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An alternate technique for the analysis of far field antenna patterns from near field measurements. This technique uses near field information to determine the far field using Fourier transform. Radiation from a planar aperture using asymptotic evaluation of aperture radiation field and Fourier transform is done. Sampling method is discussed at length to optimize the near zone data points. Exact far field has been computed and was compared to the transformed field of the near zone data.

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Anand Maheshwari1, Shashanka Behera2, Romila Thiyam3, Satyabrata Maiti4, Amrit Mukherjee5

M.Tech1,2,3,4 , Research Scholar5

School of Electronics Engineering, KIIT University

anand_maheshwari45@yahoo.com1,shashanka1988@gmail.com2,romilath@gmail.com3, satyabratamaiti@yahoo.com4,

amrit1460@gmail.com5

AbstractAn alternate technique for the analysis of far field

antenna patterns from near field measurements. This technique

uses near field information to determine the far field using

Fourier transform. Radiation from a planar aperture using

asymptotic evaluation of aperture radiation field and Fourier

transform is done. Sampling method is discussed at length to

optimize the near zone data points. Exact far field has been

computed and was compared to the transformed field of the near

zone data.

KeywordsNear field to far field transformation, AUT,

asymptotic, poynting vector, Rayleigh distance.

I.

INTRODUCTION

microwave antennas has arisen in connection with the

development of the advanced antenna design concepts and

improved theoretical approaches for antenna analysis. The

need has been in particular within space applications where

antennas are being constructed to tight specifications, i.e.

down to the order of one percent in gain. Antenna testing has

therefore attracted considerable interest in recent years where

a large number of studies have been made and new

development effected.

The measurement of an antenna far-field radiation pattern

is an important topic in the development and manufacture of

sophisticated antennas. Techniques used for the measurement

of antenna far-field radiation parameters can be classified into

two general categories: direct and indirect [1]. The distribution

of the radiated electromagnetic field from an antenna changes

gradually with distance from the antenna. Distances from the

antenna basically lie in two main regions: near-field and farfield regions.

are developed on the fact that the quality of a far-field or

compact range can be determined by the near-field region

measurements, and then these measurements can be converted

by mathematical transformation to the equivalent far-field

measurements. Near-field testing offers all of the advantages

of indoor operations (i.e., all-weather, source, compact) plus

information on the details of the aperture illumination that

otherwise can only be inferred indirectly. Further, because the

antenna under test does not need to be moved, large and

fragile structures can be tested without adding stresses and

associated deflections [3].

The objective of this work is to develop a computational

model to accurately predict the near field of an antenna and

the transformation of near-field to far-field using mathematical

techniques. Near-field to far-field transformation has been

modeled for rectangular aperture antenna. After modeling the

near field of this antenna in planar scanning, more complex

antenna measurement configurations such as cylindrical and

spherical scanning will be attempted as a continuation of this

work.

II.

measurement is a prerequisite to a successful near field

measurement. The antenna radiates into free space as a linear

system with the single frequency time dependence of ejt. The

antenna is assumed ordinary in the sense of not being an

extraordinarily reactive radiator such as highly super gain

antenna.

techniques are performed in the far-field region [2]. Such

techniques are becoming less capable of determining the

performance of advanced antennas. This is due to variety of

problems, including weather effects, multipath and antenna

gravitational distortions, and security [2]. When antennas are

very large or when the final stages of assembly occur at the

installation site, the direct measurement of accurate far-field

radiation patterns is extremely difficult and usually erroneous.

Near field measurement is used for very large antennas for

which the far field distance becomes too large to fit within

actual test range or an anechoic chamber. Near field

measurements provide a fast and accurate method of

determining the antenna gain, pattern, polarization, beam

pointing etc. The advantage of near-field measurements is a

complete characterization of the antenna performance.

space where the radial dependence of electric and magnetic

fields varies approximately as ejkr/r. The inner radius of the far

field can be estimated from the general free space integral for

reactive antennas. The added covers the possibility of the

maximum dimension D of the antenna being smaller than a

wavelength. In other words, the Rayleigh distance should

actually be measured from the outer boundary of the reactive

near field of the antenna. For the main beam direction the

Rayleigh distance can sometimes be reduced. However, in the

direction of the null or the side lobes near the main beam the

far field may not actually be formed until considerably large

distances are reached.

The free space region from the surface of the antenna to the

far field is referred to as the near field region. It is divided into

two sub regions, the reactive near field and radiation near field.

The reactive near field region is commonly taken to extend

about /2 from the surface of the antenna, although experience

with near field measurements indicate that a distance of a

wavelength () or so would form a more reasonable outer

boundary to the reactive near field.

The reactive near field can be defined in terms of planar,

cylindrical or spherical modes. Unfortunately, the reactive

fields of spherical (cylindrical) multipoles are not identical to

the plane wave evanescent fields of the multipoles. Thus a less

ambiguous, simpler and physically appealing method of

defining the reactive region of antennas relies directly on the

poynting theorem and vector potential. One can show that the

contribution to the reactive part of the input impedance of an

antenna from the fields outside a surface surrounding the

antenna is proportional to the imaginary part of the complex

poynting vector integrated over the surface. Thus, wherever the

phase of electric and magnetic field vectors are near

quadrature, poynting vector will contribute mainly to the

reactive part of the input impedance. Taking the curl of the

vector potential equation once to get the magnetic field, and

twice to get the electric field shows that the phase of the

electric and magnetic field may be (but not necessarily) near

quadrature in regions within a wavelength () or so of the

antenna. Consequently the region within a wavelength or so of

the physical antenna is referred to as reactive near field.

Beyond a distance of about a wavelength from non super

reactive antennas the electric and magnetic field tend to

propagate predominantly in phase, but of course do not exhibit

dependence until the far field is reached. This propagating

region between the near field and the far field is called

radiating near field.

III.

from a planar aperture will be based on Fourier transform. The

importance of this method is that it shows that the radiation

pattern is the Fourier transform of the aperture field. This

enables one to use many of the known properties of Fourier

transform pairs to predict the performance of aperture type

antennas.

Assuming that the tangential components of the electric

field on this aperture surface. From Maxwell's equations it can

be shown that the electric field satisfies the following equation

(1)

Now

both J and are zero, so

E becomes

and the equation satisfied by

(2)

(3)

surface with a radiating field distribution or aperture

illumination function across it we can write

u(x, y, z=0) = f(x, y)

(4)

equation with the boundary condition specified by f(x, y). Let

the two-dimensional Fourier transform of the solution u(x, y,

z) with respect to x, y be

(5)

Here, the F symbol is used to denote the Fourier transform

operation. As this is a Fourier transform its inverse can

instantly be written as

(6)

where the variables x, y and kx, ky are assumed to be real

whilst U(kx, ky, z) and u(x, y, z)may be complex, that is,

analytic functions.

Applying the time derivative property of Fourier transform

results in

(7)

(8)

(9)

Since

, k.f = 0 and here f does not have a

component in the direction of observation, which is the

direction of the propagation vector k. Thus the field is a TEM

field in the radiation zone. Along the Z axis cos ~ 1 and E(r)

has only x and y components proportional to Fx and Fy, which

are the Fourier transform of the aperture electric field. For

other directions of observation it is convenient to express the

field in terms of its spherical components. Thus,

(16)

(10)

The asymptotic solution for E(r) is thus

H = Y0 ar x E

IV.

(11)

(17)

where f is equal to its value at the stationary phase point.

RADIATION FIELD

(12)

The technique that will be used is Rayleigh's method of

stationary phase. The rationale underlying this method is as

follows: we note that when r is very large e-jkr is a very rapidly

oscillating function. Thus the contributions to the integral

from various points in the kxky plane tend to cancel because

there is lack of in phase addition from the various regions. An

exception is a point where k.r, which is a function of k x and ky

, to first order does not vary with small changes in kx ,ky. Such

a point is called stationary phase point and is characterized by

the vanishing of the first derivative of k.r with respect to kx

and ky

(13)

At a stationary point the phase of e-jk.r does not vary

rapidly, and a non zero contribution to the integral would be

obtained from this region of the kxky plane. In the small region

surrounding the stationary phase point, which we denote by k x

= k1, ky = k2, the slowly varying function f(kx ,ky) is put equal

to its value at stationary phase point. The integral that remains

then only involves the function e-jkr and can be evaluated.

In order to facilitate the evaluation expressing

in spherical coordinates by using x =

rsincos, y = rsinsin and z = rcos; thus

(14)

with

V.

(18)

GENERATION OF NEAR FIELD DATA

dimensional aperture by vector potential method is described

here. The case of a 10 cm x 10 cm rectangular aperture at =

3.2 cm with cosine amplitude distribution in one plane and

uniform field in other direction is considered.

A. Generation of Near field of a 2-D Aperture

A square aperture of dimension 10 cm x 10 cm with its

aperture electric field is shown in fig. This electric field E at

the aperture is expressed in terms of an equivalent magnetic

current M given by

(19)

The vector electric potential F at any point P(x,y,z) due to

this magnetic current source is given by

(20)

where d = r0 - r1.

The electric field E at this point P is expressed as

(21)

(22)

electric field is assumed to be

(23)

(15)

equation as

that is where

kx = k1 = k0 sin cos

(24)

ky = k2 = k0 sin sin

A Taylor series expansion of k.r in vicinity of k1 and k2

gives

expressed from equation as

(25)

where d= [(x-x')2 + (y-y')2 + z2]1/2

VI.

SAMPLING THEOREM

field is very much time consuming. The simplest way to

evaluate the integrals is to replace them by summation over

constant increments in X and Y. Ordinarily this use of

elementary rectangular rule of integration would give an

approximation that may introduce computational errors unless

the sampling increments approach zero. Fortuitously the

transmission coefficients can be shown to be band limited and

thus modern sampling theorems can be applied to prove that

the conversion of the integrals to summation introduces no

errors if the sampling increments are chosen less than a given

finite value. The sampling theorem yields the maximum data

point spacing X = Y = /2. Of course, if the far field is

required only near the main beam direction, the sampling

increments for all of the scan techniques can usually be

increased without introducing serious aliasing errors.

sampling theorem that, for the wavenumber limited spectrum,

the electric field can be reconstructed for all points on the

plane Z=0 from a knowledge of its values at the rectangular

lattice of points separated by the grid spacing's X =/ kxm,

Y = / kym.

The electric field reconstructed from these samples can be

written as

(27)

If the plane Z=0 is found in a region of space where the

electromagnetic field contains no evanescent waves, then the

maximum kx and ky wavenumbers are kxm = kym = 2/. Thus

the sample spacing's for this field are X = Y = /2.

VII. NUMERICAL RESULTS

Far field results for planar rectangular aperture antenna are

presented in this section. In the examples where planar near

fields are used, 2-D FFT has been employed. In section VII-A,

synthetic near field data is used to extrapolate the far fields.

The extrapolated far fields are compared to those obtained

directly using the far field expressions.

A. Far Fields Extrapolated from Synthetic Near Fields

In the example a 10 cm x 10 cm rectangular aperture at =

3.2 cm with cosine amplitude distribution in one plane and

uniform field in other direction is considered.

For this particular case the complex near field has been

evaluated at z = 5 cm on a square plane of area 32 cm x 32 cm.

The near field data thus obtained is used to find the far field

using the equation

(28)

at = 0 ,30 ,60 ,90 plane and the have been plotted in fig

1,2,3,4 respectively. The exact far field is computed from

equation

0

between the probe and the test antenna is large enough to

prevent significant coupling of their reactive fields. For nonsuper reactive antennas, a few wavelength separation is

sufficient. However, if the probe scans within the reactive

fields of the test antenna, the sampling increments must be

decreased to assure accurately computed far fields. The

decreased sample spacing (S) required for planar near field

measurements at a separation distance(d) of a few

wavelengths or less between non-super reactive probe and test

antennas can be estimated from the simple formula,

(29)

and they have been presented in figures for comparison.

(26)

For example, at a separation distance of about half a

wavelength the distance between data points should generally

be less than /4 to compute accurate far fields.

Now the function f(kx ,ky) known as the wavenumber

spectrum function, is bandlimited. It becomes zero for kx >=

kxm or ky >= kym where kxm and kym are any positive real

numbers. So the results of the Fourier transform analysis may

be used to arrive at a sample spacing criterion for the fields on

Fig 4. Amplitude distribution in the near field of AUT

CONCLUSION

A simple method for determining the far zone pattern from

near field measurements is presented. The method utilizes near

field data to determine equivalent far field by making use of

two dimensional Fourier transform over the aperture of the

antenna. By using this method, the far field of the antennas

that are not highly directive over large elevations and

azimuthal ranges can be determined without using spherical

scanning. This method has a wider range of validity than the

conventional expansion method.

REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

Fig 6. Comparison of theoretical and transformed far field for the cut = 0

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

[15]

Fig 7. Comparison of theoretical and transformed far field for the cut = 90o

borne antennas from plane-polar near field measurements", IEEE trans.

on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. Ap-33, No.6, 638-648, June 1985.

Slater, D., "Near Field Antenna Measurements", Boston, Artech House

1991, ISBN 0-89006-361-3.

Gary E. Evans, "Antenna Measurement Techniques", Artech House Inc

1990

Bolomery, J.C.- Gardiol, F.E., "Engineering Application of the

modulated scatterer technique", London, Artech House 2001, ISBN 158053-147-4.

Zill, D.G., and Cullen, M.R., "Differential Equations with Boundary

Value Problems" (Brooks/ Cole Publishing Company, Pacific Grove,

CA,1997), p.531.

Hsu, H.P., "Applied Fourier Analysis" (Hartcourt Brace College

Publishing, San Diego, CA, 1984), p.193.

Arfken, G.B., and Weber, H.J., "Mathematical Methods for Physicists"

(Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1995), p.846.

Pauling, L., and Wilson, E.B.Jr., "Introduction to Quantum Mechanics

with Applications to Chemistry" (Dover Publications Inc., New York,

1963), p.58.

Balanis, C.A., "Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics" (John Wiley

& Sons, New York, NY, 1989), p.354.

Cernohorsky, D.- Novacek, Z., "The Proposed Radio Links", Brno, VUT

1992, ISBN 80-214-0382-9.

Datta, Amlan, Prediction of Far zone Pattern from Near Field

Measurement, December 1988

Peregrinus Peter, "Antenna Measurements: Handbook of Antenna

Design", vol-1.

Yaghjian, A.D.,"An overview of Near field Antenna Measurements,

IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation", Jan 1986, vol. 34,

No.1, pp-30-45.

Wang, J.J.H., "An examination of the Theory and Practices of Planar

Near field Measurement", IEEE Transactions on Antennas and

Propagation, June 1988, vol. 36, No.6, pp-746-753.

Vladimir Schejbal, "Synthesized-referance-wave holography for

determing antenna radiation characteristics", IEEE Antennas and

Propagation

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