 = 18 collars July 2002 .000 92.4 lbs/ft Third: Divide 50.825 = 92.

8 pounds/ft = 75.000 = 75.000 pounds = 1 - = .8 ppg mud.000 87. with an excess of 20.8 = 854 ft = 854 30 = 28.836 10.5 or 29 collars To place these steps into a single formula (assuming a known Buoyancy Factor) © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .9 = 105 x .000 + 20.33 7.Example: How many 30’ drill collars of 105 pounds/ft would be needed for a Bottom Hole Assembly to give 55. of collars required = 55.000 pounds weight on bit in 10.8 ÷ 8.000 lbs collar weight? Total collar weight in mud Buoyancy factor Immersed Collar Weight Length of collar string No.836 = 87.

© Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .4 = 28.276” ID Drill Collars are 8” OD by 3” ID Calculate a) Number of joints of collars required b) Expected number if barrels of mud to be displaced from hole.2 ppg Drill pipe is 5” OD with 4.000 2633.5 collars 30 Worked Example: 10. Prior to running back in we decided to use 147 pounds/ft collars each 30 ft in length. 75.No.000 lbs with 30.836 x = 105 = 75. The mud weight is 10.000 x . of 30’ collars = Wt of collars required_____ Collar Buoyancy Collar wt/ft x factor x length Apply this to the above example. The required Weight on Bit will be 60.000 ft deep hole.000 lbs excess as Safety Factor.

4.845 x 30 = 24.0065 bbls/ft .000 147 x .9 = 720 ft of collars = 10.845 = 60.000 + 30.Buoyancy factor Number of collars required b) 24 collars at 30’ length = 1- = .32 bbls = © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .720 = 9280 ft Calculate volume of steel in drill pipe: = = 52 .2 ÷ 8.2762 bbls/ft 1029.33 7.0065 x 9280’ = 60.4 .000 .1 or 24 collars = 24 x 30 Length of drill pipe 10.

as calculated above.47 barrels of mud weighing 10.7 collars 90. This volume weighs 38.5 pounds 16480.4 20.2 16480.56 = 99.000 147 x 30 = 20.000 lbs = Total number of collars = x 16480.47 x = Number of collars weighing 42 10.Calculate volume of steel in collars: Total mud displaced = 82 . the drill collars have displaced 38.32 1029.47 barrels = 60.7 = 24.03 barrels x + 720’ 38.4 = 38.47 To check our calculation.2 ppg.5 147 x 30 = 3.4 + 3. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .5 = Number of collars in air to make 90.1 collars The same.

Example: 30ft. Buoyancy factor = . with neutral point 80% up collars.000 lbs = 60. How many collars required to give 60. Drill pipe run in compression can be detrimental to the string life.000 147 = 483 ft x .90% of collar length.845 This is 80% of length required.When calculating collar length required. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . 147 pound/ft collars in 10. the term NEUTRAL POINT is commonly used.O. Note: this measured from the bit up. Common neutral points are between 70% . will keep the neutral point in the collars.845 Length of collars to give 60. This is the point at which compression of the lower section of collars changes to tension of the upper collars and pipe. then 20% would be above and in Tension. A safety factor is used so that any increase in Weight on Bit.B.2 ppg mud. If neutral point was at 80% of collar length.000 lbs W.

75 30 = 20.75 ft The number of collars required Drill pipe = 603.If 80% = 483 ft 1% = 483 80 100% = 483 80 = x 100 603.1 or 20 collars Tension 20 % above Neutral Point 80 % below Drill collars © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd Compression July 2002 .

stuck pipe and weighting up of mud.Drilling Calculations Course Section 8: Miscellaneous Calculations This section covers the calculations used during rig work encounters with Spotting Pills. applying torque. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .

252. 2. Spotting Pills Torque Stuck Pipe Weighting up SPOTTING PILLS: TD 9000’.Miscellaneous Calculations The following calculations are commonly used around the rig.82) x 600’ 1029 = 50 barrels July 2002 . Mud Weight 11ppg 5” Drill Pipe ID 4. Volume of pill Volume of mud to spot the pill First: Calculate volume of pill required to cover collars Annular volume around collars © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd = (12. Hole Diameter 12 ¼. Pump 1 barrell/20 mins of the extra once the pill has been placed in the drill collar annulus. Calculate: 1.276 600’ of 8” x 3” Drill collars Make up a pill to cover collars plus 25% extra.

25 bbls Total pill inside string = 12.25 July 2002 .5 = 50 62. of collars = 5.0087 bbls/ft cap. of pipe © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd - x 600 5.25 bbls = 4.5 = 7. of collars Cap.01776 bbs/ft cap.2762 1029 bbls/ft = .5 bbls + 12.Second: Calculate 25% excess 25% of 50 bbls Total volume of pill Third: = 50 = .5 Pill inside drill pipe = 12.25 x = 12.5 barrels Calculate height of pill retained in the string = (32) 1029 bbls/ft = .

25 0.1008’ = 7992ft = Drill pipe capacity/ft x 7992’ = 0.e. i. Surface line volume = 5 bbls Total mud pumped to follow pill = 142 + 5 = 147 bbls © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . An addition of the mud inside the surface lines must be made.1776 = 408 ft Total height of pill in string = 600’ + 400’ = 1008ft Fourth: Calculate volume of mud in remainder of string Length of pipe with mud = Volume of mud 9000’ .Height of pill in drill pipe = 7.1776 x 7992 = 142 bbls This value has been calculated for the string only.

the extra leverage will reduce this value by 4. 000 lbs of pull.750 ft. Explanation: The value of 83. Therefore.TORQUE Example: 9 inch drill collar with 7 up to 83. 000 ft-lbs requires a tong 1 foot long to give 83.750 © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .lbs Drillers gauge marker should be set at 20. 5/8 API regular connection and 3-inch bore is to be made The Rig Tongs are 4ft long. Calculate the reading to be obtained on the Drillers Torque Gauge calibrated in ftlbs.000 ft-lbs. Pull required = Ft-lbs Tong length. If the tong is 4 feet long. ft = 83000 4 = 20.

lbs is required using 5ft tongs? Value = 50. There are a number of ways to calculate Free Points. Section Ω of the I. Drilling Manual covers some of the techniques. inches W = weight of pipe.294 x E x W P L = length of free pipe.Example: At what value should torque gauge be set if 50.A. One common formula is: L = 735.C.000 5 = 10.D. feet E = average elongation. lbs/ft P = average pull in pounds 735.294 = a Constant © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .000 ft.000 ft lbs STUCK PIPE Being able to calculate the depth at which the string is stuck is invaluable when spotting freeing pills.

Average pull of 50. then the new density is a function of the amount and density of the two substances. To raise the Mud weight Barite is added. However how much is needed to raise the weight? If two substances having different densities are mixed.000 lbs gave average elongation of 12 inches. V1 D1 + V2 D2 = (V1 + V2) DR V1 V2 D1 D2 DR = = = = = volume of original substance volume of second substance density of original substance density of second substance resulting density © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .000 = 2929 ft The string is stuck at and possibly below 2929 ft. Calculate Free Point L = 735.6 50.Example: 16. The relationship is expressed in the following formula.294 x 12 x 16. WEIGHTING UP Mud density increases are common during normal drilling and essential during some kill operations.6 lbs/ft drill pipe.

bbls volume of barite added.12 = 200 23. Which is 35. ppg.4 = 8. bbls initial mud density.547 barrels of Barite July 2002 .W2 = 100 (12 .10) 35.4 100bbls © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd V2 = V1 (W2 . volume of barite to be added. ppg density of Barite.Converting this into oilfield units we get V1 W1 + V2 DB = (V1 + V2) W2 = = = = = V1 V2 W1 W2 DB volume of mud before weighting.4 . solving the equation 2 :V1 W1 + V2 DB = (V1 + V2) W2 V2 = becomes: V1 (W2 -W1) WB . therefore.W2 Using the following figures we can get barrels of Barite to be added W2 W1 WB V1 = = = = 12ppg 10ppg 35. ppg final mud density.W1) WB .4ppg We require to find V2.

To make it easier the formula can be modified. V1 = 100 bbls.735 lbs (or 5.4 .000 lbs © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . 1 bbl of barite weighs 1490 lbs 100 bbls of barite weighs 1490 x 100 = 149. Modified formula for long tons (2240 lbs = 1 long ton) required per 100 bbls of mud (V1).4ppg then 1 barrel weighs 35. to give answer V2 in Tons. modifies to:- Convert V1 from barrels to tons.Thinking of Barite volume in barrels is cumbersome.4 x 42 lbs = 1490) Therefore. Barite is mostly measured by weight – for instance: Number of sacks (1 sack weighs 100 lbs) Number of pounds or tons in Barite container This therefore requires further calculation to convert barrels of barite into pounds.547 bbls weighs 8.W2 1.547 x 1490 = 12. 1 barrel of Barite weighs 1490 lbs (if barite weighs 35.7 tons) or 127 sacks would be used.735 lbs When mixing. V2 = V1 (W2 = W1) 35. Barite container gauge would have to drop 12. 8.

5 tons to formula 66. 149. sacks = © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd 1490 sacks weighing 100lbs each 1490 (W2 – W1) 35.W1) 35.V1 = 149.000 149.000 (W2 .W1) 35. = 100 bbls of barite = 149.4 .W2 July 2002 .4 (W2 .W2 Modified formula for Sacks 1 sack weighs 100 pounds Convert formula 2) from pounds to sacks. = Modified formula Pounds Same as above but do not convert into tons.4 .000 2240 Apply V1 = 66. lbs V2’ pounds 3.000 lbs = V2.4 – W2 V2 tons 2.5 Tons 66.

4 .11.67 Tons c) V2 © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .4 .9.5) 35.9.The above formulae give the quantity of barite required to increase the weight of 100 barrels of mud.5) 35.2 .5) 35. using barite. The following example will be used to check the above formulae.2 = 4.5ppg has to be raised to 11.000 (11.2ppg. Example: Mud weight of 9.4 .11.2 = 105 sacks b) 149.2 V2 = 10500 Pounds = 66.9.2 .5 (11. Calculate: a) b) c) a) Number of sacks/100 bbls of mud Number of Pounds/100 bbls of mud Number of Tons/100 bbls of mud V2 = 1490 (11.11.2 .

Example: Mud weight is to be raised from 9.8 .67 x 2240 105 sacks weighing 100 lbs = 10.1 = 79.8 Tons Calculate the number of tons of Barite required and Final Tank Tons barite/100 bbls = 66.20 = 461 Tons = 125. Total mud in system = 1420 bbls Barite is stored in pressurized tanks calibrated in Long Tons (1 Ton = 2240 lbs) Present Tank Reading = 125.4.24 x 14.67 tons = 4.500 pounds All answers are same give or take a number of pounds due to rounding off figures for useable numbers.6 to 10.8 .8 Tons barite for system = 3.8 ppg.7 Tons Final Tank Reading © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .6) 35.460 pounds = 10.10.46.4 .5 (10.9.

The new mud volume can be calculated using the formula:- bbls increase/100 bbls of mud = 100 (W2 .W1) 35. use the following to get barrels of water required. bbls of water = (W1 .W2) x original volume of mud W2 .Adding all this barite will increase total mud volume.W2 Weights in ppg For watering down the mud.4 .34 Weights in ppg © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .8.

to help consolidate your learning experience © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .Drilling Calculations Course COURSE CONSOLIDATION EXERCISES The following questions and answers have been compiled as supplemental exercises to be completed after each relevant section.

Convert 486 square inches into square ft. How many pounds difference between 1000kg and one long ton? 10. How many pounds force would be exerted on a hatch 2ft by 1. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .3 ppg into P. of 15 tons resting on a square 2ft by 2ft 6. 7.I. How many US gallons would fill a tank with a capacity of 450 cubic ft? 4. Convert 1000kg into pounds 9. What would be the equivalent in P. Convert 240 US gallons per minute flow into litres per minute flow.I. Convert 10.S. 2.C. Convert 486 inches to yards ft and inches. 5.DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 1 1. 3.S.F. 8.5ft if the pressure behind it was 3 P. Convert 90oF to degrees rankin.

13 yds. 24 x 18 x 3 = 1. 3366.F.204 lbs 9. 1 ft 6 inches 2. 2240 – 2204 = 36 lbs 10. 908. 2.05 P. 15 x 2240 24 x 24 6.4 US gallons 4.33 PSI July 2002 . 5.C. 90 + 460 = 550°R = © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd 58.4 ltr/min 8.512 lbs force 7.DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 1 : ANSWERS 1. 77. 3 square ft 54 square inches 3.

7945 c).6464 3.7987 d) . Calculate the annular area between a 13 inch inside diameter pipe and a 5 inch outside diameter pipe. How much volume has been added to the tank if during drilling operation the lever rose by 1 foot 5 inches? © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . 4. Express the following fractions as decimals. b) 11/16 c) 7/9 d) 23/32 e) 5/24 Round off the following to 2 places of decimal. 6. Calculate the square roots of. What volume would be in the tank if the liquid height was 1 foot? 7c. a) .DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 2 1. 15’ long by 6’ wide by 8’ deep 7b. Calculate the circumference of a circle with a diameter of 6 inches.6356 b) . b) 138 c) 276 d) 552 Calculate the capacity of a tank in US BBLS with the following dimensions.8429 e) . Calculate the area of a circle with a diameter of 6 inches. a) 5/8 2. a) 69 7a. 5.

What percentage of 93 does 56 make up? 9c.DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 2 (Cont) 8. What would be the capacity in BBLS of a sand trap? Sand Trap SAND TRAP 8’ deep 10’ long by 10’ breath and is triangular in shape. What percentage of 186 does 42 make up? 9b. 9a.What would be the volume of a 1.500 foot annulus between 5 inch pipe and 17 ½ inch hole? © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . What percentage of 56 does 60 make? 10.

6 d) 23.025 12 = 22.22% 60 ÷ 56 x 100 = 107. πr2 = π32 = 28. inches 5.2733 BBL/FT x 1.27 sq.500 ft = 410 BBLS 1029 © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .7778 b) .84 e) .1 sq. (17.7188 c) . a) 8.6875 2.1% 11. ½ x 8 x 10 x 10 = 400 cubic ft ÷ 5.7854 (132 . 17 x 16.7 BBLS 8.2083 d) .52 .a) b) c) 42 ÷ 186 x 100 = 22.6146 = 128.58% 56 ÷ 93 x 100 = 60. a) .65 3.64 c) .79 d) .49 7a. inches 6. = .025 BBLS 7c. 720 cubic ft ÷ 5.625b) .52) = .2 BBLS 7b. πD or 2π r = 18.75 c) 16. a) .52) = 113.6140 = 71.3 b) 11.DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 2 ANSWERS 1.85 inches 4.80 e) .2 BBLS 9. 128.2 ÷ 8 = 16.

650’ Casing shoe depth 10. Calculate the pump output in BBL/STK of a triplex cement pump with 5 inch liners and an 8 inch stroke.DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 3 1. 3. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .46” 5” pipe ID 4. From the following well information calculate the volumes: Hole size 12 ¼” hole Hole depth 12.2” a) What is the hole volume with no pipe in the hole? b) What would be the liquid volume with 5 inch pipe in the hole from top to bottom? c) What volume would be in the drill pipe open hole annulus? d) What volume would be in the drill pipe casing annulus? e) What would be the volume in the drill pipe? 2. Calculate the pump output per stroke of a triplex pump with a 12” stroke and liner size of 6” at 98% volumetric efficiency.200 Casing size 13 3/8” ID 12. Use a volumetric efficiency of 95%.

650 PSI. 9. with 6. 10. 8. What would be the annular velocity of the fluid passing round the drill collars? 5. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . The weight is being reduced to 9.8 PPG. Determine the new pump pressure required to pump a lighter fluid at the same rate. What would be the fluid output per minute of a triplex pump running at 80 strokes per minute.DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 3 (Cont) 4a.25” liners and 98% volumetric efficiency? 4b.5 PPG mud is being pumped at 80 STKS/MIN at 3. Determine the new pressure required by increasing the pump rate from 60 to 65 strokes/min. Pump pressure at 60 STK/MIN was 2.000 PSI. Calculate the total cross sectional area of three jet nozzles 16/32. What is the annular capacity of 8” drill collars in 12 ¼” hole? 4c. How long would it take to circulate an annular volume of 950 BBLS using the pump in 4a? 6. 16/32 and 14/32. What would be the maximum pressure that could be reached pumping at 400 gallons/minute with a pump of 750 hydraulic horse power? 7.

1805.52) x 2.2 BBLS = Volume of steel per ft of pipe x length (52 – 4.9 BBLS 2.450’ of open hole x 12. 10.200’ of casing x 12.48 BBL = 1896.8 BBLS July 2002 .650 1029 = 90.22) x 12.48 Volume of liquid in hole = 1c. 1b.450 1029 © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd = 297.3 BBLS Total volume of hole 1896.2 – 90.462 1029 = 1538.252 .DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 3 ANSWERS 1a.7 BBLS Drill pipe open hole annular capacity length (12.252 = 1029 357.

103 BBLS/STK 100 © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 3 ANSWERS (Cont) 1d.200 = 1. Drill pipe capacity x length (4.10495 x 9.22) x 12.281.034985 BBLS/Cylinder 1029 For 3 cylinders = .9 BBLS 1029 2.650 = 216.3 BBLS 1029 1e.8 = .422 – 52) x 10.10495 BBLS/STK At 98% volumetric efficiency . Drill pipe casing and capacity x length (12. Volume in BBLS for 1 ft of 6 inch diameter = 62 = .

252 – 82) = .0836 BBL/STK 1029 4c.0486 BBL/Stroke At 95% volumetric efficiency . therefore the output would be 2/3 or . (12.98 x 80 1029 4b.928 BBL/MIN BBL/MIN BBL/FT = 8.252) x 3 x .6666 of that of a 12” stroke 8 x (52) 12 1029 = .0486 x 95 = 100 .7 Ft/Min © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .928 .046 BBL/STK 4a. (6.01619 BBL/Cylinder For 3 cylinders = .DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 3 ANSWERS (Cont) 3.0836 = 106. Annular velocity = Pump Output Annnular Vol = 8. 8 inches is 2/3 of a foot.

HHP = P x V 1714 750 = P x 400 1714 750 x 1714 400 = P P = 3214 PSI 7.110 PSI © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . New Pressure = Old Pressure x (New STKS2) (Old STKS2) = 2650 x (652) (602) = 3.4 Minutes 6.928 = 106. Annular volume Pump output (BBLS) (BBLS/MIN) 950 8.DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 3 ANSWERS (Cont) 5.

800 PSI 9. New Pressure = Old Pressure x New Mud Old Mud = 3.543 sq “ © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .8 10.7854 x (Diameter2) 16/32 Jet = .1503 sq “ Total area = .19635 sq” Two = .1503 = .000 x 9.5 = 2.7854 x (14/322) = .7854 x (16/322) = .DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 3 ANSWERS (Cont) 8.3927 + . 3927 sq” 14/32 = . Area = .

42” Yield 1.103 BBLS/STK Hole depth 10.600 FT Casing ID 12. Calculate: Slurry volume with 10% excess Number of Sacks Pump stroke to pump the plug for the following single stage cement job.DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 4 1. Calculate for a balanced cement plug.01738 BBL/FT Cement plug height – 500 FT Water ahead of cement 10 BBLS Pump output . a. Volume of water behind the cement. c. Pump stroke to displace. a.138 BBL/STK Float set 80’ above shoe 2. Hole size 8 ½” Drill pipe size 5” cap . b. Slurry volume.05 cubic FT/SACK Pump output . Hole size 17 ½” Casing size 13 3/8” set at 4.350’ © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . c. b.

Annular capacity = (17.1238 BBL/FT 1029 4.DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 4 ANSWERS 1a.05 cubic FT/SAC 639 BBLS = 639 x 5.422) 1029 = 12 BBLS Total CMT requirements with no excess = 581 BBLS With excess = 639 BBLS 1b.52 – 13.3752) = .3 BBLS Volume between float and shoe = 80 x (12. Yield is 1.1238 X 4600 = 569.600’ = .6146 SACK = 3588 Cubic Ft Nos of Sacks = 3588 1.05 = 3417 Sacks © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .

Height of the water placed ahead when in annulus. = 10 BBLS ÷ Annular Cap = 10 ÷ (8.138 Volume of slurry to fill 500’ of open hole. ÷ .42) 1029 = 675.4 = 4.4 BBLS = 675.DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 4 ANSWERS (Cont) 1c.894 STKS Nos of STKS 2a.52) = 35.1 BBLS 1029 2b. = 500 x (8.52 – 52) 1029 © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . Nos of STKS To Bump Plug = Casing Volume to Float Pump Output PER/STCK Casing Volume = 4520 x (12.

0459 = 218’ Volume of water behind = 218’ x DP CAP = 218 x .78 BBLS 2c.459 + . Height of plug with pipe in the hole.01738) = 555’ Add the height of the water in the pipe.DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 4 ANSWERS (Cont) 2b (cont) = 10 ÷ . 555 + 218 = 773 © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .1 (0.01738 = 3. = 35.

01738 = 166.577 Capacity of 9.577 of DP = 9.103 = 1616 STKS © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .45 ÷ .DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 4 ANSWERS (Cont) 2c.45 BBLS Nos of STKS = 166.577 x .(Cont) Mud will be pumped to a depth of 10.350 – 773 = 9.

2 PPG Depth 17. 2a.4 PPG What mud weight would exert this pressure? © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .9 PPG – 16.000’ – 9. b.000 PSI 2. What would be the increase in mud weight required to exert an additional 350 PSI hydrostatic pressure for the examples in (2a)? 3a. c.000’ to 3.000 ft (TVD) 5.200 (TVD) weight 17.8 PPG Calculate the mud weight in PPG that would give the following pressures at: i) ii) iii) 5.325 PSI 10.2 PPG mud – 8. Calculate the hydrostatic pressure exerted by the following columns of fluid.000’ From 3.000 ft (TVD) 16.000’ to 5.950 PSI at at at 10. a.DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 5 1. to 2.450 ft (TVD) 2b.500’ (TVD) weight 15.000’ 3b.000’ (TVD) weight 10 PPG Depth 8. Depth 12. Calculate the hydrostatic pressure exerted by column of fluid made up of different densities From surface From 2.

© Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . Calculate the relevant values and construct a step down chart for pumping kill mud down the drill pipe. Well information: Depth 8. b.6 PPG Leak off pressure 1.300 PSI and atmosphere pressure is 14. d. Calculate the formation strength (fracture pressure) from the following data. Kill mud weight Initial circulating pressure Final circulating pressure Pressure drop per 100 STKS Chart Calculate in cubic feet the volume a 10 BBL gas kick would occupy on surface.75 PSI.DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 5 (Cont) 4.200’ (TVD) Mud weight – 9. 6a. c. Shoe depth 6.200 Mud weight 10 PPG Shut in drill pipe pressure = 250 PSI Slow circulating pressure = 850 PSI at 30 STK/MIN Strokes required to pump from surface to the bit = 860 STKS a. If the original formation pressure was 5. 5. e.200 PSI Give answers as a pressure and a pressure gradient.

DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 5 (Cont) 6b. Calculate the maximum allowable annular surface pressure for 10 and 12 PPG mud respectively. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .

21 PPG an increase of 1.27 PPG 13.2 x . a) b) c) 10.9 x .52 July 2002 .94 PPG 12.052 3b. 6.41 PPG 3a. 9.02 PPG 4a.48 PPG 10. Kill mud wt = = = = = 957 463 1706 3.126 PSI SIDPP Depth x . 1b.000 x 16.8 PPG 2b.052 1.4 x .920 PSI i. ii.09 PPG an increase of .718 PSI 5.000 x 9.21 PPG an increase of . iii.000 x 8.052 = 10 + © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd + Original Mud 250 8200 x 0.052 2. 2. 1c.DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 5 ANSWERS 1a.240 PSI 6. 12.61 PPG 8.

6 PPG 4b.Final circ – P. Final circ press = Kill Mud Wt x slow circulating pressure Original Mud Wt = 10. Initial circ Strokes Surface to Bit = 1100 – 901 850 = .234 PSI/STK © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 . 4d.6 x 850 10 = 901 PSI Pressure drop per STKS = P.58 = 10. Initial circulating pressure = Shut in drill pipe pressure + slow circ pressure = 250 + 850 = 1100 PSI 4c.DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 5 ANSWERS (Cont) 4a (Cont) = 10 + .

75 V2 = 5.DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 5 ANSWERS (Cont) Per 100 STKS = 23.4 PSI (23) 5.6146 = 20.593 BBLS For cubic ft 3.300 x 10 14.593 x 5. V2 = P1 x V1 P2 STKS 1100 PSI 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 850 1077 1054 1031 1008 985 962 939 916 901 P1 = 5.300 PSI V1 = 10 BBLS P2 = 14.75 = 3.174 cubic ft © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .

52 = 4.DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 5 ANSWERS (Cont) 6.295 PSI Fracture pressure gradient = Fracture Pressure TVD Shoe Depth = 4295 6200 = .200 (. Fracture Pressure = Leak off plus hyst to shoe = 1200 + 6200 x 9.693 – 624) = 428 PSI © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .200 (.693 PSI/FT MAASP = Shoe depth (formation fracture gradient – mud gradient) For 10 PPG = 6.693 .6 x 0..52) = 1073 PSI For 12PPG = 6.

000 lbs = 28.200’ of DP weight in mud Block weight © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd = 40.500’ 300’ DC weight in mud 12. 2. Calculate the ton miles for a round trip.000 lbs July 2002 . With depth 12. With the rig up in question if the string weight was reading 350. What would be the loading on the fast line? 3. Calculate the maximum hook load that can be applied with 12 lines 13/8” wire with a breaking strain of 167.000 lbs = 200.DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 6 1.000 and a design factor of 3.000lbs.

000 3 = 55.1062 = 524.DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 6 ANSWERS 1.161 lbs Weight of load = Fast Line Load Constant Fast Line Load = Weight x Constant = 350.1062 Weight of load 2. = © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd 37.000 x . Max Fast Line load = Nominal Breaking Strain Design Factor = 167.660 lbs = Fast Line Load Constant = 55.666 .170 lbs July 2002 .

31 Miles Ton Miles = 40.000 x 2.DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 6 ANSWERS (Cont) 3. = 2.31 = 231 Ton Miles = 100 Tons = 2.200 5.000 2. For a round trip Drill pipe Weight of the pipe = Distance moved Ton Miles 200.000 = 12.31 2.000 = 46.2 Ton Miles © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .200 before they reach surface.280 = 100 x 2.200’ = 12.31 Miles Drill Collars Move 12.

14 + 132.6 Ton Miles Total round trip miles = DP + DC + Block = 231 + 46.000 2.14 Ton Miles Round trip ton miles for the blocks.280 1.DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 6 ANSWERS (Cont) R/Trip 300’ Weighing 40.47 Mile Ton Miles = 14 x 9.6 = 411 Ton Miles © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .2 + 1.000 40.280 = 9. Weight = 28.000 = 14 Tons Distance = 12.500 x 4 5.000 2.000 = x 300 5.47 = 132.

b.000 lbs was being applied to the bit? © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 7 1. Weight = 146 lbs/ft 2b. c. 2a. 12 PPG 14 PPG 16 PPG How many 30’ drill collars would be required if 60% of the available collar weight is 20. Calculate the buoyancy factor for: a.8 PPG mud. Where in the drill calculations would be the neutral point if 18.000 lbs? 8” drill collars in 11.

1b.000 100% = 20.333 .DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 7 ANSWERS 1a.000 60 x 100 = 33.821 60% = 20.9 = .757 2a. B/Factor for 11.600 © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .333 lbs Buoyed Buoyed Wt Buoyancy Factor = Dry Wt 33. .818 .8 ÷ 8. 1c.33) 7.821 = 40.787 .8 PPG = 1 – (11.

821 x 146 = 150’ Neutral point is 150’ above the bit.26 9 Length required to make up 18.000 lbs = 18.600 146 278’ of DC Drill Calcs Run 2b. © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 7 ANSWERS (Cont) Length = 40.000 . = 278 30 = 9.000 Buoyed Wt of one Ft of DC = 18.

5 ft.500 ft lbs 64. What volume of pill is required to fill the drill collar annulus and leave 20% of that volume in the pipe? Hole size 8 ½” Depth 12.DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 8 1a.2 PPG mud was mixed with 150 BBLS of 12. 26. What would be the resulting density if 200 BBLS of 15.6 PPG? © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd July 2002 .000 ft lbs 3. How many strokes would be required to spot the pill then displace it out of the string? Drill Pipe 5” Cap . How much barite would be required to increase the mud weight in a system of 950 BBLS from 11 PPG to 11.200’ Drill Collars 6 1/4” OD 2 ¾ ID Drill Collar Length 360’ 1b.000 ft lbs 92.102 BBL/STK 2.01738 BBLS/FT Pump Output .6 PPG? 4. Calculate the line pull to apply the following torques using an effective tong length of 3.

0323 BBL/FT = 36 = 11. = 8.3 July 2002 . x .4 BBLS DC/OH Annular Cap Total DC/OH Annular Cap 1b.252 1029 = .01738 + 205.1 BBLS 2.6 BBLS Plus 20% = 13.78 Volume to leave 20% in string © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd = 208.840 = 2.65 BBLS = 208.0323 x (2.752) 1029 x .DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 8 ANSWERS 1a.4 – = 206.52 – 6.9 BBLS String Capacity = 360 Plus = 11.

285 lbs Pull 3.285 lbs Pull 26.102 = 2.2) + (150 x 12.4 – 11.08 PPG = V1 (W2 – W1) WB – W2 = 950 (11.6) 350 = 14. 7.1 .DRILLING CALCULATIONS COURSE Section End Consolidation Exercises SECTION 8 ANSWERS (Cont) 1b (Cont) No of STKS To spot pill = 206. V2 = (200 x 15.571 lbs Pull 18.95 x 1490 = 35.6 – 11) 35.684 lbs July 2002 .020 STKS Plus 23 STKS to displace 20% 2.6 = 23. (200 x 15.95 BBLS of Barite 1 BBL Weight 1490 lbs = WT of Barite © Randy Smith Training Solutions Ltd = 23.6) = 350 D D 4.2) + (150 x 12.

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