You are on page 1of 333

© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.

Cold and Hot Forgings: Fundamentals and Applications (#05104G)

www.asminternational.org

Cold and Hot Forging
Fundamentals and Applications

Edited by
Taylan Altan, ERC/NSM, Ohio State University
Gracious Ngaile, North Carolina State University
Gangshu Shen, Ladish Company, Inc.

Materials Park, Ohio 44073-0002
www.asminternational.org

© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.
Cold and Hot Forgings: Fundamentals and Applications (#05104G)

www.asminternational.org

Copyright 䉷 2004
by
ASM International威
All rights reserved
No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form
or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the
written permission of the copyright owner.
First printing, February 2005
Great care is taken in the compilation and production of this book, but it should be made clear
that NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION,
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE,
ARE GIVEN IN CONNECTION WITH THIS PUBLICATION. Although this information is
believed to be accurate by ASM, ASM cannot guarantee that favorable results will be obtained
from the use of this publication alone. This publication is intended for use by persons having
technical skill, at their sole discretion and risk. Since the conditions of product or material use
are outside of ASM’s control, ASM assumes no liability or obligation in connection with any
use of this information. No claim of any kind, whether as to products or information in this
publication, and whether or not based on negligence, shall be greater in amount than the purchase
price of this product or publication in respect of which damages are claimed. THE REMEDY
HEREBY PROVIDED SHALL BE THE EXCLUSIVE AND SOLE REMEDY OF BUYER,
AND IN NO EVENT SHALL EITHER PARTY BE LIABLE FOR SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHETHER OR NOT CAUSED BY OR RESULTING FROM
THE NEGLIGENCE OF SUCH PARTY. As with any material, evaluation of the material under
end-use conditions prior to specification is essential. Therefore, specific testing under actual
conditions is recommended.
Nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture, sale,
use, or reproduction, in connection with any method, process, apparatus, product, composition,
or system, whether or not covered by letters patent, copyright, or trademark, and nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a defense against any alleged infringement of letters
patent, copyright, or trademark, or as a defense against liability for such infringement.
Comments, criticisms, and suggestions are invited, and should be forwarded to ASM International.
Prepared under the direction of the ASM International Technical Books Committee (2004–2005),
Yip-Wah Chung, FASM, Chair.
ASM International staff who worked on this project include Scott Henry, Senior Manager of
Product and Service Development; Bonnie Sanders, Manager of Production; Carol Polakowski,
Production Supervisor; and Pattie Pace, Production Coordinator.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Cold and hot forging : fundamentals and applications / edited by Taylan Altan, Gracious
Ngaile, Gangshu Shen.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN: 0-87170-805-1
1. Forging. I. Altan, Taylan. II. Ngaile, Gracious. III. Shen, Gangshu.
TS225.C63 2004
671.3⬘32—dc22
2004055439
SAN: 204-7586
ASM International威
Materials Park, OH 44073-0002
www.asminternational.org
Printed in the United States of America

© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.
Cold and Hot Forgings: Fundamentals and Applications (#05104G)

www.asminternational.org

Contents
Preface .............................................................................................. viii
Chapter 1 Metal Forming Processes in Manufacturing ........................... 1
1.1 Classification of Manufacturing Processes ....................................... 1
1.2 Characteristics of Manufacturing Processes ...................................... 2
1.3 Metal Forming Processes in Manufacturing ...................................... 4
Chapter 2 Forging Processes: Variables and Descriptions ....................... 7
2.1 Introduction ............................................................................... 7
2.2 Forging Operation as a System ...................................................... 7
2.3 Types of Forging Processes ........................................................... 9
Chapter 3 Plastic Deformation: Strain and Strain Rate ........................ 17
3.1 Introduction ............................................................................. 17
3.2 Stress Tensor ............................................................................ 17
3.3 Properties of the Stress Tensor ..................................................... 18
3.4 Plane Stress or Biaxial Stress Condition ........................................ 19
3.5 Local Deformations and the Velocity Field .................................... 20
3.6 Strains ..................................................................................... 20
3.7 Velocities and Strain Rates .......................................................... 21
3.8 Homogeneous Deformation ......................................................... 21
3.9 Plastic (True) Strain and Engineering Strain ................................... 23
Chapter 4 Flow Stress and Forgeability .............................................. 25
4.1 Introduction ............................................................................. 25
4.2 Tensile Test .............................................................................. 27
4.3 Compression Test ...................................................................... 29
4.4 Ring Test ................................................................................. 35
4.5 Torsion Test ............................................................................. 36
4.6 Representation of Flow Stress Data .............................................. 36

Appendices (CD-ROM only)
4.1 Determination of Flow Stress by Compression Test at Room
Temperature
4.2 Determination of Flow Stress at High Temperature
4.3 Forgeability and Damage Factor in Cold Forging

© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.
Cold and Hot Forgings: Fundamentals and Applications (#05104G)

www.asminternational.org

iv / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications

Chapter 5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5

Plastic Deformation: Complex State of Stress and
Flow Rules ....................................................................... 51
State of Stress ........................................................................... 51
Yield Criteria ............................................................................ 52
Flow Rules .............................................................................. 55
Power and Energy of Deformation ............................................... 56
Effective Strain and Effective Strain Rate ...................................... 57

Chapter 6 Temperatures and Heat Transfer ........................................ 59
6.1 Introduction ............................................................................. 59
6.2 Heat Generation and Heat Transfer in Metal Forming Processes ........ 59
6.3 Temperatures in Forging Operations ............................................. 60
6.4 Measurement of Temperatures at the Die/Material Interface .............. 60
6.5 Measurement of Interface Heat Transfer Coefficient ........................ 62
6.6 Influence of Press Speed and Contact Time on Heat Transfer ............ 64
Appendices (CD-ROM only)
6.1 Upset Forging of Cylinders
Chapter 7 Friction and Lubrication ................................................... 67
7.1 Introduction ............................................................................. 67
7.2 Lubrication Mechanisms in Metal Forming .................................... 68
7.3 Friction Laws and Their Validity in Forging ................................... 69
7.4 Parameters Influencing Friction and Lubrication ............................. 69
7.5 Characteristics of Lubricants Used ............................................... 70
7.6 Lubrication Systems for Cold Forging .......................................... 70
7.7 Lubrication Systems for Warm and Hot Forging ............................. 73
7.8 Methods for Evaluation of Lubricants ........................................... 74
Appendices (CD-ROM only)
7.1 Ring Compression Test
7.2 Double Cup Extrusion Test
Chapter 8
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5

Inverse Analysis for Simultaneous Determination of
Flow Stress and Friction .................................................... 83
Introduction ............................................................................. 83
Inverse Analysis in Metal Forming ............................................... 83
Flow Stress Determination in Forging by Inverse Analysis ............... 85
Inverse Analysis for Simultaneous Determination of Flow Stress
and Friction .............................................................................. 86
Example of Inverse Analysis ....................................................... 86

Chapter 9 Methods of Analysis for Forging Operations ........................ 91
9.1 Introduction ............................................................................. 91
9.2 Slab Method of Analysis ............................................................ 93
9.3 Upper Bound Method and Its Application to Axisymmetric
Upsetting ................................................................................. 97
9.4 Finite Element Method in Metal Forming ...................................... 98
Chapter 10 Principles of Forging Machines .......................................107
10.1 Introduction ...........................................................................107
10.2 Interaction between Process Requirements and Forming
Machines ..............................................................................107

© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.
Cold and Hot Forgings: Fundamentals and Applications (#05104G)

www.asminternational.org

Contents / v

10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7

Load and Energy Requirements in Forming .................................108
Classification and Characteristics of Forming Machines .................110
Characteristic Data for Load and Energy .....................................111
Time-Dependent Characteristic Data ..........................................112
Characteristic Data for Accuracy ...............................................112

Chapter 11 Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging ...............115
11.1 Introduction ...........................................................................115
11.2 Hydraulic Presses ...................................................................115
11.3 Screw Presses ........................................................................131
11.4 Hammers ..............................................................................135
Chapter 12 Special Machines for Forging ..........................................141
12.1 Introduction ...........................................................................141
12.2 Transverse or Cross-Rolling Machines .......................................142
12.3 Electric Upsetters ...................................................................142
12.4 Ring-Rolling Mills ..................................................................143
12.5 Horizontal Forging Machines or Upsetters ..................................144
12.6 Rotary or Orbital Forging Machines ...........................................145
12.7 Radial Forging Machines .........................................................145
Chapter 13 Billet Separation and Shearing ........................................151
13.1 Introduction ...........................................................................151
13.2 Billet and Sheared Surface Quality ............................................151
13.3 Shearing Force, Work, and Power ..............................................154
13.4 Shearing Equipment ................................................................154
Chapter 14 Process Design in Impression Die Forging .........................159
14.1 Introduction ...........................................................................159
14.2 Forging Process Variables ........................................................160
14.3 Shape Complexity in Forging ...................................................164
14.4 Design of Finisher Dies ...........................................................165
14.5 Prediction of Forging Stresses and Loads ....................................169
14.6 Design of Blocker (Preform) Dies .............................................171
Appendix A Example of Load for Forging of a Connecting Rod ...............177
A.1 Introduction ............................................................................177
A.2 Estimation of the Flow Stress ....................................................178
A.3 Estimation of the Friction Factor ................................................181
A.4 Estimation of the Forging Load ..................................................181
A.5 Comparison of Predictions with Data from Actual Forging Trials .....181
Appendices (CD-ROM only)
14.1 Preform Design in Closed Die Forging
14.2 Flash Design in Closed Die Forging

Chapter 15

A Simplified Method to Estimate Forging Load in
Impression-Die Forging ..................................................185
15.1 Introduction ...........................................................................185
15.2 Effect of Process Parameters on Forging Load .............................185
15.3 Methods for Load Estimation ...................................................186
15.4 Simplified Method for Load Estimation ......................................190
15.5 Example of Load Estimation ....................................................191

© 2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.
Cold and Hot Forgings: Fundamentals and Applications (#05104G)

www.asminternational.org

vi / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications

Appendices (CD-ROM only)
15.1 ForgePAL: A Computer Program for Estimating Forces in
Hot Forging with Flash

Chapter 16
16.1
16.2
16.3
16.4
16.5
16.6

Process Modeling in Impression-Die Forging Using
Finite-Element Analysis ..................................................193
Introduction ...........................................................................193
Information Flow in Process Modeling .......................................194
Process Modeling Input ...........................................................194
Characteristics of the Simulation Code .......................................196
Process Modeling Output .........................................................197
Examples of Modeling Applications ..........................................200

Chapter 17 Cold and Warm Forging .................................................211
17.1 Introduction ...........................................................................211
17.2 Cold Forging as a System ........................................................213
17.3 Materials for Cold Forging .......................................................213
17.4 Billet Preparation and Lubrication in Cold Forging of Steel
and Aluminum .......................................................................214
17.5 Upsetting ..............................................................................215
17.6 Load Estimation for Flashless Closed-Die Upsetting .....................216
17.7 Extrusion ..............................................................................218
17.8 Estimation of Friction and Flow Stress .......................................221
17.9 Prediction of Extrusion Loads from Selected Formulas ..................222
17.10 Prediction of Extrusion Loads from Model Test .........................224
17.11 Tooling for Cold Forging .......................................................225
17.12 Punch Design for Cold Forging ...............................................227
17.13 Die Design and Shrink Fit ......................................................228
17.14 Process Sequence Design .......................................................229
17.15 Parameters Affecting Tool Life ................................................230
17.16 Warm Forging ......................................................................233
Appendices (CD-ROM only)
17.1 Examples of Forging Sequences
17.2 Forward Rod Extrusion
17.3 Backward Rod Extrusion

Chapter 18
18.1
18.2
18.3
18.4

Process Modeling in Cold Forging Using Finite-Element
Analysis ........................................................................237
Introduction ...........................................................................237
Process Modeling Input ...........................................................237
Process Modeling Output .........................................................239
Process Modeling Examples .....................................................239

Chapter 19 Microstructure Modeling in Superalloy Forging ................247
19.1 Introduction ...........................................................................247
19.2 Experiments for Microstructure Model Development ....................247
19.3 Microstructure Model Formulation ............................................248
19.4 Prediction of Microstructure in Superalloy Forging .......................254
19.5 Nomenclature of Microstructure Model ......................................254

...........285 21......6 Equipment and Tooling ..........................................................................337 ...........................319 23....................272 20......... All Rights Reserved...................................292 Chapter 22 Die Failures in Cold and Hot Forging ....................................................6 Future of Forging Technology in the Global Marketplace ..............8 Prediction of Die Wear and Enhancement of Die Life Using FEM ............................1 Introduction ...................................................................4 Benefits of Isothermal and Hot-Die Forging ..........1 Introduction ....................asminternational...................277 21...........6 Surface Treatments ......................257 20....331 Index ...........307 22.........................................319 23..................................................................................2 Die and Tool Materials For Hot Forging .10 Summary ...................................................3 Advances in Tool Design ..........263 20......2 Isothermal Forging ..........3 Hot-Die Forging .............7 Prediction of Die Fatigue Fracture and Enhancement of Die Life in Cold Forging Using Finite-Element Modeling (FEM) .........................4 Advances in Forging Machines ..........................269 20.........................................3 Heat Treatment ....295 22...............................5 Innovative Forging Processes .....2 Classification of Die Failures ..328 23...........................................273 Chapter 21 Die Materials and Die Manufacturing .1 Introduction ........5 Analytical Wear Models .................297 22.......................................8 Production of Isothermal/Hot-Die Forging ..............................................258 20.....5 High-Temperature Materials for Isothermal and Hot-Die Forging .....................................................org Contents / vii Chapter 20 Isothermal and Hot Die Forging .........277 21......................................................................................© 2005 ASM International.....................9 Economic Benefits of Isothermal and Hot-Die Forging ...............................259 20.....326 23................................289 21......................................................................1 Introduction ..........7 Postforging Heat Treatment ......3 Fracture Mechanisms .........................295 22..... Cold and Hot Forgings: Fundamentals and Applications (#05104G) www...........6 Parameters Influencing Die Failure .257 20.........................................2 Tolerances in Precision Forging ..........................296 22...........................................................................................271 20..............................296 22..................5 Die Manufacture .............297 22...285 21.............4 Wear Mechanisms ....4 Die and Tool Materials for Cold Forging ............295 22...................277 21.....................................................258 20...319 23...............................................................257 20..323 23....................................311 Chapter 23 Near-Net Shape Forging and New Developments .................

and 5.© 2005 ASM International. Chapter 9 is devoted to approximate methods for analyzing simple forging operations. this material is plastically deformed in one or more operations into a product of relatively complex configuration. All Rights Reserved. including machines for shearing and pre-forming or materials distribution. lubrication. Thus. using forging of high temperature alloys as example. CAM. Therefore. especially. tolerances. Forging to net or to net shape dimensions drastically reduces metal removal requirements. resulting in significant material and energy savings. and flow rules are discussed in Chapters 3. is covered in Chapter 19.org Preface Among all manufacturing processes. the cost-effective application of computer-aided techniques. These principles are reviewed briefly in this book.asminternational. forging technology has a special place because it helps to produce parts of superior mechanical properties with minimum waste of material. to remain competitive. The fundamentals of plastic deformation. and. the process is economically attractive when a large number of parts must be produced and/or when the mechanical properties required in the finished product can be obtained only by a forging process. i. e) the characteristics of the forging equipment. Process and die design. This chapter also includes an overall review of the forging operations. c) friction and lubrication.. metal flow. process modeling using FEA has been discussed in all appropriate chapters..e. and. There are many excellent handbooks and technical papers on the technology of the forging. Chapters 6 and 8 cover the significant variables of the forging process such as friction. manpower require that forging processes and tooling be designed and developed with minimum amount of trial and error with shortest possible lead times. The practical use of these techniques requires a thorough knowledge of the principal variables of the forging process and their interactions. and g) the effects of the process on the environment. surface finish and mechanical properties of the forging. methods for estimating forging loads. Chapters 10 through 13 discuss forging machines. In forging. The ever-increasing costs of material. Cold and Hot Forgings: Fundamentals and Applications (#05104G) www. but major emphasis is on the latest developments in the design of forging operations and dies. especially. testing methods to determine materials properties.. including the application of FEA simulation in these processes.e. d) the mechanics of deformation. CAD. These variables include: a) the flow behavior of the forged material under processing conditions. while Chapter 20 is devoted to iso- . and the application of FEA-based process modeling in hot forging are discussed in Chapters 14. Thus. 15. and temperatures. i. the starting material has a relatively simple geometry. b) die geometry and materials. CAE. energy. Forging usually requires relatively expensive tooling. 4. Chapter 2 considers forging process as a system consisting of several variables that interact with one another.e. finite element analysis (FEA)-based computer simulation is an absolute necessity. and 16. Microstructure modeling. flow stress of materials. f ) the geometry. i. strains and stresses. Chapters 17 and 18 cover cold and warm forging. The subject is introduced in Chapter 1 with a discussion of the position of metal forming processes in manufacturing.

multiple-action tooling. Graduate Research Associate. On behalf of the authors and the editors. Susan Altan. the importance of information technology in the forge shop. This chapter also discusses briefly the future of forging technology in the global economy. They are given in a CD that is included with this book. including enclosed die forging. The preparation of this book has been supported partially by the Jacob Wallenberg Foundation Prize. Finally. provided valuable assistance in preparing the text and the figures. Taylan Altan by the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences.org Preface / ix thermal and hot die forging of aerospace alloys. The staff and the students of the Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing (ERC/NSM) of The Ohio State University contributed significantly to the preparation of the book. Chapter 23 reviews the near-net shape forging technology. and die wear in hot and cold forging are discussed in Chapters 21 and 22. who has offered me enormous support and encouragement throughout the preparation of this book. The animations represent the results of FEA simulations for various forging operations. awarded to Dr. die manufacturing. The reader is encouraged to use the CD and these appendixes in order to understand better and easier some of the fundamental issues discussed in corresponding chapters. finally.asminternational. Specifically.© 2005 ASM International. and. Die materials. 14. Cold and Hot Forgings: Fundamentals and Applications (#05104G) www. Pinak Barve. I would like to thank my wife. All Rights Reserved. Finally. Several chapters of the book (Chapters 4. 7. the need to continuously acquire knowledge on new methods and techniques to remain competitive. and the most recent developments in forging presses. Taylan Altan December 2004 . Mr. I would like to thank all who made our work so much easier. Considerable information has been supplied by a large number of companies that support the forging research and development at the ERC/NSM. 15 and 17) contain appendixes that consist of presentation slides and computer animations. 6.

or system.ASM International is the society for materials engineers and scientists. In Japan Takahashi Bldg.ameritech. and nothing contained in this publication shall be construed as a defense against any alleged infringement of letters patent. warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. You may download and print a copy of this publication for your personal use only. Nothing contained in this publication shall be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture. or as a defense against liability for such infringement. Wilbury Way.asminternational.co. Chofu-Shi.org American Technical Publishers Ltd. copyright. and applications of metals and materials. or trademark. evaluation of the material under end-use conditions prior to specification is essential. Ohio 44073.org This publication is copyright © ASM International®. a worldwide network dedicated to advancing industry. Therefore. ASM cannot guarantee that favorable results will be obtained from the use of this publication alone..asminternational. ASM International. United In Europe Kingdom Telephone: 01462 437933 (account holders). This publication is being made available in PDF format as a benefit to members and customers of ASM International.uk Neutrino Inc. composition. express or implied. 44-3 Fuda 1-chome. Since the conditions of product or material use are outside of ASM's control. This publication is intended for use by persons having technical skill. product. are given in connection with this publication. . in connection with any method. Materials Park. ASM International 9639 Kinsman Rd. Other use and distribution is prohibited without the express written permission of ASM International. As with any material. or trademark. All rights reserved. Materials Park. No warranties. sale. Although this information is believed to be accurate by ASM. Tokyo 182 Japan Telephone: 81 (0) 424 84 5550 Terms of Use. technology. process. Ohio. use. USA Email CustomerService@asminternational. whether or not covered by letters patent. USA www. specific testing under actual conditions is recommended. ASM assumes no liability or obligation in connection with any use of this information. copyright. 01462 431525 (credit card) www. Publication title Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Product code 05104G To order products from ASM International: Online Visit www. apparatus. Hitchin Hertfordshire SG4 0SX. at their sole discretion and risk.org/bookstore Telephone 1-800-336-5152 (US) or 1-440-338-5151 (Outside US) Fax 1-440-338-4634 Mail Customer Service. or reproduction. without limitation. including. 27-29 Knowl Piece.

Metal treatment processes. (d) appearance. turning. in a simplified manner. and pressing of metal powder. into five general areas: ● ● ● ● ● Primary shaping processes. Metal forming processes such as rolling. where the part remains essentially unchanged in shape but undergoes change in properties or appearance. www. Among all manufacturing processes. bending. the material initially has no shape but obtains a well-defined geometry through the process. is transformed into a useful part without change in the mass or composition of the material. milling and broaching where removing metal generates a new shape. Joining processes. the starting material has a relatively simple geometry. including (a) metallurgical joining. Thus. and drawing. metal forming processes do not involve extensive metal removal to achieve the desired shape of . and deep drawing. form a permanent and robust joint between components. Gracious Ngaile. shrink fitting. brazing. cold and hot forging. Metal cutting processes. such as riveting. such as sawing. anodizing and surface hardening. In metal forming. such as welding and diffusion bonding. die casting. Mechanical joining processes. Metal forming includes a large number of manufacturing processes producing industrial products as well as military components and consumer goods. deep drawing. In all these processes. Metal forming usually requires relatively expensive tooling.1361/chff2005p001 Copyright © 2005 ASM International® All rights reserved. (c) accuracy and tolerances.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Taylan Altan. such as welding. The manufacture of metal parts and assemblies can be classified. and (e) properties. such as brake forming. melt extrusion. and soldering. and (b) sheet forming processes. Unlike machining. Gangshu Shen. and stretch forming. (b) size. such as casting. The material is plastically deformed in one or more operations into a product of relatively complex configuration. Metallurgical joining processes. where metal is formed by plastic deformation. p1-5 DOI:10. and (b) mechanical joining. These processes include (a) massive forming operations such as forging.org CHAPTER 1 Metal Forming Processes in Manufacturing Manas Shirgaokar 1. bring two or more parts together to build a subassembly that can be disassembled conveniently. such as heat treating. Forming to near-net.or to net-shape dimensions drastically reduces metal removal requirements. metal forming technology has a special place because it helps to produce parts of superior mechanical properties with minimum waste of material. editors. such as riveting and mechanical assembly. the process is economically attractive only when a large number of parts must be produced and/or when the mechanical properties required in the finished product can be obtained only by a forming process. This part usually has a complex geometry with welldefined (a) shape.asminternational. rolling. resulting in significant material and energy savings. usually shapeless or of a simple geometry. extrusion.1 Classification of Manufacturing Processes The term metal forming refers to a group of manufacturing methods by which the given material. and mechanical as- sembly.

within limits. which can be produced only with extraordinary cost and effort. automotive applications). jet engine.g. ● The part properties and metallurgical integrity are extremely important (e. and properties of the formed products enabling them to have various design and performance requirements. material handling.2. in general. it is possible to manufacture forgings with undercuts and with more complex shapes. hardness. sizes. they allow proper functioning of the manufactured part: for example. analysis.. but below the recrystallization temperature of the workpiece material). First. tolerances. through use of the lost-wax vacuum casting process. and machinability [ASM Handbook]. to avoid vibrations and to ensure proper functioning of the brakes. Figure 1. For example.2 Characteristics of Manufacturing Processes There are four main characteristics of any manufacturing process—namely. Each manufacturing process allows certain dimensional tolerances and surface finishes to be obtained. loadcarrying aircraft. The products can be determined from materials with the required temperature performance. In hot forming. reliability. 1. that is. For example. especially no dimensional variable. 1983] The development in forming technology has increased the range of shapes. the yield stress of a metal increases with increasing strain (deformation) during cold forming. for example) with a new one. Forming processes are frequently used together with other manufacturing processes. These properties are affected by temperature and rate of deformation (strain rate). Without interchangeability—the ability to replace a defective part or component (a bearing. Forming tolerances represent a compromise between the accuracy desired and the accuracy that can be economically obtained. geometry. each dimension is associated with a tolerance. For example. Forming processes are especially attractive in cases where: ● The part geometry is of moderate complexity and the production volumes are large. production rates. warm forming (workpiece heated above room temperature. Dimensional tolerances serve a dual purpose. it is possible to obtain much more complex parts with tighter tolerances than are possible with ordinary sand casting methods. By use of a “split die” design.1 shows the dimensional accuracy that is achievable by different processes.. ductility. an automotive brake drum must be round. The second role of dimensional tolerances is to provide interchangeability. and forming equipment [Altan et al. which can be easily removed from a die set. Therefore. and human and environmental factors. and optimization of forming processes require: ● Engineering knowledge regarding metal flow. The accuracy obtained is determined by several factors such . the forging process allows production of parts. Desirable material properties for forming include low yield strength and high ductility. The design.2 Tolerances No variable. and heat treating. The values given in the figure must be considered as guidance values only. 1. and resistance to shock and fatigue are essential. die design.1 Geometry Each manufacturing process is capable of producing a family of geometries.2 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications the workpiece. Formed parts are required specifically when strength. grinding. economy. Within this family there are geometries. so that tooling costs per unit product can be kept low (e. heating and cooling techniques. increases with strain (deformation) rate.. the yield stress. and turbine components). and heat transfer ● Technological information related to lubrication. such as machining. The effect of temperature gives rise to distinctions among cold forming (workpiece initially at room temperature). 1. upper and lower die. can be produced exactly as specified by the designer. ductility is increased and yield strength is decreased. however. manufactured by a different supplier—modern mass production would be unthinkable.2.g. stresses. and hot forming (workpiece heated above the recrystallization temperature). The quality of these variables can always be improved by use of more sophisticated variations of the process and by means of new developments. When the work temperature is raised. in order to complete the transformation from the raw material to the finished and assembly-ready part.

2) so as to avoid additional finishing operations [Schey et al. if the application justifies it. Manufacturing costs are directly proportional to tolerances and surface finish specifications. and products per unit time..1 chine tools of inherently greater accuracy and better surface finish. Surface roughness in Fig. if possible. Under typical conditions. is the single most important factor that influences the standard of living in a country as well as that country’s competitive position in international trade in manufactured goods.2. In industrialized countries.3 Production Rate The rate of production that can be attained with a given manufacturing operation is probably the most significant feature of that operation. The tolerances given apply to a 25 mm (1 in. 1. and for a given Ra value. 1. In a production situation it is best to take the recommendations published by various industry associations or individual companies.e. Still.2 is given in terms of Ra (arithmetic average).. production of discrete parts. the complexity of the part. 1. processes and ma- Fig. each manufacturing process is capable of producing a part to a certain surface finish and tolerance range without extra expenditure. they do not necessarily increase or decrease linearly. certainly with greater competitiveness. higher-quality products can be obtained with little extra cost and. 1. 2000]. manufacturing industries represent 25 to 30% of gross national product. i. 1985] . however. There are. Another factor determining the forming accuracy is the type of part being produced. because it indicates the economics of and the achievable productivity with that manufacturing operation. Consequently. different processes may result in quite different finishes. 1. Some general guidance on surface finish and tolerance range is given in Fig.2. and the type of forming equipment that is used.Metal Forming Processes in Manufacturing / 3 as the initial accuracy of the forming dies and tooling. In many applications the texture (lay) of the surface is also important. This is true only if a process sequence involving processes and machine tools of limited capability is used to achieve these tolerances.) dimension. For larger or smaller dimensions. the type of material being formed. manufacturing productivity. [Lange et al. a fundamental rule of the cost-conscious designer is to specify the loosest possible tolerances and coarsest surfaces that still accomplish the intended function.. assemblies. Thus. be within the range obtainable by the intended manufacturing process (Fig. It used to be believed that cost tends to rise exponentially with tighter tolerances and surface finish. The specified tolerances should. The rate of production or manufacturing productivity can be increased by improving existing Approximate values of dimensional accuracies achievable in various processes.

1. 2000] . how much. industry.e. and stretch forming. 1.4 Environmental Factors Every manufacturing process must be examined in view of (a) its effects on the environment. metal forming represents a highly significant group of processes for producing industrial and military components and consumer goods..2. and in what) are made by people who are well trained and well motivated. in terms of air. Consequently. deep drawing.2 ing scarcity of energy and materials. water.e. i. or nation. 1. extrusion. As a result. the introduction and use of a manufacturing process must also be preceded by a consideration of these environmental factors. [Schey et al. and noise pollution. and (c) its use of energy and material resources. particularly in view of the changing world conditions concern- Fig. physiological effects. The following list outlines some of the important areas of application of workpieces produced by metal forming. all of which require new investments. and psychological effects.. i. in terms of human safety. 1985]: ● Components for automobiles and machine tools as well as for industrial plants and equipment Surface finish and tolerance range for various manufacturing processes.. the most important ingredient for improving productivity lies in human and managerial resources. the present and future manufacturing productivity in a plant. rolling. Among the group of manufacturing processes discussed earlier.. an industry. or a nation depends not only on the level of investment in new plants and machinery. but also on the level of training and availability of manufacturing engineers and specialists in that plant. (b) its interfacing with human resources. because good decisions regarding investments (when. underlining their technical significance [Lange et al.3 Metal Forming Processes in Manufacturing Metal forming includes (a) massive forming processes such as forging. However. and drawing and (b) sheet forming processes such as brake forming.4 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications manufacturing processes and by introducing new machines and new processes.

and optimization of forming processes require (a) analytical knowledge regarding metal flow. heating. screwdrivers.. such as for doors and windows A common way of classifying metal forming processes is to consider cold (room temperature) and hot (above recrystallization temperature) forming. Vol 14. p 6. in examples such as load-carrying aircraft and jet engine and turbine components. Metal Forming Fundamentals and Applications. Most materials behave differently under different temperature conditions. 2000]: Schey. [SME Handbook. can be obtained equally well by hot or cold forming. pit props.L. ASM International. 2001]: Kalpakjian. but rather on specific input and output geometries and material and production rate conditions. S. 4th ed. ASM International. McGraw-Hill. Desk Edition (1989). due to the lower yield strength of the deforming material at elevated temperatures. therefore. mining. such as screws. in both massive and sheet forming processes. Oh..19. 1988. and rivets Containers.. McGraw-Hill. die design and manufacture. and lubrication concepts can be best considered by means of a classification based not on temperature. et al. 2001. so that tooling costs per unit product can be kept low—for example. REFERENCES [Altan et al.3. In fact. in a relative sense. Schmid. p 2. 1985]: Lange. and (b) the part properties and metallurgical integrity are extremely important. T.. “Short Course on Near Net Shape Cold. Of course. The design. Society of Manufacturing Engineers. Introduction to Manufacturing Processes. Usually. and forming equipment. stresses... 1985. A considerable amount of information on the general aspects of metal forming is available in the literature. 1989]: Tool and Manufacturers Engineering Handbook. machinery.. in automotive applications. the general principles governing the forming of metals at various temperatures are basically the same. T.A. et al. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. lower in hot forming than in cold forming. classification of forming processes based on initial material temperature does not contribute a great deal to the understanding and improvement of these processes. S... K.) Fittings used in the building industry. 1983. ASM Handbook. . the yield stress of a metal increases with increasing strain (or deformation) during cold forming and with increasing strain rate (or deformation rate) during hot forming. material handling.-I.. [Schey et al.. such as hammers. automation... Warm and Hot Forging Without Flash. and cooling techniques. tool stresses and machine loads are. [ASM Handbook]: Forming and Forging. tool design. nuts.Metal Forming Processes in Manufacturing / 5 ● ● ● ● ● Hand tools. SELECTED REFERENCES [Altan. and surgical instruments Fasteners. part handling. However. [Lange et al. pliers.. Forming is especially attractive in cases where (a) the part geometry is of moderate complexity and the production volumes are large. H. S..” Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing. 2000. p 15-8. 1983]: Altan. Handbook of Metal Forming. The Ohio State University. Prentice Hall. 2002]: Altan. and quarrying (roofing and walling elements. Gegel. 1989. bolts. and canisters Construction elements used in tunneling. p 67–69. and heat transfer as well as (b) technological information related to lubrication. 2002. [Kalpakjian et al. analysis. Complex geometries. 9. etc. such as metal boxes. cans. J.

(b) establishing the limits of formability or producibility. such design essentially consists of (a) establishing the kinematic relationships (shape. an initially simple part—a billet. The physical phenomena describing a forging operation are difficult to express with quantitative relationships. The metal flow. several forging operations (preforming) are required to transform the initial “simple” geometry into a “complex” geometry.org CHAPTER 2 Forging Processes: Variables and Descriptions Manas Shirgaokar 2... For the understanding and quantitative design and optimization of forging operations it is useful to (a) consider forging processes as a system and (b) classify these processes in a systematic way [Altan et al. For a given operation (preforming or finish forging). determining whether it is possible to form the part without surface or internal failure. largely by trial-and-error methods. predicting metal flow. www. Forging is an experience-oriented technology. the conditions at the tool/material interface..asminternational. parts produced by forging exhibit better mechanical and metallurgical properties and reliability than do those manufactured by casting or machining. strains) between the deformed and undeformed part. a simple part geometry is transformed into a complex one. i. a great deal of know-how and experience has been accumulated in this field. and (c) predicting the forces and stresses necessary to execute the forging operation so that tooling and equipment can be designed or selected. strain rates. Consequently. where tool costs can be easily amortized. Often in producing discrete parts. the most significant objective of any method of analysis is to assist the forging engineer in the design of forging and/or preforming sequences.e. 2. Throughout the years. editors. the mechanics of plastic deformation. Gracious Ngaile. 1983]. i. for example—is plastically deformed between two tools (or dies) to obtain the desired final configuration.1361/chff2005p007 Copyright © 2005 ASM International® All rights reserved.2 Forging Operation as a System A forging system comprises all the input variables such as the billet or blank (geometry and material). for a given weight. the heat generation and transfer during plastic flow. the tooling (geometry and material). whereby the tools “store” the desired geometry and impart pressure on the deforming material through the tool/material interface. usually in one or a few strokes of a press or hammer. Forging processes usually produce little or no scrap and generate the final part geometry in a very short time. the forging industry has been capable of supplying products that are sophisticated and manufactured to very rigid standards from newly developed. p7-15 DOI:10. As a result. without causing material failure or degrading material properties. Nevertheless. and the relationships between microstructure/properties and process conditions are difficult to predict and analyze. velocities. especially in medium and large production quantities.e. difficult-to-form alloys. Gangshu Shen. Thus. the friction at the tool/material interface.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Taylan Altan. In addition.1 Introduction In forging. the equipment . forging offers potential savings in energy and material.

the flow stress. grain size. resistance to corrosion and oxidation) Initial conditions (composition. metallurgical and mechanical properties Environment ● ● ● Available manpower Air. and the temperatures involved greatly influence the properties of the formed components. noise. is the understanding and control of the metal flow. For a given microstructure. the characteristics of the final product. and microstructure Forgeability as a function of strain rate. 2. segregation. model used for analysis ● Metal flow. (2) tooling. (5) forging equipment.. Metal flow determines both the mechanical properties related to local deformation and the formation of defects such as cracks and folds at or below the surface. temperature. degree of deformation or strain. prior strain history. rate of deformation or strain. Figure 2. and wastewater pollution Plant and production facilities and control 2. thermal conductivity and expansion.e. e¯ . T: Tooling/Dies ● ● ● ● Tool geometry Surface conditions.1 One-blow impression-die forging considered as a system: (1) billet. (6) product. and finally the plant environment where the process is being conducted. temperature. the magnitude of deformation. The local metal flow is in turn influenced by the process variables summarized below: Billet ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Flow stress as a function of chemical composition. (7) plant environment . The direction of metal flow. to obtaining the desired shape and properties. strain. strain rate. e˙¯ . the flow stress and the workability (or forgeability) in various directions (anisotropy) are the most important material variables in the analysis of a metal forging process. melting point. strain rate (kinematics) ● Stresses (variation during deformation) ● Temperatures (heat generation and transfer) Equipment ● ● ● ● Speed/production rate Binder design and capabilities Force/energy capabilities Rigidity and accuracy Product ● ● ● ● Geometry Dimensional accuracy/tolerances Surface finish Microstructure. i. specific heat. velocities. The key to a successful forging operation. history/prestrain) Plastic anisotropy Billet size and thickness Deformation Zone ● The mechanics of deformation. metallurgical structure.1 Material Characterization For a given material composition and deformation/heat treatment history (microstructure).2. (4) deformation zone. r. temperature of deformation. lubrication Material/heat treatment/hardness Temperature Conditions at the Die/Billet Interface ● ● Lubricant type and temperature Insulation and cooling characteristics of the interface layer ● Lubricity and frictional shear stress ● Characteristics related to lubricant application and removal Fig. ¯ is expressed as a function of strain. and temperature.1 shows the different components of the forging system.8 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications used. deformation rate Surface texture Thermal/physical properties (density. (3) tool/material interface. The “systems approach” in forging allows study of the input/output relationships and the effect of the process variables on product quality and process economics.

The mechanics of deformation.2. In forging. are influenced by the process variables. Metal flow is influenced mainly by (a) tool geometry.. the frictional shear stress.e. i. including lot size. the most commonly used tests are the ring compression test. m.1). Consequently. The processing conditions (temperature. inclusions. slab.. temperature gradients in the deforming material (for example. The details of metal flow influence the quality and the properties of the formed product and the force and energy requirements of the process. etc.. e˙¯ . it is necessary to conduct torsion.). s.2. In hot forging processes. strains. plastic work creates a certain increase in temperature. 2. and (d) mechanical and thermal properties under conditions of use.. plane-strain compression. material is deformed plastically to generate the shape of the desired product. and uniform axisymmetric compression tests. spike test. strain. or formability is the capability of the material to deform without failure.2. The tooling variables include (a) design and geometry. (c) characteristics of the stock material. finite-element analysis. or a friction shear factor. There are various methods of evaluating friction.3 Types of Forging Processes There are a large number of forging processes that can be summarized as follows: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Closed/impression die forging with flash Closed/impression die forging without flash Electro-upsetting Forward extrusion Backward extrusion Radial forging Hobbing Isothermal forging Open-die forging . and cold extrusion test. it depends on (a) conditions existing during deformation processing (such as temperature.and microgeometry of the product. forgeability. One way of expressing friction quantitatively is through a friction coefficient. upper bound.1) To formulate the constitutive equation (Eq 2. and strain history) and (b) material variables (such as composition.g. 2. finite difference. 2.e. l. 2. i. the metal flow. strain rates. (c) stiffness. Workability. can be investigated by using one of the approximate methods of analysis (e. accuracy. T) (Eq 2. its dimensions and surface finish. due to local die chilling) also influence metal flow and failure phenomena. and maintenance requirements.3) where rn is the normal stress at the interface. (b) friction conditions.2. voids. (b) surface finish.2 Tooling and Equipment The selection of a machine for a given process is influenced by the time. r¯ is the flow stress of the deforming material and f is the friction factor (f ⳱ m/冪3). is: s ⳱ lrn (Eq 2.2) or s ⳱ f r¯ ⳱ m 冪3 r¯ (Eq 2.5 Product Geometry and Properties The macro. and (d) thermal conditions existing in the deformation zone. Thus. During any of these tests.4 Deformation Zone/Mechanics of Deformation In forging. 2. Optimal equipment selection requires consideration of the entire forging system. and load/ energy characteristics of that machine. which must be considered in evaluating and using the test results.3 Friction and Lubrication at the Die/Workpiece Interface The mechanics of interface friction are very complex.e. i. rate of deformation. environmental effects. as well as the requirements of the specific part and process under consideration. conditions at the plant. and stresses. strain rate) determine the microstructural variations taking place during deformation and often influence the final product properties. a realistic systems approach must include consideration of (a) the relationships between properties and microstructure of the formed material and (b) the quantitative influences of process conditions and heat treatment schedules on microstructural variations. and initial microstructure).Forging Processes: Variables and Descriptions / 9 r¯ ⳱ f(¯e. estimating the value of l or m. stresses.

2.2b) Definition. Materials. 2. Closed-die forging without flash. Carbon and alloy steels.4) Definition. Carbon and alloy steels. cold and warm forging. Carbon and alloy steels. nickel alloys. tungsten alloys. titanium. Process Variations. Equipment. Hydraulic and mechanical presses. 2. etc. hollow forgings. tubular parts with multiple diameter Closed-die forging with flash. P/M forging.3 Electro-Upsetting (Fig. titanium and titanium alloys. precision forging.3. P/M forging. 2.3. mechanical. Equipment. Core forging. Electro-upsetting is the hot forging process of gathering a large amount of material at one end of a round bar by heating the bar end electrically and pushing it against a flat anvil or shaped die cavity. copper alloys. aluminum alloys. stainless steels. Materials. tantalum and tantalum alloys. Equipment. Stepped or tapered-diameter solid shafts. Anvil and counterblow hammers. Precision forgings. and energy-related engineering production.3. general mechanical industry. beryllium.4 Forward Extrusion (Fig.2 cold) by a punch in order to fill a die cavity without any loss of material. Closed-die forging with lateral flash. copper alloys. Preforms for finished forgings. aluminum alloys. Application. copper alloys. Process Variations. niobium and niobium alloys. Application.10 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications ● ● ● ● ● Orbital forging Powder metal (P/M) forging Upsetting Nosing Coining 2.1 Closed-Die Forging with Flash (Fig. 2. The excess material is extruded through a restrictive narrow gap and appears as flash around the forging at the die parting line. Hydraulic presses. Process Variations. 2. The punch and the die may be made of one or several pieces. closed-die forging without flash. 2. a billet with carefully controlled volume is deformed (hot or Fig. a punch compresses a billet (hot or cold) confined in a container so that the billet material flows through a die in the same direction as the punch.2a and 2. (a) Schematic diagram with flash terminology.5) Definition.3) Definition. trucks. (b) Forging sequence in closed-die forging of connecting rods . railroad and mining equipment. In this process. titanium alloys. a billet is formed (hot) in dies (usually with two halves) such that the flow of metal from the die cavity is restricted. aircraft. off-highway equipment. In this process. multiram mechanical presses. magnesium alloys. closed-die forging with longitudinal flash. iron and nickel and cobalt superalloys. 2.3. Materials. Application. tees. aluminum alloys. Equipment. tractors. fittings. and screw presses.2 Closed-Die Forging without Flash (Fig. hydraulic. Application. Materials. molybdenum and molybdenum alloys. In this process. Production of forgings for automobiles. Carbon and alloy steels. Electric upsetters. elbows. magnesium alloys.

Materials. 2. In this process. Equipment. This is a technique that is used to manufacture axisymmetrical parts.6) Definition. gripping electrode.5). forging of stepped shafts and axles. Hydraulic presses.6 Radial Forging (Fig. C. Process Variations. titanium alloys. Die hobbing. Process Variations. Application.4 Electro-upsetting. Hobbing is the process of indenting or coining an impression into a cold or hot die block by pressing with a punch. Equipment. production of tubular components with and without internal profiles.3 Closed-die forging without flash Fig.5) Definition. magnesium alloys.3. die typing. titanium alloys. cupped parts with holes that are cylindrical. Process Variations. Materials. anvil electrode.7) Definition. Backward Extrusion (Fig. Closed-die forging without flash.5 Application. forging of gun and rifle barrels. Equipment. Carbon and alloy steels. 2.3.Forging Processes: Variables and Descriptions / 11 holes that are cylindrical. hammers. and high-temperature superalloys. Hydraulic presses. Manufacture of dies and molds with relatively shallow impressions.7 Hobbing (Fig. Radial forging machines. Isothermal forging is a forging process where the dies and the forging stock are at approximately the same high temperature. Carbon and alloy steels. This hot or cold forging process utilizes two or more radially moving anvils or dies for producing solid or tubular components with constant or varying cross sections along their length. Reducing the diameters of ingots and bars. A.3. Hollow parts having a closed end. or other nonround shapes. aluminum alloys. upset end of workpiece . a moving punch applies a steady pressure to a slug (hot or cold) confined in a die and forces the metal to flow around the punch in a direction opposite the direction of punch travel (Fig. 2. or of other shapes. Application. 2. 2. workpiece. 2.8) Definition. Hydraulic and mechanical presses. Materials. D. beryllium. 2. 2. B.8 Isothermal Forging (Fig. conical. P/M forging. conical. 2. Rotary swaging. 2. Carbon and alloy steels. Equipment.3. Fig. tungsten. copper alloys. 2.

E. (b) Without restriction .12 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Fig. Left to right: sheared blank. workpiece. titanium alloys. C.9) Definition. 1977]. ring forging. Slab forging. (b) Example of a component produced using forward rod and backward extrusion. shaft forging. Process Variations. P/M forging. Application. container. 2.9 Open-Die Forging (Fig.5 Forward and backward extrusion processes.10 Orbital Forging (Fig. copper alloys.3. Application. punch. [Feldman. hammers.6 Radial forging of a shaft Fig. aluminum alloys. Orbital forging is the process of forging shaped parts by incrementally forging Fig. simultaneous forward rod and backward cup extrusion. Equipment. 2. Open-die forging is a hot forging process in which metal is shaped by hammering or pressing between flat or simple contoured dies. 2. (a) Common cold extrusion processes (P. W. Materials.and near-net shape forgings for the aircraft industry.3. Carbon and alloy steels. large and bulky forgings. all forgeable materials. preforms for finished forgings. upsetting between flat or curved dies. ejector). 1968] Materials. 2. Net. [Sagemuller. aluminum alloys. mandrel forging.7 Hobbing. 2. Closed-die forging with or without flash. drawing out. 2. backward cup extrusion. (a) In container.10) Definition. 2. Titanium alloys. forward extrusion. simultaneous upsetting of flange and coining of shoulder. Process Variations. Hydraulic presses. Forging ingots.

Hydraulic.12 Fig.3. Materials. bearing rings.11 Definition. upset forging. and off-highway equipment. Process Variations. 2. Application. Application. aluminum alloys.12) Definition. P/M forging is the process of closed-die forging (hot or cold) of sintered powder metal preforms. 2. wheel disks with hubs. planetary. Equipment. 2. Materials. or straight-line motions. rings of various contours.9 Open-die forging Fig.2. mechanical presses. This process is also called rotary forging. Fig. Bevel gears. 2.12 Upset forging .11 Powder metal (P/M) forging Fig. trucks. the lower die may also rotate. Equipment. Carbon and low-alloy steels. titanium alloys. stainless steels. 2. cobalt-base alloys. The lower die is raised axially toward the upper die. which is fixed axially but whose axis makes orbital. 2. of the stock is increased. swing forging.8 Isothermal forging with dies and workpiece at approximately the same temperature Fig. Electro-upsetting. Closed-die forging without flash. upsetting machines. aluminum alloys and brasses. bearing-end covers. claw clutch parts.Forging Processes: Variables and Descriptions / 13 (hot or cold) a slug between an orbiting upper die and a nonrotating lower die. or all. screw presses. all forgeable materials. Upsetting is the process of forging metal (hot or cold) so that the cross-sectional area of a portion. all forgeable materials. 2. Process Variations. Hydraulic and mechanical presses. or rocking die forging. hammers. Orbital forging presses. nickel-base alloys. closed-die forging with flash. Carbon and alloy steels.10 Stages in orbital forging Powder Metal (P/M) Forging (Fig. Equipment. Process Variations. open-die forging.3. Forgings and finished parts for automobiles. Materials. In some cases. stainless steels. 2.11) Upsetting or Heading (Fig. Carbon and alloy steels. stainless steels. spiral.

June 1968. Mechanical presses and hydraulic presses. Equipment.15 Ironing (Fig. Metal Forming Fundamentals and Applications. Oh. Nosing is a hot or cold forging process in which the open end of a shell or tubular component is closed by axial pressing with a shaped die. such as patterned tableware. 1983]: Altan. metal is intentionally thinned or thickened to achieve the required indentations or raised sections. flanged shafts. In sheet metal working.. forging of gas pressure containers. During the process.” Engineering Research Cen- . T. Nosing (Fig. Materials. Presses and hammers. Coining without flash. Applications. T. Tube sinking. Applications.” Wire. aluminum and aluminum alloys.. heat-resistant alloys. decorative items. “The Greenfield Coalition Modules. Fr. Equipment. Gegel. coining in closed die.15) Definition.L. REFERENCES Fig. S. Process Variations. titanium alloys. Carbon and alloy steels. aluminum alloys. hammers.D. [Feldman. 2002]: Altan.. H. Ironing is the process of smoothing and thinning the wall of a shell or cup (cold or hot) by forcing the shell through a die with a punch. “Cold Impact Extrusion of Large Formed Parts. H. 1968]: Sagemuller..14) Definition.3. Fig. Forging of open ends of ammunition shells. p 2.. titanium alloys. Equipment. Cold Extrusion of Steel. medallions and metal buttons.13 2. copper alloys. Process Variations. Bottoming is a type of coining process where bottoming pressure causes reduction in thickness at the bending area. Metallic coins. Materials. 1977 (in German).14 Coining operation [Altan et al. 2. Du¨sseldorf. coining with flash. coining is used to form indentations and raised sections in the part.13) Definition. No.3.14 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Application.. 2. [Sagemuller. 1983. stainless steels. silver and gold alloys. sizing of automobile and aircraft engine components. aluminum alloys. Materials. 2. Mechanical and hydraulic presses.14 Coining (Fig. preforms for finished forgings.-I. sizing.13 Nosing of a shell 2. tube expanding. 2. Merkblatt 201. 95.. SELECTED REFERENCES Fig. It is widely used for lettering on sheet metal or components such as coins. including nuts. Carbon and alloy steels. Shells and cups for various uses. Applications.3. 1977]: Feldman. 2.15 Ironing operation [Altan. ASM International. Finished forgings. 2. bolts. 2. Carbon and alloy steels.

[Kalpakjian. [Schuler Handbook.. S. Vol 14. Allyn and Bacon. Modern Manufacturing Process Engineering. Goppingen. 1998]: Schuler.. Draper. 1990]: Lindberg. p 33–80. .Forging Processes: Variables and Descriptions / 15 ter for Net Shape Manufacturing. et al. p 589–601. [ASM Handbook]: Forming and Forging. B. p 2.. 1989]: Production to Near Net Shape Source Book.. p 381–409. [ASM. 1989]: Niebel. 1985]: Lange. 1989. [Lange et al. Wysk. Germany.W. A. 1990. 1984. McGraw-Hill. American Society for Metals 1989. [SME Handbook. 9. p 6. 1989]: Tool and Manufacturers Engineering Handbook. 1988.19. Addison-Wesley. [Niebel et al. K. ASM International. Processes and Materials of Manufacture. 1985. 1984]: Kalpakjian. R. The Ohio State University. 1998. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials..A.. 1989. 2002. 4th ed. Desk Edition (1989).B.. ASM Handbook. Springer. Handbook of Metal Forming.. p 15-8. p 403– 425. Society of Manufacturing Engineers. 4th ed.3. Metal Forging Handbook... [Lindberg.

the force components are divided by the area of the face upon which they act. Thus. ● Volume remains constant. ● Uniaxial tensile or compression test data are correlated with flow stress in multiaxial deformation conditions. In order to arrive at a manageable mathematical description of the metal deformation. Gracious Ngaile. p17-23 DOI:10. and (d) stresses. thus giving a total of nine stress components. where each face of a cube is subjected to the three forces F1. when necessary. www. editors. several simplifying (but reasonable) assumptions are made: ● Elastic deformations are neglected. Such investigation allows the analysis and prediction of (a) metal flow (velocities. pressure.g. rxx. while a differing pair indicates a shear stress. grain boundaries. which define the total state of stress on this cuboidal element.1 Introduction The purpose of applying the plasticity theory in metal forming is to investigate the mechanics of plastic deformation in metal forming processes.. In order to determine the stresses along these axes. and energy. how the desired geometry can be obtained by plastic forming. forming load. ● The deforming material is considered to be in continuum (metallurgical aspects such as grains. Each of these forces can be resolved into the three components along the three coordinate axes. 3.1). 3. F2.1361/chff2005p017 Copyright © 2005 ASM International® All rights reserved. 3.asminternational. (b) temperatures and heat transfer. and F3 (Fig. However. the mechanics of deformation provide the means for determining how the metal flows. e. strain rates. elastic recovery (for example. in the case of springback in bending) and elastic deflection of the tooling (in the case of precision forming to very close tolerances) must be considered. (c) local variation in material strength or flow stress. . and dislocations are not considered). Thus one will have rxx ⬅ rx and rxy ⬅ sxy. and strains). ● Friction is expressed by a simplified expression such as Coulomb’s law or by a constant shear stress. This collection of stresses is referred to as the stress tensor (Fig.2 Stress Tensor Consider a general case. This notation can be simplified by denoting the normal stresses by a single subscript and shear stresses by the symbol s. Gangshu Shen.org CHAPTER 3 Plastic Deformation: Strain and Strain Rate Manas Shirgaokar Gracious Ngaile 3.1) designated as rji and is expressed as: 冷 冷 rxx ryx rzx rij ⳱ rxy ryy rzy rxz ryz rzz A normal stress is indicated by two identical subscripts. and what are the expected mechanical properties of the part produced by forming. ● Anisotropy and Bauschinger effects are neglected. This is discussed later.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Taylan Altan.

A sign convention is required to maintain consistency throughout the use of these symbols and principles. i. r1. [Hosford & Caddell. The double suffix has the following physical meaning [Hosford & Caddell. If it acted in the negative y direction then this force would be compressive instead of tensile. r2.1c) The coefficients I1. ● A negative component is defined by a combination of suffixes in which either one of i or j is negative. 3. The magnitudes of the principal stresses are determined from the following cubic equation developed from a series of force balances: ● where Suffix i denotes the normal to the plane on which a component acts. and 3) along which the shear Fig. whereas the suffix j denotes the direction along which the component force acts. 2. The normal stresses along these axes.1 are considered to be positive. thus implying the absence of rotational effects around any axis. 3. ● A positive component is defined by a combination of suffixes where either both i and j are positive or both are negative.1) I1 ⳱ rxx Ⳮ ryy Ⳮ rzz 2 I2 ⳱ ⳮrxxryy ⳮ ryyrzz ⳮ rzzrxx Ⳮ rxy Ⳮ r2yz Ⳮ r2zx 2 I3 ⳱ rxxryyrzz Ⳮ 2rxyryzrzx ⳮ rxxryz 2 ⳮ ryyr2zx ⳮ rzxrxy In terms of principal stresses the above equations become: I1 ⳱ r1 Ⳮ r2 Ⳮ r3 (Eq 3. thus implying that positive normal stresses are tensile and negative ones are compressive. and I3 are independent of the coordinate system chosen and are hence Forces and the stress components as a result of the forces. let the plane of section be a principal plane. The nine stress components then reduce to six independent components. The stresses shown in Fig.1 r3i ⳮ I1r2i ⳮ I2ri ⳮ I3 ⳱ 0 (Eq 3. and r3. Consider a small uniformly stressed block on which the full stress tensor is acting in equilibrium and assume that a small corner is cut away (Fig..2). 1983] . 1983]: stresses vanish. I2. Let the stress acting normal to the triangular plane of section be a principal stress. there is a set of coordinate axes (1. are called the principal stresses.3 Properties of the Stress Tensor For a general stress state. 3. Thus ryy arises from a force acting in the positive y direction on a plane whose normal is in the positive y direction.18 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications In case of equilibrium.1 are considered to be positive. viz. 3. The shear stresses acting along the directions shown in Fig. rxy ⳱ ryx.1b) I3 ⳱ r1r2r3 (Eq 3.1a) I2 ⳱ ⳮ(r1r2 Ⳮ r2r3 Ⳮ r3r1) (Eq 3. 3.e.

Assuming that the z plane vanishes.4) Metal flow in certain forming processes. a cut is made at some arbitrary angle h as shown in Fig. To study the variation of the normal and shear stress components in the x-y plane. and the stresses on this plane are denoted by rh and sh. Consequently.3).Plastic Deformation: Strain and Strain Rate / 19 called invariants. 1972] sh ⳱ ⳮ (Eq 3. 3. [Lange. y. [Backofen. 3.2) 冢r ⳮ2 r 冣 sin 2h Ⳮ s x y xy cos 2h (Eq 3. (a) Nonsteady-state upset forging.4. the principal stresses for a given stress state are unique. (b) Steady-state extrusion. 3.5 2sxy rx ⳮ ry (Eq 3. 3. The invariants are necessary in determining the onset of yielding. one has rz ⳱ szy ⳱ szx and a biaxial state of stress exists. 3. [Hosford & Caddell. 1983] Fig. z) vanishes (Fig.4 Cut at an arbitrary angle h in the x-y plane. rh ⳱ rx Ⳮ ry r ⳮ ry Ⳮ x cos 2h 2 2 Ⳮ sxy sin 2h Fig.4 Plane Stress or Biaxial Stress Condition Consider Fig. 3. tan 2h ⳱ Fig.1 with the nine stress components and assume that any one of the three reference planes (x. The three principal stresses can only be determined by finding the three roots of the cubic equation. Thus. 3. under this condition.2 Equilibrium in a three-dimensional stress state. 1972] .3) The two principal stresses in the x-y plane are the values of rh on planes where the shear stress sh ⳱ 0. [Hosford & Caddell.3 Stresses in the x-y plane. 3. 1983] Fig.

as a function of the displacement of point a. By neglecting the higherorder components.5). tan ␣xy ⳱ ␣xy and tan ␣yx ⳱ ␣yx. e. 1983] . To simplify analysis. strain rates (deformation rates).10. This value.g. r2 ⳱ 1 (r Ⳮ ry) 2 x Ⳳ 1 2 1/2 [(rx ⳮ ry)2 Ⳮ 4sxy ] 2 ex ⳱ 1 [(rx ⳮ ry)2 Ⳮ 4s2xy]1/2 2 or (Eq 3. Obviously.9 leads to: ␣xy ⳱ ⳵uy ⳵x (Eq 3.. 3. after a small amount of plastic deformation. about the variation of the function ux over the length dx. ey ⳱ 3. or the strain in the x direction. it is often assumed that the velocity field is independent of the material properties. i. is now: ⳵uy dy ⳵y (Eq 3.6 Strains ⳵ux dx ⳵x Note that ux also depends on y and z. [Altan et al.. ubx. and considering that ex ⳱ ⳵ux/⳵x is considerably smaller than 1.10) Using Eq 3. smax ⳱ The relative elongation of length ab (which is originally equal to dx).6 Displacement in the x-y plane. it is necessary to define the strains (or deformations).20 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Thus. and that for uby can be obtained similarly as: uby ⳱ uy Ⳮ In order to investigate metal flow quantitatively.7) Fig. with the values of sin 2h and cos 2h the equation becomes r1. a⬘b⬘c⬘d⬘.7. in the y and z directions.. into a parallelogram. e ⳱ z ⳵y z ⳵z (Eq 3. Figure 3. 3. and strains (Fig.3 with respect to h and equate to zero.8a) (Eq 3. this is not correct.9) The expression for ubx is given in Eq 3. Eq 3. 冣冫dx ⳱ ⳵u⳵x x ⳵uy ⳵u .5 (ubx ⳮ ux) dx (Eq 3. is different from the displacement of point a. ubx. Thus. After a small deformation. Although this illustration is in two dimensions.6 illustrates the deformation of an infinitesimal rectangular block. the same point has the coordinates x⬘ and y⬘ (and z⬘ in 3-D). Thus: ␣xy ⳱ (uby ⳮ uy)/(ubx Ⳮ dx ⳮ ux) (Eq 3.5) To find the planes where the shear stress sh is maximum. ubx ⳱ ux Ⳮ ⳵ux dx ⳮ ux ⳵u Similarly. The coordinates of a point are initially x and y (and z in three dimensions). and velocities (displacements per unit time).11a) (Eq 3.7 and 3. velocities. abcd.6 are infinitesimally small. the principles apply also to three-dimensional cases. 3.8b) The angular variations due to the small deformation considered in Fig.6) 冢 ex ⳱ ux Ⳮ Local Deformations and the Velocity Field The local displacement of the volume elements is described by the velocity field. one can determine the magnitude of the displacement of point b. ex.e. strain rates. ux. differentiate Eq 3. Therefore. 3.

y. The instantaneous height of the block during deformation is h. strains. It is possible to express the same values in an x⬘. are: e˙ x ⳱ ⳵ex ⳵ ⳵(ux) ⳵ ⳵ux ⳵v ⳱ ⳱ ⳱ x ⳵t ⳵t ⳵x ⳵x ⳵t ⳵x 冢 冣 Similarly. and z directions [Backofen.16) Homogeneous Deformation Figure 3. Thus. e˙ ⳱ y . the total angular deformation in the xy plane. The upper die is moving downward at velocity VD.14b) c˙ yz ⳱ ⳵vy ⳵v Ⳮ z ⳵z ⳵y (Eq 3. at the center of the lower rectangular surface. is: cxy ⳱ ␣xy Ⳮ ␣yx ⳱ ⳵uy ⳵ux Ⳮ ⳵x ⳵y (Eq 3. e˙ x ⳱ ⳵vx ⳵v ⳵v . cxy. and vz. 1972. v. can be expressed as the linear function of the coordinates x.8 (Eq 3. the variations in strain with time.17) . vz ⳱ ⳮ D 2h 2h h (Eq 3. cyz. z⬘ system. y. in every small element within the plastically deforming body. z coordinate system). 1977]. y⬘.14c) vx ⳱ c˙ xz ⳱ ⳵vx ⳵v Ⳮ z ⳵z ⳵x (Eq 3. z⬘ is known. ␣yx ⳱ ⳵ux ⳵y (Eq 3.12c) 3. e.13) The strain rates. The assumption of volume constancy made earlier neglects the elastic strains. The initial and final dimensions of the block are designated by the subscripts 0 and 1.. for the deformation along the principal axes. The velocity is the variation of the displacement in time or in the x. y. The coordinate axes x. and strain rates. In uniaxial tension and compression tests (no necking. and Rowe. it is neces- VDx V y V z .14d) In order to demonstrate that the velocity field described by Eq 3. vx ⳱ ⳵ux ⳵u ⳵u . and the element deforms along the principal axes of deformation. no bulging). as follows: ex Ⳮ ey Ⳮ ez ⳱ 0 (Eq 3. vy.14a) The state of deformation in a plastically deforming metal is fully described by the displacements. cxz all equal zero. v ⳱ y. This assumption can also be expressed. vz ⳱ z ⳵t y ⳵t ⳵t (Eq 3.Plastic Deformation: Strain and Strain Rate / 21 and similarly.15) and e˙ x Ⳮ e˙ y Ⳮ e˙ z ⳱ 0 3.12a) Similarly: ⳵uy ⳵u Ⳮ z ⳵z ⳵y (Eq 3.7 Velocities and Strain Rates cyz ⳱ and The distribution of velocity components (vx. vy ⳱ D . z to x⬘. y⬘. y. e˙ z ⳱ z ⳵x y ⳵y ⳵z (Eq 3. it is possible to orient the coordinate system such that the element is not subjected to shear but only to compression or tension. This assumption is reasonable in most forming processes where the amount of plastic strain is much larger than the amount of elastic strain. and z as follows: c˙ xy ⳱ ⳵vx ⳵v Ⳮ y ⳵y ⳵x (Eq 3. The velocity components vx. provided that the angle of rotation from x. y. vz) within a deforming material describes the metal flow in that material.12b) cxz ⳱ ⳵uz ⳵u Ⳮ x ⳵x ⳵z (Eq 3. velocities. and z have their origins on the lower platen. e˙ (in an x. deformation is also in the directions of the principal axes.e. i.17 is acceptable.7 considers “frictionless” upset forging of a rectangular block. respectively. or the shear strain.11b) Thus. In this case. the strains cxy. describing the motion of each particle within the deforming block. u. vy.

1975].22 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications sary to prove that these velocities satisfy (a) the volume constancy and (b) the boundary conditions [Johnson et al. e ⳱ ey ⳱ ln 1 lo b wo (Eq 3.18(b).18c) Other strains can be obtained similarly: It can be shown easily that the volume constancy is also satisfied. Thus. e˙ ⳱ ⳮ 2h z h (Eq 3. from Eq 3. one has. e˙ x ⳱ ⳵vx V ⳱ D ⳵x 2h (Eq 3. 3. dh ⳱ ⳮVDdt. At the origin of the coordinates. the upper volume rate or the volume per unit time displaced by the motion of the upper die is: Volume rate ⳱ VDwo h o e˙ y ⳱ (Eq 3.7 Homogeneous deformation in frictionless upset forging . velocity in the y direction: vyo ⳱ VDwo /4ho Similarly: e1 ⳱ ex ⳱ ln l1 w . the shear strain rates are equal to zero..21a) or Volume rate ⳱ VDwo h o (Eq 3. The strains can be obtained by integration with respect to time. velocity in the x direction: vxo ⳱ VD l o /4ho (Eq 3.21b) The quantities given by Eq 3. velocity in the z direction: vzo ⳱ ⳮVD VD VD . 3.19) The volumes per unit time moved toward the sides of the rectangular block are: 2vxo howo Ⳮ 2vyo l o h o (Eq 3. t.7). at the origin. all the velocities must be equal to zero. Eq 3. In the height direction: ez ⳱ 冮 t1 to e˙ zdt ⳱ 冮 t1 to ⳮ VD dt h (Eq 3.20) Using the values of vxo and vyo given by the Eq 3.19 and 3.23) For small displacements. At the boundaries: At x ⳱ lo/2. for x ⳱ y ⳱ z ⳱ 0.18a) At y ⳱ wo /2.17. vx ⳱ vy ⳱ vz ⳱ 0. Satisfaction of the boundary conditions can be shown by considering the initial shape on the block before deformation (Fig.24b) Volume constancy in terms of strains can be verified from: (Eq 3. This condition is satisfied because. At the start of deformation.22b) It can be easily seen that: c˙ xy ⳱ c˙ xz ⳱ c˙ yz ⳱ 0 In homogeneous deformation.20 gives: Volume rate ⳱ 2h o(woVD l o Ⳮ loVDwo)/4h o (Eq 3.18b) At z ⳱ h o..18(a) and 3.23 gives: eh ⳱ ez ⳱ 冮 h1 ho dh h ⳱ ln 1 h ho (Eq 3.24a) (Eq 3.22a) Fig. i. The strain rates can now be obtained from the velocity components given by Eq 3.21 are equal.17. the volume constancy condition is satisfied.e. Eq 3.

1983]: Hosford. [Lange. P. or: de ⳱ dl re⳱ l 冮 l1 lo dl l1 ⳱ ln l lo (Eq 3.. 1983. or: e ⳱ ln l1 ⳱ ln (e Ⳮ 1) lo The relations between e and e can be illustrated by considering the following example uniform deformations.-I. Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy. London. the change in the length must be related to instantaneous length.9 Plastic (True) Strain and Engineering Strain (Fig.25) In the theory of metal forming plasticity. Oh..5 Ⳮ1 REFERENCES Fig. 1983]: Altan.. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Prentice-Hall.. 3. W.. Principles of Industrial Metalworking Processes.. where a bar is uniformly (or homogeneously) compressed to half its original length or is elongated to twice its original length: Compression for l1 ⴔ l o/2 dl de ⳱ re⳱ lo 冮 l1 lo dl l ⳮ lo ⳱ 1 lo lo (Eq 3. 1975]: Johnson. Deformation Processing. Fundamentals. [Johnson et al. 1983] [Altan et al. de.693 ⳮ0. Metal Forming Fundamentals and Applications.. 1977]: Rowe. Study Book of Forming Technology. therefore. ASM International. 1972. Mellor. 1983... Edward Arnold Publishers. for example—the infinitesimal engineering strain.26 and 3. the initial condition cannot be used as a frame of reference. [Hosford & Caddell. Caddell.26) (Eq 3. S. l0. 1972]: Lange..8 Comparison of engineering and true stress-strain curve.F.. 1972]: Backofen. T.27 give: 3.693 Ⳮ0. H. 1975.L.24 can also be obtained through a different approach. 3. [Hosford & Caddell. W. 1972. [Rowe. Ed. is considered with respect to the original length.W.Plastic Deformation: Strain and Strain Rate / 23 V ⳱ h owo lo ⳱ h1w1l1 r howo l o ⳱1 h1w1l1 or.. (in German). [Backofen. Vol 1. K. In the theory of strength of materials—during uniform elongation in tension.28) l1 e ⳱ ln lo l1 ⳮ lo e⳱ lo Tension for l1 ⴔ 2lo ⳮ0.M.27) Equations 3. Gegel.B.8) The results of Eq 3. R. W. Springer-Verlag. Engineering Plasticity. G.. . 1975. Addison-Wesley. taking the natural logarithm ln ho b l Ⳮ ln o Ⳮ ln o ⳱ eh Ⳮ eb Ⳮ e1 ⳱ 0 h1 b1 l1 (Eq 3. London..

Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Taylan Altan. The yield stress of a metal under uniaxial conditions. and temperature. and (c) the flow stress of the deforming material. For studying the plastic deformation behavior of a metal it is appropriate to consider homogeneous or uniform deformation conditions. (c) Schematic of dimensional change of the specimen during the test. [Thomsen et al. p25-49 DOI:10. (b) True stress-strain curve.org CHAPTER 4 Flow Stress and Forgeability Manas Shirgaokar 4. Gangshu Shen.1 as a function of strain..” The metal starts flowing or deforming plastically when the applied stress (in uniaxial tension without necking and in uniaxial compression without bulging) reaches the value of the yield stress or flow stress. editors. The flow stress of a metal is influenced by: Representation of data in tensile test. Gracious Ngaile. can also be considered as the “flow stress. 4. strain rate. www. The flow stress is very important because in metal forming processes the loads and stresses are dependent on (a) the part geometry. 1965] .1361/chff2005p025 Copyright © 2005 ASM International® All rights reserved. (b) friction. Fig.1 Introduction In order to understand the forces and stresses involved in metal forming processes it is necessary to (a) become familiar with the concept of flow stress and (b) start with the study of plastic deformation under conditions where a simple state of stress exists. (a) Engineering stress-strain curve.asminternational.

e. the strain rate. ¯ can be expressed as a function of the temperature.. The increase in the flow stress for titanium alloy Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V that (Eq 4. 1965] Fig. 4..3 Fig. The degree of dependency of flow stress on temperature varies considerably among different materials. i.e. phases. e¯ . showing lubricated shallow grooves on the ends. and prior strain history ● Factors explicitly related to the deformation process. (b) Shape of the specimen before and after the test Axial stress distribution in the necked portion of a tensile specimen. Therefore. (a) View of specimen.26 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications ● Factors unrelated to the deformation process.4 Compression test specimen. 4.. heat treatment and prior deformation history: r¯ ⳱ f(h. 4. and the microstructure.. e˙¯ ) influence of strain rate (i. strain. r. in cold forming) the effect of strain rate on flow stress is negligible. the flow stress. h. and rate of deformation or strain rate Thus. metallurgical structure. at room temperature (i. such as chemical composition. rate of deformation) becomes increasingly important.e. [Thomsen et al. temperature variations during the forming process can have different effects on load requirements and metal flow for different materials.2 Schematic representation of condition of necking in simple tension. 1965] . For a given microstructure. Conversely.e. segregation.. grain size. degree of deformation or strain. S. e˙¯ . such as temperature of deformation. [Thomsen et al.1) In hot forming of metals at temperatures above the recrystallization temperature the effect of strain on flow stress is insignificant and the Fig.

4. 1973]. In the classical engineering stress-strain diagram (Fig.3: A ⳱ Ao(e)ⳮ¯e 4. the specimen elongates initially in a uniform fashion.. 4. Eq 4.. The stress is then plotted against the engineering strain. the following relationships are valid: L ⳱ Ar¯ ⳱ Aor(e) ¯ ⳮ¯e (Eq 4.1(b) illustrates the true stress-strain representation of the same tensile test data. 2002] .e. the flow stresses of metals should be determined experimentally for the strain. 1965]. 1965]. Deformation is then concentrated only in the neck region while the rest of the specimen remains rigid.. From Eq 4. before necking occurs. strain rate. The same temperature drop in the hot working range of AISI type 4340 steel would result in a 15% increase in the flow stress [Altan et al. When the load reaches its maximum value.3) Fig. The instantaneous load in tension is given by L ⳱ Ar. 4. uniform compression and torsion tests.1 [Thomsen et al. The reason for this is that the tensile test data is valid for relatively small plastic strains.. To be useful in metal forming analyses. Ao. In this case.Flow Stress and Forgeability / 27 would result from a drop of 100 ⬚F (55 ⬚C) in the hot forging temperature (from 1700 to 1600 ⬚F..5 results in: dL dr¯ ⳱ 0 ⳱ Ao (e)ⳮ¯e ⳮ r(e) ¯ ⳮ¯e d¯e d¯e 冢 冣 (Eq 4.2) and e¯ ⳱ true strain ⳱ ln 冢ll 冣 ⳱ ln 冢AA 冣 o o (Eq 4.2 Tensile Test or The tensile test is commonly used for determining the mechanical properties of metals. However. and temperature conditions that exist during the forming processes. by the original cross-sectional area of the specimen. i. the uniform deformation conditions. Two methods of representing flow stress data are illustrated in Fig. the properties determined from this test are useful for designing components and not for producing parts by metal forming processes.4 and 4. [Dixit et al. The most commonly used methods for determining flow stress are the tensile. Flow stress data should be valid for a large range of plastic strains encountered in metal forming processes so that this data is useful in metal forming analysis. L. or 925 to 870 ⬚C) is about 40%.7) r¯ ⳱ true stress (flow stress) ⳱ instantaneous load/instantaneous area ⳱ L/A (Eq 4.3 are valid [Thomsen et al.4) Near but slightly before the attainment of maximum load. During deformation.2 and 4. e ⳱ (l ⳮ lo)/lo.6) or dr¯ ⳱ r¯ d¯e (Eq 4.5 Compression test tooling. Figure 4.5) Combining Eq 4. necking starts and the uniform uniaxial stress condition ceases to exist. the stress is obtained by dividing the instantaneous tensile load. ¯ The criterion for necking can be formulated as the condition that L be maximum or that: dL ⳱0 d¯e (Eq 4.1a).

7 and 4. [Dahl et al. (a) Specimen with spiral groove.10) Dimensions of the specimens used for flow stress determination using the compression test at the ERC/NSM.9) or e¯ ⳱ n (Eq 4. very often the flow stress curve obtained at room temperature can be expressed in the form of an exponential equation or power law: r¯ ⳱ K(¯e)n where K and n are constants.6 (Eq 4.8) Combining Eq 4. 1999] . 4.28 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications As is discussed later.. Fig. (b) Rastegaev specimen.8 results in: dr¯ ⳱ Kn(¯e)nⳮ1 ⳱ r¯ ⳱ K(¯e)n d¯e (Eq 4.

is prevented. Teflon or machine oil at room temperature and at hot working temperatures. 4. it is evident that at low forming temperatures. Therefore. e. Fig. and glass for steel. it sustains a large amount of uniform deformation in tension than a material with a smaller n. To be applicable without corrections or errors.10.. 4..11) The quantities r and R are defined in Fig. i. 4. 4. 2002].5 shows the tooling used for compression tests conducted at the Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing (ERC/NSM) of the Ohio State University [Dixit et al. which provide the true stress-strain data at larger strains relative to the tensile test. the flat platens and the cylindrical sample are maintained at the same temperature so that die chilling. are measured during the test. with its influence on metal flow. that this statement is not correct for materials and conditions where the flow stress cannot be expressed by Eq 4. the state of uniform stress in the sample must be maintained as shown in Fig. derived by Bridgman.7 4. Load-displacement curve obtained in uniform upsetting of annealed 1100 aluminum cylinders. i. Figure 4. [Lee et al. where Eq 4.. This is quite cumbersome and prone to error. are used for metal forming applications. or for increasing strain.. It can be clearly seen that. however. 1972] .8.3 Compression Test The compression test is used to determine the flow stress data (true-stress/true-strain relationships) for metals at various temperatures and strain rates. titanium.3.. the cylindrical sample must be upset without any barreling.Flow Stress and Forgeability / 29 This condition is shown schematically in Fig. or sample height. In this test. a material with a large n or strain hardening exponent. for evaluation of Eq 4. It should be noted. graphite in oil for aluminum alloys.1b) requires a correction because a triaxial state of stress is induced. other tests. and high-temperature alloys. 4.11. has greater formability. From this figure and from Eq 4.g.e.e. Barreling is prevented by using adequate lubrication. is given by: rs ⳱ r¯ ⳱ L pr2 冤冢 1Ⳮ 冣 冢 ⳮ1 冣冥 2R r ln 1 Ⳮ r 2R (Eq 4. From this information the flow stress is calculated at each stage of deformation.8 is valid. Such a correction.4. The load and displacement. the values of r and R must be measured continuously during the test.2. The calculation of true stress after the necking strain (Fig.

6). The r-¯ ¯ e data obtained from this curve are shown in Fig. At hot working temperatures. 1972] . annealed) at room temperature in a testing machine is shown in Fig.e. Adequate lubrication of the platens is usually accomplished by (a) using lubricants such as Teflon.6) or specimens with spiral grooves machined on both the flat surfaces of the specimen to hold the lubricant (Fig. whenever possible.7. 4. and Ao and A are initial and instantaneous surface areas. respectively.15) r¯ ⳱ where V is instantaneous deformation velocity. the following relationships are valid for the uniform compression test: e¯ ⳱ ln ho A ⳱ ln h Ao (Eq 4. the flow stresses of most metals (except that of lead) are only slightly strain-rate dependent. As discussed earlier the flow stress values determined at high strains in the tensile test require a correction because of necking. 4.693 or more). A typical load-displacement curve obtained in the uniform compression test of aluminum alloy (Al 1100.. respectively. the compression test. [Lee et al. the flow stresses of nearly all metals are very much strain-rate dependent.8. which can be conducted without barreling up to about 50% reduction in height (¯e ⳱ 0.13) A ⳱ Ao(e)e¯ (Eq 4. molybdenum disulfide. Therefore.8 obtain flow stress data for metal forming applications. At room temperature. 4. hot compression tests are conducted on a machine that provides a velocity-displacement profile such that the condition e˙¯ ⳱ velocity/sample Flow stress-strain curve for annealed 1100 aluminum obtained from uniform cylinder and ring upset tests.. Therefore. Therefore.12) L A (Eq 4. i. above the recrystallization temperature. ho and h are initial and instantaneous heights. or high-viscosity oil and (b) by using Rastegaev specimens (Fig. regardless of its ram speed. is widely used to Fig. 4.14) d¯e dh V e˙¯ ⳱ ⳱ ⳱ dt hdt h (Eq 4. any testing machine or press can be used for the compression test. 4.30 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Similar to the uniform elongation portion of the tensile test.

INCO 718. 4. 4.10 Press setup and fixture used in heating and compression of cylinders and rings Flat recesses at the ends should be filled with lubricant. 4.9 Fig. 4. 1999]: Specimen with spiral grooves (Fig. The specimens shown are of standard dimensions used for the compression test.001 in.01 in.008Ⳳ0.Flow Stress and Forgeability / 31 height can be maintained throughout the test. ● Rastegaev specimen ensures good lubrication up to high strains of about 0. 4.8 to 1.0005 in.02Ⳳ0. Ti-6Al-4V) .6a): Solid cylinder (diameter ⳱ 0.6a) and the Rastegaev specimen (Fig. oil graphite for temperatures up to 800 ⬚F (425 ⬚C) and glass for temperatures up to 2300 ⬚F (1260 ⬚C). The specimens are lubricated with appropriate lubricants—for example. 4. In order to maintain nearly isothermal and uniform compression conditions. depth. 4. at the end faces have a significant effect on the lubrication conditions. Examples of hot-formed compression samples are shown in Fig.10.005 in.. It has been determined through tests conducted at the ERC/NSM that Rastegaev specimens provide better lubrication and hold their form better during testing compared to the spiral grooved specimens.9./in.75Ⳳ0.11 and 4. ● Rastegaev specimen (Fig. for example) are used for this purpose. 4.6b). the test is conducted in a furnace or a fixture such as that shown in Fig.6b): ● Fig. ● Spiral grooves machined at the flat ends of the specimen with approximately 0. nicks and burrs.12. length ⳱ 0. The spiral grooves and the recesses of the Rastegaev specimen serve the purpose of retaining the lubricant at the tool/workpiece interface during compression thus preventing barreling. 4.4 (Fig. so that the specimen remains cylindrical (due to radial pressure that the lubricant exerts on the ring). ● Surface should be free of grooves. ● Ends should be flat and parallel within 0. ● Dimensions t0 ⳱ 0. The fixture and the specimens are heated to the test temperature and then the test is initiated.3.0005 in.5Ⳳ0. the spiral specimen (Fig. viz. The specifications for the specimens and the test conditions are [Dahl et al.0005 in.6b) for steels (optimum value at which the specimen retains cylin- Uniform compression samples before and after deformation (left to right: AISI 1018 steel. 4. Examples of high-temperature r-¯ ¯ e data are given in Fig. Mechanical cam-activated presses called plastometer or hydraulic programmable testing machines (MTS. and uo ⳱ 0..1 Specimen Preparation There are two machining techniques that can be used for preparing the specimens for the com- pression test.). ● to/uo ⳱ 0. 4.

4. 4.14). length.1. From the data summarized in Table 4.2. The height of each specimen was noted and an average value was calculated (Table 4. 2.. 4. The samples were compressed in the tooling (Fig. 3. A commonly used technique for parallelism measurement involves compressing lead billets of the same height.3. The procedure followed for determining the parallelism for recent tests conducted at the ERC/ NSM is described below [Dixit et al. The distance between them was measured. 4. and 2050 ⬚F (980. diameter was cut into approximately 1 in. the load applied should be perpendicular to the axis of the cylindrical specimen.2 Parallelism of the Press (or Testing Machine) Slides In a compression test.13 and 4.2).0064 mm/mm (Table 4. 4.1).14). Lead is used since it is soft and deforms easily at room temperature. From the difference in the height of two specimens and the distance between their locations. In order to ensure that a uniaxial state of stress exists during the experiment.. 1065.2 mm) gave the ratio 0.386 mm. They are tabulated in Table 4. 1975] . the difference in final height was 0.32 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications drical shape up to maximum strain before bulging occurs). for type 403 stainless steel at 1800. The final heights of the lead blocks were determined using a digital caliper. 2002]: Fig. Lead bar of 1 in. 1950.11 1. the parallelism was determined as shown in Table 4. for specimens 1 and 2. For example. The difference in the heights of the lead billets is an indication of the parallelism of the platens.2 and the ex- Flow stress versus strain and strain rate versus strain. The specimen were numbered and positioned on the compression test die (Fig. This calls for measurement of the parallelism of the platens of the press. [Douglas et al. load is applied on the billet using flat dies. and 1120 ⬚C) (tests were conducted in a mechanical press where strain rate was not constant). This value divided by the distance between their locations (60.

barreling of the test specimens during compression cannot be entirely eliminated because Fig.17 shows the load stroke curves obtained from FE simulations for different values of shear friction factors (m) and from experiment for one specimen.Flow Stress and Forgeability / 33 periments.3. finite element (FE) analysis is used. When the load stroke curves are compared it can be seen that simu- Flow stress versus strain and strain rate versus strain. Figure 4.16(a) shows the effect of friction on the end face of the billet.12 Determination of Error in Flow Stress Due to Barreling The maximum error in determining flow stress may be the result of friction. and 2100 ⬚F (1065. 4..3. 4. 1999]: ● Errors in the displacement readings.3 Errors in the Compression Test Errors in the determination of flow stress by the compression test can be classified in three categories [Dahl et al. which result in errors in the calculated strain ● Errors in the load readings. which result in errors in the calculated stress ● Errors in the processing of the data due to barreling of the test specimens The first and second type errors may be reduced or eliminated by careful calibration of the transducers and data acquisition equipment. 2050. 1975] . However. and 1150 ⬚C) (tests were conducted in a mechanical press where strain rate was not constant). it was concluded that a parallelism less than 0.. The amount of barreling (Fig.15 and 4. 1120. In order to correct the flow stress curve and to determine the percentage error in flow stress. [Douglas et al.3.4 4.01 was acceptable for conducting reliable compression tests. Figure 4.16) of different specimens expressed by (H2 ⳮ H1) for the given height reductions during a particular compression test is given in Table 4. 4. for Waspaloy at 1950. there is always friction between the specimen and the tools.

[Dixit et al. The stress obtained from finite element simulations with shear friction factor. An “apparent flow stress” curve can be cal- culated for a given value of shear friction factor m.. It should be noted that the difference in the load remains the same throughout the stroke. m. 4. Apparent flow stress curves can be used to determine the error in flow stress obtained in experiments due to barreling at higher strains (e.14 Lead samples on the compression test die.13 Distance between the billets that were placed inside the press.15) are noted. 4. At several reductions in height: ● The value of load and the associated diameters (H1 and H2 in Fig. 2002]. 2002] Fig.. Fig. ● The cross-sectional area is calculated using the mean diameter.0). 2002] . greater than zero is called apparent flow stress. A mean diameter is calculated as: (H1 Ⳮ H2)/ 2. strain ⳱ 1..34 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications lations slightly overpredict the load.g. as follows [Dixit et al.. 4. [Dixit et al.

0157 (25. ● The value of strain is calculated as loge (original height/instantaneous height). 4 0.21) 0. 2.21) 0. in. 4.0096 0.8) 1. in.21) 0. 2002] ● The “apparent stress” is calculated using the load at that height reduction and cross-sectional area (⳱ Load/Area).2) 0.24) 0. This method of estimating the friction factor using the ring test is discussed in detail in a later chapter.22) 0.1 Height of the lead specimens used in tests conducted at the ERC/NSM Specimen No. (mm) Average Final height.0145 0. The “apparent flow stress” curves obtained above can be used to calculate the error in flow stress obtained due to nonhomogenous deformation (barreling) during the tests at a strain of 1.0197 (25.942) 0. the “apparent flow stress” curves can be generated for higher strains and the procedure can be repeated for estimating stress at that particular higher strain. The ring test can also be used for determining r-¯ ¯ e data for practical applications.2) 0.5594 (14.9937 (25.87) 1.4324 (10. A graph of stress versus strain plotted for different values of shear friction factor m can be drawn as shown in Fig.18) 0.22) 0. (mm) Average Difference in height Source: [Dixit et al. For this purpose it is necessary to perform an analysis or a mathematical simulation of the ring test.5610 (14. if the r-¯ ¯ e and the friction are unknown.95) 1.99) 1.21) 0.5597 (14.9894 (25.59) 1.58) 1. Thus. Table 4.634) 0.0181 (25. 4.0 is noted down.0064 0. Conduct cylinder compression tests until a strain of 1. 1972].18.0232 (25.19) 0.5594 (14.Flow Stress and Forgeability / 35 Table 4.83) 1. The changes in the external and internal diameters of the ring are very much dependent on the friction at the tool/specimen interface [Lee et al.0.18) as a percentage value at a strain of 1. the “apparent flow stress” increases. Determine the amount of barreling in the specimen at a strain of 1.2 Parallelism between different points that are shown in Fig.0.0075 (25.59) 1.4580 (11. the error in flow stress obtained from an experiment can be calculated with respect to the stress in the curve with m ⳱ 0 (Fig.0185 (25. If the friction were equal to zero. 3.5594 (14.0075 (25. the change in the internal diameter represents a simple method for evaluating interface friction.369) 0. with each element flowing radially outward at a rate proportional to its distance from the center.5587 (14.5591 (14.83) 1. the internal diameter of the ring is reduced if friction is large and is increased if friction is low.0171 (25. ● The barreling of the specimen at a strain of 1.992 (25.9) 1.5594 (14.0169 (25. 4.5610 (14.5596 (14.0169 (25.19) 0. Inversely. results in an “apparent flow stress” that is higher in magnitude than the value obtained with zero friction.22) 0.58) 1.0019 0.0236 (26) 1.85) 1.9929 (25.0071 (25.5591 (14.5610 (14.22) 0.582) 1.0035 . 2002] and and and and and and 2 4 4 1 4 3 (mm/mm) (mm/mm) (mm/mm) (mm/mm) (mm/mm) (mm/mm) 0.9933 (25.2) 1. 4.0 as follows: 1.0072 (25.983) 0.0177 (25.21) 0. 1 Specimen No.0217 (25.19). As the value of m increases.0067 (25.4 Ring Test The ring test consists of compressing a flat ring shaped specimen to a known reduction (Fig. 4.0071 (25. the value of stress in the experiments can be noted.0. ● A particular value of shear friction factor. the ring would deform in the same way as a solid disk.86) 1. m.213) 0.0213 (25..742) Initial height.23) 0.834) 1.5591 (14. By comparing the barreling of the actual specimen with the “apparent flow stress” curves given in Fig..217) 0. 4.18.0080 0.5594 (14. If needed.2) 0. 4.5587 (14.4476 (11. 2 Specimen No.13 Parallelism between points 1 Parallelism between points 2 Parallelism between points 3 Parallelism between points 3 Parallelism between points 1 Parallelism between points 2 Source: [Dixit et al.57) 1. This simulation allows the prediction of a load-stroke curve. With increasing deformation. it is possible to calculate the r-¯ ¯ e curve if the load-stroke curve and the friction are known.9913 (25..2) 0. by using this mathematical model of the ring test. Thus.4623 (11. 3 Specimen No.5591 (14.13) 0.

. s. 4. (b) Front view. h (in radians).19) Equation 4. [Dixit et al. 2002] and Torsion Test The torsion test can be used to obtain the r¯ data at higher strains up to e¯ ⳱ 2 to 4. c. .19 are obtained from the von Mises flow rule.. [Dixit et al. 4.18 and 4. it is used when r¯ must be known for forming operations such as extrusion. and gage length ⳱ l) is twisted at a given rotational speed. which is discussed later. or pilger rolling.15 4. a notched tube (internal radius ⳱ r. (a) Before compression. Therefore.e.5 Finite element model. i.16 2002] Compression test specimen showing the effects of barreling. (a) Top view. in the gage section is given by: s⳱ T 2pr2t c ⳱ 兰dy ⳱ 冪3兰d¯e ⳱ 冪3e (Eq 4. is: c⳱ rh l (Eq 4. 4.18) Fig. are measured.7. 4. obtained at temperatures below the recrystallization temperature. (b) Barreling at 50% reduction.16) The shear strain. radial forging. wall thickness at the notched portion ⳱ t. Here the strain hardening is pronounced and the r¯ for most materials is not ap- (Eq 4.36 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Fig.17) Torsion test results can be correlated with the uniform tensile or compression results as follows: s⳱ r¯ 冪3 (Eq 4. is similar to that shown in Fig. The average shear stress. In the torsion test. in the cold forming range.6 Representation of Flow Stress Data A typical r-¯ ¯ e curve.. where large strains are present. the torque T and the number of rotations.

4 to 4. values of r¯ are higher for stronger materials.4031 0.11 10.21) where K and n are constants.4846 0. 4. [Dixit et al.1 0. the speed Table 4.3508 0.18 10. mm Strain 0. At constant e˙¯ ..41 12.45 10.17 (Eq 4.20 [Thomsen et al.4035 0. then decreases because of internal heat generation and thermal softening.20 that at small strains. cold forming have been suggested.07 0. In that case.14.19 10. Obviously.27 0.0.3283 0.21 is illustrated graphically in Fig.4083 0.3984 8.4799 0.3618 0.710 0.120 0.13 0.12.20) where A is a conversion factor.4114 0.91 9. 4.31 10..11 and 4. 2002] Fig. Because of plastic deformation.21 0. i. c is the heat capacity and q is density. Most materials.0276 0.3311 0. 2002] .19 9.34 12. are not affected by moderate strain rates.33 0. Approximate stress-strain relationships for a limited region of strain can often be given by exponential equation of the form: r¯ ⳱ K(¯e)n (Eq 4.. the test temperature is not constant in a strict sense. a temperature increase.0110 0.22) Load stroke curves obtained from experiment and finite element simulations. In all tests.3980 0. Equation 4. r¯ versus e¯ increases first.e. most r-¯ ¯ e curves are similar to those given in Fig.6 for various metals. r¯ increases with increasing e¯˙ and with decreasing temperature.785 0. At cold forming temperatures.0106 0. Some of these are: Ludwik: r¯ ⳱ a Ⳮ b(¯e)c Barreling of the compression test specimen Diameter at center H2 Barreling H2 ⴑ H1 in. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Source: [Dixit et al. 1965]. takes place..28 0.790 0.4008 0. hence.25 10. r¯ increases with increasing e¯ and reaches a saturation stress at values of e¯ larger than 0.785 Diameter at the top surface H1 Specimen No.8 or 1.4067 9.0083 0. mm in.12 0.0047 0.Flow Stress and Forgeability / 37 preciably affected by e˙¯ . 4. Dh.3929 0.0039 0.370 1. h.24 10. and K ⳱ r¯ when e¯ ⳱ 1.12 0.88 8.98 8. It may be noted from the schematic diagram of Fig. 4.37 10. At hot working temperatures. other values on n and K may be specified for different ranges of effective strain.12 0. when tested at room temperature in the work hardening range. At hot working temperatures.736 0. an experimentally determined curve may depart from the curve given by Eq 4.3 of loading need not be controlled too closely. It should be noted that other forms of stress-strain curves for room-temperature forming.550 0.3890 0. mm in.0051 0. This can be estimated as: Dh ⳱ A¯er¯ cq (Eq 4. Typical values of n and K are given in Tables 4. The slope of the curve on the log-log coordinates is n.0047 0.

2002] Fig.. Fig. b. but tends to underestimate the stress where strains are small (⬍0. 4.18 Apparent flow stress for curves for tested specimens.38 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications where a. (a) Schematic of metal flow.19 The ring test.2) and to overestimate the actual stress for larger strains. This form approximates the stress-strain curves for annealed materials. For heavily prestrained materials. [Dixit et al. (b) Example rings upset to various reductions in height . c 艑 1. and c are arbitrary constants. 4.

HR ⳱ hot rolled.15 0.12 0.0 0.5 1.60 11.09 0.8 115.007 0.7 0.6 (c) 0.A HR.6 116.9 137.1–0.023 0.5 157.045 0.032 Tr 0.1–0.13 0. very often it is sufficient to specify an average or maximum value of r¯ to be used in equations for predicting the maximum forming load.21 0.11 A 0.22 0.15 0.31 0.75 1.4 126.1–0.70 0.36 0.5 182.08 0.012 0.06 0.14 1.140 0.40 0. (d) Composition given is nominal (analysis not given in original reference).09 0.25–0.6 1.7 0.1–0.07 0.25 0.004 0.026 0.55 0.31 0.49 9.15 0.1–0.09 0.6 1.6 98.8 92.004 0.157 A 68 20 (c) 0.1–0.7 112. 103 psi n 0.51 0.31 0.24 0.25 1050(e) 1060 0.53 0.045 0.2–1. % Steel C Mn P S Si 0.20 0.008 0.26 0.71 0. 1973].023 0.49 0.60 0.4 122.2–0.7 0.7 0.29 0.86 5140 0.09 0.3 147. In such practical cases.023 0.12 0.05 0.25 68 68 68 68 32 390 68 572 68 68 68 572 68 68 572 68 68 68 68 68 68 572 68 68 572 68 68 572 68 20 20 20 20 0 200 20 300 20 20 20 300 20 20 300 20 20 20 20 20 20 300 20 20 300 20 20 300 20 (c) (c) (c) (c) 30 30 1.019 0.7 0.128 A 68 20 (c) 0.170 0.28 0.2 108.0 0.7 0. For strain-rate-sensitive materials.7 through 4.25–0.01 0.9 189.08 1.06 0.116 0.15 0.7 0.23 0.016 5120(e) 0.7 0.15 0.25) (Eq 4.1–0.17 0.015 0.005 0.057 0.179 32 390 750 68 68 68 68 68 68 0 200 400 20 20 20 20 20 20 10 30 30 (c) (c) (c) (c) 1..1–0.1 0.045 0.8 139.6 140.11 [Altan et al.4 Summary of K and n values describing the flow stress-strain relation.16 0.6 1. so that C and m would have different values at a given temperature for various strains.6 1.6 0.18 0.7 0.05 0.5 210. F ⳱ forged.6 1. (c) Low-speed testing machine. C and m values for some metals are given in Tables 4.005 0.6 (c) 1. .7 (a) Tr ⳱ trace.27 0.23 Tr Tr 0.053 0.32 2.8 91.4 73.46 0.020 0.2–0.14 0.14 0.A A A A A A A Strain range K.47 1.40 0.15 0.7 0.08 1.11 0.0062 2317(e) 5115 0.3 103.15 0.16 0.47 0.016 0.006 0.2–1.023 0.A HR.1–0.027 0.7 210.07 D2 tool steel(e) L6 tool steel W1-1.7 0.33 10.2–1.02 0.1–0.A F.13 0.8 163.2 123.6 (c) 1.093 1.019 0.1–0.69 0. no specific rate given.042 0.1–0. (b) A ⳱ annealed.03 0.7 113. use of a constant average value for r¯ is justified.010 Tr 0.03 0.01 0.021 0.44 0.3 95.8 18.25 Tr 0.40 0.295 0.6 1.65 0.6 12.004 0.1 133.8 111. then the This gives a good fit. 1/s Material history(b) A A A A F.38 0.0 170.7 0.025 0. but is not suitable for use in analysis because of its complexity.17 0. r¯ ⴔ K(¯e)n.7 0.18 1. for various steels Composition(a).02 0.16 0.7 186.028 0.7 0.1–0.017 0.037 0.2 0.027 0.1–0.7 0.016 0.41 0.04 0.45 Armco iron 1006 1008 302 304 316 410 SS SS(e) SS SS 431 SS 0.6 0.0 89.23) r¯ ⳱ C(¯e˙ )m The coefficients C and m of this curve would be obtained at various temperatures and strains. the most commonly used expression is: Table 4.6 (c) 0.35 1.11 0.05 0.19 0.045 0.2 115.27 0.28 0.031 1010 1015 1015 1015(d) 1015(d) 1020 1035 0.6 1.1 130.7 0.0C special 302 SS 1.59 Temperature Strain rate.7 102.Flow Stress and Forgeability / 39 Voce: r¯ ⳱ a Ⳮ [b ⳮ a]*[1 ⳮ exp(ⳮc¯e)] (Eq 4.59 0.36 0.0 135.6 0.16 0.045 0. Swift: r¯ ⳱ c(a Ⳮ e¯ )n (Eq 4.045 0.016 0.4 137.0 119. However.2 10.27 0.7 120.2–1.27 1045(d) 0.7 0.5 (c) (c) 1.030 0.56 N Al V Ni Cr Mo W F C 68 20 (c) 0.6 1.041 0.6 (c) (c) 1.16 18.3 191.6 0.24 0.6 95.06 0.18 0. As examples.030 0.010 0.6 (c) 1.278 0.1–0. algebraic manipulations resulting from such an expression may be difficult. If e¯ and e˙¯ are not accurately known.40 0.043 0.21 0.45 0.1 125.014 0.92 0.55 0.279 0.42 1.7 88.022 0.9 17. For predicting forces and stresses in practical forming operations.11 0.9 126. (e) Approximate composition.25–0.A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A HR.1–0.1 13.09 0.8 0.22 0.24) This is a more realistic equation than Eq 4.2 0.2 0.72 16.37 0.055 0.37 0.67 0.7 18.10 0.21.

0 12.334 0.2–1.74 0.5 54.25–0.25 may be used as an approximation for r.23 0.10 0.7 39.1 71.87 0.068 0.056 0. The data given in Table 4.16 0.0 0.4 20.7 0.0 76.2–1.2–1.0 0.01 2.48 0.297 0.0 0.45 0.2–0.065 Cr Pb 0. Effective stress versus effective strain curve in loglog scale Table 4.01 4.189 0.0 0.3 58.092 0.25–0.0 0.19 0.0 0. (d) Low-speed testing machine.01 0. In these tests the ring dimensions are also important..2–1.13 [Douglas et al.065 0.2–1. A ⳱ annealed. A ⳱ annealed.01 0.5 Rem Rem Rem Rem Rem Rem Rem Rem 0.336 (a) CDA ⳱ Copper Development Association.7 22.2–1.8 0.12 0.2–0.3 70. (d) Approximate composition.8 0.7 103.04 4. . 1/s 2.01 0.7 0. (e) Annealed for 4 h at 788 F (420 C) Table 4. r¯ ⴔ K(¯e)n. % Alloy(a) CDA110 CDA110 CDA230 CDA260 CDA260 CDA272 CDA377 CDA521(e) CDA647 CDA757 CDA794 Cu 99.7 0.A A A(c) A A A(e) A A(e) A A(e) Temperature F C Strain rate. no specific rate given.70 0. no specific rate given. (b) Low-speed testing machine.05 Tr Ni F C Material history(c) 0.5 Summary of K and n values describing the flow stress-strain relation.06 0.0 0.0003 84.15 0.275 0.0 0. (c) Annealed for 4 h at 752 F (400 C).033 0.131 0.204 0.A F A A HR.20 in Table 4.0 97. F ⳱ forged.77 0.41 0.09 0. r¯ ⴔ K(¯e)n.94 Si Fe Sb Sn Zn 0.6 57.05 4.6 1.1 29.9 115.0 65. (e) Approximate composition.7 0.0 0. whereas that Fig.15 0.2 Rem 36.13 0. for various aluminum alloys Composition.2–1.08 Material history(a) CD. 4.3 130.002 0.2–1. (b) Tr ⳱ trace.2–0. because the average ring specimen temperature varies during the test and is influenced by the heat transfer and thickness of the ring.134 0. 1975].10 were obtained from uniform isothermal compression tests.03 0.7 Tr S 0.8 70.0 Rem 99.10 0.6 Summary of K and n values describing the flow stress-strain relation.4 17.5 65.001 64 68 68 68 390 68 68 68 68 68 68 18 20 20 20 200 20 20 20 20 20 20 HR.2–1.0 0.16 0.0 65.6 ⬍0.63 0.414 0.01 0.46 0.2–0.0025 0.2 17.8 107.01 2.137 0.45 ⬍0.60 0.55 0.7 29.2 56.002 0.03 0.154 0.18 0.05 Tr 63.2–1.22 0.63 Mg Zn Ti 0.4 55.0012 15.04 0.401 0.25–0.7 0.81 0.036 0.40 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications value of C in Eq 4.2–1.13 were obtained from nonisothermal ring tests.01 0.22 1. 103 psi n 0.6 Tr 91.0 0. for various copper alloys Temperature Composition(b).373 0.486 0.10 0.50 0.130 0.5 (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) Strain range K.16 0.23 0.7 98.1 61.2 101.2–1.12 and 4. % Alloy 1100 1100 EC 2017 2024(d) 5052 5052(d) 5056 5083 5454 6062 Al Cu Si Fe Mn 99.04 0. (c) HR ⳱ hot rolled.3 22.8 0.20 0.2–0.68 0.A A A F F A A 9.50 0.8 67.83 0.2–1.12 0.0 25.026 0.412 0.0 0. ¯ Such values for hot working temperatures are given for a few materials in Tables 4.0 0.2–1.10 0.76 0.8 0.01 4.394 0.282 0.20 2.0 2.01 0.13 0.003 0. 1/s 32 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 0 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 10 (b) 4 (b) (b) 4 (b) 4 4 4 (b) Strain range K.14 0.4 45.0012 Tr Pb 0.01 0.2 49.0 0.9 29.122 (a) CD ⳱ cold drawn. 103 psi n 0.180 0.304 0.01 0.328 0.5 Strain rate.

9 23.133 0.1 13.70 0.7 13.133 0. 0.178 0.1 0.218 0. 0.4 28.2 13. C 0.123 0.045 7.0 9.4 0.9 16.8 15.147 0.6 17.68 Mn.077 0.181 1830 (1000) 13. 0.167 0.168 0.175 0.5 11. as received 4.2 7.8 21.73 Mn.0 39.05 0.172 0. 0.7 41.5–100 0.9 12. 0.15 C. 0.56 C.103 0.088 0.04 Ni 0.8 33.198 0.139 0.025 P Hot rolled.196 . 0. 0.164 0.099 0.137 21.161 0.8 21.2 18.10 0.189 0.7 11.090 0.3 21.4 8.083 0.105 1110 (600) 1830 (1000) 15.9 0.0 23.7 23.10 0.46 C.70 0. F (C): 1055 0.45 Mn.121 0.1 18.6 7.7 Summary of C (ksi) and m values describing the flow stress-strain rate relation.1 0.109 0.129 0.1 0.50 0.6 0.20 0.8 0.7 7.189 0.1 9.094 0.6 0. 0.8 23.150 0.3 23.112 0.143 0.3 12. as received 0. 0.26 Si. F (C): 1045(a) 0.4 15.176 0. 0.196 11.140 0.1 16.165 0.2 16.176 0.153 0.9 16.4 12.8 22.4 20.3 21.166 0.100 0.129 0.112 0.3 6.159 0.180 0.087 0.4 14. 0.9 17.9 13.125 0.7 16.4 18.112 40.088 0.149 0.4 35.032 P Hot rolled.695 m 1470 (800) C m C m 1830 (1000) 2190 (1200) 19.183 0.8 8. r¯ ⴔ C(¯e˙ )m.7 12.6 0. 0.105 1470 (800) 0.124 0.5 12.204 0.70 0. 0.01 Mo. 0.2–30 0.12 Si.338 0.143 0.0 9.5 6.25 0.025 S 1043 C 36.086 0.1 12.6 0.5 15.29 Si.127 1800 (980) 15.7 10.150 0.5–30 1060(a) 0. 0.104 1600 (870) 25. 0.30 0.10 0.4 7.2 16.6 8.26 Si.173 1830 (1000) 2190 (1200) 7.1 0.4 32.8 24.7 Test temperature.1 16. 0.05 0.128 0.100 0.3 0.30 0.6 8.127 0.30 0.9 14.60 0.3 7.100 0.2 18.013 P.5 32.014 P. 0.09 Ni Hot rolled.1 10.209 0.097 0.9 7.9 12.0 0.131 40.2 17.169 21. 0.7 Test temperature.2 Forged.082 0.114 1650 (900) 16.8 10.2 17. 0.151 1650 (900) 25.179 1830 (1000) 13.8 0.7 9.089 0.4 0.7 13.10 0. 0.5 7. annealed m 1110 (600) 0.085 0.141 0.025 P Hot rolled.126 0.30 0. 0.0 16.085 0.5 0.0 7.6 22.122 2010 (1100) 2190 (1200) 11.118 0. 0.8 7.8 0.3 35. 0.0 14.12 Si.8 0.5–100 1095(a) 100 C. 0. 0.138 0.192 0.080 0. F (C): 1016 0.7 23.032 ⳮ0.01 P.105 0.1 17.70 0.117 0.127 0.50 0.4 7.5 0.6 0.8 16.004 ⳮ0. F (C): 1018 1025 0. trace Si.087 0.147 0.114 0.62 Mn.6 12.08 Cr.223 0.157 0.180 0.119 0.70 Test temperature.014 S.50 0.20 0.9 0.3 16.094 0.143 0.28 Mn.0 15.15 C.8 6. 1/s Strain Test temperature. 0.134 2000 (1090) 2200 (1205) 9.50 0.5/0.034 S.8 11. 0.9 8.55 C.73 Mn. 0.158 0.8 23.7 0.021 S.104 18. 0.19 Si.3 0.28 Mn.152 0.4 7.40 Mn.5 9.10 0.1 11.066 1830 (1000) 13.6 22.09 Ni 1060(a) 0.132 0.05 0.8 13.1–100 0. 0.6 17.191 0.076 0.30 0.9 0.5 10.6 9.098 0.151 0. annealed 1.8 16.114 0.7 Test temperature.17 Mn.156 0.4 41.5 0. 0.092 0.126 0.135 0.8 29.125 0.164 0.3 23.088 0.082 0. annealed 0.20 0. 0.207 0.4 8.5–30 Hot rolled.054 S.191 0.9 10.232 1940 (1060) 2075 (1135) 2190 (1200) 10.115 0.8 12.193 0.127 0.132 0.5 8.512 0.145 0.205 0. 0.237 m 0.4 20.8 2150 (1180) 0.4 0.168 0.5 20.4 10.1 8.2 0.3 11.109 0.6 0.09 Ni Hot rolled.6 24.068 5.173 0.8 3. 0.5 0.5 0.17 C.12 Cr.109 18. 0.4 6.2 11.8 8.6 15.3 9. 0.146 0.4 8.090 0.0 0.075 0.1 8. F (C): (a) Approximate composition.1 12.7 11.3 16.229 2010 (1100) 2190 (1200) 10.130 0.014 S.2 13.8 8.07 0.188 14.110 0.2 9.105 0.145 0.147 0.0 10. 0.146 0.141 0. F (C): 1015 0.093 0.1 0.099 0.108 0.099 0.6 8. F (C): 0. for steels at various temperatures (C is in 103 psi) Steel Material history Strain rate range.15 C.129 0.126 0.128 0.3 22.023 P.4–23.127 0.1 16.8 8.116 0.169 0.148 0. 0.117 0.127 0.21 0.10 Cr.4 0.9 20.190 0. annealed 1016 0.1 9.4 13. 0.50 0.034 S. 0.084 0.130 0.2 0.5 7.143 0.138 0.5 18.191 0.5 8.108 0.1 12.5–100 1115 0.110 0.128 0.016 S Forged.5 0.184 0.40 0.119 0.2 18.181 0.9 33. 0.082 0.68 Mn.7 1650 (900) 18.7 23.124 0.56 C.032 2010 (1100) 2190 (1200) 9.7 Test temperature.018 P.0 16.5 0.027 S.058 6.25 C.171 0.158 0.5 8.1 10.099 0.012 P.105 17.1 12.125 0.8 22.016 S Forged.Flow Stress and Forgeability / 41 Table 4.146 0.013 P. 0.162 0. annealed 3. 0.159 0.3 18.105 (continued) 0.4 7.084 0.5 12.2 0.3 18.12 Cr.3/0. 0.9 13.123 0.161 0.6 9.40 Test temperature.3 19.082 C 10.157 0.0 9.133 0.7 8.2 18.25 0.7 10.132 0.08 Si. 0.24 Si.3 21.080 0.9 9.5 23.122 0.107 0.128 1705 (930) 16. annealed 1.153 Si.7 10. annealed 1.9 21. 0.5 9.

6 44.35 C.29 Cr.8 23.7 8.150 0.153 0.0 12.55 Mo.28 Si. 3.5 20.61 C.9 19.094 0.1 20. 0.158 0.3 17.096 0.19 Si.41 Cr.5–100 Cr-Si steel 0.179 0.0 25.06 C.40 0.147 0. 0.161 0.155 0.6 25.5 14.4 14.141 0.5 0.132 0.50 0.019 S.18 Ni.098 0.3 7.0 8.265 0.8 12.9 12.2 28.4 14.131 0. 0.8 0.027 S.5 0.9 21.32 Mn.5 13.155 0.22 Si.2 22.5 12.7 33.109 0.2 43.5 16.94 Mn.5–100 Hot rolled.179 8.112 17.133 0.7 27.7 16.199 0.7 19.149 0.127 0.60 0.60 0.40 0.118 0.107 0.209 0.6 25.7 14.10 0.9 20.3 0.50 0.8 15.176 0.9 19.1 31.123 0.131 0.162 0. 0.1 9.70 0.30 0.161 0. 1.031 P. 0.181 0.9 12.267 0. 0.029 P.8 0.9 28.40 0.7 (continued) Steel Material history Strain rate range.4 7.112 0. 18.1 19.164 0. m 1830 (1000) 0. 0.150 0. 0.093 0.4 14.5 14.126 0.020 S.163 0.8 21.0 18.117 0. 0.114 0.70 16.143 0. 2.1 22.134 8.9 15.151 0.6 20.8 14.228 0.124 2010 (1100) 2190 (1200) 9.132 0.023 S.167 0.20 0.139 0.61 C.6 14.30 0.5 11.100 0.184 0.11 Ni.17 Mn.184 0.2 8.101 0.120 0.075 0.70 1650 (900) 19.46 Mn.172 0.178 0.1 12.130 0. F (C): Alloy steel 0.9 23.111 0. 1.59 Cr.1 8.8 8.144 0.088 0.143 0.191 0.125 0.102 9.179 0.9 19. 0.168 1650 (900) 6.58 Si.43 Si.35 C.168 0. F (C): H-26(a) 0.2 7.295 1830 (1000) 37.121 0.125 0.7 11.3 8.10 0. annealed 1.122 0.115 (continued) (a) Approximate composition.101 0.30 0.3 20.5 0.4 0.6 16.3 0.163 0.220 0.3 0. annealed 1.6 39.1 0.108 0.8 0. 0.130 0. 8.092 0.203 0.6 13.1 7.0 24.109 0.1 18.30 0.94 Mn.7 9.023 P.20 Cr 20 Ni D3(a) 2. 0.1 11.10 0.5 25.6 20.102 0.151 0. 0.5 0.05 0. 0.10 0.7 15.80 C.1 21.6 27.035 P.59 Mo 926(a) 0.3 29.109 0.10 0.35 Mo.27 Ni.121 0.0 9.094 0.39 C.8 11.120 0.121 0.6 10.33 Ni Hot rolled. 0.2 19.42 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Table 4. 0.30 0.143 0.0 11.2 16.6 19.9 12.10 0.1 10. 0.05 0.5 14.041 S. F(C): Mn-Si steel 0.179 0.10 0.5 17.099 0.6 19.2 26.121 0.135 0. 0.113 0.6 13.108 1830 (1000) 4.2 11.131 0.05 0. annealed 1.1 11.5 14.9 16.9 23.134 0.9 25. 0.131 1290 (700) 19.206 0.60 0.7 49.0 0.8 0.164 0.087 0.152 0.20 0.107 0.135 0.9 0.5–100 290–906 Hot rolled. 0.0 30.139 0.235 0.305 0.0 6.3 0.5 8.016 P.28 Mo 4337(a) 0. 0.7 18.5 17.27 Si.129 0.10 Cr.8 13.74 Si.0 24.0 9.155 0.112 0.2 13.5 10.037 P. 0.8 17. 0. 0.193 0.9 0.0 15.162 C m .178 0.154 0.182 0.60 Mn.0 8.1 0. 0.106 0.138 0.171 0.189 0.199 0.077 0. 1. 0.160 0.3 0.162 0.149 0.3 18.7 6.341 0.124 0.3 11.166 0.135 0.139 0. annealed 1.6 27.02 Si. 0.139 0.0 25.155 0.269 2010 (1100) 2190 (1200) 26.9 25.70 Test temperature.087 0.1 16.50 0.112 0.134 0.1 28.142 0.038 S.374 0.04 Ni.5 22.131 0.7 9. 0.144 0. 0.232 0. 5.080 Test temperature.104 0.7 11.080 0.45 Ni.49 Mn.2 13.1 12.1 33.140 0.145 1510 (820) 10.188 0.146 0.3 7.100 0.12 Cr.167 0.150 0.038 S.106 0.7 17.058 0.108 0.12 Cr. F (C): H-13 0. 0.112 0.70 0.212 0.7 0.182 0.2 26.10 Cr.8 9.8 21.47 C.169 0.0 18.142 0.199 0.137 0.2 0. 0. 0. 0.1 29.162 0.175 0.4 15.091 0.3 0.148 0.3 16.287 0. 0.2 14.2 26.40 0. 1/s Strain Test temperature. 0.9 26.119 0. 0.275 0.087 0.162 0.50 0.4 28.305 0.125 0.1 8.134 0. 1.160 0.4 10.1 9.10 0.9 25.2 10.105 0.075 0.30 0.70 0.165 0.108 0.7 10.27 Si.126 0.40 W.1 15. 0. 0.4 11.7 39.119 0.10 0.8 25.130 0. 0.50 0.2 23.2 10.5–100 C m C m 2010 (1100) 2190 (1200) 12. annealed 1.7 0.121 0. 0.6 11.20 0.155 0.2 10.111 0.158 0.4 14.27 Ni.5 9.192 0.1 Test temperature.072 0. 1.70 0.3 12.6 19.50 0.159 0. 0.152 0.3 13.70 22.2 10.295 0.141 0.9 18.131 12.1 18.204 1650 (900) 46.115 0.5 20.09 Ni Hot rolled.4 38.2 9.8 22. 0.091 0.8 18.06 Mo C 1650 (900) 1830 (1000) 14.54 V C 16.06 Mo 50100(a) 1.178 0.50 0.4 11.095 0.5 16.5 21.8 18.9 25.4 10.4 8.00 C.70 0.125 0.8 11.1 9.66 Mn.03 Cr.114 0.8 14.60 0.160 0.104 0.107 0.8 0.83 V m 0.0 21.142 0.165 0.125 0.182 0.6 20.140 0.183 0.105 0.20 0.6 27.094 0. 4.150 0.0 21.1 18.136 0.0 11.8 11.096 0.7 27.23 C. 0.373 0.102 0.7 11.122 7.101 0.1 19.17 Ni Hot rolled.6 28. 0.3 6.7 9. 0.30 0.155 0.58 Mn.027 N.0 23.1 12. 0.145 0.123 0. 0.6 19. 1.4 20.4 27.146 11.5 10.50 0.30 0.1 15.148 6.9 19.50 0.108 0.5 19.5 19.106 0.4 7.2 27.1 30.30 0.8 17.2 0.2 13.035 P.05 0.8 17. 0. 13.114 0.7 15. 0.37 Mn. 1.30 Cr.58 Si.5–100 52100 1.174 0.1 39.

37 Si.435 0.2 20. annealed 310–460 0.270 25.145 0. 0.8–100 0.080 0.62 Cr SS 0.25 0.5 31.56 Mn. annealed 310–460 0. 0.114 0.161 0. 1.326 6.7 11.7 24.9 24.6 40.3 0.120 0.0 Test temperature.8 Hot drawn.020 0.5 28.037 P. 0.067 0. 0.147 0.254 0.5 61.5 Hot rolled.2 25.091 0.70 28.153 0.9 24. 12.07 Mn.70 26. m 1470 (800) 0.3 23.2 58.099 0.9 19. 1.090 15.127 0.023 0.050 0.009 P. 0.157 0.067 11.084 0. 12.25 0.073 0.3 34.05 0. 0.138 0.5 14.6 9.1 0.49 Cr.02 N.142 0.3 35.055 0. 0.3 26.072 1830 (1000) 16.31 Mo. 2.01 P.30 Cr.079 0.0 0.115 0. 9.1 33.08 C.7 9.5 1700 (925) 36.105 0.2 21.098 8.129 0.077 2200 (1205) 12.076 Test temperature.2 26.185 0.143 0.092 0. 0.30 Mn.023 P. 1. 1.9 9.7 0.4 45.014 P.60 0.184 0.177 0.7 22.42 Si.37 Cr.185 2190 (1200) 0.175 0.45 Si.8 17. 22. 0. 0.5 0.3 17.204 0.102 1470 (800) 2010 (1100) 2190 (1200) 13.34 Cr.40 0.005 S.093 0.1 12.56 Ni 302 SS 0.0 10. 0.102 7. 7.7 (continued) Steel Material history Strain rate range.25 0.8 9.1 28.9 0.030 0.080 0.113 C m 0.40 0.062 0.4 6.154 0.192 0.026 0. 12.7 15.5–30 0.108 1830 (1000) 32.6 18.074 0.6 0.29 Mn. 0.031 0.08 C.098 0. 1.1 Maraging 300 (a) Approximate composition.4 41. 6.079 0.6 28. 0.2–30 0.4 0.Flow Stress and Forgeability / 43 Table 4.9 27.8 13.1 0.13 C.1 48.25 0.48 Mn.158 7.101 0.165 .074 0.068 0.024 P.43 Si. F (C): 302 SS 0.053 0.9 63.083 0.1 0.99 Ni 310 SS 0.10 Mn.139 0. 1/s Strain Test temperature.0 0.99 Cr.063 11.07 C.40 Mn.082 0. annealed 0. 0.162 0.30 0.042 0.317 0. 0.310 0.016 S.6 0.8 21.052 12.115 0.07 C.2 13.50 0.1 30.6 0.9 Test temperature.096 17. 0.089 0.2 14.60 26. 0.40 0.26 Si.031 0.9 37.8 0.094 0.25 Cr.022 0.145 0.069 1110 (600) 200–525 C 40.50 Ni.08 C.10 0.031 23.067 43. 0.093 0.25 0.5 22.8–100 Hot rolled.8 13.0 7.9 11.6 34.6 Hot drawn.281 0. 0. 25.096 0. 17.068 0.17 Mo 403 SS 0.117 0.0 45.2 0.4 C 2190 (1200) 0. F (C): m 16.4 25.23 Ni.007 S. 0.6 35.212 27.152 0.5 19.107 2000 (1095) 2100 (1150) 21. 12.091 0.082 0.8 39.20 0.051 0.4 3.16 C.1 0.93 Si.005 S.5 0.40 0. 0.3 26.40 0.3 17. 16.042 0. 0.263 0.128 22.7 6.284 12.38 Cr. 0.206 0.5 0.12 C.60 Cr.3 18.16 Ni Hot rolled.8 0.3 37.009 S.71 Si.8 30.133 0.7 29.0 15.25 0.005 S. 0.70 1600 (870) 0. F (C): 309 SS 0.50 0. annealed 0.60 Hot drawn. annealed Hot rolled.023 36. 0.082 0.040 0.8 7.6 7.40 0.0 26. 0. F (C): 301 SS(a) 0. 0.032 0. annealed 310–460 0.43 Mn.2 0.035 P. annealed C 0.063 Se 302 SS 0. 17. 21.8 1650 (900) 24.4 16.5 18.5 13.70 Ni 1.1 19.7 3.227 0.079 0. annealed Maraging 300 m 1110 (600) 1650 (900) 28.5 0.4 0. 0.2 64.076 0.5–100 0.50 0.25 0.4 0.3 32.25 0.7 4.6 6.70 Test temperature.60 50. F (C): m 1830 (1000) 39.3 Hot rolled.005 S. 0.284 0.4 0.50 0.06 Mn.1 24.9 42. 0.5 22.45 Mo SS 0. 1.142 0. 18.7 0.161 4.8 4.50 0.06 C.4 33.31 Ni C 0.96 Ni.49 Si.93 Al.5 9.70 Hot rolled.110 0. 18. 0.108 0.149 0.097 0.158 0.6 35. 18. 0. annealed 0.031 P.120 8.28 Ni 316 SS 0.060 0. 0.2 26.118 0.11 Cr.12 C.60 0.6 4.131 19. 0. 0.5 13.093 0.128 0.117 0.6 11.155 0.188 0.3 56.3 7.365 8.6 19.7 0.70 52. 0.089 0.5 39.2 0.44 Mn.102 0.25 0.178 0.121 0.52 Si. 1.125 0.12 Si.60 13.127 0.03 P.9 9.6 13. 0.8–100 0.095 1800 (980) 30.079 0.008 S. 9.5 16.0 13. 0.014 S.

0.45 Mg.144 11.9 9.215 0. aged at 285 F for 16 h m 390 (200) 0.110 0. 0.191 0.250 0. F (C): 0.512 0.147 0.032 ⳮ0.23 Fe.1 17. 0.140 0.1 0.105 0.9 4. annealed 1/2 h at 1110 F EC 0.038 8. 0.130 0.036 Cu.5 15.80 Mn.1 10.4 4.183 Test temperature.9 45. water quenched annealed 4 h at 750 F 5052 0.7 0.5 32. 0.9 4.3 15. annealed 0.035 0.7 3. 0.4–311 0.21 Si.034 20.70 Test temperature.1 0.052 Zn.9 2. 0.230 0.4 0. Rem Al Extruded. 0. 0.067 0.135 0.83 Mg.500 0.25–63 1100 99.115 2.155 0.30 Fe. 0.3 4. 0. 0.3 0.01 Zn.105 9.9 20.6 12.75 Zn.80 14.5 0.067 0.01 Cu.203 0.110 0. 4.003 0. 4.095 0.001 0.038 570 (300) 14.6 0.6 0.128 5.205 0. F (C): Super-pure 99.050 465 (240) 10.2 29.138 0.0 9.0 16.22 Fe.01 Zn.3 8.50 Cu.6 5.3 6.100 0.024 0.026 Mn.143 0.202 0.093 0.01 Mn. water quenched.115 0. 2.16 Fe. 0.031 ⳮ0.175 0.70 42.6 41.0 16.002 Ti.0033 Fe.6 43.5 4.5 10.80 Test temperature.041 750 (400) 6.01 Pb.068 0. 0.41 Mg.60 0.125 645 (360) 825 (480) 5.061 0.009 16.80 43.04 Mn. 0.25–40 1100(a) 0.003 Ti.170 0.50 Fe.115 0.01 Cu. 0. F (C): 0.9 12.064 390 (200) 9.155 0.40 0.022 0. 0.150 0.95 Al.60 0.8 0.7 0.0 6.10 Cu.9 20.9 11.1 480 (250) 0.115 0.100 465 (240) 0. 0.3 10. Rem Al Annealed 3 h at 790 F 0.89 Mg.1 13.3 9.132 0.3 8. 0.9 2.8 16.182 0.1 5.5 9.031 0.8 Summary of C (ksi) and m values describing the flow stress-strain rate relation.01 Zn. annealed 2017(a) 0. 0.3 7.155 .0017 Cu.21 Mg.188 0. F (C): 34.9 7. F (C): 10.40 0.138 0.0 9.5 2. 2. 3.4 13.146 0.20 Si.145 0.9 12.120 0.141 0.02 Mn. for aluminum alloys at various temperatures Alloy Material history Strain rate range.9 40.4 3.9 37.155 930 (500) 0.4 4.1 9.168 0.8 10.14 Cr. 4.033 Mg. 0. 0.100 0. 0. 0. 0.211 0.6 0.130 0.032 ⳮ0.4–311 Test temperature.25–63 0.695 0.130 0.5 0.2 4.055 0.25–63 Annealed 3 h at 790 F 0.068 Cu. 0. F (C): Solution treated 1 h at 870 F.8 10.104 0. 0.8 C m 930 (500) C m 1110 (600) 5.45 Mg Cold drawn.660 Test temperature.098 0.8 19.5 19.065 Cu.2 3.100 0.090 0.10 Si.068 5.8 17.4 0.4 2.2 0.20 0. 0.695 m C m 570 (300) 750 (400) 4.026 0.161 0.3 0.10 Si.2 12.035 0.7 8.4 11.2 3.009 ⳮ0.073 0. r¯ ⴔ C(¯e˙ )m.3 5. 5. Rem Al 5454 0.8 19.15 Si.10 Si.5 2.2 2.0 36.8 5.7 10.7 0.31 Cu. 0.120 0.021 0.40 0.156 0.50 0. 0.2 7.4 6.25 0.01 Pb C 750 (400) 6.090 840 (450) 930 (500) 1020 (550) 6.022 0.3 0.41 Fe. 0.038 0.12 Si.288 2.201 0.102 0.8 2.141 1.135 930 (500) 4.2 0. C 4–40 Test temperature. F (C): 7075(a) 89.173 0.44 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Table 4.066 0.5 7.7 840 (450) 930 (500) 0.014 ⳮ0.20 0.19 Fe. ⬍0.20 0. 0.223 0.6 ⳮ0. 0.026 390 (200) 9.20 0.40 0. Rem Al 5083 0.121 0.092 Si.3 3.5 11.01 Zn.088 3. 0.097 10.005 ⳮ0.3 16. 92.61 Si.208 0. 0.4 2. 0.4 0. annealed 1 h at 750 F 2017 94.5 0. 0.115 2.169 0.4–311 0.9 6. 0.10 Cu. 0.9 Al Solution treated 1 h at 950 F.1 2.50 Mn.200 0.035 0.8 13.0 10. 2. 0.111 0.182 0.119 660 (350) 750 (400) 9.8 0.108 0.2 ⳮ0. 0.126 0.130 2.0026 Si.2 6.40 0.006 Mn Cold rolled.2 0.3 6.075 300 (150) 0. 1. 0.01 Mg Cold drawn. 1/s Strain Test temperature.7 10.6 0.15 Si.0 Al (min). 0.9 16. 0. 99.74 Mg.2–30 0.0 ⳮ0.2 7.066 0.25–63 Annealed 3 h at 790 F 0. 0.46 Fe. 0.338 0.04 Mn.006 ⳮ0.080 645 (360) 825 (480) 0. 0.095 0.25–63 Annealed 3 h at 790 F 0.1 4.60 0.5 Al Annealed 3h at 750 F 0.224 660 (350) 840 (450) 1020 (550) 11.3 4.7 0.110 0. 0.13 Cr.0 0.1 2.17 Cu.100 0.227 0.009 ⳮ0.66 10. F (C): (a) Approximate composition.80 33. 0.0 0.071 0.6 36.01 Zn.4 0.134 0.002 20.025 ⳮ0.88 0.77 Mn.81 Mn.115 5.6 1.700 Test temperature.069 0.2 5.60 0.01 Zn.002 Ti.8 2.071 0.041 0.3 0.0 44. Rem Al 5056 0.3 13.20 0.60 0.6 Al.125 0.141 0.125 0.161 750 (400) 0.084 0.121 0.50 Fe.6 0.6 44.7 18. 0.34 Mn.98 Al.18 Fe.116 0. 0.

190 . annealed 3.137 0.220 45. ⬍0.1 5.50 0.004 Pb. 0.44 Cu.02 Fe.4 0. 0. 0.9 26. 0.194 0.025 0.168 0.0025 Fe.0 46.2 32.0010 Ni.02 Fe. F (C): 0.017 0.7 0.6 5.9 42.003 Sn.096 0.25 0. 0.7 16.0012 S.176 1110 (600) 1470 (800) 0.2 26.017 0.7 13.3 3.9 6.9 Summary of C (ksi) and m values describing the flow stress-strain rate relation. 0.086 11.032 0.0010 Fe.010 0.028 0.239 0.2 0.3 42.018 0.223 0.0003 Sb.228 0.0413 750 (400) 23. for copper alloys at various temperatures Alloy Material history Strain rate range.4 0.128 0. 1/s Strain Test temperature.024 22.078 C m 1380 (750) 7. 0.148 0.134 0.291 7.2 59.0 22.1 0. 0.105 0.033 Fe.061 0.035 28.50 0.7 48.134 0.9 28.8 8.3 0.4 26.3 6. 0. F (C): m 570 (300) 0.7 0.0 14.0003 Sn.6 9.4 4.049 0.041 0.151 0. Rem Zn Extruded. F (C): OFHC Copper C 20.2 34.6 26.032 0.8 18.5 8.2 0.4 CDA 110 99. Rem Zn CDA 280 60.004 0.043 0. annealed 2 h at 1110 F 4–40 0.1 26.036 0.1 2. annealed 3.7 0. annealed CDA 220 90.5–30 0.70 3.0012 Pb 0.7 0. trace Sn.6 24.5 8. trace Sn.197 0.05 Cu.78 Cu.6 0.8 2. Rem Zn CDA 365 59.25 0. 0.7 Test temperature.8 57.154 0.008 0.6 6.94 Cu.0 0.027 34.097 0.084 0.90 Pb.06 Cu.512 0.003 O2.9 13.016 0. 0. less than 0.065 0.50 0.9 19.7 6.075 0.4 28.6 60.5–30 Hot rolled.078 9.70 0.014 0.70 0.001 Ni Hot rolled.081 16.110 0.0 58.046 0.056 0.024 C m 840 (450) 17.156 0.189 0.0001 Bi.0005 Mg.0005 Pb 0. 0.1 930 (500) 12.2 11.0005 As.186 0. Rem Zn CDA 260 70.029 0.6 26.0 8. 0.0 27.8 0.50 0.182 800 (427) 26.1–10 0.338 0.018 0.281 0.3 0. trace Fe Ⳮ Sn.5 25.4 19.031 0.25 0.195 0.018 P.8 0.085 0.25 0. Se Ⳮ Te not detected Cold drawn.166 0.0002 Sb. F (C): Copper 0. cold drawn 30%.106 0.027 0. r¯ ⴔ C(¯e˙ )m.5 5.1 7.4 2.8 14.0014 S.25 0.034 34.228 0. 0.165 750 (400) 1110 (600) 6.5 30.8 0.70 Hot rolled.9 40.113 2.1 39.3 7.50 0.038 0.237 0.0020 Mn ⬍0.045 0.083 0. 0.6 0.01 Pb.136 0.695 Test temperature.057 390 (200) 41. annealed 650 C.031 C m 1110 (600) 12.050 0. 0. 0.7 10.Flow Stress and Forgeability / 45 Table 4.25–40 0. annealed 0.222 C m 1650 (900) 4.5–30 0.150 0.140 49.0 11.4 24.6 28. 90 min Hot rolled.1 1.8 0. ⬍0.0 6.160 0.70 Test temperature.144 0.

46 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications

Table 4.10 Summary of C (ksi) and m values describing the flow stress-strain rate relation, r¯ ⴔ
C(¯e˙ )m, for titanium alloys at various temperatures
Alloy

Material
history

Strain rate
range, 1/s

Strain

Test temperature, F (C):
Type 1
0.04 Fe, 0.02
C, 0.005 H2,
0.01 N2, 0.04
O2, Rem Ti
Type 2
0.15 Fe, 0.02
C, 0.005 H2,
0.02 N2, 0.12
O2, Rem Ti

Annealed
15 min at
1200 F in
high
vacuum
Annealed
15 min at
1200 F in
high
vacuum

Unalloyed
0.03 Fe,
0.0084 N,
0.0025 H,
Rem Ti

Hot rolled,
annealed
800 C,
90 min

0.25–16.0

0.25–16.0

0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0

Test temperature, F (C):
0.1–10

0.25
0.50
0.70

Test temperature, F (C):
Ti-5Al-2.5 Sn
Annealed
5.1 Al, 2.5 Sn,
30 min at
0.06 Fe, 0.03
1470 F in
high
C, 0.01 H2,
0.03 N2, 0.1
vacuum
O2, Rem Ti

0.25–16.0

Ti-6Al-4V
6.4 Al, 4.0 V,
0.14 Fe, 0.05
C, 0.01 H2,
0.015 N2, 0.1
O2, Rem Ti

0.25–16.0

Annealed
120 min
at 1200 F
in high
vacuum

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
0.9
1.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
0.9
1.0

Test temperature, F (C):
Ti-6Al-4V
Test temperature, F (C):
Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al Annealed
3.6 Al, 14.1 V,
30 min at
10.6 Cr, 0.27
1290 F in
Fe, 0.02 C,
high
0.014 H2, 0.03
vacuum
N2, 0.11 O2,
Rem Ti

0.25–16.0

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0

C

m

68 (20)
92.8
113.7
129.6
142.5
150.6
143.3
173.2
193.8
208.0
216.8

0.029
0.029
0.028
0.027
0.027
0.021
0.021
0.024
0.023
0.023

C

m

392 (200)
60.9
73.3
82.2
87.7
90.7
92.7
112.1
125.3
131.9
134.8

0.046
0.056
0.056
0.058
0.054
0.043
0.042
0.045
0.051
0.056

C

m

25.3
29.6
32.1
32.7
32.5
33.6
36.3
36.9
37.0
36.9

12.8
14.6
14.9
15.4
15.9
17.5
18.4
18.4
18.4
18.6

0.074
0.061
0.049
0.042
0.044
0.051
0.047
0.047
0.045
0.045

1470 (800)

14.3 0.115
17.8 0.111
20.0 0.098

8.2 0.236
10.0 0.242
12.2 0.185

392 (200)

752 (400)

125.6
138.8
147.4
151.4

0.028 97.6 0.028
0.022 107.4 0.026
0.021 112.5 0.027
0.022 116.0 0.022

203.3 0.017 143.8 0.026 119.4 0.025
209.7 0.015 151.0 0.021 127.6 0.022
206.0 0.015 152.0 0.017 126.2 0.017
118.7 0.014

1550 (843)

1750 (954)

38.0 0.064

12.3 0.24

9.4 0.29

68 (20)

392 (200)

752 (400)

173.1
188.2
202.3
215.2
226.3

m

39.8
48.8
53.9
56.3
56.6
54.5
63.1
65.6
66.0
65.3

1290 (700)

0.046
0.048
0.046
0.039

C

1472 (800)

23.4 0.062
27.9 0.066
30.1 0.065

68 (20)

m

1112 (600)

1110 (600)

173.6
197.9
215.6
230.6

C

752 (400)

0.097
0.115
0.105
0.099
0.099
0.092
0.101
0.104
0.089
0.092

0.167
0.181
0.195
0.180
0.173
0.167
0.190
0.190
0.190
0.190

C

m

1652 (900)
5.4
5.5
5.5
5.9
5.9
6.9
7.2
7.8
7.6
6.8

0.230
0.248
0.248
0.186
0.167
0.135
0.151
0.138
0.106
0.097

C

m

1832 (1000)
3.0
3.6
3.5
3.2
3.0
4.2
4.9
4.5
3.9
3.7

0.387
0.289
0.289
0.264
0.264
0.220
0.167
0.167
0.195
0.167

1650 (900)
1.8 0.324
2.1 0.326
2.5 0.316

1112 (600)
86.1
92.8
95.6
96.7
96.6

94.6
91.2
84.6
77.9

1472 (800)

1652 (900)

0.025 58.5 0.034 44.2
0.020
0.019 58.7 0.040 44.8
0.021
0.024 55.6 0.042 43.0
50.2 0.033 39.1
46.8 0.025
35.2
0.064 51.3 0.146
0.073
0.079 39.8 0.175
0.080
30.4 0.205
26.6 0.199
24.9 0.201

1832 (1000)

0.069

5.4

0.308

0.082

5.1

0.294

0.078
0.073

5.2
5.2

0.264
0.264

0.056

5.3

0.280

23.3 0.143

9.5

0.131

21.4 0.147

9.4

0.118

20.0 0.161
19.5 0.172

9.6
9.3

0.118
0.154

20.3 0.146

8.9

0.192

1800 (982)

1112 (600)

1472 (800)

0.041
0.037 150.5 0.030 136.5 0.035 118.4 0.040 65.4 0.097
0.034
0.029 174.2 0.024 153.9 0.030 107.5 0.039 59.5 0.096
0.026 181.1 0.023
183.5 0.026 147.9 0.046 92.8 0.045 56.7 0.088
181.4 0.029
136.3 0.045 84.7 0.036 53.9 0.081
52.9 0.080

1652 (900)

1832 (1000)

44.6 0.147 32.4

0.153

42.1 0.139 30.9

0.142

40.9 0.127 29.2

0.155

39.3 0.125 27.8

0.167

38.8 0.127 28.0

0.159

Flow Stress and Forgeability / 47

Table 4.11 Summary of C (ksi) and m values describing the flow stress-strain rate relation, r¯ ⴔ
C(¯e˙ )m, for various materials
Material
history

Alloy

Strain rate
range, 1/s

Strain

Test temperature, F (C):
Lead
99.98
0.003
0.003
0.002
0.002

0.115
2.66

Pb,
Cu,
Fe,
Zn,
Ag

Test temperature, F (C):
Magnesium
0.010 Al,
0.003 Zn,
0.008 Mn,
0.004 Si,
0.003 Cu,
0.0008 Ni,
Rem Mg

Extruded,
cold
drawn
15%,
annealed
550 C 90
min

0.1–10

0.25
0.50
0.70

Test temperature, F (C):
U-700

m

Zirconium
Annealed
99.8 Zr, 0.009
15 min at
Hf, 0.008 Al,
1380 F in
0.038 Fe,
high
0.0006 H2,
vacuum
0.0025 N2,
0.0825 O2, 0.0
Ni
Zircaloy 2
Annealed
98.35 Zr,
15 min at
0.015 Hf, 1.4
1380 F in
Zn, 0.01 Al,
high
0.06 Fe, 0.045
vacuum
Ni, 0.0006 H2,
0.0023 N2,
0.0765 O2

0.25–16.0

0.25–16.0

0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
1.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
1.0

Test temperature, F (C):
Annealed 2
hr at
1110 F in
high
vacuum

0.25–16.0

0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0

C

m

C

m

C

m

C

m

C

m

72 (22)

230 (110)

335 (170)

415 (215)

500 (260)

570 (300)

2.0 0.040
4.0 0.055

1.56 0.065
1.47 0.100

1.21 0.085
1.04 0.125

0.70 0.130
0.55 0.135

0.47 0.160
0.36 0.180

0.40 0.180
0.28 0.225

390 (200)

570 (300)

750 (400)

930 (400)

(13)
19.1 0.069
17.2 0.093
15.5 0.094

(14)
9.8 0.215
8.4 0.211
8.3 0.152

(13)
4.1 0.263
4.0 0.234
4.3 0.215

1.7
1.7
2.1

752 (400)

1112 (600)

1472 (800)

1975 (1080)
26.6 0.21

Test temperature, F (C):

Uranium
99.8 U,
0.0012 Mn,
0.0012 Ni,
0.00074 Cu,
0.00072 Cr,
0.0001 Co,
0.0047 H2,
0.0041 N2,
0.1760 O2
(free of
cadmium and
boron)

C

68 (20)
117.4
143.7
159.5
169.3

96.8
136.9
178.5
202.7

22.1

(14)
0.337
0.302
0.210

0.21

392 (200)

0.031 65.9
0.025 105.8
0.034 131.4
0.027 145.4
154.2

0.043
0.033
0.023
0.018

m

2030 (1166)

0.031 74.0
0.022 92.2
0.017 105.1
0.017 112.8
118.5

68 (20)
151.0
173.9
184.9
189.8

C

0.052
0.058
0.046
0.041
0.042

0.046
0.035
0.035
0.036
0.034

212 (100)
113.0
132.7
143.1
149.5

1652 (900)

1832 (1000)

40.2

0.050 23.8

0.069 16.8

0.069

6.8

0.227

4.6

0.301

54.4
58.2
60.2
61.9

0.085 29.4
0.093
0.095 31.3
0.095
32.0
32.1

0.09

18.2

0.116

7.1

0.252

4.0

0.387

0.089 18.8

0.118

7.2

0.264

4.0

0.387

0.081 19.4
0.085 19.7

0.101
0.108

6.9
6.9

0.252
0.252

4.1
4.1

0.403
0.403

0.049 16.6

0.147

7.5

0.325

3.9

0.362

0.053 18.7

0.172

7.8

0.342

4.0

0.387

0.059 18.8
0.057 18.8
0.053 18.8

0.178
0.178
0.178

7.2
7.9
8.5

0.387
0.342
0.310

4.0
4.8
4.8

0.387
0.333
0.333

58.3
67.9
73.5
77.3
79.9

0.065 30.4
0.056
0.056 37.8
0.057
0.055 39.2
40.4
40.7

392 (200)

0.042 77.4
0.049 91.0
0.047 98.1
0.048 102.0

0.034
0.031
0.032
0.036

572 (300)
45.9
53.3
56.0
58.3
59.0

0.044
0.047
0.056
0.057
0.056

932 (500)
31.9
33.1
33.4
33.3
32.5

0.051
0.059
0.054
0.049
0.055

1292 (900)
16.0
16.1
16.1
16.2
16.4

0.081
0.089
0.089
0.097
0.097

1652 (900)
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5

0.069
0.069
0.069
0.069
0.069

48 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications

Table 4.12 Average flow stress values determined in the uniform compression test that might be
used in practical load-predicting applications
Material

Flow stress, 103 psi

Temperature, F

Strain range (ln), h0/h1

Strain rate range, 1/s

33.0
25.0
21.0
62.0
56.0
52.0
48.0
46.0
42.0
56.0
52.0
52.0
46.0
38.0
34.0
54.0
48.0
46.0
40.0
40.0
28.0
24.0
25.0
21.0

1800
1950
2050
1950
1950
2050
2050
2100
2100
1600
1600
1675
1675
1750
1750
2000
2000
2100
2100
1650
1850
2000
1900
2000

0.3–0.7
0.3–0.7
0.3–0.7
0.2–0.4
0.4–0.6
0.1–0.3
0.3–0.6
0.1–0.3
0.3–0.6
0.1–0.4
0.4–0.6
0.1–0.4
0.4–0.6
0.1–0.4
0.4–0.6
0.1–0.4
0.4–0.6
0.1–0.4
0.4–0.6
0.1–0.6
0.1–0.6
0.1–0.6
0.2–0.7
0.3–0.8

10.0–14.0
10.0–14.0
10.0–14.0
13.0–15.0
10.0–13.0
12.0–15.0
10.0–13.0
13.0–15.0
10.0–13.0
13.0–15.0
10.0–13.0
13.0–15.0
10.0–13.0
13.0–15.0
10.0–13.0
13.0–15.0
10.0–13.0
13.0–15.0
10.0–13.0
10.0–15.0
10.0–15.0
10.0–15.0
10.0–14.0
12.0–17.0

403 stainless steel

Waspaloy

Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo

Inconel 718

Ti-8Mo-8V-2Fe-3Al

AISI 4340

Table 4.13 Average flow stress values obtained from ring compression tests suggested for use in
practical applications
Material

Flow stress(a), 103 psi

Temperature, F

Strain rate range, 1/s

Frictional shear factor, m

Contact time, s

Ring dimensions(b)

6061 Al

9
9
7
48
30
30
37
33
33
32
28
25
19
55
50
34
22
18
43
35
27
20
65
58
50
48
50
47
40
27
19
16
65

800
800
800
1750
1750
1750
1800
1800
1800
1950
1950
2050
2050
2100
2100
1950
2100
2100
1700
1700
1750
1750
2000
2000
2100
2100
1750
1750
1800
1800
700
800
2050

18–22
15–17
10–13
13
18–23
15–18
25–28
25–27
16–18
20
16
20
16
20
13–16
13–20
16–20
13
20
13–16
16–20
13
16–20
13
20
13–16
13–16
20
13–16
20
13–20
13–20
14–17

0.4
0.31
0.53
0.42
0.42
0.7
0.23
0.24
0.34
0.28
0.29
0.35
0.43
0.18
0.21–0.24
0.22–0.28
0.35
0.31
0.30
0.29–0.34
0.32–0.46
0.38
0.17–0.18
0.18
0.33
0.29–0.30
0.22–0.26
0.27
0.27–0.32
0.27
0.36–0.42
0.31–0.49
0.4

0.038
0.047
0.079
0.033
0.044
0.056
0.029
0.037
0.047
0.06
0.07
0.06
0.07
0.06
0.07–0.09
0.06–0.09
0.06–0.07
0.09
0.06
0.07–0.09
0.06–0.07
0.09
0.06–0.07
0.09
0.06
0.07–0.09
0.07–0.09
0.06
0.07–0.09
0.06
0.06–0.09
0.06–0.09
(c)

A
B
C
D
E
F
D
E
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
G
G
F

Ti-7Al-4Mo

403 SS

403 SS

Waspaloy
17-7PH SS

Ti-6Al-4V

Inconel 718

Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V

7075 Al
Udimet

(a) At 10 to 30% reduction. (b) Dimensions, OD:ID:thickness, in inches: A ⳱ 6:3:0.5, B ⳱ 6:3:1.0, C⳱ 6:3:2.0, D ⳱ 3:1.5:0.25, E ⳱ 3:1.5:0.5, F ⳱ 3:1.5:1.0, G
⳱ 5:3:1. (c) Not measured.

Flow Stress and Forgeability / 49

REFERENCES

[Altan et al., 1973]: Altan, T., Boulger, F.W.,
“Flow Stress of Metals and Its Application in
Metal Forming Analyses,” Trans. ASME, J.
Eng. Ind., Nov 1973, p 1009.
[Dahl et al., 1999]: Dahl, C., Vazquez, V., Altan, T., “Determination of Flow Stress of 1524
Steel at Room Temperature using the Compression Test,” Engineering Research Center
for Net Shape Manufacturing, ERC/NSM-99R-22, 1999.
[Dixit et al., 2002]: Dixit, R., Ngaile, G., Altan,
T., “Measurement of Flow Stress for Cold
Forging,” Engineering Research Center for
Net Shape Manufacturing, ERC/NSM-01-R05, 2002.
[Douglas et al., 1975]: Douglas, J.R., Altan, T.,
“Flow Stress Determination of Metals at
Forging Rates and Temperatures,” Trans.
ASME, J. Eng. Ind., Feb 1975, p 66.
[Lee et al., 1972]: Lee, C.H., Altan, T., “Influence of Flow Stress and Friction upon Metal

Flow in Upset Forging of Rings and Cylinders,” Trans. ASME, J. Eng. Ind., Aug 1972,
p 775.
[Thomsen et al., 1965]: Thomsen, E.G., Yang,
C.T., Kobayashi, S., Mechanics of Plastic Deformation in Metal Processing, The Macmillan Company, 1965.

SELECTED REFERENCES

[Altan et al., 1981]: Altan, T., Semiatin, S.L.,
Lahoti, G.D., “Determination of Flow Stress
Data for Practical Metal Forming Analysis,”
Ann. CIRP, Vol 30 (No. 1), 1981, p 129.
[Altan et al., 1983]: Altan, T., Oh, S.-I., Gegel,
H.L., Metal Forming Fundamentals and Applications, ASM International, 1983.
[Lahoti et al., 1975]: Lahoti, G.D., Altan, T.,
“Prediction of Temperature Distributions in
Axisymmetric Compression and Torsion,” J.
Eng. Mater. Technol., April 1975, p 113.

Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications
Taylan Altan, Gracious Ngaile, Gangshu Shen, editors, p51-57
DOI:10.1361/chff2005p051

Copyright © 2005 ASM International®
All rights reserved.
www.asminternational.org

CHAPTER 5

Plastic Deformation: Complex
State of Stress and Flow Rules
Gracious Ngaile

5.1

State of Stress

In a deforming object, different states of stress
would exist depending on the loading conditions
and boundary constraints. Figure 5.1 shows a
cylinder upsetting process. The local state of
stress in the deforming cylinder can be visualized by discretizing the object into small elements as shown in Fig. 5.1(a) and (b). The state
of stress can also be presented in a matrix form,
commonly known as stress tensor, as shown in
Fig. 5.1(c) and 5.2.
A normal stress is indicated by two identical
subscripts, e.g., rxx, while a shear stress is indicated by a differing pair, rxy. This notation can

Fig. 5.1

be simplified by denoting the normal stresses by
a single subscript and shear stresses by the symbol s. Thus one will have rxx ⬅ rx and rxy ⬅ sxy.
In the case of rotational equilibrium, rxy ⳱ ryx,
thus implying the absence of rotational effects
around any axis. The nine stress components then
reduce to six independent components.
For a general stress state, there is a set of coordinate axes (1, 2, and 3) along which the shear
stresses vanish. The normal stresses along these
axes, r1, r2, and r3, are called the principal
stresses. The magnitudes of the principal
stresses are determined from the following cubic
equation derived from a series of force equilibrium equations [Backofen, 1972].

Stress acting on an element. (a) Cylinder upsetting process. (b) Forces acting on an element. (c) Stress components acting
on an element

52 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications

r3i ⳮ I1ri2 ⳮ I2ri ⳮ I3 ⳱ 0

(Eq 5.1a)

where
I1 ⳱ rxx Ⳮ ryy Ⳮ rzz
I2 ⳱ ⳮrxx ryy ⳮ ryy rzz ⳮ rzz rxx
2
2
2
Ⳮ rxy
Ⳮ ryz
Ⳮ rzx
2
I3 ⳱ rxx ryy rzz Ⳮ 2rxy ryz rzx ⳮ rxx ryz

der any possible combination of stresses. It can
be expressed by f(rij) ⳱ C (constant). For isotropic materials, plastic yielding can depend
only on the magnitude of the principal stresses;
i.e., the yield criteria is expressed in function of
invariants I1, I2, and I3 or f (I1, I2, I3) ⳱ C.
In simple homogeneous (uniaxial) compression or tension, the metal flows plastically when
the stress, r, reaches the value of the flow stress,
r,
¯ in other words the flow rule in uniaxial deformation is:

2
2
ⳮ ryyrzx
ⳮ rzzrxy

The coefficients I1, I2, and I3 are independent
of the coordinate system chosen and are hence
called invariants. Consequently, the principal
stresses for a given stress state are unique. The
three principal stresses can only be determined
by finding the three roots of the cubic equation.
The first (linear) and second (quadratic) invariants have particular physical significance for the
theory of plasticity [Kobayashi et al., 1989]. The
invariants can also be expressed in terms of principal stresses.
I1 ⳱ r1 Ⳮ r2 Ⳮ r3

(Eq 5.1b)

I2 ⳱ ⳮ(r1r2 Ⳮ r2r3 Ⳮ r3r1)

(Eq 5.1c)

I3 ⳱ r1 r2 r3

(Eq 5.1d)

5.2

Yield Criteria

A yield criterion is a law defining the limit of
elasticity or the start of plastic deformation un-

|r| ⳱

F
⳱ r¯
A

(Eq 5.2)

where F and A are the instantaneous force and
cross-sectional area on which the force acts. In
a multiaxial state of stress, plastic flow (yielding) depends on a combination of all stresses
[Thomsen et al., 1965]. Consider a metal plate
subjected to tensile and compressive loading in
the y-axis until the material yields. If the process
is repeated using different specimens and by
gradually varying the loading in the x and y directions (Fig. 5.3), and the stresses at the onset
of yielding are plotted on the r1-r3 plane, then
a yield locus of the schematic form shown in
Fig. 5.4 will be obtained.
There are various yield criteria that have been
proposed to date. However, this chapter discusses two major yield criteria that have been
used extensively in the analysis of metal forming
and forging.

Tresca or shear stress criterion of yield or
plastic flow
● von Mises or distortion energy criterion of
yield or plastic flow
5.2.1 Tresca Yield Criterion
The Tresca yield criterion states that plastic
flow starts when the maximum shear stress, smax,

Fig. 5.2

Stress tensor

Fig. 5.3

Metal plate subjected to various loading conditions

Fig. 5.4

Possible yield locus (schematic) showing enclosed
elastic region

This yield criterion can easily be described by the aid of Mohr circles for stresses. are illustrated with the Mohr circle of radius k.6) Figure 5.7 shows Mohr circles for biaxial and triaxial states of stress. and the minimum principal stress. The subscripts 1 and 3 are arbitrary and indicate only that r3 ⱕ r2 ⱕ r1. 5.8).4 shows that. respectively. ¯ Figure 5.6(b) show Mohr circles for uniaxial tension (no necking) and compression (no bulging). the largest shear stress.. The start of plastic flow (yielding) must depend on a combination of normal and shear stresses. In the physical x-y plane. With r2 ⳱ r3 ⳱ 0 (uniaxial deformation). i.5 Representation of state of stress through the Mohr circle . then the Tresca yield criterion can be expressed as: r1 ⳮ r3 ⳱ r¯ (Eq 5. which cause plastic deformation. is not important for the start of plastic flow. Note that only principal stresses are shown in these figures. The mean principal stress is rm ⳱ r1 Ⳮ r2 Ⳮ r3 3 (Eq 5. The states of stress. The hexagonal diagram encloses the elastic region. In the Mohr circle representation.3) where F is the tensile or compressive force. where k is the shear flow stress that is characteristic of a given material and its microstructure and depends on shear strain rate. Thus: smax ⳱ (r1 ⳮ r3)/2. in the s-r plane. strain. according to Tresca’s rule. and r¯ is the flow stress (or instantaneous yield stress).6 shows that the position of the Mohr circle.4) Equation 5.. i. k. 5. which does not change its value when transformed from one coordinate system into another [Lange. Figures 5.2. 1972] and [Johnson (Eq 5. define the size of the Mohr circle (Fig.2 von Mises Yield Criterion The von Mises yield criterion considers all the stresses acting on the deforming body and can be expressed as follows.5a). plastic flow or yielding starts if the difference of maximum (r1) and minimum (r3) principal stresses is equal to the flow stress.e.1(b). and deformation temperature.e. r. If the principal stresses are arranged such that r1 ⬎ r2 ⬎ r3. For plane stress condition (r2 ⳱ 0).5. 5. 5.Plastic Deformation: Complex State of Stress and Flow Rules / 53 reaches a certain critical value. r3. the hydrostatic stress. Details on Mohr circles and stress transformation can be found in solid mechanics textbooks. as can be seen in Fig. r1.6(a) and 5. 5.5) Fig. the maximum principal stress. 5. acting on the s-r plane is given by one radius of the Mohr circle. or when |smax| ⳱ k. plastic flow starts when r1 ⳱ F r¯ ⳱ r¯ ⳱ 2k or k ⳱ A 2 and the hydrostatic pressure is P ⳱ ⳮrm (Eq 5. A is the instantaneous cross-sectional area of the sample. and in the direction of “principal” stresses the shear stresses are zero. the “principal” stresses are perpendicular to each other. As can be seen in Fig. Figure 5. smax.5 shows a Mohr circle that represents the stresses in a plane whose coordinate axes are chosen to be the shear stress s (ordinate) and the normal stress r (abscissa). the Tresca’s yield criterion can be graphically represented in two dimensions (Fig.

9.2.6 Mohr circles. 5.10. 1997] . 5. (b) Triaxial state of stress. (a) Biaxial state of stress..10 are used to describe the similarities and differences of the two yield criteria. B. 5.7 Mohr circles. (Eq 5.” For the plane stress condition (r2 ⳱ 0). This is the energy necessary for elastic volume change. the von Mises rule is given by: 冦 1/2 冧 1 [(r1 ⳮ r2)2 Ⳮ (r2 ⳮ r3)2 Ⳮ (r1 ⳮ r3)2] 2 ⳱ r¯ (Eq 5. 5.3 or. (a) Uniaxial tension. the von Mises yield locus takes the form of an elliptical curve as shown in Fig. In terms of principal stresses. [Kalpakjian.6c) where rm is the mean principal stress given by: r Ⳮ r2 Ⳮ r3 rm ⳱ 1 3 Comparison of Tresca and von Mises Criteria The comparison of Tresca and von Mises criteria can be expressed by superimposing the elliptical yield locus (von Mises) and hexagonal yield locus (Tresca) together as shown in Fig. 1975].6b) 5. (b) Uniaxial compression Fig. The flow rule then states that plastic flow starts when this elastic energy reaches a critical value.6 is proportional to the energy that is stored in the elastically deformed material prior to yielding. C. That is why the von Mises rule is also called the “distortion energy criterion. ● Points A. Fig. The shaded regions show the difference between the two yield criteria. and E shown in Fig. it can be given by: 冦 1/2 冧 3 [(r1 ⳮ rm)2 Ⳮ (r2 ⳮ rm)2 Ⳮ (r3 ⳮ rm)2] 2 ⳱ r¯ (Eq 5.54 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications et al. 5. D.6a) In a general way: 冦2 [(r 1 x ⳮ ry)2 Ⳮ (ry ⳮ rz)2 Ⳮ (rz ⳮ rx)2 1/2 冧 Ⳮ 3(s2xy Ⳮ s2yz Ⳮ s2zx)] ⳱ r¯ A physical interpretation of the von Mises yield criterion shows that the left side of Eq 5.

i.6(a) gives: 冪冢2 2r 冣 ⳱ r.8 Tresca’s yield locus for plane stress condition Fig.10). the von Mises and Tresca yield criteria exhibit the same values. Similar to the Hooke’s law. (b). 5.10. ● For a plane strain condition (point E in Fig. as specified by a flow rule (Tresca or von Mises). when r1 ⳱ F/A and r2 ⳱ r3 ⳱ 0. starts. plastic deformation.11b) e˙ 3 ⳱ k(r3 ⳮ rm) (Eq 5.11a) e˙ 2 ⳱ k(r2 ⳮ rm) (Eq 5.11c) Equations 5. respectively (Fig.3. one finds that the Tresca criterion gives: r¯ ⳱ 2r1 and smax ⳱ r1 ⳱ r¯ ⳱ 0. For this condition. Such a relation exists between the stresses (in principal axes) and strain rates: e˙ 1 ⳱ k(r1 ⳮ rm) (Eq 5. Eq 5.Plastic Deformation: Complex State of Stress and Flow Rules / 55 ● In uniaxial tension or compression (points A and B).e.¯ or r 1 2 1 1 ⳱ r¯ (Eq 5. e and e˙ fields). 1. r2 ⳱ 0.9) Using Eq 5. ● The state of stress for a balanced biaxial mode of deformation corresponds to point C in Fig.11). In three-dimensional space.3 Flow Rules When the stresses at a given point in the metal reach a certain level. which gives the relationship between the stress and the corresponding deformation in the elastic range. 5.e. Experiments (with combined shear and tension) indicate that the von Mises rule is a better criterion (closer to reality) than Tresca’s flow rule. the Tresca and von Mises yield criteria exhibit the same results. 5..10) Thus.9 von Mises yield locus for plane stress condition .10). i.7) which is the same as that obtained from Eq 5. from Eq 5. according to von Mises. the stress required for deformation under Tresca’s yield criterion in still ry.15 ry. the two yield criteria exhibit different yield stresses. 5. σ3 σ σ1 σ σ1 σ3 Fig.5r¯ 2 (Eq 5.73r1 smax ⳱ r1 ⳱ r¯ 冪3 (Eq 5. ● In pure shear (point D in Fig. then plastic flow. Pure shear occurs when r3 ⳱ ⳮr1. However..8) ⳱ 0. and (c) are called “plasticity equations” [Thomsen et al. 5. in pure shear. the yield surfaces for von Mises and Tresca can be represented by inclined cylindrical and octagonal prisms.. there is a 15% difference between values of smax obtained from the Tresca and von Mises yield criteria rules. 5.577 r¯ (Eq 5. the stress required is higher.6(a) the von Mises yield criterion gives: r¯ ⳱ 冪冢2 (r 1 1 2 冣 Ⳮ r12 Ⳮ 4r12) ⳱ 冪3 r1 艑 1. 1965]. analysis of plastic deformation requires a certain relation between the applied stresses and the velocity field (kinematics as described by velocity. 5.3.11(a). Thus.

15) . consumed during deformation. 5.11(a)—can also be expressed in the form: de1 ⳱ 3 d¯e (r1 ⳮ rm) 2 r¯ (Eq 5.4 Power and Energy of Deformation The plastic deformation processes are irreversible.12 (r1e˙ 1 Ⳮ r2e˙ 2 Ⳮ r3e˙ 3) dt Homogeneous deformation of a block (5. The following relations. 5. of r. is transformed largely into heat. material. e˙ ⳱ h ho 1 h w vw . 5.11 can also be expressed as: e˙ 1 ⳱ 3 e˙¯ (r ⳮ rm) 2 r¯ 1 σ3 Compression σ σ1 C E A σ Tresca σ1 E B e3 ⳱ ln Balanced-biaxial stretching E B C e2 ⳱ ln (Eq 5. e˙ ⳱ wo 2 w l v .11 Physical representation of von Mises and Tresca criterion in three dimensions where V is the volume of the deforming block. It is useful to consider again the homogeneous deformation of a block (Fig. strain.56 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications [Lange. Eq 5. It follows that the energy of deformation. The variable k depends on direction of plastic flow. hold here also [Lange. e˙ ⳱ l lo 3 l Following Fig. 5. and strain rate.12. the instantaneous power of deformation (force times velocity) is given by: P ⳱ r1wlvh Ⳮ r2hlvw Ⳮ r3whv1 ⳱ r1wlh˙e1 Ⳮ r2wlh˙e2 Ⳮ r3wlh˙e3 ⳱ (r1e˙ 1 Ⳮ r2e˙ 2 Ⳮ r3e˙ 3) V (Eq 5. temperature. Fig. 1972]. derived in Chapter 3. 1972]. E. 1972].12) 5.13) A D eh ⳱ e1 ⳱ ln D Tension von Mises h v . 5. Note: r2 ⳱ 0.14) E σ3 Pure shear Plane Strain deformation Fig.10 Tresca and von Mises yield loci for the same value ¯ showing several loading paths.12). [Backofen. where e¯ and r¯ denote effective stress and strain. The mechanical energy. Equation 5. The plasticity equations—for example. is: 冮 E⳱ V t1 t0 Fig.

Vol 1. 1965]: Thomsen. Macmillan.19) or P ⳱ r¯ e˙¯ V (Eq 5. Mellor. [Thomsen et al.11(a). Springer-Verlag. Under multiaxial deformation conditions.22a) or rm(˙e1 Ⳮ e˙ 2 Ⳮ e˙ 3) ⳱ 0 2 2 1 冣 Ⳮ e˙ 22 Ⳮ e˙ 23) (Eq 5.A. 5..18 and 5. which give r1 ⳮ rm ⳱ e˙ 1/k. REFERENCES [Backofen. is: dW ⳱ (r1de1 Ⳮ r2de2 Ⳮ r3de3)V 1/2 3 [(r1 ⳮ rm)2 Ⳮ (r2 ⳮ rm)2 Ⳮ (r3 ⳮ rm)2] 2 (Eq 5.G. W. Eq 5.22b) Equations 5.. Fundamentals...6(c). e¯ . etc. Yang.B. Eq 5. 1972]: Lange.T.. 1997. 1965. S. r. Ed.24 can be reduced to: e˙¯ ⳱ (Eq 5. it can be shown that: e˙ 1 Ⳮ e˙ 2 Ⳮ e˙ 3 ⳱ 0 (Eq 5.18) The effective strain.11(b).20) Equations 5. and 5. Oh... Eq 5. [Kobayashi et al.17) or divided by dt. the deformation power. 1972.. ¯ is determined from a uniaxial test (compression or homogeneous tension). Altan. Van Nostrand Reinhold. is: (Eq 5. and Kobayashi.21) From volume constancy. to: e¯ ⳱ dW P⳱ ⳱ (r1e˙ 1 Ⳮ r2e˙ 2 Ⳮ r3e˙ 3)V dt 冧 (Eq 5. E.Plastic Deformation: Complex State of Stress and Flow Rules / 57 with e˙ dt ⳱ de. the deformation energy.20 give: r¯ e˙¯ ⳱ r1e˙ 1 Ⳮ r2e˙ 2 Ⳮ r3e˙ 3 (Eq 5. Metal Forming and the Finite Element Method. 1989]: Kobayashi. Considering an element and the principal directions. [Kalpakjian. London. T.22 give: r¯ ¯ e˙ ⳱ e˙ 1 (r1 ⳮ rm) Ⳮ e˙ 2 (r2 ⳮ rm) Ⳮ e˙ 3 (r3 ⳮ rm) (Eq 5.19 and 5.26 show how to calculate the effective strain rate and the effective strain in principal directions. C. expended during a time element Dt.. (in German). Eq 5. [Lange. Eq 5.. Study Book of Forming Technology. 1975]: Johnson. P.. are defined as: dW ⳱ rd ¯ e¯ V 冪冢3 (˙e or by integration. .. 1975.. S.20 and 5. Addison-Wesley.25) 冮 t1 t0 e˙¯ dt (Eq 5. Deformation Processing.11(c). Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.23) Using the one form of the von Mises rule.26) (Eq 5.16) (Eq 5..24) 冦 Using the plasticity equations. P..23 gives: 5. and strain rate. 1972]: Backofen. S. e˙¯ (both indicated with overbar). 1972.. Engineering Plasticity. K. 1997]: Kalpakjian. S. Mechanics of Plastic Deformation in Metal Processing. Oxford University Press. dW. Addison-Wesley. [Johnson et al. 1989. W.15 can also be written as: 冢冮 E⳱V e1 0 r1de1 Ⳮ 冮 0 e2 r2de2 Ⳮ 冮 0 e3 冣 r3de3 Equations 5. it is necessary to relate uniaxial material behavior to multiaxial material behavior.5 Effective Strain and Effective Strain Rate e˙¯ ⳱ e˙ 1 (r1 ⳮ rm) Ⳮ e˙ 2 (r2 ⳮ rm) Ⳮ e˙ 3 (r3 ⳮ rm) The flow stress.

and after deformation can all be calculated in a computer. temperature increases of several hundred degrees may be involved [Lahoti et al. tool life. hT is the temperature drop due to heat transfer into the dies. editors. Gracious Ngaile. can be estimated by [Altan et al.1) where hW is the initial workpiece temperature. c is the specific heat of the workpiece. The temperature increase due to the deformation. and hC is the temperature drop due to convection to the environment.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Taylan Altan. screw press. www. D¯e is the effective strain generated during Dt. the average instantaneous temperature in the deforming workpiece.. the influence of press speed. Heat generation is also significant in forgings produced in high-speed equipment such as mechanical press. the heat generation during deformation and heat transfer before. 1978].2 Heat Generation and Heat Transfer in Metal Forming Processes In metal forming. the magnitudes and distribution of temperatures depend mainly on: ● ● The initial workpiece and die temperatures Heat generation due to plastic deformation and friction at the workpiece/die interface ● Heat transfer between the workpiece and dies and between the workpiece and the environment (air or lubricant and coolant. hA.. e¯˙ is the effective strain rate.2) where r¯ is the flow stress of the workpiece.95. hD is the temperature increase due to plastic deformation.) In processes such as forging and extrusion. and b is the fraction of deformation energy transformed into heat (0  b  1). in a time interval Dt. 1925]. and heat transfer in metal forming can be evaluated. With the finite element based process modeling. q is the specific weight of the workpiece.1361/chff2005p059 Copyright © 2005 ASM International® All rights reserved. hF. The temperatures developed during the forging operation influence lubrication conditions. usually. hR is the temperature drop due to radiation to the environment. p59-66 DOI:10. as well as microstructure and properties of the forged part. contact time. Approximately 90 to 95% of the mechanical energy involved in the process is transformed into heat [Farren et al. performed at high speeds. while still an additional part may flow into the tooling. The temperature increase due to friction. during.1 Introduction In metal forming processes.asminternational. both plastic deformation and friction contribute to heat generation. A is a conversion factor between mechanical and thermal energies. In some continuous forming operations such as drawing and extrusion. and hammer. another part flows into the undeformed/ less-deformed portion of the material where temperature is lower. is given by: . Gangshu Shen. 6. 1970]: hA ⳱ hW Ⳮ hD Ⳮ hF ⳮ hT ⳮ hR ⳮ hC (Eq 6.. b ⳱ 0.org CHAPTER 6 Temperature and Heat Transfer Gangshu Shen 6. To ensure accurate heat transfer calculation. etc. Using accurate process modeling. hF is the temperature increase due to interface friction. correct workpiece and die interface heat transfer coefficient must be known. A part of generated heat remains in the deformed material. is given by: hD ⳱ Ar¯ ¯ e˙ Dt rD¯ ¯ e b⳱ b cq Jcq (Eq 6.

in addition to the symbols already described.. For various points.5. The temperature range of the pancake at the end of upsetting was 1044 to 1819 F (560 to 990 C). due to strain rate and temperature effects. At the end of the cylinder upsetting. [Lahoti et al. 6. As expected. the contact time under pressure between the deforming material and the dies is the most significant factor influencing temperature conditions.. The calculated results for the grid points P1.4 Measurement of Temperatures at the Die/Material Interface Often it is desirable to measure the temperatures at the die/material interface in hot forging operations. Contact between the deforming metal and the dies is intermittent.3 Temperatures in Forging Operations In forging. 6.3. In hot forging operations. The reason for this is that in the presses the flash cools rapidly.. and Va is the volume of the workpiece which is subject to temperature increase. and P1.60 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications hF ⳱ AfrvFDF ¯ cqqa (Eq 6. Figure 6. The temperature range of the dies at the end of upsetting was 298 to 723 F (145 to 385 C). P1. 6. for the same forging process. where the load-displacement curves are given for hot forging of a steel part using different types of forging equipment [Altan et al. 6. 6.3) where. the metal flow is non steady state. the forging load is initially higher due to strain-rate effects. The length of contact time and the nature of the heat transfer at the die/ material interface influence temperatures very significantly. In this process. indicated in Fig. . such that frictional shear stress s ⳱ f r. The starting temperature of the Ti-64 workpiece was 1750 F (955 C).1). 1975]. ¯ v is the velocity at the workpiece/tool interface. For the hammer.8 in Fig. but the maximum load is lower than for either hydraulic or screw presses.1 are compared with experimental data in Fig. temperatures increase with increasing deformation. With the advancement of finite element modeling and the increase in computer speed. not only the material and the formed shape but also the type of equipment used (rate of deformation and die chilling effects) determine the metal flow behavior and the forming load and energy required for the pro- cess. This is illustrated in Fig. there was quite a temperature gradient inside both the upset cylinder (or pancake) and the dies. 6.1. 1973].4 shows the temperature distribution at the end of a coupled deformation and heat transfer modeling of a Ti-64 cylinder upset test in a hydraulic press. Thus. and the starting tool steel die temperature was 300 F (150 C). 6. A simple example of an operation involving non-steady-state metal flow is the cold upsetting of a cylinder.1. a grid system is established for calculation of temperatures (Fig. in hot forging. A thermocouple for measuring in- Fig.1 1975] Grid system for calculating velocity and temperature fields in cold upsetting of a cylinder. 6. whereas in the hammer the flash temperature remains nearly the same as the initial stock temperature.2. These curves illustrate that. f is the friction factor at the workpiece/ tool interface. heat transfer in any forging and heat treatment condition can be simulated accurately in a very short time. different forging loads and energies are required by different machines. temperatures were calculated for cold upsetting of a steel cylinder initially at room temperature [Lahoti et al. Surface tearing and cracking or development of shear bands in the formed material often can be explained by excessive chilling of the surface layers of the formed part near the die/ material interface.

fast response thermocouples were embedded in the bottom flat die of the upset tooling as shown in Fig.1 for locations of grid points Pi. the interface thermocouple indicated a decrease in temperature. die surface temperatures can reach approximately 1200 F (650 C) in a fraction of a second while the billet Comparison of predicted temperature in axisymmetric compression with experimental data (refer to Fig. After the load had been removed. These results clearly indicate that the temperature gradient is very large at the vicinity of the die/material interface. specimen dimensions. initial temperatures. 6.7 indicate that. but only under load. 6. minimum interference with heat flow. 1970]. AISI type 1015 steel. The results shown in Fig. As can be expected. as indicated by the interface thermocouple. 1975] . and the ability to sustain high normal and shear stresses under high temperatures. a high contact pressure is necessary to ensure good thermal contact between the billet surface and the thermocouple junction. 293 K). 1961]. The output of the thermocouples was recorded on a light beam oscillograph along with the load required to upset the specimens and the movements of the press ram as determined by the potentiometric displacement transducers [Altan et al. 6. 6. It is interesting that the rate of the temperature drop.j) (material.5. 20 mm diam by 30 mm high. Fig. Such thermocouples are available and were used for measuring die temperatures in forging of steel [Vigor et al. Evidently. the rate of temperature drop further increases after the sample is removed from the die. decreases significantly once the upper ram and the pressure are removed.Temperature and Heat Transfer / 61 terface temperatures in hot forging must exhibit very fast response (a few milliseconds).6 shows the temperature-time traces for four thermocouples—two in the die and two in the 1020 steel billet forged at 2250 F (1230 C). while the thermocouple placed in the sample actually showed an increase in the temperature at the bottom of the forging. Figure 6.. In another study.6. during forging of steel at 2250 F (1230 C) with dies initially at 400 F (205 C). 6. accuracy. [Lahoti et al...2 These data show that the interface (or insulated) thermocouple measures the billet surface temperature. The results are given in Fig.

75%. is measured experimentally in a couple of different ways: [Semiatin et al.5. ring tests were Fig. The interface heat transfer coefficient.4 The temperature distribution (in degree Fahrenheit) at the end of a Ti-64 cylinder upset test. the interface temperature reached 700 F (370 C). high. especially under pressure contact.. die temperature. temperature range of the pancake at the end of upsetting. or 1120 C. temperature range of the dies at the end of upsetting.5 Temperatures at the surface and at various depths in the forging die obtained in forging of 1040 steel without a lubricant (sample 1. Thus. 1750 F (955 C). which represented isothermal and nonisothermal forging conditions (h determined under deformation conditions) Since interface friction also plays an important role in metal flow in the second test.. can carry out quantitative calculations at the interface between the objects that are in contact. Advances in the analysis of complicated forming processes such as nonisothermal forging have required that the interface heat transfer between objects be characterized. 1987] [Burte et al. starting die temperature. 1989]: ● Fig.i. Vp. The dimension of the cylinder. or 29 mm. These data agree with the measurements shown in Fig. 298–723 F (145–385 C).. [Altan et al.5 Measurement of Interface Heat Transfer Coefficient Interface heat transfer coefficient. Fig. With the billet at 800 F (430 C) and the dies at 400 F (205 C). 50%.. 6. determines the amount of heat transferred across an interface. total reduction in height. Thus. 1 in. in which two dies were heated to the same temperature and used to upset a workpiece that had a same or higher temperature. 2050 F.62 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications temperature at the interface drops to 1450 F (790 C). such as finite element method.125 in.3 Load-versus-displacement curves obtained in closed-die forging of an axisymmetric steel part (dimensions in inches) at 2012 F (1100 C) in three different machines with different initial velocities. in which two flat H13 tool steel dies were heated to different initial temperatures and brought together under varying pressure levels (h determined under nondeforming conditions) ● Upset tests. h. Similar measurement made during forging of aluminum alloy 6061 showed essentially the same trend of temperature variations with time. for hot forging application. [Vigor et al. 450 F. 6. the numerical analysis. 6. starting temperature of cylinder. h. 6. (25 mm) diam by 1. (38 mm) height. 1044–1819 F (560–990 C). 300 F (150 C). 1973] Two die tests. These data demonstrate how rapidly temperatures change in hot forging. 6. the coupling determination of heat transfer and friction in one test is desired. or 230 C). reduction in height.5 in.. 1961] . sample temperature.

or 40 kW/m2 • K) were also plotted. or 76 mm diam by 76 mm high) to 1 in.0068 btu/s/in. 6.6 Sketch of cross section through upset forging setup.. 1989]. The elements were generated such that there were two nodes having the exact locations as the two pairs of the thermocouples in real die for tracking the temperature history. deformation rate.2/F. showing location of fast response thermocouple in bottom forging die Fig.Temperature and Heat Transfer / 63 selected in Burte’s experiments [Burte et al. [Burte et al. and lubrication on the heat transfer coefficient and the friction shear factor were evaluated simultaneously. The data shown in Fig. The process conditions used for the ring tests are shown in Table 6. On the same chart. 6. . The detailed ring compression process was simulated using finite element model (FEM) package ALPID (a parent version of DEFORM娂) [SFTC. 2002]. 6. 6. an interface heat transfer coefficient of 0. Two pairs of thermocouples were embedded in different Fig.1. 6.2/F. and h ⳱ 0. Using ring tests. the FEM generated calibration curves (h ⳱ 0. The increase in the temperature of the bottom die (the instantaneous die temperature T1 minus the initial die temperature T10) versus time obtained from experiments was plotted as experimental data.. The interface heat transfer coefficient was determined by calibration curves.8. Fig.0136 btu/s/in.8 1989] Setup used in the ring test for the measurement of interface heat transfer coefficient.7 Variations in temperatures at various locations in forging of 1020 steel billets (3 in.9 illustrates the method for the measurement of interface heat transfer coefficient.0068 btu/s/in.2/F (20 kW/m2 • K) was obtained. diam by 3 in. This kind of arrangement is no longer necessary at present time because the current DEFORM娂 allows users to define any location of the workpiece or dies for tracking of the thermomechanical histories. depths of the bottom die. The effects of forging pressure.9. From the calibration curves and experimental data displayed in Fig. From the relative location between the calibration curve and experimental data the interface heat transfer coefficient was determined. the interface friction and interface heat transfer coefficients were determined at the same time. 6. A schematic of ring compression tests used for the measurement of interface heat transfer coefficient is shown in Fig.8 were obtained from nonisothermal ring tests with 304 stainless steel. or 20 kW/m2 • K. (25 mm) thickness at 2250 F (1230 F) between dies at 400 F (205 C). Figure 6. high.

1 Process conditions for nonisothermal 304 stainless steel ring tests Lubricant Initial ring temperature. 1987]. initial ring temperature. a Weingarten PSS 255 with a nominal rating of 400 metric tons.2/F (1 kW/m2 • K).2. 1971]. 1988a] and [Im et al.2 (56) . Experimental work on the determination and comparison of the characteristics of forging presses was carried out on rings made from selected steel. and the reduction in height of the rings were all identical in the experiments [Douglas et al. Ti-6242 and Al6061 ring compression tests were simulated using FEM package ALPID (a parent version of DEFORM娂). The hydraulic press used had a capacity of 700 metric tons.64 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications The following conclusions were drawn from these experiments conducted in references [Semiatin et al. Hydraulic press has a longer dwell time before the deformation. Mechanical press used was a high-speed Erie press with scotch yoke design. the heat transfer coefficient is an order of magnitude smaller than during forging. and aluminum alloys [Douglas et al. titanium.. 1987] and [Burte et al. The process conditions used in the computer simulation such as the dimensions of the rings. ● The value of the interface heat transfer coefficient is unchanged above a certain threshold pressure.25 in. rated at 500 metric tons at 0. T10 ⳱ 600 F (316 C)... 1988b]. The shear friction factor used was the factor measured from the experimental ring tests. This threshold value is approximately 2 ksi (14 MPa) in this test. It had a stroke of 10 in. ● The value of the interface heat transfer coefficient under deformation conditions is about 0. Table 6. As for the screw press.0068 btu/s/in.9 The increase of the bottom die temperature (the instantaneous die temperature T1 minus the initial die temperature T10) versus time obtained from experiments and FEM generated calibration curves (h ⳱ 0.. 6. Deltaforge. (6. Finite element modeling was carried out to simulate the experiments and perform quantitative comparison of press speed and contact time on heat transfer in nonisothermal ring compression tests [Im et al. 1971]./s (mm/s) Deltaforge 2000 (1093) 600 (316) 2. in.2 gives the conditions used in the finite element modeling.0136 btu/s/in.4 mm) above the bottom dead center. 2. F (C) Initial die temperature. which results in longer free resting heat transfer between the workpiece and the dies. and h ⳱ 0. 6./s (56 mm/s).. or 20 kW/m2 • K.2/F (20 kW/m2 • K) for all the combinations of workpiece/die material pairs used. ● The value of the interface heat transfer coefficient under free resting condition is about 0.. The ram velocity was assumed constant during deformation.2/F. or 40 kW/m2 • K) for the nonisothermal ring tests of 304 stainless steel. When the workpiece is free resting on a die. Lubricant. T20 ⳱ 2000 F (1093 C) Table 6. Hydraulic press has lower speed and lower strain rate during deformation. when there is pressure at the die/workpiece interface.2/F. (250 mm) and a nominal speed of 90 strokes/min.2 in. 1989]: ● The interface heat transfer coefficient increases with forging pressures. The starting speed of the mechanical press and screw press is shown in Table 6. 2250 mkg (22 ⳯ 103 J) energy. initial die temperature.00034 btu/s/in. the ram speeds of the forging equipment. Mechanical press and screw press have higher speed and higher strain rate during deformation.0068 btu/s/in. ram speed. was used.. F (C) Ram speed. Fig.6 Influence of Press Speed and Contact Time on Heat Transfer The heat transfer and hence the temperature history of the workpiece is also influenced by the forging equipment. The interface heat transfer coefficient used was based on the experimental work [Semiatin et al.

31 0.10 The temperature distribution at (a) the beginning and (b) the end of a Ti-6242 3:1.5:0. (152:76:25. (76:38:6.28 0.4) for Al6061 6:3:0.047 0.6 6:3:2 in. (152:76:12./s mm/s 0. (76:38:12. The section inside the rectangle is used in Fig.5:0.6 The interface heat transfer (h) was 0.53 0. The temperature distribution obtained from the finite element modeling for the Ti-6242 3:1. % Shear friction (m) Contact time during loading.42 0.5 (76:38:12.4) for Ti-6242 6:3:2 (152:76:50.42 0. (152:76:50. 6.5 mm) Ti-6242 ring Hydraulic Mechanical Screw 50 50 47 3:1.5 in. F (C) Die temperature.019 15 22 380 560 0.5) for Al6061 H-13 hot working tool steel 1750 F (955 C) for Ti-6242 800 F (425 C) for Al6061 300 F (150 C) for both Ti-6242 and Al6061 ring tests Die material Billet temperature.5 mm) ring test in a hydraulic press.2 660 560 0. inside diameter from Table 6.5:0.5:0.023 16 22 405 560 3:1. ID.5 (152:76:12.49 0. s in.23 26 22 31.5 in. The temperature distribution at the start of the deformation is shown in Fig. 6.11 The temperature distribution at the end of a Ti6242 3:1.0068 btu/s/in.4 0.8 47 6:3:0.5:0. 6.033 0.5 mm) ring test in (a) a hydraulic press and (b) a mechanical press Process conditions used in ring compression of Ti and Al alloys Ram velocity Press Reduction.5:0. Table 6.8 405 560 0.44 0.5 mm) ring compression in hydraulic press is presented in Fig. 6.7 45.83 0.10.5 in.Temperature and Heat Transfer / 65 The other conditions used in the finite element modeling are: Ring dimensions (OD:ID:height).4 mm) Al6061 ring Hydraulic Mechanical Screw 51 49.079 0. outside diameter. It is seen Fig.65 0.5:0.8 mm) Al6061 ring Hydraulic Mechanical Screw 51.78 16 22 19.5 in.11. F (C) OD. 6.2 Fig.024 0.25 in.9 6:3:1 in.53 0. (76:38:12.10(a) where a heat loss to the die on the bottom surface of the ring was observed.5 in.051 1. (76:38:12.2 that the contact time during deformation is an order of magnitude longer in hydraulic press than in mechanical press and screw press. The temperature loss was due to the dwell time before the deformation started for The contact time during deformation obtained from simulation is shown in Table 6.044 0. (76:38:12.35 0. .2 51 34.038 0.2. in (mm) 3:1.34 0.5 mm) Al6061 ring Mechanical Screw 45.2 0.2/F (20 kW/m2 • K).33 0.8) for Al6061 6:3:1 (152:76:25.5) for Ti-6242 3:1.4 mm) Ti-6242 ring Mechanical Screw 30.031 1 19 22 25 480 560 0.25 (76:38:6.42 0.8 37.

1989]: Burte. [Burte et al. “Temperature Effects in Closed-Die Forging.. 1970]: Altan. O. “The Heat Developed During Plastic Extrusion of Metals.. Gerds.” in Temperature. “Characteristics of Forging Presses: Determination and Comparison.. et al.T.66 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications hydraulic press. Part 2. Birmingham.. G. 2002. Eng. [Douglas et al. Aug 1987. T.” Advances in Deformation Processing. Its Measurement and Control. REFERENCES [Altan et al.” Proc. p 91–98. Y. 1975. A. The hydraulic press has more die chilling due to longer contact time of the workpiece to the dies before and during deformation. Vol 109A. “A Study of the Influence of Press Speed.5:0. J. E. “Measurement and Analysis of Heat Transfer and Friction During Hot Forging... screw press.5 in.... Ohio State University. 1971. 1973.T. Columbus.D... Burke and V. Y.” Ann..11(a) and (b) show the temperature distribution at the end of the Ti6242 3:1.. [Vigor et al.. T. ERC for Net Shape Manufacturing. G.. “Prediction of Temperature Distribution in Axisymmetric Compression and Torsion. Semiatin.J. 1988...D. J.2 User Manual. Vardan... For beta titanium forging. The forgers may make use of the difference in press speed and contact time on heat transfer for different forging applications.. T...F. ERC/NSM-B-89-20.T.. which is around 25 F (14 C) higher than the beta transus of Ti-6242..L. [SFTC. J. 1978]: Lahoti. OH. Wood. 2002]: Scientific Forming Technologies Corporation.” Proceedings of the 13th M. [Lahoti et al. Vol 3. (76:38:12. DEFORM 7. Vol 107. Weiss. 1988b]: Im. T.” Trans.5 mm) ring test in the hydraulic press and the mechanical press. Altan. [Im et al. 1961. W. “Investigation of Non-Isothermal Forging Using Ring and Spike Tests.. Eng. Altan. England.. R. T. V. Altan. Reinhold. C70-30. and hammer can all be used. 1988. Oct 1970. S. hydraulic press forging is beneficial. Soc. steel forging. Plenum Publishing.L. G.E. 1978.” 16th North America Manufacturing Research Conference Proceedings... Columbus. CIRP. Figures 6. p 113–120. Ser. 1971]: Douglas. The ring compressed in the mechanical press shows a lot of heat building up during deformation. C. There are zones inside the ring having temperatures above 1850 F (1010 C). Altan. 1988a]: Im. G.1..” ASME. June 1989.W. A. the temperature increase to above beta transus is not desired. 1961]: Vigor. Ind. Conference.. 1925. 1925]: Farren.. G.. Therefore.” Report No. Collings. “Determination of the Interface Heat Transfer Coefficient for Non-Isothermal Bulk-Forming Processes.W.W. [Semiatin et al. OH. T. ASME. . [Im et al. Vol 97.S.. S. “Forging Equipment. Altan. p 625. p 49–57. Ed. [Altan et al. the temperature gradient is less in the ring forged in the mechanical press and the deformation is more uniform and the bulge is less pronounced in this ring. 1973]: Altan.. September. [Farren et al. 1975]: Lahoti. T. Mater.. p 422–451.. 1987]: Semiatin.D. However. “Prediction of Metal Flow and Temperatures in Axisymmetric Deformation Process.. T. J. J.R... Shen.I. Materials and Practices. Shen. temperature increase during forging is not critical and high-speed forging machines such as mechanical press. Altan. Hornaday. Technol.. “A Thermocouple for Measurement of Temperature Transients in Forging Dies.. P.” ASM Technical Report No. Taylor. Contact Time and Heat Transfer in Nonisothermal Upset Forging of Ti and Al Rings. [Lahoti et al. Vol 37/1. Battelle.R.” MCIC Handbook HB-03.. p 225–230. and selected superalloy forging. For alpha-beta titanium forging.

under frictionless conditions. where some level of frictional stress. rn. (a) Frictionless.1 piece. the deformation of the workpiece is not uniform (i. the workpiece deforms uniformly and the resulting normal stress. Gangshu Shen.org CHAPTER 7 Friction and Lubrication Mark Gariety Gracious Ngaile 7. the flow of metal is caused by the pressure transmitted from the dies to the deforming workpiece. As a result. formation of surface and internal defects. As Fig.asminternational. increases from the outer diameter to the center of the workpiece and the total upsetting force is greater than for the frictionless conditions. Upsetting of cylindrical workpiece. rn.1 Introduction In forging.1 illustrates this fundamental phenomenon as it applies to the upsetting of a cylindrical work- Fig. 7. editors. is constant across the diameter. the normal stress. www. stresses acting on the dies. Therefore. (b) With friction .1(b) shows that under actual conditions. However. barreling). is present. Fig. p67-81 DOI:10.. and load and energy requirements [Altan et al.1361/chff2005p067 Copyright © 2005 ASM International® All rights reserved. the frictional conditions at the die/workpiece interface greatly influence metal flow. 7.1(a) shows. 7.e. 1983]. s.. Gracious Ngaile.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Taylan Altan. Figure 7.

1983] .68 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications 7. the friction conditions are governed by the viscosity of the lubricant and by the relative velocity between the die and the workpiece. These films provide a barrier under conditions of large metal-to-metal contact where the properties of the bulk lubricant have no effect. Under dry conditions. sliding velocity.2 Lubrication Mechanisms in Metal Forming There are four basic types of lubrication that govern the frictional conditions in metal forming [Altan. friction is high. As is the case with dry conditions. friction is high. Mixed-layer lubrication is the most widely encountered situation in metal forming. In this case.2 illustrates the onset of these various types of lubrication as a function of the combination of lubricant viscosity. such as hot rolling of plates and slabs and nonlubricated extrusion of aluminum alloys. [Schey. In this case. 1970] [Schey. 1983]. Thus. Fig. Because of the high pressures and low sliding velocities encountered in most metal forming operations. In this case. hydrodynamic conditions cannot be maintained. the hydrodynamic conditions exist only within a certain regime of velocities. In this case. and such a situation is desirable in only a few selected forming operations.2 the friction conditions are governed by the shear strength of the lubricant film. where the interface temperatures are relatively low [Altan. many liquid lubricants contain organics that will adsorb to or chemically react with the metal surface in order to help provide a barrier against metal-to-metal Stribeck curve showing onset of various lubrication mechanisms. the peaks of the metal surface experience boundary lubrication conditions and the valleys of the metal surface become filled with the liquid lubricant. v. Consequently. The Stribeck curve shown in Fig. 7. friction is relatively low. Boundary lubrication is governed by thin films (typically organic) physically adsorbed or chemically adhered to the metal surface. no lubricant is present at the interface and only the oxide layers present on the die and workpiece materials may act as a “separating” layer. such as strip rolling and wiredrawing. 7. and normal pressure. p. Hydrodynamic conditions exist when a thick layer of liquid lubricant is present between the dies and the workpiece. The viscosities of most lubricants decrease rapidly with increasing temperature. As the Stribeck curve indicates. 1970]. in most practical high-speed forming operations. Full-film lubrication exists when a thick layer of solid lubricant/dry coating is present between the dies and the workpiece. g.

2 to 0. of the material. 1983]. f. 1983]: m 冪3 r¯ ⳱ mk Parameters Influencing Friction and Lubrication There are numerous parameters that influence the friction and lubrication conditions present at the die/workpiece interface in a forging operation.. e. These parameters can be outlined as follows [Schey. m ⳱ 1. Thus. There are two laws that can be utilized for this purpose. cannot exceed the shear strength. m. s. and the normal stress (pressure). the lubricant in the valleys of the metal surface can act as a hydrostatic medium. and offers advantages in evaluating friction and in performing stress and load calculations [Altan et al. m. In this case. 1983] [Bhushan. 2000]: Tool/Workpiece Parameters ● The properties of the workpiece material (i. copper.3 Friction Laws and Their Validity in Forging 7. 1999] [Saiki et al. is dependent on the flow stress of the deforming material.. r.2 shows that the frictional shear stress. in the simple exponential law. l.2 is not to be confused with the exponent. for a frictionless condition. Recent studies in forming me- Fig. 7. m. s.Friction and Lubrication / 69 contact. 1999] [Lenard. ● m ⳱ 0. and aluminum alloys with graphitebased (graphite-water or graphite-oil) lubricants. Courtesy of N. Thus. m. r¯ ⳱ C(˙e)m. 1995] [Ngaile et al. vary as follows [Altan et al.4 (Eq 7.3 Friction at high normal pressures.15 in cold forming of steels. aluminum alloys. The interface shear friction law uses a friction factor. Both of these laws quantify interface friction by lumping all of the interface phenomena into one nondimensional coefficient or factor. and copper.. ¯ and the friction factor. using conventional phosphate-soap lubricants or oils.3 in hot forming of titanium and high-temperature alloys with glass lubricants. it is necessary to express the interface friction quantitatively. both the contacting peaks of the metal surface and the hydrostatic pockets support the normal pressure. 7. the linear relationship defined by Coulomb’s law is not valid at all normal stress (pressure) levels because the shear stress.0 when no lubricant is used. s ⳱ rnl chanics indicate that Eq 7. to quantify the interface friction. If there is enough lubricant present. Thus. or the shear factor. ● In order to evaluate the performances (lubricity) of various lubricants under various material and process conditions and to be able to predict forming pressures. in Eq 7.g. discussed in Chapter 4. rn.e. Equation 7. Bay . 1983] [Bay. the shear factor values. used to express the strain-rate dependency of flow stress.1 to 0... Equation 7. s ⳱ fr¯ ⳱ m ⳱ 0. s. 2001].1) As is illustrated in Fig. k.05 to 0. friction is moderate. m. m ⳱ 0.3.2) The shear factor. flow stress) influence how the work- (Eq 7. where the normal stresses are high.4 in hot forming of steels. 1983]. Sticking friction is the case where sliding at the interface is preempted by shearing of the bulk material [Schey. a second law named the interface shear friction law has been developed [Schey. For various forming conditions.1 shows that l is simply the ratio of the frictional shear stress. ● m ⳱ 0. to quantify the interface friction. 1983] [Schey. and for a sticking friction condition. The Coulomb friction law uses a coefficient of friction. 7. ● m ⳱ 0.2 adequately represents the frictional shear stress in forging. f.7 to 1. or a shear factor.. in hot rolling of plates or slabs and in nonlubricated extrusion of aluminum alloys.

e.. ● The geometry of the die influences how the workpiece deforms and thus how the lubricant must flow. ● The amount of lubricant influences how the lubricant spreads as the workpiece is deformed and how hydrostatic lubricant pockets (i. especially in hot forming. mixed-layer lubrication) are formed. the scale present on the workpiece surface influences the interface conditions. process parameters such as interface pressure and surface expansion) and the parameters associated with the billet itself (i. If it is hard and brittle. ● The amount of surface expansion generated during the deformation process influences the extent to which the lubricant must spread out. In addition. The lubricant composition also influences how the lubricant reacts with both the die and the workpiece (i.. mixed-layer lubrication). the lubrication systems used for steel may be very different from those used for aluminum or titanium [Schey. The properties of both the die and workpiece material influence how the lubricant reacts with the surfaces (i. ● ● ● ● ● ● Process Parameters ● ● ● The pressure exerted by the die on the workpiece influences the viscosity of the lubricant (i. boundary lubrication). mixed-layer lubrication) are formed. friction is controlled by use of appropriate lubricants for given applications. Reduce the sliding friction between the dies and the workpiece..5 The composition of the lubricant influences the viscosity (i.. hydrodynamic lubrication) and the deformation of the surface asperities. this is achieved by using a lubricant of high lubricity Act as a parting agent and prevent sticking and galling of the workpiece to the dies Possess good insulating properties.... If the scale is soft and ductile. the boundary lubrication).e.e. For example. Characteristics of Lubricants Used In metal forming.. flow stress) of both the die and the workpiece and the viscosity of the lubricant.e.e.4 shows an example of this lubricant selection process for cold forging of aluminum alloys [Bay.. ● The surface finish of both the tool and the workpiece influence how hydrostatic lubricant pockets (i. Figure 7. it may cause an abrasive wear mechanism. hydrodynamic lubrication).e. The lubricant is expected to have certain characteristics and to perform some. hardness). the extent to which the lubricant must spread out.e.e. 1983]. . upsetting to small diameter-to-height ratios does not require the same lubricant performance (lubricity) as backward extrusion processes. 1994]. ● 7. and the extent to which the lubricant will break down.e.. hydrodynamic lubrication) and how the viscosity changes when subjected to extreme heat and pressure. ● In hot forging. of the following significant functions [Schey.. It also influences the onset of hydrodynamic lubrication. 1983]: Lubricant Parameters ● The heat generated due to the deformation process and the machine operation influences the material properties (i.6 Lubrication Systems for Cold Forging The choice of which lubricant to use for a cold forging process depends on the severity of the operation (i. so as to reduce heat losses from the workpiece to the dies Possess inertness to prevent or minimize reactions that will degrade the dies and the workpiece materials at the forming temperatures used Be nonabrasive so as to reduce erosion of the die surface and die wear Be free of polluting and poisonous components and not produce unpleasant or dangerous gases Be easily applicable to and removable from dies and workpiece Be commercially available at reasonable cost 7. it may act as a lubricant. if not most.70 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications piece deforms and thus how the lubricant must flow. ● The sliding length at which the die moves over the workpiece influences the heat generation at the die/workpiece interface. ● The sliding velocity at which the die moves relative to the workpiece influences the heat generation at the die/workpiece interface.e. which affects the formation of hydrostatic lubricant pockets (i. ● The viscosity of the lubricant influences how it flows as the workpiece is deformed (i.e.

6.1 Lubricant selection based on deformation severity.4 7. 1994] . resulting in firmly adhered and adsorbed layers of alkaline soap. 1994] [Manji. a zinc phosphate layer on the order of 5 to 20 lm is formed.Friction and Lubrication / 71 Fig. thicker coating or soaping layers are obtained by allow- Fig. simple forging processes such as light upsetting may be completed without lubrication or with a simple mineral oil. However. [Bay. and phosphate crystals with very low shear strength. 7. the most widely used lubrication system in the cold forging of carbon steels is a zinc phosphate coating and soaping system (Fig. 1994] Ferrous Materials Carbon Steels. In the zinc phosphate coating lubrication system. and type of activators influence the properties of the zinc phosphate coating and soaping lubrication system. 7. Because of the severe deformation conditions typical of many cold forging operations.1 [Altan et al. The typi- cal procedure for applying this lubrication system to a billet is described in Table 7. 1983] [Bay. Process parameters such as bath age and temperature. In general.5 Zinc phosphate coating and soaping lubrication system. 1994] [ICFG. [Bay. zinc soap.5). The coated billets are then dipped in an alkaline solution (usually sodium or calcium soap). the basic workpiece material is first cleaned to remove grease and scales and then dipped in a zinc phosphate solution. 1996].. process time for phosphating and lubrication. Through chemical reaction. 7.

. 2002]. of the zinc phosphate coating and soaping line is expensive. Hence. oils. Deformation Upsetting Lubricant None Mi Ⳮ EP Ⳮ FA Ph Ⳮ SP Ph Ⳮ Mi Ⳮ EP Ⳮ FA Ph Ⳮ SP Ph Ⳮ Mi Ⳮ EP Ⳮ FA Ph Ⳮ SP Ph Ⳮ MoS2 Ph Ⳮ MoS2 Ⳮ SP Mi.5–5 N/A Operation Cleaning Degreasing in alkaline solution Rinsing in cold water Removing scale.2 of steel Lubrication systems for cold forging Process Light Ironing and open-die extrusion Extrusion Severe Light Severe Light Severe Worker Environment ● Dust accumulates as a result of surface enlargement during forging. EP. lubricant manufacturers are attempting to design replacements for this lubrication system [Ngaile et al. 1996] ing the billets to remain in the zinc phosphate solution or the sodium soap solution for longer periods of time.. which lead to unhealthy working conditions. Productivity ● The zinc phosphate coating and soaping process is time consuming. FA. After phosphating. Ph.. care should be taken because excessive amounts of lubricant could cause dimensional tolerance errors or unsatisfactory surface finish [Bay. However. Source: [Bay. today. This dust is a health risk to the workers in the facility. SP. 1999]. the baths become polluted with heavy metals like lead and cadmium. soap. fatty additives. cold forging of carbon steels involves a wide variety of processes and thus a wide variety of lubrication systems. usually by pickling but occasionally by shot blasting Rinsing in cold water and neutralizing (if pickling used) Dipping in warm water with activators Phosphating Dipping in zinc phosphate solution Rinsing in cold water and neutralizng Lubrication Lubricating with sodium soap Drying Source: [Altan et al.. Even though zinc phosphate coating based lubrication systems are the most widely used. Mechanical Properties of the Billets ● Zinc phosphate can increase corrosion and diffuse into the workpiece material during heat treatment. which contain metals. Energy Usage ● It is necessary to heat multiple baths to temperatures between 105 and 205 ⬚F (40 and 95 ⬚C). Despite its success as a cold forging lubrication system. This is a common cause of surface embrittlement.1. phosphate coating. The wastewater treatment and the baths result in solids. The wastewater contains organic compounds and emulsifying agents. Most of this waste cannot be reused and thus becomes hazardous waste. extreme pressure additive. These processes and lubrication systems are summarized in Table 7. ● Removal of the zinc phosphate layer is difficult and thus expensive. and phosphates. Treatment sequence for zinc phosphate coating of steel billets for cold forging Bath temperature ⬚F ⬚C Process time. 1994] [Manji. 1994] [Lazzarotto et al. as well as the maintenance. 1994] . min 140–205 N/A 104–160 N/A N/A 60–95 N/A 40–70 N/A N/A 5–15 N/A 1–5 N/A N/A 130–205 N/A 55–95 N/A 5–10 N/A 160–175 N/A 70–80 N/A 0. Waste Removal ● The baths contain acids. mineral oil. The disadvantages are summarized as follows [Schmoeckel et al. ● The baths are a source of toxic chemicals and fumes. Table 7.2. 1994] [ICFG. 1997]: Profitability ● The initial purchase.72 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Table 7. and other pollutants. 1983] [Bay. ion of the basic metal. the zinc phosphate coating has several disadvantages. the alloying constituents.

Friction and Lubrication / 73

Extreme-pressure additives include chlorine,
sulfur, and phosphorus. These additives react
with carbon steel surfaces to produce excellent
barriers (boundary lubrication) against metal-tometal contact. In severe extrusion operations,
the bulk surface temperature may exceed the
melting point of the soap. In these cases, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is used in place of
the soap. In the most severe operations, the entire phosphate coating is replaced by a thin copper coating [Schey, 1983].
Stainless Steels. For cold forging of stainless
steels and other steels containing more than 5%
Cr, an oxalate coating is used in place of the
phosphate coating. This is done because it is difficult to phosphate these materials [Schey,
1983].
7.6.2

Nonferrous Materials

Aluminum. Lubrication in the cold forging of
aluminum is especially important because of the
high adhesion between the aluminum and the die
material. The lubrication systems used for the
cold forging of aluminum are given in Fig. 7.4.
In general, one of three conversion coatings are
used with aluminum; namely, zinc phosphate,
calcium aluminate, or aluminum fluoride. The
lubricants used with these conversion coatings
include soaps and molybdenum disulfide. The
general treatment sequence for these conversion
coatings is the same as described in Table 7.1;
however, the type of conversion coating determines the bath temperature and process time as
shown in Table 7.3 [Bay, 1994] [ICFG, 1996].
Copper. Lubrication systems for cold forging
of copper are summarized in Table 7.4. It should
be noted that many EP additives are useless
when used in a mineral oil for lubrication of a
copper alloy because they do not react with the
copper surface to create a barrier (boundary lubrication) to withstand metal-to-metal contact as
they do with carbon steels. In addition, sulfur

additives stain the copper [Schey, 1983] [Gariety
et al., 2002].
Titanium. Cold forging of titanium has very
limited application. However, in those limited
applications, the lubrication systems can be
summarized as shown in Table 7.4 [Schey,
1983].

7.7

Lubrication Systems for
Warm and Hot Forging

The main difference in lubrication conditions
between cold and hot or warm forging is the
temperature range in which the lubricant must
function. Excessive die temperatures combined
with high die stresses as the result of heat transfer from the billet to the dies and deformation
stresses cause increased wear, plastic deformation, and heat checking in the dies [Saiki, 1997].
Thus, in order to increase tool life and part quality, a good lubrication system should be capable
of minimizing both the heat transfer to the dies
and the shear stresses at the tool/workpiece interface.
Unlike cold forging, the application of the lubricant in hot forging is constrained by the total
forging cycle time, which is on the order of a
few seconds. Figure 7.6 illustrates a typical die
lubrication process [Doege et al., 1996].
It is therefore essential to apply the appropriate lubrication within the shortest amount of
time. Thus, factors such as spray pressure, lubricant flow rate, spray angle, spray distance,
and spray pattern are of great importance for a
successful warm or hot forging operation.
Table 7.4 Lubrication systems for the cold
forging of copper and titanium
Process

Upsetting

Table 7.3 Alternative conversion coatings for
aluminum billets for cold forging
Bath temperature
Phosphating operation

⬚F

⬚C

Process time,
min

Dipping in zinc
phosphate solution
Dipping in calcium
aluminate solution
Dipping in aluminum
fluoride solution

130–150

55–65

5–10

140–175

60–80

5–15

185–195

85–90

5–10

Source: [Bay, 1994] [ICFG, 1996]

Deformation

Lubricant

Copper

Extrusion

Light
Severe
Light
Severe

Emulsion
Mineral oil
Emulsion
Mineral oil
Soaps

Titanium
Upsetting

Light
Severe

Extrusion

Light
Severe

Source: [Schey, 1983]

Emulsion or mineral oil
Copper coating Ⳮ soap
Fluoride-phosphate coating Ⳮ soap
Copper coating Ⳮ soap
Fluoride-phosphate coating Ⳮ soap
Copper coating Ⳮ graphite
Fluoride-phosphate coating Ⳮ graphite

74 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications

The temperatures used in warm and hot forging do not readily facilitate the use of organicbased lubrication systems (i.e., mineral oils) or
soaps. Organic-based lubricants will burn and
soap-based lubricants will melt at these temperatures. Thus, the choices of lubrication systems are very limited [Schey, 1983].
The four most common lubrication systems
are MoS2, graphite, synthetics, and glass; however, MoS2 is only useful at warm forging temperatures (up to 750 ⬚F, or 400 ⬚C). MoS2 and
graphite are solid lubricants. Because of their
layered molecular structure, they demonstrate
low frictional stresses. They are usually mixed
into an aqueous solution and sprayed onto the
dies. This serves two purposes. First, the aqueous solution evaporates upon contact with the
dies, thus acting to cool the dies and protect
them against increased wear due to thermal softening. Second, an MoS2 or graphite layer remains on the dies following evaporation of the
aqueous solution. This layer not only acts as a
lubricant, but also as insulation against excessive die heating [Schey, 1983] [Manji, 1994].
Today, concerns over the environmental friendliness of graphite as well as the accumulation of
graphite within the dies have led to the development of water-based synthetic lubricants
[Manji, 1994].
If the lubricants were applied to the workpiece
instead of the dies, they would be destroyed durTable 7.5 Lubrication systems for the warm
and hot forging of steels
Material

Process

Deformation

Lubricant

Warm forging

Severe

Hot forging

Severe

Stainless steel Hot forging

Severe

MoS2 in aqueous
solution
Graphite in aqueous
solution
Graphite in aqueous
solution
Glass in aqueous
slurry or powder

Carbon steel

Source: [Schey, 1983]

Fig. 7.6

ing the heating of the workpiece. There are some
exceptions to this. In the hot forging of aluminum and magnesium, lower forging temperatures permit the use of a graphite/mineral oil
combination applied directly to the workpiece.
In steels, it is possible to use graphite-based
coatings that are applied very rapidly to the billets prior to induction heating. Glass can also be
used as a lubricant and as a protective coating
in hot forging of titanium, nickel, and tungsten
alloys for aerospace applications. When glass is
used, it is applied to the workpiece from an
aqueous slurry or to the preheated workpiece
from a powder. The glass subsequently melts
into a highly viscous liquid [Schey, 1983]
[Manji, 1994]. Because the dies are at much
lower temperatures than the workpiece, a sharp
temperature gradient is created through the glass
film, which produces a sharp viscosity gradient
(molten glass near the workpiece and solid glass
near the dies) vital for lubrication.
The lubrication systems used for the warm
and hot forging of steels are summarized in Table 7.5 [Schey, 1983]. The lubrication systems
used for the warm and hot forging of aluminum,
magnesium, copper, titanium, nickel, and tungsten are summarized in Table 7.6 [Schey, 1983].

7.8

Methods for
Evaluation of Lubricants

The cost of lubricants is small compared to
the costs of items such as raw material, equipment, and labor. As a result, the economic incentive to evaluate or change lubricants is not
always very significant. However, lubricant
breakdown resulting in excessive die wear or die
failure is one of the largest factors contributing
to reduced production as a result of press downtime and part rejection. Therefore, it is essential
to evaluate the lubricants in use and to compare

Die lubrication process in warm and hot forging. [Doege et al., 1996]

Friction and Lubrication / 75

them to alternative types of lubricants. Such an
evaluation is necessary in order to utilize effectively the large investment required for installing
a coating and lubrication line for cold forging
[Shen et al., 1992].

There are many bench-type simulation tests
designed to evaluate friction and lubrication in
forging operations [Schey, 1983]. Here, however, only two of the most common tests are
presented, i.e., the ring compression test and the

Table 7.6 Lubrication systems for the warm and hot forging of aluminum, magnesium, copper,
titanium, nickel, and tungsten
Material

Process

Deformation

Aluminum

Warm and hot forging

Severe

Magnesium
Copper
Titanium, nickel, and tungsten

Warm and hot forging
Warm and hot forging
Warm forging

Severe
Severe
Severe

Hot forging

Severe
Most severe

Lubricant

None
Graphite in mineral oil
Graphite in mineral oil
Graphite in aqueous solution
MoS2 compounds
Graphite compounds
Graphite compounds
Glass in aqueous slurry or powder

Source: [Schey, 1983]

Fig. 7.7

Metal flow in ring compression test. (a) Low friction. (b) High friction

Fig. 7.8

Finite element model of ring compression test. (a) Initial ring. (b) Compressed ring (50% height reduction) (shear factor m
⳱ 0.1). (Gariety et al., 2003)

76 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications

double cup backward extrusion test. The ring
compression test best simulates forging applications with a moderate amount of deformation,
where the surface expansion induced is on the
order of only 100%, while the double cup backward extrusion test best simulates more severe
forging applications, where the surface expansion and the interface pressure induced are over
500% and 290 ksi (2000 MPa), respectively.
In determining the friction factor, f, or the
shear factor, m, for hot forming, in addition to
lubrication effects, the effects of die chilling or
heat transfer from the hot material to colder dies
must be considered. Therefore, the lubrication
tests used for determining friction factors must
include both lubrication and die-chilling effects.
Consequently, in hot forming, a good test must
satisfy the following requirements [Altan et al.,
1983]:

The specimen and die temperatures must be
approximately the same as those encountered in the actual hot forming operation.

Fig. 7.9

The contact time between specimen and
tools under pressure must be approximately
the same as in the forming operation of interest.
● The ratio of the new generated deformed surface area to the original surface area of the
undeformed specimen (i.e., surface expansion) must be approximately the same as in
the process investigated.
● The relative velocity between deforming
metal and dies should have approximately
the same magnitude and direction as in the
forming process.
7.8.1

Ring Compression Test

Lubricity, as defined by the friction factor, f,
or the shear factor, m, is commonly measured
by using the ring test [Male et al., 1970] [Douglas et al., 1975]. In the ring test, a flat ring-shape
specimen is compressed to a known reduction
(Fig. 7.7). The change in internal and external
diameters of the forged ring is very much de-

Theoretical calibration curves for ring compression test having indicated OD: ID:thickness ratios. (a) 6:3:2 ratio. (b) 6:3:1
ratio. (c) 6:3:0.5 ratio. [Altan et al., 1983]

Friction and Lubrication / 77

Table 7.7 Values of frictional shear factor, m, obtained from ring compression tests conducted in a
hydraulic press
Specimen/die
temperatures
Material

AISI 1018

Copper

Ring size OD:ID:h(a)

⬚F

⬚C

in.

mm

200/200

95/95

1.75:1.13:0.5

44.5:28.7:12.7

75/75

24/24

2:1:0.67

50.8:25.4:16.9

Frictional shear
factor (m)

Lubrication system

0.040
0.045
0.060
0.30
0.27

Zinc phosphate coating Ⳮ soap
Metallic compounds Ⳮ sulfur compounds(b)
Mineral oil Ⳮ EP additives
Emulsion
Water-based synthetic

(a) OD, ring outside diameter; ID, ring inside diameter; h, ring height. (b) Environmentally friendly lubrication system developed to replace zinc phosphate coating
based systems. Source: [Gariety et al., 2003] [Hannan et al., 2000]

pendent on the friction at the die/ring interface.
If friction were equal to zero, the ring would
deform in the same way as a solid disk, with
each element flowing radially outward at a rate
proportional to its distance from the center. With
increasing deformation, the internal diameter of
the ring is reduced if friction is high and is increased if friction is low. Thus, the change in the
internal diameter represents a simple method for
evaluating interface friction.
Simulation of Cold Forging Conditions.
The ring test has an advantage when applied to
the study of friction under cold forging conditions. In order to measure friction with this test,
the force necessary to deform the ring and the
flow stress of the specimen do not have to be
known. Thus, evaluation of test results is greatly
simplified. To obtain the magnitude of the friction factor, the internal diameter of the compressed ring must be compared with the values
predicted by using various friction factors, f, or
shear factors, m. Today, these values are most
often predicted by the finite element method
(FEM). Figure 7.8 shows an example of an FEM
model used for this purpose. The results are plotted in the form of “theoretical calibration
curves,” as can be seen in Fig. 7.9, for rings
having OD:ID:thickness ratios of 6:3:2, 6:3:1,
and 6:3:0.5. The internal diameters used in this
figure are the diameters at the internal bulge. Under cold forging conditions, these calibration
curves may be considered as “universal” because changes in material properties (i.e., strain
hardening) have little effect on the curves. In
determining the value of the shear factor, m, for
a given experimental condition, the measured dimensions (reduction in height and variation in
internal diameter) are plotted on the appropriate
calibration figure. From the position of that point
with respect to theoretical curves given for various values of “m,” the value of the shear factor,
m, which existed in the experiment is obtained.

Some results obtained from ring compression
tests conducted in a 160-ton hydraulic press with
a ram velocity of 15 mm/s and a ring height
reduction of 50% are shown in Table 7.7.
Simulation of Hot Forging Conditions. In
contrast to the simulation of cold forging conditions, the simulation of hot forging conditions
do not provide for a “universal” set of calibration curves. The friction calibration curves must
be generated for the specific ring material under
the specified ring and die temperatures and the
ram speed conditions. Hence, knowledge of the
flow stress of the material is required [Lee et al.,
1972].
The results from some ring compression tests
conducted under hot forging conditions have
been compiled. The results from ring compression tests conducted for various materials in a
500 ton mechanical press with a nominal speed
of 90 strokes/min and a total stroke of 10 in.
(255 mm) are shown in Table 7.8.

Fig. 7.10

Metal flow in double cup backward extrusion test

78 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications

7.8.2

shown in Fig. 7.10, the test is a combination of
the single cup forward and single cup backward
extrusion processes. The ratio of the cup heights,
H1/H2, is very dependent on the friction at the
billet/die and billet/punch interfaces [Buschhausen et al., 1992] [Forcellese et al., 1994]. In par-

Double Cup
Backward Extrusion Test

Lubricity, as defined by the friction factor, f,
or the shear factor, m, is also measured by using
the double cup backward extrusion test. As

Table 7.8 Values of frictional shear factor, m, obtained from ring compression tests conducted in a
mechanical press (die temperatures ⬇ 300 ⬚F, or 150 ⬚C)
Specimen
temperature

Ring ratio OD:ID:t

Material

⬚F

⬚C

in.

mm

Frictional shear
factor (m)

Contact time, s

Lubrication system

6061 Al

800

425

Ti-7Al-4Mo

1750

955

403 SS

1800

980

1950
2050
2100
1950
2100
1700
1750
2000
2100
1750
1800
2050
700
800

1065
1120
1150
1065
1150
925
955
1095
1150
955
980
1120
370
425

6:3:0.5
6:3:1
6:3:2
3:1.5:0.25
3:1.5:0.5
3:1.5:1
3:1.5:0.25
3:1.5:0.5
3:1.5:1
3:1.5:1
3:1.5:1
3:1.5:1
3:1.5:1
3:1.5:1
3:1.5:1
3:1.5:1
3:1.5:1
3:1.5:1
3:1.5:1
3:1.5:1
3:1.5:1
5:3:1
5:3:1

150:75:13
150:75:25
150:75:51
75:38:6.5
75:38:13
75:38:25
75:38:6.5
75:38:13
75:38:25
75:38:25
75:38:25
75:38:25
75:38:25
75:38:25
75:38:25
75:38:25
75:38:25
75:38:25
75:38:25
75:38:25
75:38:25
125:75:25
125:75:25

0.40
0.31
0.53
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.23
0.24
0.34
0.28
0.35
0.18
0.28
0.35
0.30
0.46
0.18
0.33
0.27
0.27
0.40
0.37
0.31

0.038
0.047
0.079
0.033
0.044
0.056
0.029
0.039
0.047
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.06

(a)
(a)
(a)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(a)
(a)

Waspaloy
17-7PH SS
Ti-6Al-4V
Inconel 718
Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V
Udimet
7075 Al

SS, stainless steel. (a) Caustic precoat Ⳮ graphite coating Dag 137 (Acheson) on the specimens and graphite spray Deltaforge 43 (Acheson) on the dies. (b) Glassbased coating Deltaforge 347 (Acheson) on the specimens and graphite spray Deltaforge 43 (Acheson) on the dies. Source: [Douglas et al., 1975]

Fig. 7.11

Double cup backward extrusion test tooling at the ERC/NSM

the container and lower punch are fixed on the bed of the press and held stationary with the lower punch located completely inside the container. is obtained. the upper punch is fixed on the ram of the press and moves downward. H1/H2. 7. Thus. f. In determining the value of the shear factor.13. The results are plotted in the form of “theoretical calibration curves. From the position of that point with respect to the theoretical curves given for various values of “m. these values are most often predicted by the finite element method (FEM). [Ngaile et al. H1/H2. will be equal to one. and the Fig... m.14 Measurement of cup height ratio and stroke. the ratio of the cup heights. for a given experimental condition. (Ngaile et al. Today. but not between the container and the lower punch. Thus. f. or shear factors. 2002) ticular. the billet diameter.13 Theoretical calibration curves for double cup backward extrusion test with experimental data point (shear factor m ⬇ 0. or the shear factor.14 illus- trates how the cup height ratio and stroke are measured. Cup height ratio: Rch ⳱ H1/H2. or the shear factor. the metal flow in this test is dependent on the billet material. 7. which existed in the experiment. m. (b) Final. (a) Initial.12 shows an example of an FEM model used for this purpose. It should be noted that in addition to interface friction. the measured dimensions (cup height ratio and stroke) are plotted on the calibration figure.065). m.11 shows the actual tooling used for the double cup backward extrusion test. To obtain the magnitude of the friction factor. Figure 7. Therefore. In other words. the ratio of the cup heights represents a simple method for evaluating interface friction. m. Figure 7.1) (dimensions in millimeters). increases.Friction and Lubrication / 79 Fig. 7.” as can be seen in Fig. 2002] Fig. This explains why the height of the upper cup is larger than the height of the lower cup. f. It should be noted that the lower punch was raised out of the container for illustration purposes only. m. During the test.” the value of the shear factor.. the material flow to the lower punch is more restricted in the presence of friction. it has been found that the ratio of the cup heights increases as the friction factor. [Ngaile et al. if there is no friction. the cup heights will be the same and the cup height ratio. must be compared with the values predicted by using various friction factors. there is a relative velocity between the container and the upper punch. In addition. Stroke: S ⳱ initial height ⳮ (H ⳮ H1 ⳮ H2). 2002] . Figure 7.12 FEM model of double cup backward extrusion test (shear factor m ⳱ 0. 7.

... Vol 92. 2000]: Hannan..9. Solihull. [Douglas et al. 2003... p 775. p 389. American Society for Metals. 2000. “The Effects of Processing Bath Parameters on the Quality and Performance of Zinc Phosphate Stearate Coatings.” Document No. A.” Wire J. 1983.75 mm height). Ngaile.035 AISI 1038 75 24 0. Process. The State of the Art in Cold Forging Lubrication.” Surf. Aspects of Lubrication in Cold Forging of Aluminum and Steel.25 in. The results of these tests are summarized in Table 7. Feb 1975.. J. “Development of Forming Processes for Copper Components for Stanford Linear Accelerator. Thus. Dubar.. 1994]: Bay.. 1983]: Altan. C.. G. [Bay. height (31.80 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Table 7... Altan.. ASME.. “Tribology in Metal Rolling. S.. Source: [Ngaile et al. p 66. Padwad.... p 89–94.R. Eng. REFERENCES [Altan. J. Modern Tribology Handbook—Vol 2: Materials. Metal Forming Fundamentals and Applications. 1970. J. 1999]: Lazzarotto. [Buschhausen et al. [Bhushan. Ngaile.. J. Technol.25 in. 2000]: Lenard. Seidel. “Influence of Flow Stress and Friction Upon Metal Flow in Upset Forging of Rings and Cylinders. Flow Stress Determination for Metals at Forging Rates and Temperatures. 2003]: Gariety. Dubois. Technol... D.9 Values of frictional shear factor. p 54.. Romanowski. A..075 0. there is no “universal” set of calibration curves for this test. Altan. Eng. “Lubrication Aspects in Cold Forging of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys. Vol 45. Vol 49. Altan..75 mm diameter ⳯ 31. Gegel... Oh. J.. 2002.. 1970]: Altan. “Identification of Lubricants and Enhancement of Lubricant Performance for Cold Heading—Progress Report 1—Identification of Lubricants Used for Cold Heading. A. L. p 619–624.. E.. Mater. [Lee et al. Technol..” J. Barcellona...” Report No. Lubr.. [Altan et al. In other words. Vol 33. diam ⳯ 1... N. 2002] punch diameter. Trans. DePierre. “Evaluation of Lubrication and Friction in Cold Forging Using Double Backward Extrusion Process. T. “The Validity of Mathematical Solutions for Determining Friction from the Ring Compression Test. p 95–108. Vol 46. or 24 ⬚C) Material ⬚F ⬚C Frictional shear factor (m) AISI 8610 75 24 0. L. March 1970. [Bay. PF/ERC/NSM-02-R32B. Vol 122. and Industrial Applications. J. Mater. “Evaluation of Friction in Cold Metal Forming. Process. 1994. [Hannan et al.” Trans. Ind. V. m.. 1992. (b) Environmentally friendly lubrication system developed for replacement of zinc phosphate coating based systems. M.H. Proceedings of the 9th International Cold Forging Congress. [Forcellese et al. K. p 19–40... T. Process.. p 135–146..Y. “Heat Generation and Temperatures in Wire and Rod Drawing. 1996]: Doege. A. 2000. N. May 1995. 1994]: Forcellese. 1996. G. Lee.” J. J. M.T. T. C. Ngaile. J.. [Lenard. C. Ind.. [ICFG. [Doege et al. 2000. “Identification of Lubricants and Enhancement of Lubricant Performance for Cold Heading—Progress Report 2—Preliminary Lubrication Tests for Cold Heading. UK. 2001]: Bhushan. B. the flow stress of the material must be known and the appropriate theoretical curves should be used to quantify the interface friction. p 94–100.. Micari. [Male et al. ASME. Aug 1972. Altan. Altan.” Ann. A. T. T. [Gariety et al... Mater. 1972]: Lee. 1994. Weinmann.” Report No.. 1970]: Male. Coatings. T. G.. 1992]: Buschhausen. Technol. 1975]: Douglas. 1996.. F. .. Technol.. H. S.065 Specimen temperatures 0. Gabrielli...” Trans... T. obtained from double cup backward extrusion tests conducted in a hydraulic press (punch/die temperatures ⬇ 75 ⬚F. T. [Gariety et al. 2002]: Gariety. Several double cup backward extrusion tests have been conducted for various materials in a 160 ton hydraulic press with a ram velocity of 15 mm/s and a punch stroke of 21 mm.” Technical Papers of the North American Manufacturing Research Institution of SME. F. “Increasing Tool Life Quantity in Die Forging: Chances and Limits of Tribological Measures. 10/95.. 1995]: Bay.050 Lubrication system Zinc phosphate coating Ⳮ soap Metallic compounds Ⳮ sulfur compounds(a) Zinc-based dry film(b) Zinc phosphate coating Ⳮ soap (a) Billet size ⳱ 1. 1999.. CRC Press. 1996]: International Cold Forging Group. Oudin.” Report No. Coat. Marechal. PF/ERC/NSM-02-R-32A. R.. [Lazzarotto et al. ASME. CIRP. p 1–24.. PF/ERC/ NSM-B-00-20. Altan..

. Kropp. A.” Symposium. 1983.Friction and Lubrication / 81 [Manji. 1992]: Shen. CIRP. ”More Environment Friendly Cold Massive Forming—Production of Steel without Zinc Phosphate Layer..” Adv. J. “A Method for Evaluation of Friction Using a Backward Extrusion Type Forging. [Schey.. Kolodziej. Vedhanayagam.. . Saiki. Gifu. Feb 1999. Ruan. Altan. H. Tribol.” Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Tribology in Manufacturing Processes. R.. 1999]: Ngaile. D. Technol. H.. “Development of Replacements for Phoscoating Used in Forging Extrusion and Metal Forming Processes. Gariety. Report No... “Die Lubricants. Technol. Rupp.. [Ngaile et al. Tribology in Metalworking: Lubrication.: J. 1997. M. G. 1994]: Manji. [Saiki.. Friction. 1997. [Saiki et al.. J. G.. H.” Forging...” 2002. p 377–382. Spring 1994.. Mater. G.. T. p 23–31. T. Vol 1.. Schumacher. [Schmoeckel et al. Fellbach near Stuttgart. p 183–200. “Cold Forging Tribo-Test Based on Variation of Deformation Patterns at the Tool-Workpiece Interface.. Japan. 2002]: Ngaile. J. 1997]: Schmoeckel. [Shen et al.” J.” Lubr. Lubr. PF/ERC/ NSM-02-R-85. Ngaile. M. 1999]: Saiki. Eng. and Wear. Marumo.: Ann... Vol 33. p 22–31. Process. “Evaluation of Cold Forging Lubricants Under Realistic Forging Temperature Conditions. E.... “The Role of Tribology for Improvement of Tool Life in Hot Forging.. 1992. 1983]: Schey. American Society for Metals. p 109–123. Altan.. L. Y. Soc. 1997]: Saiki. Plast. p 39–44. Latest Developments in Massive Forming. [Ngaile et al.. G.. Eng.

asminternational. and anisotropy coefficients of a material are usually obtained from the appropriate tests. flow stress. it is necessary to assign input parameters for the simulation. which represents well the true stress state of most forging processes and (b) the test can be done for a large strain. Gangshu Shen.e. Among those inputs.1 Introduction The finite element analysis (FEA) based simulation of metal forming processes has been widely used to predict metal flow and to optimize the manufacturing operations. However. in the inverse problem the authors determine one or more of input data of the direct problem.1361/chff2005p083 Copyright © 2005 ASM International® All rights reserved. In the direct problem FEA predicts the metal flow. Therefore.2 8.. interface friction. the parameters in the flow stress equation. interface friction leads to an inevitable bulging of the sample and thereby to an inaccurate flow stress determination.org CHAPTER 8 Inverse Analysis for Simultaneous Determination of Flow Stress and Friction Hyunjoong Cho 8. In this chapter. 8.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Taylan Altan. an inverse analysis technique for the accurate determination of the input data for FEM simulation is introduced to determine material parameters in the flow stress model and the friction at the tool/workpiece interface. it is essential that these input values are determined using (a) reliable material tests and (b) accurate evaluation methods. process conditions. p83-89 DOI:10. even in the simplest cylinder upset test.1(a) is regarded as direct problem. 8.2. The required input data for direct problem (i. The results of process simulation are extremely sensitive to the accuracy of flow stress and interface friction that are input to FEM programs. leading to the best fit between experimental measurements and FEM prediction. www. This inverse problem can be applied to . FE simulation) are geometry. Gracious Ngaile. and energy by simulating the forming operation assuming that the flow stress and friction values are known. A common method for the determination of the flow stress data for forging simulation is the cylinder upset test as discussed in Chapter 4 because (a) during the test the deformation is done in a state of compressive stress. With experimental measurements provided to the inverse problem. the evaluation of the test results should be able to overcome difficulties introduced by friction and inhomogeneous deformation. Compared with the direct problem. friction factor. etc.1 Inverse Analysis in Metal Forming Direct and Inverse Problems An FEA of metal forming process as illustrated in Fig. editors. Thus. In using user-friendly commercial FEA software. the input data are identified or calibrated (if initial guess is given). It is desirable to consider the unavoidable friction at the tool/ workpiece interface in the test and to identify the friction together with flow stress using an appropriate evaluation method. A test used to determine material properties should replicate processing conditions that exist in practical applications. forming load.

Then. This method may be used to get some prior information of the parameter values and get some rough idea what is the most important parameter for a given problem. the Fig.. i. 2. 8. Compare the computed forming load with experimentally measured one. in the least-square sense. Obtain the amount of adjustments in material parameters by minimizing the difference between the computed and measured loads.84 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications any material test in which FEA can be done including the cylinder upset and ring compression tests. The trial and error procedure is the simplest way to solve the above inverse problem. First. However. Therefore. Fig.1 Direct (a) and inverse (b) problems . Derivation of inverse analysis based on rigidplastic finite element formulation was developed at ERC/NSM [Cho et al. This procedure is repeated until the difference between experimental measurements and computed data disappears.e. it is necessary to use a numerical optimization technique for robust determination of the parameters in the flow stress equation. The inverse problem was formulated as finding a set of rheological parameters starting from a known constitutive equation. 5. Therefore. the assumed parameters of the flow stress equation are adjusted in such a way that the difference in the calculated and measured load-stroke curves is reduced in the next comparison. a finite element simulation of the selected material test with the assumed parameters of the flow stress equation is conducted and the computed load-stroke curve is compared with the experimentally measured curve. an inverse problem is regarded as a parameter identification problem that can be formulated further as an optimization problem where the difference between measurement and FEM prediction is minimized by adjusting the input parameters.3 Past Studies on the Inverse Analysis Used for Flow Stress Determination Chenot et al. 8. 3. 8. formulated an inverse problem in developing a methodology for automatic identification of rheological parameters. Generally. the difference between experimental and numerical data. parameter identification. Guess the material parameters in flow stress equation.2.1(b). whereas the optimization technique allows for automatic adjustment of parameters until the calculated response matches the measured one within a specified tolerance. Start FEM simulation of the selected material test with given flow stress data.2.. The procedure used to identify the material parameters includes: unknown parameters are determined by minimizing a least-square functional consisting of experimental data and FEM simulated data. Improve the material parameters until the difference becomes within a desired tolerance. For sensitivity 1. provided experimental measurements are accurate enough. this method is time consuming and parameters cannot be identified accurately. An optimization algorithm was coupled with the finite element simulation for computing the parameter vector that minimizes an objective function representing. which represents material properties. 2003].2 Procedure for Parameter Identification The basic concept of an inverse analysis in flow stress determination consists of a set of unknown parameters defined in flow stress equation. The result of inverse analysis is a set of the identified material parameters of the flow stress equation. 4. The FEM is used to analyze the behavior of the material during the test. 8.

Inverse Analysis for Simultaneous Determination of Flow Stress and Friction / 85 analysis of the objective function with respect to the searching parameters during the optimization.3. and the strain hardening exponent.2 Objective Function The unknown material parameters are determined by minimizing an objective function.n. Figure 8. Chenot differentiated the FEM code with respect to the searching parameters [Chenot et al. representing the difference between the experimental and the simulated loads in a least-square sense: E⳱ 1 N N FEXP ⳮ FCOM(Pk ) FEXP 兺冢 i⳱1 2 冣 (Eq 8.3. FEM simulations are made with initial guesses of K and n values. Thus. When the experimentally measured load-stroke curve is available. 2 ⳵Pk (Eq 8. He identified parameters in the conventional flow stress equation and in a dislocation density based internal variable model as well as friction factor from one set of ring compression test. the parameter identification problem is reduced to compute a set of the unknown parameter Pk ⳱ {K. the material parameters become design variables in the optimization problem.n K. Table 8. 8.. the deformation behavior of the material can be assumed to be rigid-plastic by neglecting the elastic part. the objective function E ⳱ E(Pk) will be minimum at: ⳵E(Pk) ⳱ 0 for k ⳱ 1.m K. K and n are the two material parameters (i.. for warm and hot forgings. the material strength coefficient.1) where FEXP is the experimental load and FCOM is the computed load. P2 ⳱ n. K. If the material shows strain hardening behavior in cold forging. flow stress is sensitive to rate of deformation. 2001]. E. This method compromises between computation time and effort of analytical code differentiation. Therefore.3 Flow Stress Determination in Forging by Inverse Analysis In a large plastic deformation problem. E. introduced a new method combining compression tests with FEM simulation (C-FEM) to determine flow stress from the compression tests where inhomogeneous deformation is present due to interface friction. Pietrzyk et al. which leads to the best fit between experimental measurements and corresponding computed data.m .n}. usually encountered in most forging applications. the identification software CART (Computer Aided Rheology and Tribology) was introduced [Boyer & Massoni. 2001]. n) used to define the stress-strain relationship during plastic deformation. This technique proved to be a good alternative to the finite difference method or analytical differentiation of the FEM code in conducting sensitivity analysis. The objective function. 8.1.1 Forging type Cold Warm Hot Flow stress models and parameters Flow stress equation r¯ ⳱ K¯en r¯ ⳱ K¯ene˙¯ m r¯ ⳱ K¯e˙ m Parameters K. 2002]..1 Material Parameters In cold forging. As a result of research. In this method.2 illustrates a definition of the objective function. 8.e. strain-rate. and then the two material parameters are to be identified. used inverse analysis technique to evaluate the coefficients in the friction and flow stress model for metal forming processes. the power-law type flow stress equation is used to describe a stress-strain relationship for plastic range. the flow stress obtained from the compression test is improved by minimizing the target function defined in load-stroke curves [Zhiliang et al. Examples of flow stress equations and material parameters are summarized in Table 8. 1996].2) where Pk are the P1 ⳱ K. At elevated temperature.. For given material parameters Pk. Therefore. is a nonlinear implicit function of material parameters Pk. N is the number of data sampling points selected from a load-stroke to construct the objective function. and temperature. flow stress is expressed in function of strain. Boyer and Massoni developed the semianalytical method for sensitivity analysis of inverse problem in material forming domain. Zhiliang et al. He concluded that the determination of both rheological and frictional parameters from one combined test is ideal because the interpretation of tests to determine the flow stress depends on an assumed value of the friction factor [Pietrzyk et al.

the main problem is the existing friction at the die/specimen interface. 2 ⳵Pk⳵Pj ⳵Pk (Eq 8. and this causes an error in flow stress calculation. is not needed in the test because inverse analysis takes advantage of FEM simulation where complex stress and strain states can be handled.3) The first and second gradients of the objective function with respect to the parameters Pk are evaluated by taking the derivatives of the objective function E ⳱ E(Pk) with respect to Pk: ⳵E 2 ⳱ⳮ ⳵Pk N N 兺冦 i⳱1 (FEXP ⳮ FCOM) ⳵FCOM F2EXP ⳵Pk for j. Any material test that can be simulated by FEM can be selected to determine the material property. it is necessary to consider the inevitable interface friction in the test and then identify it together with the flow stress. Therefore.4 is minimized by using a lubricant together with geometry proposed by Rastegaev [Dahl et al. only two different test velocities are required to identify strain-rate sensitivity (m-value) instead of conducting the tests at several different constant strain-rates. inverse analysis technique gives flexibility in selecting material tests.5. inhomogeneous deformation) regardless of the quality of the lubricant and (b) affects the measured load-stroke curve. Therefore. Barreling reflects a degree of inhomogeneous deformation caused by friction. one more measurable geometrical quantity in the test. the frictional force at large compression ratio (a) starts to bulge the sample (i.5 8.3 shows a methodology for determining flow stress and interface friction simultaneously.86 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications The nonlinear Eq 8. However. in addition to the measured load-stroke curve.e. FEM simulation is used to describe the deformation behavior of material during the test and the optimization algorithm identifies material parameters using FEM simulation results.4) N ⳵2E 2 ⳱ⳮ 兺 ⳵Pk⳵Pj N i⳱1 1 ⳵FCOM ⳵FCOM (FEXP ⳮ FCOM) ⳮ 2 Ⳮ FEXP ⳵Pk ⳵Pj F2EXP 2 ⳵ FCOM for j. For determining flow stress data for warm and hot forging. k ⳱ 1. 2 冧 (Eq 8. After several iterations. the computed barreling shape is compared with the measured barreling shape and then the difference is minimized by adjusting the friction factor. Figure 8. k ⳱ 1. is used. For simultaneous identification of both the material parameters Pk and the friction factor mf. Therefore. 8. 8.1 Example of Inverse Analysis Flow Stress Model The developed inverse analysis algorithm has been tested by using the real experimental data Inverse Analysis for Simultaneous Determination of Flow Stress and Friction In the upset test.3 Advantages In the inverse analysis. k ⳱ 1. Uniform strainrate condition. In other words.2 The difference between the computed and the experimental load .2 is solved with respect to the parameters Pk using Newton-Raphson iterative procedure. the measured load-stroke curve has a force contribution from inhomogeneous deformation caused by frictional force. 8. 2 (Eq 8... In order to overcome this problem. 1999]. for determining bulk material property for a large strain. This treatment will lead to a uniaxial stress state for a limited reduction in height during the test. it allows the identification of friction by measuring the barreling shape of the specimen. During the inverse analysis.5) ⳵Pk⳵Pj 冦 冧 8. friction Fig. the difference in barreling shape disappears and the friction factor is identified. ⳵2E ⳵E DPj ⳱ ⳮ for j. namely the barreling.3. which requires a sophisticated control of test machine.

r¯ ⳱ K¯e n 8. ID ⳯ 0.71 in. OD ⳯ 1.Inverse Analysis for Simultaneous Determination of Flow Stress and Friction / 87 obtained from the ring compression test. D-s. Two experimental quantities: (1) the measured load-stroke curve and (2) the maximum diameter of the specimen at the end of stroke were used as experimental values in the inverse analysis.13 in.3 Experiment Aluminum rings made from Aluminum 6061T6 with 2. mf. L-s. height (54 mm OD ⳯ 27 mm ID ⳯ 18 mm height) were compressed to various reductions Flow chart of simultaneous determination of flow stress and friction. a set of material parameters defined by Pk ⳱ {K. Fig.5. bulge diameter versus stroke. 8. The investigated material was assumed to follow strain-hardening behavior and the following power-law-type flow stress equation was considered.n} and friction factor mf are the unknown parameters that have to be identified.2 (Eq 8. load versus stroke.6) Therefore.06 in. friction factor .

% Decrease in ID of ring. % ⳮ1. FEM simulations using the determined flow stress with friction factor of 0. and 40%.2.7 65 67 66 446 459 452 0.2 Verification of the Determined Flow Stress In order to verify the flow stress determined with friction factor by the inverse analysis. 8.5 ⳮ5.5. the inverse analysis prediction produced only 8. flow stress r¯ ⳱ 437¯e 0. after four optimization iterations. The rings were lubricated with Teflon spray on all surfaces of the samples and on the top and bottom dies.5 Fig. which is very close to 0.5.7.2 40.0 Table 8.48 ⳮ2.1% underestimation in ID comparison of the ring.067 (MPa) was obtained.073 0.074 Fig. As can be seen in Fig.5. 8.3 Determination of Flow Stress and Friction The results of identifed parameters (K-value and n-value) in the flow stress equation and friction factor by the inverse analysis are summa- rized in Table 8. In order to observe the internal diameter variation the test was stopped at reductions of 7. Thus. 8. 22.074 (MPa) gives the best minimum for the objective function.2. the aluminum cylinders with a 30 mm diam ⳯ 30 mm height were upset to 38% reduction in height.2 22.5. % ksi MPa n-value Ⳮ0. As shown in Fig. When the friction factor 0. The difference between the flow stress Compressed ring samples Percent decrease in ID of ring Reduction in height.175 and flow stress r¯ ⳱ 452¯e 0.6.076 0.2. 8.4 Verification of the Determined Friction Factor To verify the accuracy of determined friction factor. Thus. the interface was lubricated with Ecoform lubricant made by Fuchs. As initial guesses of material parameters. Using the measured load-stroke curve. 8.5 Comparison of computed and experimental loadstroke curves (ring test) .85 7.175 was assumed.175 were conducted for various friction factors.3.175 K-value.15 0. 8.4 Table 8.88 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications in height. MPa Decrease in ID of ring.9 ⳮ1.175. 8. and Table 8. It is seen that measurements match well the curve obtained with the friction factor of 0. a combination of friction factor mf ⳱ 0. the ring calibration curves were generated as shown in Fig.4 shows the compressed ring samples. Three inverse analyses were conducted by varying the friction factor from 0. computed and experimental loads are nearly identical.2 shows the decrease in ID of the ring at different reductions.3 Predicted inverse analysis results (ring test) Friction (mf) 0. Figure 8. 8. K ⳱ 430 (MPa) and n ⳱ 0.1 were used for every case. To minimize interface friction.2 0.182.96 ⳮ1. the lubrication nearly eliminated bulging in upsetting of cylinder.15 to 0.

” Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing. [Pietrzyk et al.. Massoni. Comput.. Fourment. Mater. p 144–150. T.” Ann..” Eng. Szyndler. M. 1996. C.. Fubao. 2/3/4). p 281–284. V. 1999]: Dahl. “Inverse Analysis for Identification of Parameters During Thermo-Mechanical Tests. P. Vol 52/1. 2002]: Zhiliang. Xinbo. Method and Applications. D. “Identification of Parameters in the Internal Variable Constitutive Model and Friction Model for Hot Forming of Steels.D. ERC/NSM-99R-22. L. 2002.5% in nvalue.. Vol 120. “Simultaneous Determination of Flow Stress and Interface Friction by Finite Element Based Inverse Analysis Technique. 2001]: Boyer.. [Zhiliang et al...6 Ring calibration curves obtained with r¯ ⳱ 452¯e0. p 190–225.. CIRP. p 281–284.Inverse Analysis for Simultaneous Determination of Flow Stress and Friction / 89 REFERENCES Fig. [Boyer & Massoni. Process..3% in K-value and 9. L. Ngaile. p 221–224.074 (MPa) Fig. “Determination of Flow Stress of 1524 Steel at Room Temperature Using the Compression Test.” Simulation of Materials Processing: Theory. G.. B. 2003. [Cho et al. 2001. E. K. Z. J. Technol. “Inverse Problems in Finite Element Simulation of Metal Forming Processes. 8. Altan. Ed...” J.. . Ed. Hodgson. 2001. 1996]: Chenot. Vol 13 (No.. H.” Simulation of Materials Processing: Theory.. Massoni... 2003]: Cho... Z. Mori. [Dahl et al. respectively. Vazquez. [Chenot et al. Method and Applications. E.. 2001]: Pietrzyk.7 Compressed ring samples data obtained in ring and cylinder compression tests is about 3. “Determination of Metal Material Flow Stress by the Method of C-FEM.. Mori....-I. 8.

● Establish the limits of formability or producibility. The final result is a reasonable load prediction with an approximate stress distribution [Kobayashi et al.. www.1 Introduction The major process variables involved in forging can be summarized as: (a) the billet material properties. None of these methods is perfect because of the assumptions made in devel- oping the mathematical approach. These two quantities themselves (flow stress and friction) must be determined by experiment and are difficult to obtain accurately. p91-105 DOI:10. The resulting approximate equilibrium equations are solved with imposition of stress compatibility between slabs and boundary tractions.. ● Predict the stresses. and the energy necessary to carry out the forming operation. and the finite element method. i.. Forging processes can be analyzed by several methods including the slab method. the workpiece being deformed is decomposed into several slabs. any errors in flow stress measurement or uncertainties in the value of the friction factor are expected to influence the accuracy of the results of the analysis. for analyzing forging processes. In addition.asminternational. l.. determine whether it is possible to perform the forming operation without causing any surface or internal failures (cracks or folds) in the deforming material. m. Thus. finite difference method. simplifying assumptions are made mainly with respect to stress distributions. i.1361/chff2005p091 Copyright © 2005 ASM International® All rights reserved. 1979]. the visioplasticity method. the upperbound method. or the friction coefficient.1 [Altan et al. This information is necessary for tool design and for selecting the appropriate equipment. the friction factor. Gangshu Shen. velocities. and (f) the environmental conditions. strain rates. every method of analysis requires as input: ● A description of the material behavior under the process conditions. the forces. The capabilities and characteristics of these methods are summarized in Table 9. (d) forging equipment. 1989].. and strain) between the undeformed part (billet or preform) and the deformed part (final forged product).Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Taylan Altan. with adequate force and energy capabilities. editors.e. the flow stress data ● A quantitative value to describe the friction.e. i.. There are several different approximate methods. both analytical and numerical. The major objectives of analyzing any forging operation are: ● Establish the kinematic relationships (shape. i. the slip-line method. For each slab. Gracious Ngaile. (e) mechanics of the deformation zone.e.e.org CHAPTER 9 Methods of Analysis for Forging Operations Manas Shirgaokar 9. predict the metal flow during the forming operation. (c) tool/workpiece interface conditions. In the slab method. The slip-line field method is used in plane strain for perfectly plastic materials (constant . (b) the tooling/dies. to perform the forming operation.

. As a result. (b) s ⳱ mr/ ¯ 冪3. The construction of slip-line fields. although producing an “exact” stress distribution. and the requirements of continuity and equilibrium are satisfied between neighboring elements. Commercial FE software packages have been yield stress) and uses the hyperbolic properties that the stress equations have in such cases. with experience.. satisfying the boundary conditions).. In recent years. the behavior is described by the differential equations. The FE method allows the user to incorporate in the simulation: (a) the tool and workpiece temperatures. for a two-dimensional domain. All of the above highlighted methods of analysis fail to consider temperature gradients. From the stress distributions. Source: [Altan et al. userfriendly commercial FE software and the detailed information FEM can provide as compared to other methods of analysis. this method is limited to problems with simple boundaries [Becker. and (e) capabilities for microstructure analysis. 1989]. can deliver fast and relatively accurate prediction of loads and velocity distributions [Kobayashi et al. The method can be used to obtain reliable solutions in detail for processes in which the experimental determination of the velocity vectors was possible. the entire solution domain is divided into small finite segments (hence. which yields a unique solution provided the boundary conditions of the actual problem are satisfied. 1954] combines experiment and analysis. strain rates are calculated and the stress distributions are obtained from plasticity equations. a grid of cells is placed inside the domain and the differencing approximation applied to each interior point. Over each element.92 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications tions are written in terms of difference equations. can determine free boundaries Can treat 3-D problems Requires considerable computer time Same as above Treats rigid/plastic material Very general approach . 1992]. A grid is imprinted on the metal or modeling substance before deformation starts. Provided the boundary conditions of the actual problem are satisfied. the derivatives in the governing partial differential equaTable 9.. Information leading to a good selection of velocity fields comes from experimental evidence and experience. 1979] Stress field Temperature field Stresses on tools Comments Ignores redundant work Redundant work can be included approximately Valid for plane-strain problems Gives upper bound on loads. In the finite difference method. 1989]. This results in a system of linear algebraic equations (with a banded solution matrix). Though temperature gradients can be taken into account. After the velocity vectors have been determined from an actual test. which are present in the deforming material during hot forming operations. velocity fields can be calculated through plasticity equations [Kobayashi et al.. This results in a more accurate analysis of the forging process. the name “finite elements”). a unique solution can be obtained to the overall system of linear algebraic equations (with a sparsely populated solution matrix) [Becker. is still quite limited in predicting results that give good correlations with experimental work.e. Pictures taken at small intervals during processing enable the investigator to construct a flow pattern. This method. The visioplasticity method [Thomsen et al. (d) strain hardening characteristics. the finite element method has gained wide acceptance in the industry and academia. All these small elements are assembled together. The upper-bound method requires the “guessing” of admissible velocity fields (i. In the finite element method. 1992]. the effect of temperatures on flow stress and metal flow during hot forming are often not considered adequately. (b) the heat transfer during deformation. (c) strain-rate-dependent material properties. This can be attributed to the rapid advancement in the computing technology. among which the best one is chosen by minimizing total potential energy. Therefore.1 Characteristics of various methods of analysis Output Input Flow stress Friction Velocity field Slab Uniform energy Slip line Upper bound Average Average Average Distribution (a)(b) (b) (a)(b) (b) No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No No No Yes Average Yes Average Hill’s Finite difference Finite element Matrix Weighted residuals Distribution Distribution Distribution Distribution Distribution (a)(b) (a)(b) (a)(b) (a)(b) (a)(b) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Average Yes Yes Yes Yes Method (a) s ⳱ lrn.

2b) e˙ y ⳱ ⳵vy ⳱ 0 ⳵y (Eq 9. 2. is defined as: vz ⳱ ⳮVDz/h. Estimate or assume a velocity or metal flow field. 9. In this case. Knowing r¯ and friction. Plane strain (initial width ᐉo and initial height ho) and axisymmetric (initial radius Ro) . Thus. ● The flow stress and the temperature are constant within the analyzed portion of the deforming material. For this velocity field. 9. The basic approach for the practical use of the slab method is as follows: 1. 4. and z directions.1 3.1). is constant at the die/material interface and is defined as s ⳱ fr¯ ⳱ mr/ ¯ 冪3. upperbound. 9. This chapter briefly discusses the slab. ● The inertial forces are small and are neglected.2.1) where VD is the velocity of the top die. derive or apply the necessary equations for predicting the stress distribution and the forming load (in the slab method) or the forming load and the average forming pressure (in the upperbound method). ¯ within each distinct zone of deformation. r. and the finite element (FE) methods.2c) Changes in shape during upsetting. Fig. estimate the average strains. s. 9. ● The elastic deformations of the deforming material and the tool are neglected.2a) e˙ x ⳱ ⳵vx V ⳱ D ⳱ ⳮ˙ez ⳵x h (Eq 9.1 Application of Slab Method to Plane-Strain Upsetting The Velocity Field. ● The frictional shear stress. ● The material flows according to the von Mises rule.Methods of Analysis for Forging Operations / 93 used successfully in simulating complex two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) forging operations. y. The strain rates are: e˙ z ⳱ ⳵vz V ⳱ ⳮ D ⳵z h (Eq 9. deformation is homogeneous and takes place in the x-z plane (Fig. estimate an average value of the flow stress. strain rates. and temperatures within each distinct time zone of the velocity field. vy ⳱ 0 (Eq 9. The velocity field. vx ⳱ VDx/h.2 Slab Method of Analysis The following assumptions are made in using the slab method of analysis: ● The deforming material is isotropic and incompressible. with the velocities in the x.

ey ⳱ 0 ho x Per definition: rm ⳱ (Eq 9. In applying slab analysis to plane strain upsetting. i.7: The effective strain rate is given by the equation: 冪3 (˙e Ⳮ e˙ Ⳮ e˙ ) e˙ Ⳮ e˙ 2 2 e˙¯ ⳱ 2冢 冪 3 冣 ⳱ 冪3 |˙e | ⳱ 冪3 |˙e | e˙¯ ⳱ 2 2 x 2 y 2 x 2 z 2 z x z 2 冪3 rm ⳱ r2 ⳱ r1 Ⳮ r3 2 For plane strain.9) Estimation of Stress Distribution. a simple equation of static equilibrium is obtained [Thomsen et al. Such a relation between the stresses (in principal axes) and strain rates is given as follows: 冷 2冪r3¯ 冷 (Eq 9. Assuming a depth of “1” or unit length. The strains are: ez ⳱ ln h . r2 ⳱ rm.6) Plastic deformation/plastic flow starts when the stresses at a given point in the metal reach a certain level.e. 9. ry ⳱ r2 (Eq 9. 1965] [Hoffman et al.4) 3[(r1 ⳮ rm)2 Ⳮ (r3 ⳮ rm)2 ⳮ 0] ⳱ 2r¯ 2 (Eq 9..7) Fig. a force balance is made on this slab.2 Equilibrium of forces in plane strain homogeneous upsetting . rx ⳱ r3.. i.3) or. These equations are called the plasticity equations. a slab of infinitesimal thickness is selected perpendicular to the direction of metal flow (Fig.8) The effective strain is: e¯ ⳱ r1 Ⳮ r2 Ⳮ r3 3 After simplification.e. the von Mises rule gives: (Eq 9.2). as specified by a flow rule such as the Tresca or von Mises rule discussed in Chapter 5. strain (e) and strain rate (˙e) fields). From these equations. the flow rule is: |ez| (Eq 9.94 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications It can be shown easily that the shear strain rates are c˙ xz ⳱ c˙ yz ⳱ 0.5) r1 ⳮ r3 ⳱ rz ⳮ rx ⳱ The slab method of analysis assumes that the stresses in the metal flow direction and in the directions perpendicular to the metal flow direction are principal stresses. e˙ 1 ⳱ k(r1 ⳮ rm) e˙ 2 ⳱ k(r2 ⳮ rm) e˙ 3 ⳱ k(r3 ⳮ rm) where k is a constant and rm is the hydrostatic stress. e ⳱ ⳮez. Thus. for the plane strain case one obtains: e˙ 2 ⳱ e˙ y ⳱ k(r2 ⳮ rm) ⳱ 0 or r2 ⳱ rm (Eq 9..: rz ⳱ r1. Analysis of plastic deformation requires a certain relationship between the applied stresses and the velocity field (kinematics as described by velocity. 9. with Eq 9. 1953].

Thus. or vr ⳱ VD r/2h Thus: rz ⳱ ⳮ 2r¯ 2s ᐉ 2 ⳮ x ⳮ r¯ h 2 冪3 冢 冣 (Eq 9. i.2 toward the center (x ⳱ 0).9: rz ⳱ 冷 冪23 r¯ 冷 9.2. s. from Eq 9.11 gives the upsetting load. Velocity Field. Integration of Eq 9..11) In the z direction. 9. integration of Eq 9. the frictional shear stress. ᐉ.Methods of Analysis for Forging Operations / 95 Summation of forces in the X direction is zero or: 兺Fx ⳱ rxh ⳮ (rx Ⳮ drx)h ⳮ 2sdx ⳱ 0 or drx ⳱ ⳮ2sdx/h Thus.3 illustrates the notations used in the homogeneous axisymmetric upsetting.2 Fig. The volume constancy holds. In Eq 9.e. of the strip of unit depth gives the upsetting load per unit depth: 2s rx ⳱ ⳮ x Ⳮ C h L⳱ From the flow rule of plane strain. 9. vz can be considered to vary linearly while satisfying the boundary conditions at z ⳱ 0 and z ⳱ h. because z is considered to be positive acting upward and the upsetting stress is acting downward.11 illustrates that the vertical stress increases linearly from the edge (x ⳱ ᐉ/2) of Fig.11 over the entire width. the volume of the material moved in the z direction is equal to that moved in the radial direction. or: pr 2 VD ⳱ 2prvrh. is equal to mr/ ¯ 冪3. and. In the tangential di- Equilibrium of forces in axisymmetric homogeneous upsetting .11.3 冪3 ᐉ 冢1 Ⳮ mᐉ 4h 冣 Application of the Slab Analysis Method to Axisymmetric Upsetting Figure 9. by integration one gets: Equation 9. The analysis procedure is similar to that used in plane strain upsetting. it follows that: rz ⳱ ⳮ 冷 冷 2s 2 x ⳭC Ⳮ r¯ h 冪3 (Eq 9. where rx ⳱ 0. The value of rz is negative.10) The constant C is determined from the boundary condition at x ⳱ ᐉ/2.

Because e˙ r ⳱ e˙ h.3...13) In order to obtain the strain rate in the tangential direction.19 reduces to: (Eq 9.14) deH dr 1 v V ⳱ ⳱ r⳱ D dt dt r r 2h (Eq 9. the plasticity equations give: r1 ⳮ r2 ⳱ | r| ¯ or rz ⳮ rr ⳱ | r| ¯ or the strain rate is e˙ H ⳱ (Eq 9. integration of Eq 9. 1953]: (r Ⳮ dr)hdh Ⳮ 2rhsin 1 ⳵vr ⳵v Ⳮ ⳱0 2 ⳵z ⳵r 冢 The flow rule for axisymmetric deformation is obtained by using a derivation similar to that used in plane strain deformation.14d) c˙ Hz ⳱ c˙ rH ⳱ 0 兺Fr ⳱ rr(dh)rh ⳮ (rr Ⳮ drr) ⳮrr ⳮ 冪 (Eq 9. the von Mises flow rule for axisymmetric upsetting is: 冣 (Eq 9.14c) rr ⳱ rh or r2 ⳱ r3 Thus. the other strains can be obtained as: eH ⳱ er ⳱ drr 2s r Ⳮ rh ⳮ r⳱0 dr h Since in axisymmetric deformation. vz ⳱ ⳮVD z/h.17) (Eq 9.3) gives [Thomsen et al. the length of the arc. it is necessary to consider the actual metal flow since vH ⳱ 0 and cannot be used for taking a partial derivative.20) rr ⳱ rh.18) Estimation of Stress Distribution. H. the increase in strain in the H direction.3. and the radial stress rr ⳱ 0. Thus.. the velocities are: vr ⳱ VD r/2h. is given by: deH ⳱ In analogy with Eq 9. i. Eq 9. e˙ r ⳱ e˙ h.19) The angle dh is very small.: ez ⳱ 冮 t to 冮 e˙ zdt ⳱ ⳮ t to 冮 h ho ⳮ dh h ⳱ ⳮln h ho 1 h e ln ⳱ ⳮ z 2 ho 2 (Eq 9.96 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications rection.21) Integration gives: VDdt h rr ⳱ ⳮ (Eq 9. there is no metal flow.21 gives: rr ⳱ 2s (r ⳮ R) h (Eq 9.e. 9. Thus. Thus.14e) 2 2 (˙e Ⳮ e˙ 2r Ⳮ e˙ 2z ) ⳱ |˙ez| 3 H dh 2 hdr ⳮ 2srdhdr ⳱ 0 Thus. vH ⳱ 0 e¯ ⳱ |ez | (r Ⳮ dr)dH ⳮ rdH dr ⳱ rdH r (Eq 9.22) . or drr 2s Ⳮ ⳱0 dr h (Eq 9.e. 9. r ⳱ R in Fig. and after canceling appropriate terms.14a) The other strain rates are: e˙ z ⳱ e˙ r ⳱ c˙ rz ⳱ ⳵vz V ⳱ ⳮ D ⳵z h (Eq 9. Following Fig.14b) ⳵vr V ⳱ D ⳱ e˙ H ⳵r 2h (Eq 9. the plasticity equations give: or with ⳮdh ⳱ ⳮVD dt: ez ⳱ (Eq 9. 1965] [Hoffman et al. The equilibrium of forces in the r direction (Fig.15.15) The strains can be obtained by integrating the strain rates with respect to time. with sin dh/2 ⳱ dh/2. 9. the effective strain rate is: e˙¯ ⳱ (Eq 9. i. the effective strain is: (Eq 9.16b) 2s rⳭC h The constant C is determined from the condition that at the free boundary.16a) Similarly.

Consequently.3 9. s ⳱ r/ si ⳱ mir/ ¯ 冪3 ⳱ interface shear stress at the “i” portion of the deforming material. it is necessary to make the usual assumptions. the better the prediction. For describing metal flow with the upperbound method. v is the relative velocity between two zones of material. Thus. integration gives: 冢 L ⳱ rpR ¯ 2 1 Ⳮ 9. Often the velocity field considered includes one or more parameters that are determined by minimizing the total energy rate with respect to those parameters. respectively. internal shear. 2.15. is given by E˙T ⳱ load ⳯ die velocity. and friction shear. L is the forming load. S indicates surface (internal or at die/material interface). when the velocity field has internal shear surfaces. The upsetting load can now be obtained by integrating the stress distribution over the circular surface of the cylindrical upset: L⳱ or where E˙D. E˙S. these must satisfy the conditions of: incompressibility.24) Upper Bound Method and Its Application to Axisymmetric Upsetting Principles of the Method This method can be used to estimate the deformation load and the average forming pressure. given in Eq 9. as well as perform the following steps: 1. Describe a family of admissible velocity fields (use parameters to be determined later). because there are no internal velocity discontinuities in the present homogeneous velocity field.25 is necessarily higher than the actual load and therefore represents an upper bound to the actual forming load. vi is the die material interface velocity in the “i” por¯ 冪3. 3. the load calculated with Eq 9. with an increasing number of parameters in the velocity field. continuity.2 Application to Axisymmetric Homogeneous Upsetting The velocity field for homogeneous upsetting is given by Eq 9. Thus. Calculate the energy rates of deformation.26) E˙S (internal shear energy rate) ⳱ 0. and velocity boundaries. a somewhat better upper-bound velocity field and solution are obtained. The load is then obtained by dividing the energy rate by the relative velocity between the die and the deforming material.3.13. Eq 9. and friction. ¯ the deformation energy rate is: E˙ D ⳱ 冮 r¯ e˙¯ dV ⳱ hpR r¯ 2 v VD h (Eq 9.23) Equation 9. 1968]: E˙ T ⳱ LVD ⳱ E˙ D Ⳮ E˙ S Ⳮ E˙ F 冮 SF sivids (Eq 9.3. Thus. all the velocities and strain rates are known. The total energy rate. V is the volume of deforming material.25) (Eq 9.22 is transformed into: 2s rz ⳱ (r ⳮ R) ⳮ r¯ h 冮 R 0 rz 2prdr Considering that s ⳱ mr/ ¯ 冪3. The friction energy rate is: 冮 E˙ F ⳱ 2 SF sivids where vi is the radial velocity.13 to 9. and E˙F are the energy rates for deformation. E˙F includes the friction energies . the solution improves while the computations become more complex. 1968].Methods of Analysis for Forging Operations / 97 With the flow rule. r. in the practical use of the upper-bound method. 9. internal shear. practical compromises are made in selecting an admissible velocity field. Based on limit theorems [Avitzur.23 illustrates that the stress increases linearly from the edge toward the center. and ds ⳱ 2prdr. and tion of the deforming material. Assuming a constant flow stress. or [Avitzur. discussed earlier in the slab method.1 2mR 3h冪3 E˙ T ⳱ 冮 V r¯ e˙¯ dV Ⳮ 冮 SS s|Dv|ds Ⳮ 冣 (Eq 9. E˙T. Calculate the total energy rate and minimize it with respect to unknown parameters of velocity field formulation. In general. the lower this upper bound load is.

1972]: vh ⳱ 0 (Eq 9. given by Eq 9.98 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications on both the top and bottom surfaces of the deforming part.. Application to Nonhomogeneous Upsetting Homogeneous upsetting can only be achieved at low strains and with nearly perfect lubrication.24 indicates that in axisymmetric homogeneous upsetting the loads calculated by the slab and upper-bound methods both give the same end result. and A is determined from the velocity boundary condition at z ⳱ h. The upsetting load is then given by: L ⳱ E˙ min /VD 9. bulging of the free surfaces occurs. with s ⳱ mr/ ¯ 冪3. The FE model is constructed in the following manner [Kobayashi et al.33. to be: 1/2 冣冥 2 2 1 e˙¯ ⳱ e˙ Ⳮ e˙ 2h Ⳮ e˙ 2z Ⳮ c˙ 2rz 3 r 2 The load is: 9.30c) 2 where b is a parameter representing the severity of the bulge. In this case.3. Thus.29) Comparison of Eq 9. The exact value of b is determined from the minimization condition. obtained from Eq 9. the friction at the die/material interface prevents the metal from flowing radially in a uniform fashion. i.27) The total energy rate is: E˙ T ⳱ E˙ D Ⳮ E˙ F e˙ r ⳱ vr ⳱ A(1 ⳮ bz2) r (Eq 9.30a) vz ⳱ ⳮ2Az(1 ⳮ bz2/3) (Eq 9. and the radial and axial velocities are functions of z as well as of r..31b) e˙ z ⳱ vz ⳱ ⳮ2A(1 ⳮ bz2) z (Eq 9. is used to calculate the velocities and strain rates that then give the minimum value of the energy rate.31a) e˙ h ⳱ vr ⳱ A(1 ⳮ bz2) r (Eq 9.30b) vr ⳱ A(1 ⳮ bz )r (Eq 9.e.4 Finite Element Method in Metal Forming The basic approach of the finite element (FE) method is one of discretization.32) The total energy dissipation. E˙ F ⳱ 2 冮 R 0 si VD 4psiVD r2prdr ⳱ 2h 2h A⳱ R 冮 2 r¯ VD 3 E˙ F ⳱ pm R 3 冪3 h The strain rates are: r2dr (Eq 9. E˙min.29 and 9. or c˙ rz ⳱ 2 r¯ VD 3 E˙ T ⳱ pR2 rV ¯ D Ⳮ pm R 3 冪3 h (Eq 9. 1989]: ● A number of finite points are identified in the domain of the function and the values of . In all practical upsetting operations. E˙T. As a result.25 can now be calculated analytically or numerically. L⳱ VD or 2A e˙¯ ⳱ [3(1 ⳮ bz2)2 Ⳮ (brz)2]1/2 3 冪 (Eq 9..3 2h(1 ⳮ bh2/3) 0 or. from: ⳵E˙ T ⳱0 ⳵b The value of b.31c) c˙ rh ⳱ c˙ hz ⳱ 0. a velocity field may be given by [Lee et al.31d) The effective strain rate is calculated from: 冤冢 E˙ T 2 R ⳱ pR2r¯ 1 Ⳮ m VD h 3冪3 冢 冣 (Eq 9.28) ⳵vr ⳵v Ⳮ z ⳱ ⳮ2Abzr ⳵z ⳵r (Eq 9.

where e˙ v ⳱ e˙ ii. using the “variational approach.Methods of Analysis for Forging Operations / 99 the function and its derivatives. and (d) energy balance approach. They are .4. 1973] and modifying the functional by adding the term 兰k˙evdV. Fi represents surface tractions. stresses. is the volumetric strain rate.¯e˙ ) for the rigidplastic and rigid-viscoplastic materials. Then: dp ⳱ ¯ e˙¯ dV Ⳮ 冮 kd˙e dV 冮 rd V Ⳮ v V 冮 e˙ dkdV ⳮ 冮 V SF Fi dui dS ⳱ 0 (Eq 9.” is to formulate the proper functional (function of functions) depending on specific constitutive relations. the incompressibility condition. The variational equation is in the form [Li et al. and the constitutive relationship. namely: dp ⳱ ¯ e¯˙ dV ⳮ 冮 冮 rd V SF Fidu i dS ⳱ 0 (Eq 9. An alternative method of removing the incompressibility constraint is to use a Lagrange multiplier [Washizu. The solution of the original boundary-value problem is then obtained from the solution of the dualvariational problem. strains. respectively. when appropriate. velocities. (c) method of weighted residuals. respectively. 1968] and [Lee et al. can be used for a large variety of problems by simply changing the input data 9. temperatures.35b) (for rigid-viscoplastic materials) where r¯ is the effective stress. workpiece-tool contact. where the first-order variation of the functional vanishes. The formation of element equations is accomplished from one of four directions: (a) direct approach. once written. shapes. The variational approach is based on one of two variational principles. are specified at these points. The path to the solution of a finite element problem consists of five specific steps: (1) identification of the problem. The basic equations to be satisfied are the equilibrium equation. It requires that among admissible velocities ui that satisfy the conditions of compatibility and incompressibility. as well as the velocity boundary conditions. is a very large positive constant. when necessary. and (5) the numerical solution of the global equations. the actual solution gives the following functional a stationary value [Kobayashi et al. E(˙eij) is the work function. the velocity is the primary solution variable. When applying the penalty method.38) In the mixed formulation. or contact pressure distributions ● The fact that a computer code.1 p⳱ 冮 V 冮 V r¯ e˙¯ dV ⳮ 冮 SF Fi u i dS (Eq 9. (2) definition of the element. e˙¯ is the effective strain rate.. both the velocity and pressure are solution variables. incompressibility. ● The function is approximated locally within each element by continuous functions that are uniquely described in terms of the nodal point values associated with the particular element.. ● The domain of the function is represented approximately by a finite collection of subdomains called finite elements. a penalty constant.35a) 冮 E(˙ei j )dV ⳮ SF Fiui dS (Eq 9. ● The domain is then an assemblage of elements connected together appropriately on their boundaries.. For an accurate finite element prediction of material flow in a forging process. 1989]: p⳱ (for rigid-plastic materials) and: 冮 rd¯ ¯ e˙ dV Ⳮ K ⳮ 冮 V 冮 SF V e˙ v d˙ev dV Fidui dS ⳱ 0 (Eq 9. the formulation must take into account the large plastic deformation. (4) the assemblage of element equations. 2001]: dp(v) ⳱ Basis for the Finite Element Formulation The basis for the finite element metal forming formulation.36) where r¯ ⳱ r(¯ ¯ e) and r¯ ⳱ r(¯ ¯ e. The main advantages of the FE method are: ● The capability of obtaining detailed solutions of the mechanics in a deforming body. and V and S the volume and surface of the deforming workpiece.37) where K. (b) variational method. temperature coupling. namely. (3) establishment of the element equation. and.

tetrahedral. Eq 9. T the temperature. material identification and parameters. These may be user defined or selected from the database provided in the FE package. Specify the interface boundary and friction conditions. viz. and boundary loading conditions on each node. element connectivity and element information. Mesh the workpiece using mesh density windows. material parameters. q the density.). 3. the deformed configuration can be obtained by updating the nodal coordinates [Li et al. the solutions of mechanical and thermal problems are coupled in a staggered manner.. In massive forming processes such as forging. preprocessing involves the following steps to run a successful simulation using a commercial FE package: 1. The die stress analysis procedure is described in Chapter 16 on process modeling in impression die forging. force. processor. Key points are then selected on elements to serve as nodes where problem equations such as equilibrium and compatibility are satisfied. In general. Preprocessor.. if necessary. Due to the nonlinearity involved in the material properties and frictional contact conditions. Assign workpiece material properties in the form of the flow stress curves. this solution is obtained iteratively. and boundary conditions. a continuum is divided into a finite number of subregions (or elements) of simple geometry (triangles. Select the appropriate geometry/section for simulation based on the symmetry of the component to be analyzed. In the preprocessing stage.39) where p is the pressure. pressure. This is the main operation in the analysis. rectangles. and boundary/loading conditions) serves as the input to this module. 2001]. The output from the preprocessor (including nodal coordinates. etc. etc. The input to the preprocessor includes information on the solid model. The governing . values of material parameters for each element. Also die and workpiece temperatures and interface heat transfer coefficients would need to be specified. extrusion.39 can be converted into a set of algebraic equations by utilizing the standard FEM discretization procedures. the preprocessor.. This operation precedes the analysis operation. etc. and qn the heat flux normal to the boundary. This prevents penetration of the dies into the workpiece and also affects the metal flow depending on the friction specified.40) where k is the thermal conductivity. c the specific heat. Equations 9.2 Computer Implementation of the Finite Element Method Computer implementation of the basic steps in a standard finite element analysis consists of three distinct units. including heat loss to the environment and friction heat between two contacting objects. the shear friction factor “m” is specified.100 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications solved by the following variational equation [Li et al. one would need to mesh the dies and specify the material properties for them. 4. 2.). Specify the movement and direction for the dies. The temperature distribution of the workpiece and/or dies can be obtained readily by solving the energy balance equation rewritten by using the weighted residual method as [Li et al. In practice. and the postprocessor. Processor. from the governing equations of the boundary value problem. It takes in minimal information from the user (input) to generate all necessary problem parameters (output) required for a finite element analysis. 2001]. Using FEM discretization. ␣ a fraction of deformation energy that converts into heat. After the nodal velocities are solved at a given step. element connectivity. dp(v. whereas the output includes coordinates for nodes..p) ⳱ 冮 rd ¯ e˙¯ dV Ⳮ ⳮ 冮 F du dS ⳱ 0 V SF i 冮 V pd e˙ v dV Ⳮ i 冮 V e˙ v dp (Eq 9.40 can also be converted to a system of algebraic equations and solved by a standard method. discretization re- quirements. Material data at elevated temperatures would be required for the tools and the workpiece. to refine mesh in critical areas. 9.37 to 9. Define the boundary conditions (velocity. 2001]: 冮 V kTijdTij dV Ⳮ ⳮ 冮 V 冮 V ˙ qcTdTdV ␣r¯ e˙¯ dTdV ⳱ 冮 q dTdS S n (Eq 9. Note: If die stress analysis or thermal analysis is required.4. It establishes a set of algebraic equations that are to be solved.

3 as shown. kinematic relations. a 2-D simulation is adequate to analyze the metal flow during deformation. alteration of the boundary conditions. may be needed to increase the accuracy of the solution. Figure 9. The following steps are pursued in this operation: 1. to restrict to movement of nodes along the planes of symmetry as required ● Die movement and direction according to the process being analyzed ● Interface friction conditions at the surfaces of contact between the tools and the workpiece 9. Kinematic and constitutive relations are satisfied within each element. refinement of the mesh size. A suitable interpolation function is assumed for each of the dependent variables in terms of the nodal values. The FE engine/solver then solves the set of linear or nonlinear algebraic equations to obtain the state variables at the nodes.Methods of Analysis for Forging Operations / 101 equations include conservation principles. This operation prints and plots the values of state variables and fluxes in the meshed domain. 9. 2. Figure 9.4 Flowchart of finite element implementation .4 shows a flowchart..e. 9. etc. In interpreting FE results. which is to be upset.4. which shows the sequence of finite element implementation in analysis of metal forming processes.7 shows the setup of an FE model for a plane strain condition. It also evaluates the flux quantities inside each element. with the nodes along the axis of symmetry (centerline) restricted along the Rdirection. The boundary conditions necessary to be prescribed for this problem under isothermal conditions can be summarized as: ● Velocity/displacement boundary conditions depending on the symmetry of the workpiece. 9. 3.5. Output may be in the form of data tables or as contour plots. and constitutive relations.6(a) shows the cutaway of a cylinder. axisymmetric. This model can be further simplified to yield a quarter model (Fig. In this case the part has a uniform cross section along the length and Analysis of Axisymmetric Upsetting by the FE Method The use of the FE method in analysis of forging processes is discussed with the help of a simple cylindrical compression simulation. 4. Figure 9..4.4 Analysis of Plane Strain Deformation Figure 9. Equations are solved for nodal values of the dependent variables.6(b) shows the half model selected for simulation as a result of rotational symmetry. As illustrated in Fig. Since the cylinder is symmetric about the central axis. 9. Postprocessor. stiffness matrices and equivalent nodal loads are established. careful attention is required since the idealization of the physical problem to a mathematical one involves certain assumptions that lead to the differential equation governing the mathematical model. Reactions may be evaluated.6c) with velocity/displacement boundary conditions restricting the movement of the nodes along the Z-direction Fig. Using work or energy principles. i.

ez is negligible. The preform is.102 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications the strain along the Z or length direction is negligible. If. a quarter model can be used for simulation as shown in Fig..7(b) is selected for process simulation.8 shows the FE model of the hot forging process of an automotive component. the velocity boundary conditions are different since the metal is free to flow in the X direction (Fig. only the twodimensional cross section shown in Fig. 9. symmetric. It should be noted. The simulation input differs from those of an isothermal simulation in the following ways: ● Tool and workpiece temperatures have to be considered. hence a 2-D simulation could not be used to analyze the metal flow. a nonisothermal simulation is conducted. however. that the results obtained from the plane strain simulation have to be multiplied by the length of the billet used for the forging process to get the final results.5 Three-Dimensional Nonisothermal FE Analysis Figure 9. Fig.5 The process of finite element analysis. [Bathe. 9. 1996] 9.4. However. Since the forging process is performed at elevated temperatures.e. 9.7(c) with velocity boundary conditions similar to those used for the axisymmetric case discussed in the previous section. and thermal properties such as . the cross section is uniform. The starting preform geometry is not axisymmetric.7b). Hence. i. and hence a quarter model could be used for modeling the process. 9. however. The procedure for simulation is the same as mentioned for the axisymmetric case. however.

the interface heat transfer coefficient is also a critical input to the simulation.7 Analysis of plane strain upsetting by the FE method. piece geometry.6 Analysis of axisymmetric cylinder upsetting using the FE method.6 ● Bulk forming processes are generally characterized by large plastic deformation of the Velocity/displacement boundary conditions need to be specified depending on the work- Mesh Generation in FE Simulation of Forging Processes Fig. (a) Part for plane strain upsetting. 9. In addition to the friction.8(b). (b) Full model. have to be specified. Dies (still considered as rigid) have to be meshed since heat transfer between workpiece and tools is simulated. heat capacity. (b) Half model. In Fig. movement of the boundary nodes is restricted along the planes of symmetry.4. 9. The boundary conditions in a 3-D simulation are similar to those in a 2-D process: 9. etc. (c) Quarter model .Methods of Analysis for Forging Operations / 103 thermal conductivity. (c) Quarter model Fig. ● Die and workpiece material properties are specified as a function of temperature and strain rate. interface heat transfer coefficients. ● Interface friction is specified depending on the type of lubrication at the tool/workpiece interface. (a) Cutaway of the cylinder. 9.

1992]: Becker. 1989]: Kobayashi. [Becker. Introduction to the Theory of Plasticity for Engineers.8 Three-dimensional non-isothermal FE simulation of a forging process. Sachs. FORGE娂. McGrawHill International Editions. [Hoffman et al. “Limitations. QFORM娂. The Boundary Element Method in Engineering.. etc. The FE modeling inputs and outputs are discussed in detail in Chapter 16 on process modeling. Vol 28 (No. [Avitzur. Metal Forming and the Finite Element Method. O. The starting mesh in the FE simulation is generally well defined with the help of mesh density windows to refine the mesh in critical areas. AMG basically determines the optimal mesh density distribution and generates the mesh based on the given density. [Bathe. T. workpiece accompanied by significant relative motion between the deforming material and the tool surfaces. 1953.” Ann. 1968. The density specification is accommodated in the geometry. (a) FE model. . REFERENCES [Altan et al. Oxford University Press. T.. 1953]: Hoffman. such as DEFORM娂 accomplish this using automatic mesh generation (AMG) subroutines. 1996]: Bathe... 1979]: ● ● Geometry representation. K. Also the bandwidth of the stiffness matrix has to be improved to obtain a computationally efficient mesh.. the mesh generation procedure considers the following factors [Altan et al. 1992.D. 1996. FE simulation is widely used in the industry for the design of forging sequences. Current commercial FE codes. 1979. ● Identification of critical points (like sharp corner points) for accurate representation of the geometry. McGraw-Hill. Applicability and Usefulness of Different Methods in Analyzing Forming Problems. etc. CIRP.. Metal Forming: Processes and Analysis.. 9. A. Prentice Hall. Density representation. 1979]: Altan. S. p 473. Lahoti.. A number of commercial FE codes are available in the market for simulation of bulk forming processes. G. prediction of defects.A. ● Node generation. (b) Final part with temperature contour. Once the mesh density was defined.. viz. B. S. G. die stress analysis... 1989.J. The number of nodes between critical points are generated and repositioned based on the density distribution. optimization of flash dimensions. 2).. as the simulation progresses the mesh tends to get significantly distorted. [Kobayashi et al.. Some practical applications of FE simulation in hot and cold forging processes are presented in Chapters 16 and 18. The shape of the elements after the mesh generation procedure has to be smoothed to yield a usable mesh.I. Altan. Finite Element Procedures.. Oh. This calls for (a) the generation of a new mesh taking into consideration the updated geometry of the workpiece and (b) interpolation of the deformation history from the old mesh to the new mesh. DEFORM娂. McGraw-Hill. 1968]: Avitzur. However.104 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Fig. ● Shape improvement and bandwidth minimization.

. Pergamon Press. [Lee et al. “New Solutions to Rigid-Plastic Deformation Problems using a Matrix Method. S.. Ind.T. [Li et al.I. 2001]: Li. 1968]: Washizu.. S..” Univ. J. G. Mater. T.. Vol 113. ASM International.Methods of Analysis for Forging Operations / 105 [Lee et al. Kobayashi. 2001.. p 775. Variational Methods in Elasticity and Plasticity. S. Technol.. ASME. 1968. 1965. Metal Forming: Fundamentals and Applications. Oh. J. Vol 95. Bierbower. p 40– 45. SELECTED REFERENCE [Altan et al. Eng.. p 865.. Altan.... C. H. 1965]: Thomsen. J. Yang. Ind.” ASME Trans. K... Eng..T.. 1954]: Thomsen. [Thomsen et al.. 1973]: Lee. S. Gegel. [Washizu. Oxford. 1983]: Altan. “Recent Development and Applications of Three-Dimensional Finite Element Modeling in Bulk Forming Processes.. Mechanics of Plastic Deformation in Metal Processing.B. C. “An Experimental In- vestigation of the Mechanics of Plastic Deformation of Metals..” J. Yang. Oh.. “Influence of Flow Stress and Friction upon Metal Flow in Upset Forging of Rings and Cylinders. Eng. Kobayashi. E..T.G.H. Process.I.. Jinn.. C. 1983.G.H. J. Wu. T. C. 1972]: Lee. E.” Trans. Aug 1972. . 1954.. of California Pub.. W.. [Thomsen et al. Vol 5.T.. Macmillan...

no. and the deformation rate. e˙¯ . The forming (industrial.1 for hot forming processes conducted in presses. Therefore.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Taylan Altan.1. Gangshu Shen. determines mainly the contact time under pressure. develop in-house proprietary machines and processes not available in the machine-tool market 10.” as it is sometimes called in practice). tp. LP. depending on the number of forgings to be produced. each forming process is associated with at least one type of forming machine (or “equipment. As can be seen in Fig. shape) determine (a) the load. ¯ the interface friction conditions. The magnitudes of these variations depend on the specific forming material. dimensional precision. www. (c) the die temperature. capabilities of the machine associated with the new process are of paramount consideration. As indicated by lines connected to the temperature block. and the alloy being forged. ¯ increases with increasing deformation rate.1 Introduction In a practical sense.org CHAPTER 10 Principles of Forging Machines Manas Shirgaokar 10. required by the forming process. the temperature variations in the part are largely influenced by (a) the surface area of contact between the dies and the part. the machine energy. required by the process influence the slide velocity under load. the machine builder ● If necessary. (b) the part thickness or volume. Ep. mechanical. EP. Vp.1361/chff2005p107 Copyright © 2005 ASM International® All rights reserved. and with decreasing temperature. editors. 10. especially in hot forming ● The load and energy requirements for a given product geometry and material ● The “as-formed” tolerances of the parts ● The production rate The interaction between the principal machine and process variables is illustrated in Fig. 10. The introduction of a new process invariably depends on the cost effectiveness and production rate of the machine associated with that process. The frictional conditions deteriorate with increasing die chilling. The number of strokes per minute under no-load conditions. The flow stress. Each type has distinct advantages and disadvantages. (d) the amount of heat generated by deformation and friction. and (e) the contact time under pressure. r. Gracious Ngaile. or metallurgical) engineer must have specific knowledge of forming machines so that he/she can: ● Use existing machinery more efficiently ● Define with accuracy the existing plant capacity ● Better communicate with. and the deformation energy. at each position of the stroke and (b) the energy.2 Interaction between Process Requirements and Forming Machines The behavior and characteristics of the forming machine influence: ● The flow stress and workability of the deforming material ● The temperatures in the material and in the tools. The forming machines vary in factors such as the rate at which energy is applied to the workpiece and the capability to control the energy. for a given initial stock temperature. and the forging geometry (dimensions. e˙¯ .asminternational. r. p107-113 DOI:10. and the number of . The velocity of the slide under pressure. the flow stress. and at times request improved performance from. Vp. h. EM.

The relationships illustrated in Fig. 10. These curves illustrate that. a specific forming operation (such as closed-die forging with flash. np. mechanical. most of the same relationships apply also in other hot forming processes such as hot extrusion and hot rolling.. forward. the flash temperature remains nearly the same as the initial stock temperature.. but the maximum load is lower than for either hydraulic or screw presses. for the same forging process. [Altan et al. 1973] .1 apply directly to hot forming of discrete parts in hydraulic.1 fact is illustrated qualitatively in Fig. while in the hammer. bending. However.) requires a certain variation of the forming load over the slide displacement (or stroke). For the hammer. due to strain rate and temperature effects. etc. not only the material and the forged shape. but also the rate of deformation Relationships between process and machine variables in hot forming process conducted in presses. the equipment must supply the maximum load as well as the energy required by the process. the absolute load values will vary with the flow stress of the given material as well as with frictional conditions.3 Load and Energy Requirements in Forming It is useful to consider forming load and energy as related to forming equipment. np determines the maximum number of parts formed per minute (i.3. The load-displacement curves. upset forging. which are discussed later. in hot forging a steel part under different types of forging equipment. For a given part geometry. the production rate) provided that feeding and unloading of the machine can be carried out at that speed. 10. are shown in Fig. or backward extrusion. the forging load is initially higher.2. in principle. due to strain-rate effects. in hot forging. and screw presses. 10. 10. In the forming operation. which shows load versus displacement curves characteristic of various forming operations. The reason is that the extruded flash cools rapidly in the presses. 10. Thus. This Fig. different forging loads and energies are required by different machines.e. For a given material.108 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications strokes under load.

determine the metal flow behavior and the forging load and energy required for the process. where M is a factor characteristic of the specific forming operation). 10. Load versus displacement curves for various forming operations (energy ⳱ load ⳯ displacement ⳯ M. therefore. 1973] .Principles of Forging Machines / 109 and die-chilling effects and. the type of equipment used.2 development of shear bands in the forged material often can be explained by excessive chilling of the surface layers of the forged part near the die/material interface. Surface tearing and cracking or Fig.. [Altan et al.

. Based on the type of relative movement between the tools or the tool parts. the metal forming machine tools can be classified mainly into two groups: ● ● Machines with linear relative tool movement Machines with nonlinear relative tool movement Machines in which the relative tool movements cannot be classified into either of the two groups are called special-purpose machines. are associated with a large number of forming machines.. as illustrated in Table 10. Among those listed above. The screw presses are also energy-restricted machines but they are similar to the hydraulic and mechanical presses since their frames are subject to loading during forging stroke. The machine also provides the necessary forces. i.110 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications 10. energy.1. The significant characteristics of these machines comprise all machine design and performance data. These machines can be classified into three types [Kienzle. and the associated power requirements. which are pertinent to the machine’s economic use. The hammer frame guides the ram. Other important values are the general machine data. 1965] [Kienzle. 1953]: ● ● Load-restricted machines (hydraulic presses) Stroke-restricted machines (crank and eccentric presses) ● Energy-restricted machines (hammers and screw presses) Hydraulic presses are essentially load-restricted machines. Mechanical (ec- Fig. Hammers are energy-restricted machines.e. and torque for the process to be completed successfully. 10.3 Load versus displacement curves obtained in closed-die forging an axisymmetric steel part at 2012 ⬚F (1100 ⬚C) in three different machines with different initial velocities (Vpi).4 Classification and Characteristics of Forming Machines In metal forming processes. “pressing”-type machines are most widely used and applied for a variety of different purposes. since the deformation results from dissipating the kinetic energy of the hammer ram. the geometric features of the machine such as the stroke in a press or hammer and the dimensions and features of the tool-mounting space (shut height) are also important. but is essentially not stressed during forging.e. These include: ● ● ● ● ● ● Rolling mills for plate. presses centric or crank) presses are stroke-restricted machines. space requirements. discussed in Chapter 2. weight. their capability for carrying out a forming operation is limited mainly by the maximum load capacity. A metal forming machine tool is used to bring the two pieces together to form the workpiece. 1973] .. strip and shapes Machines for profile rolling from strip Ring rolling machines Thread rolling and surface rolling machines Magnetic and explosive forming machines Draw benches for tube and rod. workpieces are generally fully or nearly fully formed by using two-piece tools. The various forming processes. since the length of the press stroke and the available load at various stroke positions represent the capability of these machines. ensuring guidance of the two tool halves. The speed range and the speed stroke behavior of different forging machines vary considerably according to machine design. These characteristics include: ● ● ● Characteristics for load and energy Time-related characteristics Characteristics for accuracy In addition to these characteristic parameters. i. wire and rod drawing machines ● Machines for pressing-type operations. The machines belonging to this category are those operated on working media and energy. [Altan et al.

6–4.1) is not fulfilled in a hydraulic press.2 3. LM (in tons). The gripping tools must not open during the upsetting process. Speed-range and speed-stroke behavior of forging equipment Speed range Forging machine ft/s m/s Hydraulic press 0. but it may vary with the slide position in respect to “bottom dead center” (BDC) as in mechanical presses. g. and second.5 Characteristic Data for Load and Energy Available energy. ET.0–24. EM.1) where LM is the available machine load and LP is the load required by the process.2–1. by the total energy.0(a) 0. Ed. is determined by dividing the energy available for deformation.6–1. g ⳱ EM/ET.0 6.0–9. is the load available at the slide to carry out the deformation Table 10. ET. The total energy. 1973] 0. at any time during the forming operation.0 4. The device for moving the tools must be secured against overloading. some of the basic requirements that are expected of a good forging machine can be listed as: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● High tool pressure. This load can be essentially constant as in hydraulic presses. Design of a crankshaft of special rigidity. or Ed.2–5 0. either the flywheel will slow down to unacceptable speeds in a mechanical press or the part will not be formed completely in one blow in a screw press or hammer.0 Speed-stroke behavior . the energy necessary to overcome the friction in the bearings and slides. If the condition expressed by the former inequality above (Eq 10.Principles of Forging Machines / 111 Apart from the features mentioned previously.4–6.06–1. The machine must have central lubrication. also includes in general: (a) the losses in the electric motor. is the energy supplied by the machine to carry out the deformation during an entire stroke.2) is not satisfied. which requires the stock to be tightly gripped and upsetting forces completely absorbed. does not include either Ef. the energy lost because of elastic deflections in the frame and driving system. i.2) where EM is the available machine energy and EP is the energy required by the process. EM (in ft-lb or m-kg). The whole machine must be elastically secured against overloading. EM.5 Screw press Gravity drop hammer Power drop hammer Counterblow hammer (total speed) HERF machines Low-speed Petroforge 2–4 12–16 10–30 15–30 20–80 8–20 Source: [Altan et al. The driving motor and the machine must be connected through a security coupling. The heading slide must be provided with long and accurate guides. Available load. LM ⱖ LP (Eq 10.06–0. the friction clutch would slip and the press run would stop before reaching the bottom dead center position. If the condition expressed by the latter inequality (Eq 10..0 2. and (c) the losses due to total elastic deflection of the machine. Efficiency factor. for an entire stroke.5–9. the press will stall without accomplishing the required deformation.30(a) Mechanical press 0. In a mechanical press. Readily interchangeable gripping and heading tools. Ef. supplied to the machine.8 3.. 10. EM ⱖ EP (Eq 10. The following two conditions must be satisfied to complete a forming operation: first. Available energy. (b) the friction losses in the gibs and in the driving system. Ee.1 process.e. Sufficient tool length to permit rigid bar reception apart from filling up the impression.

In presses (mechanical. i. This is an important variable because it determines (a) the contact time under pressure and (b) the rate of deformation or the strain rate. to the total elastic deflection. tp. or screw). In addition. of the press is also a significant characteristic. should be placed under the center of loading of the forming machine. The machine characteristics influence the tolerances in formed parts. In multiple-operation processes. hydraulic.. might result in excessive wear of the gibs. The heat transfer between the hotter formed part and the cooler dies is most significant under pressure. larly under off-center loading. n. greater press stiffness is directly associated with increased costs.4) ● The higher the stiffness. the tilting of the ram and the ram and frame deflections. between the upper and lower beds of the press. and screw presses). Since a less stiff machine takes more time to build up and remove pressure.e.3) (Eq 10. This value is especially important in hot forming. Therefore. i. the contact time under pressure.e. Under loaded conditions. in thickness deviations in the formed part and in excessive tool wear. Vp.e. Velocity under pressure. in backward extrusion a slight nonparallelism of the beds. Consequently. cooling of the workpiece results in higher forming load requirements. because it determines the production rate. where the press frame and the drive mechanism are subject to loading. is the velocity of the slide under load. C.: C ⳱ LM/d In mechanical presses. would result in excessive bending stresses on the punch and in nonuniform dimensions in extruded products. is the time during which the part remains in the die under the deformation load. The deflection energy is given by: Ed ⳱ dLM/2 ⳱ LM2/2C 10. d. is longer.112 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications 10. the lower the deflection of the press. C. die wear increases. the stationary surfaces and their relative positions are established by (a) clearances in the gibs.. ● Stiffness influences the velocity versus time curve under load. For instance. includes the deflection of the press frame (⬃25 to 35% of the total) and the deflection of the drive mechanism (⬃65 to 75% of the total). Extensive studies conducted on workpiece and die temperatures in hot forming clearly showed that the heat transfer coefficient is much larger under forming pressure than under free contact conditions. (c) flatness of upper and lower beds. . the stiffness. The main influences of stiffness. In order to reduce off-center loading and ram tilting. The stiffness is the ratio of the load. is smaller for a stiffer press (larger C). Contact time under pressure.6 Time-Dependent Characteristic Data Number of strokes per minute. and (e) concentricity of tool holders. on the forming process can be summarized as follows: ● Under identical forming load. and it should not be specified unless it can be justified by expected gains in part tolerances or tool life.7 Characteristic Data for Accuracy Under unloaded conditions. the point where the resultant total forming load vector is applied. With increasing contact time under pressure. This fact contributes to the reduction of tool life in hot forming. tp. the center of loading of a part. LM. (d) perpendicularity of slide motion with respect to lower bed. the number of strokes per minute of the machine greatly influences the ability to forge a part without reheating. the elastic energy stored in the press during buildup. Using larger components in press design increases the stiffness of a press. (b) parallelism of upper and lower beds. the deflection energy. the variations in part thickness due to volume or temperature changes in the stock are also smaller in a stiffer press. particu- (Eq 10. the tilting and deflections across the ram might determine the feasibility or the economics of forging a given part. i. The strain rate influences the flow stress of the formed material and consequently affects the load and energy required in hot forming. LM. the total elastic deflection. is the most important characteristic of any machine. open-die hydraulic presses. Ed. When a part is forged with multiple and successive blows (in hammers. or a slight deviation of the slide motion from ideal perpendicularity. d.

1965. Springer-Verlag.. Werkstatttechnik. [Altan et al. et al. Vol 1. Forge Equipment. Characteristics of Data in Machine Tools for Closed Die Forging. Product Design Guide for Forging.. 1953]: Kienzle. [Lange. Metal Forming: Fundamentals and Applications. [Kienzle. Vol 55. Fundamentals. Metal and Ceramics Information Center. Oh.. p 1. 1967]: Geleji. (in German). S.Principles of Forging Machines / 113 REFERENCES SELECTED REFERENCES [Altan et al. 1967. ASM International.. Budapest. p 4–7. Gegel.. K. Rolling Mills and Accessories (in English). Vol 43. [FIA 1997]: Forging Industry Association. 1972]: Lange. H. p 509. Werkst. [Kienzle. Materials and Practices. 1973.I. Ed. 1973]: Altan.. Forging Equipment. HB03. 1965]: Kienzle.. 1972. p 168. .. O. et al. 1983]: Altan. Study Book of Forming Technology. A. T. Akademiai Kiado.. Maschin.. O. [Geleji et al. 1997.. T. 1983. The Characteristic Data on Presses and Hammers (in German).. (in German).... 1953.

org CHAPTER 11 Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging Manas Shirgaokar 11. and (d) expanding capacity to forge larger and more intricate parts. Developments in the forging industry are greatly influenced by the worldwide requirements for manufacturing ever-larger and more complex components for more difficult-to-forge materials. time. by reducing preforming steps. and aircrafts components.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Taylan Altan. The equipment.2 Hydraulic Presses The operation of hydraulic presses is relatively simple and is based on the motion of a hydraulic piston guided in a cylinder [Geleji 1967]. and by increasing tool life. since it affects the deformation rate and temperature conditions. jet engines. Hydraulic presses are essentially load-restricted machines. and the ever-increasing foreign technological competition require continuous upgrading of today’s technology. The present and future needs of the aerospace industry. influences the forging process. The purchase of new forging equipment requires a thorough understanding of the effect of equipment characteristics on the forging operations. Development in all areas of forging has the objectives of (a) increasing the production rate. and accuracy characteristics of a given forging machine. the more efficient use of existing forging equipment and the installation of more sophisticated machinery have become unavoidable necessities.e. [Mueller 1969]. (c) reducing costs by minimizing scrap losses. i. mechanical. (b) improving forging tolerances. Thus. editors. the increase in demand for stationary power systems. energy. and screw presses.1361/chff2005p115 Copyright © 2005 ASM International® All rights reserved. The following important features are offered by hydraulic presses: ● In direct-driven hydraulic presses. www. These machines are used for hot and cold forging. i.asminternational. and coining. and it determines the rate of production. Gracious Ngaile. the maximum press load is available at any point .1 Introduction The continuous development of forging technology requires a sound and fundamental understanding of equipment capabilities and characteristics. Gangshu Shen. presses and hammers used in forging. their capability for carrying out a forming operation is limited mainly by the maximum available load. and the capabilities and characteristics of the specific forging machine to be used for that operation. [Peters 1969]..e. cold extrusion trimming. There are basically three types of presses: hydraulic. load and energy requirements of the specific forging operation.. Increased knowledge on forging equipment would also specifically contribute to: ● More efficient and economical use of existing equipment ● More exact definition of the existing maximum plant capacity ● Better communication between the equipment user and the equipment builder ● Development of more refined processes such as precision forging of gears and of turbine and compressor blades 11. p115-139 DOI:10. The requirements of a given forging process must be compatible with the load.

11. (b) Direct drive.2. 1959] . ● Since the maximum load is available during the entire stroke. the available load decreases slightly depending on the length of the stroke and the load-displacement characteristics of the forming process. at the start of the downstroke the upper ram falls under gravity and oil is drawn from the reservoir into the ram cylinder through the suction of this fall. Thus. the maximum load can be limited to protect the tooling.. Accumulator-driven presses usually employ a water-oil emulsion as the working me- Schematic illustration of drives for hydraulic presses. 1959].e. In earlier vertical press designs. two types of hydraulic drive systems give different time-dependent characteristic data [Hutson 1968] [Riemenschneider et al. This control feature can offer a considerable advantage in optimizing forming processes. When the ram contacts the workpiece. relatively large energies are available for deformation.116 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications during the entire ram stroke. (a) Accumulator drive. 11. ● Within the limits of the machine. As illustrated in Fig.1 Drive Systems for Hydraulic Presses The operational characteristics of a hydraulic press are essentially determined by the type and Fig.1 design of its hydraulic drive system.1(b). [Riemenschneider et al. This mode of operation results in relatively long dwell times prior to the start of deformation. i. Adequate control systems can regulate the ram speed with respect to forming pressure or product temperature. When the pressure stroke is completed. 11. the valve between the ram cylinder and the reservoir is closed and the pump builds up pressure in the ram cylinder.. when the upper ram reaches a predetermined position. As shown in Fig. because a pressure-release valve limits the fluid pressure acting on the ram. or when the pressure reaches a certain value. during the downstroke in modern direct-driven presses a residual pressure is maintained in the return cylinders or in the return line by means of a pressure relief valve. the oil pressure on the ram cylinder is released and diverted to lift the ram. It is not possible to exceed the set load. Direct-driven presses usually employ hydraulic oil or water emulsion as the working medium. the ram speed can be varied continuously at will during an entire stroke cycle.. ● Within the capacity of a hydraulic press.1. the upper ram is forced down against pressure and the dwell inherent in the free fall is eliminated. This is why the hydraulic press is ideally suited for extrusion-type forming operations requiring a nearly constant load over a long stroke. In accumulatordriven presses. 11.

11. the choice between direct or accumulator drive is decided by the economics of operation. in a new installation. As can be seen in Fig. the accumulator drive is more economical if several presses can use one accumulator system. as the pressure builds up and the working medium is compressed. (b) Pull-down drive: 1. 3.. In both direct and accumulator drives. [Kirschbaum. The frame of a hydraulic press must carry the full forming load exerted by the hydraulic cylinder on the press bed. or air-loaded accumulators to keep the medium under pressure (Fig. and the speed of penetration and the load available at the ram decrease. the two principal types of press construction are designated as “pull-down” and “push-down” designs [Kirschbaum. Usually. and the resistance of the workpiece to deformation. Toward the end of the forming stroke.000 to 50. (a) Push-down drive: 1. the ram speed under load. Consequently. This Fig. The sequence of operations is essentially similar to that for the direct-driven press except that the pressure is built up by means of the pressurized water-oil emulsion in the accumulators. press bed with return cylinders. 1968] . the force required to form the material increases. The load-carrying capability of the frame is achieved by using various designs such as cast (or welded) structures prestressed by forged tie rods or laminated plates assembled through large transverse pins. mainly because oil is more compressible than a water emulsion. the compressibility of the pressure medium. but wear in hydraulic elements of the system also increases. as deformation progresses. 3. stationary cylinder cross head. This slowdown is larger in direct oildriven presses. i.000 tons) are considered. 2. The conventional push-down design is often selected for four-column presses of Schematic illustration of two types of hydraulic press drives. moving cross-head.Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging / 117 dium and use nitrogen. Sealing problems are somewhat less severe in direct-oil drives. and control and accuracy are in general about the same for both types of drives. movable cylinderframe assembly. 1968]. a certain slowdown in penetration rate occurs. the rate of penetration. 11.2 improves the hot forming conditions by reducing the contact times.2. From a practical point of view. 2. steam. 11. or if very large press capacities (10. the working medium expands. stationary press bed with return cylinders. is not directly dependent on the pump characteristics and can vary depending on the pressure in the accumulator. moving piston-ram assembly.1a).e. The approach and initial deformation speeds are higher in accumulator-driven presses.

11. ram lift. If a higher offcenter loading capa- Load and displacement versus time curves obtained on a 2500 ton hydraulic press in upsetting with direct drive. 4.3 and 11. hydraulic presses are ideally suited for extrusion-type operations requiring very large amounts of energy. The cylinder cross head and base platen are rigidly connected by four columns that take up the press load and simultaneously guide the moving piston-ram assembly. In the pull-down design. 3. Parallelism of the Slide. is rigidly connected to the press columns.3 capability of the pumping system and is available throughout the entire press stroke.4. 11. 5.118 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications all sizes. 2. The standard press is able to absorb a maximum slide tilt of 0.2. start of deformation. causing it to tilt (Fig.5). Most of the hydraulic and auxiliary equipment may then be accommodated beneath floor level. initial dwell. This assembly is movable and is guided in the bed platen. This type of press requires a relatively tall shop building. [Altan et al.. However. The center of gravity of the press is low. This arrangement is particularly favorable for direct-oil drives since it minimizes fire hazard and reduces the length of piping between the pumping system and the press cylinder. In comparison with direct drive. The capacity of the press frame to absorb eccentric loads plays a major role in forming a part with good dimensional accuracy. The cylinder cross head. Pull-down presses are particularly suitable for installation in low buildings. 11. the accumulator drive usually offers higher approach and penetration speeds and a short dwell time prior to forging. the dwell at the end of processing and prior to unloading is larger in accumulator drives. 1. end of deformations. 1973) . Thus. Considerable elastic deflections are exhibited under off-center loading. With adequate dimensioning of the pressure system. where the load and displacement variations are given for a forming process using a 2500 ton hydraulic press equipped with either accumulator or direct-drive systems.2 Characteristics of Hydraulic Presses In direct-driven hydraulic presses. and the overall static and dynamic stiffness of the press is increased accordingly. an accumulator-driven press exhibits only a slight reduction in available press load as the forming operation proceeds. dwell before pressure release. Eccentric forces occur during the forming process when the load of the resulting die force is not exerted centrally on the slide. 11. the maximum press load is established by the pressure Fig.8 mm/m. the base platen rests on a foundation. This is illustrated in Fig. at approximately floor level. located below floor level.

In this case. 1973] Fig. end of forming..Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging / 119 bility is desired. ram lift. initial dwell. [Altan et al. dwell before pressure release. 11. the press frame will be more rigid. 4. then the press design must be more rigid.4 Load and displacement versus time curves obtained on a 2500 ton hydraulic press in upsetting with accumulator drive. start forming. 11. 2. and the slide will be higher. [Schuler Handbook. 1998] . 11. Often it is necessary to use hydraulic parallelism control systems. 5. the slide gibs will have greater stability. in the case of hydraulic transfer presses.5). for example. 1. The parallelism Fig. 3. using electronic control technology (Fig.5 Control system for maintaining slide parallelism.

These act over the entire stroke of the slide so that no setting spindles are required to adjust the working stroke. The opposing supporting torques exerted on the two sides counteract the tilt moment.6 Full-stroke parallelism control of the press slide. or four-point drive The drive system used in most mechanical presses (crank or eccentric) is based on a slidercrank mechanism that translates rotary motion into reciprocating linear motion. Multipoint presses are those in which two or more cranks are used to drive the same ram. The system is neutral in terms of force exerted on the slide. Depending on the deformation speed. and the slide tilt balance is restored. A central device adjusts the system to different die heights by means of spindles at the slide. 11.2. 1998] . eccentrics. The slide position sensor detects a deviation from parallel and triggers the servo valve. the designs are called knuckle joint or link drive presses. The tensile and compressive forces are balanced out by means of diagonal pipe connections. or levers (Fig. Position measurement sensors monitor the position of the slide and activate the parallelism control system (Fig.2 mm/m is achieved. The sum of exerted parallelism control forces remains constant. 11. At the same time. arranged well outside the center of the press.6). are subjected to a mean pressure. a tilt moment is generated. The ability of mechanical presses to deform the workpiece material is determined by the length of the press stroke and the available force at various stroke positions.3 Crank presses may have either simple or extended crank drives.05 to 0. the pressure on the leading side is increased by means of servo valves.5). 11. If either a knuckle or a lever is used to extend the crank drive. Two major groups of mechanical presses are: ● ● Presses with crank drive Presses with cam drive Fig. The valve increases the pressure on the underside of the piston acting on the leading side of the slide and thus also on the opposite upper side of the piston. If an off-center load is exerted by the die on the slide. and at the same time reduced on the opposite side to the same degree. a slide parallelism of 0. the pressure in the other connecting pipe is reduced. If the electronic parallelism monitor sensor detects a position error. [Schuler Handbook. with their pistons permanently connected to the slide (Fig.120 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications control systems act in the die mounting area to counter slide tilt. Two cylinders with the same surface area. which is transferred to the workpiece by a network of gears. Other methods of classification are: ● ● ● Frame type: C or closed frame Number of useful motions: Single or more Location of drive: Top drive (connecting rod subjected to compression) and bottom drive (connecting rod subjected to tension) ● Position of drive shaft: Longitudinal or cross shaft ● Number of connecting rods: One-.7). The parallelism controlling cylinders act on the corners of the slide plate. The eccentric Mechanical Crank and Eccentric Presses All mechanical presses employ flywheel energy. 11. Conventional crank presses (the total stroke cannot be varied) and eccentric presses (the total stroke is variable) belong to the simple drives. cranks. two-. 11. Full-stroke parallelism control involves the use of parallel control cylinders. and they are pushed during the forming process against a centrally applied pressure.

as illustrated in Fig.4) . which is driven by an electric motor and “V” belts. M. the ratio. the flywheel is located on the pinion shaft.9). P. which drives the eccentric shaft (Fig. [ASM Handbook. LM. M. of crank radius r to connecting-rod length l is small. to the eccentric (or crank) shaft. stores energy that is used only during a small portion of the crank revolution. 11. In designs for larger capacities. the force on the connecting rod. during deformation of the formed material. 1988] T cos b sin (␣ Ⳮ b) 2M cos b S sin (␣ Ⳮ b) (Eq 11.1) and M ⳱ rT (Eq 11. 11. The flywheel.8). The constant clutch torque.1 and considering that the total press stroke is S ⳱ 2r. namely. The clutch at the flywheel transmits the constant torque. Figure 11. T: T ⳱ P sin (␣ Ⳮ b) Fig.10 shows the basic slider-crank mechanism. is available at the eccentric shaft.Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging / 121 shaft is connected through a clutch and brake system directly to the flywheel (Fig.2) Usually. the machine load.7 (Eq 11. k. The force diagram gives the relations between the torque. 11. M. acting on the ram is: LM ⳱ P cos b ⳱ ⳱ Principal components of a mechanical forging press. 11. about: k⳱ r 1 ⳱ l 10 or sin b 1 ⳱ sin ␣ 10 (Eq 11.8. and the tangential force.3) Using Eq 11. which transmits the torque and the flywheel energy to the slide through the pitman arm or connecting rod.

can be derived from the geometric relationships illustrated in Fig.. the term under the square root sign can be approximated as 1 ⳮ (r/l)2 sin2 ␣/2.. 1973] r2 sin2 ␣ 2l 冣 r2 sin ␣ cos ␣ x l (Eq 11. the angular velocity x ⳱ 2pn/60 and the stroke S ⳱ 2r. 11. is obtained from Eq 11. 11. The stroke position. V.e..7) The ram velocity. ␣. 11.9) (Eq 11.8 et al. near BDC. LM may go to infinity for constant torque. This is illustrated in Fig. with n being the rotational speed of the crank in revolutions per minute.122 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications When the angles ␣ and b approach 0.5) h ⳱ r(1 ⳮ cos ␣) Ⳮ (Eq 11.10.11. as a function of the crank angle. 11. [Altan Fig. M. from BDC.8 gives: V⳱ Spn sin ␣ 60 (Eq 11.. Neglecting the second small term in Eq 11.6 is approximated as: h ⳱ r(1 ⳮ cos ␣) ⳱ V⳱ dh dh d␣ dh ⳱ ⳱ x dt d␣ dt d␣ 冢 ⳱ r sin ␣ Ⳮ 冢 冪1 ⳮ 冢l冣sin ␣冣 r Using the binomial expansion.6) Schematic of a mechanical press with eccentric drive (clutch and brake on eccentric shaft). Eq 11. i.e. Eq 11..e. [Altan et al. for large capacities this design is more stable and provides high flywheel energy).5 can be transformed into: Fig. i. 1983] . toward bottom dead center (BDC). the distance. h. t: or h ⳱ r(1 ⳮ cos ␣) Ⳮ l 1 ⳮ S (1 ⳮ cos ␣) 2 where.6 by differentiation with respect to time. Thus.8) 2 (Eq 11. i.9 Schematic of a crank press with pinion-gear drive (clutch and brake are on pinion shaft. to be: h ⳱ (r Ⳮ 1) ⳮ (r cos ␣ Ⳮ 冪l2 ⳮ r2 sin2 ␣) For small values of ␣.

before bottom dead center.. Most manufacturers in the United States rate their presses by specifying the nominal load at 1⁄4 or 1⁄8 in. The torque. 11.11 it can be seen that.10 The basic slider-crank mechanism used in crank presses. the nominal load may be specified at different positions before BDC according to the standards established by the American Joint Industry Conference. For different applications. pinion gear.11 remains below curve NOP). of the press. the slide load.11) As shown in Fig..e. as angle ␣ approaches zero. 11. BDC. V.) is designed. Eq 11. [Altan et al. for given values of torque. with the crank angle. LM can be approximated as: LM ⳱ 2M S sin ␣ (Eq 11. bottom dead center. and the available slide load. etc. Eq 11. 1973] Fig. 11. from Eq 11. V. M. stroke.4 Load and Energy in Mechanical Presses With the symbols used in Fig. at each point of the ram stroke can be calculated.4 or 3.11 Variations of clutch torque and machine load with crank angle in an eccentric or crank press.11. and stroke. (6. the available machine load LM. Considering that angle b is much smaller than angle ␣.. LM. as the slide approaches the BDC. vary according to the position of the slide before BDC. LM. and the velocity. h. M. can become larger than the Fig.e. [Altan et al. 11.. ● For small angles ␣ before BDC. may become infinitely large without exceeding the constant clutch torque. ● If the load required by the forming process is smaller than the load available at the press (i. Figure 11. BDC.11 illustrates the variation of the slide load.10.4 gives the ram or machine load.2. 11. clutch. i. ␣. the process can be carried out provided that the flywheel can supply the necessary energy per stroke..e. S. From the observations made so far.e.12 Displacement and velocity in a simple slidercrank mechanism (stroke ⳱ 2r) . the ram velocity can be expressed as: V⳱ pn h 30 冪h ⳮ 1 S (Eq 11.6 and 11. brake. 11. S. LM.10) Thus with Eq 11. crank angle before bottom dead center (BDC). 11.Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging / 123 Using the geometric relationships of Fig.11. at the clutch has a constant value for which the drive mechanism (i. if curve EFG in Fig.2 mm) before BDC. LM.. the following conclusions may be drawn: ● Crank and eccentric presses are displacement-restricted machines. eccentric shaft.10. within the OP portion of curve NOP in Fig. The slide velocity. ␣. 11. without causing the friction clutch to slip. LM.12 illustrates the variation of these values with the crank angle ␣ before BDC. i. 1973] Fig. Thus. M. 11.10 the displacement. machine load.

This relationship can be determined experimentally by upsetting samples. and n is the rotational speed of the flywheel in revolutions per minute. This press was instrumented with strain bars attached to the frame for measuring load. n. and a dc tachometer for measuring flywheel speed.12) where I is the moment of inertia of the flywheel. In Fig. ● If the load curve EFG exceeds the press load NOP (Fig. The flywheel requires 3. was discussed as part of the energy considerations. and to the press stroke. displacement.13 it can be seen that. the flywheel stops. displacement.5 Time-Dependent Characteristics of Mechanical Presses The number of strokes per minute. 25% of the flywheel energy will be used during one stroke. The total energy stored in a flywheel is: EFT ⳱ Ix2 I pn ⳱ 2 2 30 2 冢 冣 (Eq 11. x1 is angular velocity after the work is done. and n1 is flywheel speed after the work is done. then: n0 ⳮ n1 13 ⳱ or n1 ⳱ 0. 11. 11. also in rpm. ES. or production rate. 11. used during one stroke is: ES ⳱ 1 I p 2 2 I(x 20 ⳮ x 12) ⳱ (n0 ⳮ n12) 2 2 30 (Eq 11. then the friction clutch slides and the press slide stops. The energy consumed by each sample is obtained by calculating the surface area under the load-displacement curve. 11.13. also includes the friction and elastic deflection losses. As an example. The energy needed for the forming operation during each stroke is supplied by the flywheel. In this case.25 EFT n02 The simple calculations given above illustrate that for a 13% slowdown of the flywheel. and the available energy per stroke. the flywheel slows down by about (5 rpm) before deformation begins. The time available between two strokes depends on whether the mode of operation is continuous or intermittent. in forming this part the press can be operated at a maximum speed of 18 (60/3.e. 11.9. S. and the entire flywheel energy is transformed into deflection energy by straining the press frame. ES. for a given press. and the drive mechanism. For instance. and flywheel speed in upset forming of a copper sample under 1600 ton mechanical press is illustrated in Fig. i. which slows down to a permissible percentage—usually 10 to 20%—of its idle speed.124 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications nominal press load if no overload safety (hydraulic or mechanical) is available on the press.13) 冢 冣 where x0 is initial angular velocity. Very often the allowable slowdown of the flywheel is given as a percentage of the nominal speed.87)2 ⳱ 0. The total energy. there is a unique relationship between strokes per minute. due to frictional and inertial losses in the press drive. which require various amounts of deformation energy.24 s to recover its idling speed. and by measuring load. the press stalls. the strokes per minute available on the machine decreases with increasing energy required per stroke. the ram velocity is directly proportional to the number of strokes per minute. and consequently a higherhorsepower motor is necessary. and flywheel recovery time.. i. In this case. the only way . n1. a given stroke. The electric motor must bring the flywheel from its lowered speed.87 n0 n0 100⬘ The percentage energy supplied by the flywheel is obtained by using Eq 11. Thus. x is the angular velocity in radians per second. the press can be freed by increasing the air pressure on the clutch and by reversing the flywheel rotation if the slide has stopped before BDC. less time is available to bring the flywheel to its idle speed. As shown in Fig. Usually.e. the pitman arm. n0 is initial flywheel speed in revolutions per minute. if a 13% slowdown is permissible. As can be seen in Eq 11. before the next forming stroke starts. n.12 and 11.2.13 to arrive at: ES n20 ⳮ n21 ⳱ ⳱ 1 ⳮ (0. For each mechanical press.14. Note that the total energy. In a continuously operating mechanical press. the variation of load.24) strokes/min. an inductive transducer (LVDT) for measuring ram displacement. the press can then be freed only by burning out the tooling.. but the flywheel continues to turn. n0.11) before point O is reached. to its idle speed.

11. and the velocity under pressure. n. and forming load in upsetting of copper samples in a 1600-ton mechanical press.. 11. tp. 1972] Fig.. of the press. depend mainly on the dimensions of the slide-crank mechanism and on the total stiffness. is illus- Fig. [Altan et al. the contact time under pressure. Vp.14 Variation of strokes per minute with the energy available for forming in a 500 ton mechanical press. ram displacement.13 Flywheel slowdown. C. [Altan et al.Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging / 125 to increase ram velocity during deformation is to increase the stroking rate. tp. For a given idle-flywheel speed. The effect of press stiffness on contact time under pressure. 1972] .

(b) Less stiff press.1 were obtained from measurements under nominal load on one. 11. 11.or four-point presses perform better than singlepoint presses because the tilting of the ram and the reduction forces into the gibways are mini- mized. drive shaft. pitman arm.126 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications trated in Fig.. Under off-center loading conditions. for pressure release as shown in Fig.15(a). [Altan et al. [Kienzle. 1967] One-point eccentric press Two-point eccentric press 30 33 37 100 21 31 33 85 . 1967]. It is interesting to note that a large percentage of the total deflection is in the drive mechanism. 1973] Fig. for pressure buildup and also less time.e.17). the press deflects elastically. As the load builds up. the distributions of total deflection shown in Table 11. stiffness influences the thickness tolerance [Rau.and two-point presses of the same capacity [Rau. 11.1 Total deflection under nominal load on one.17 Principle of the wedge-type mechanical press. the total contact time under pressure (tp ⳱ tp1 Ⳮ tp2) is less for a stiffer press. 1959] Table 11.and two-point presses of the same capacity Relative deflection Slide Ⳮ pitman arm Frame Drive shaft Ⳮ bearings Total deflection [Rau. Both these press drives have large bearing surfaces above the slide and can maintain larger off-center loads than the conventional eccentric drive forging presses.. 11. Unloaded machine con- Fig. tp1.15. Tilting of the ram produces skewed surfaces and an offset on the part. A stiffer press (larger C) requires less time. Drive mechanisms that have considerable stiffness and off-center loading capability are provided by (a) the scotch-yoke design (Fig. slide. two. i. Determination of the Dynamic Stiffness of a Mechanical Press. 1967]. tp2. Consequently.2. 1967] Fig.16) and (b) the wedge-type design (Fig. Assuming the total deflection under load for a one-point eccentric press to be 100%. 11. (a) Stiffer press. 11. 11.16 Principle of the scotch-yoke type drive for mechanical presses.6 Accuracy of Mechanical Presses The working accuracy of an eccentric press is substantially characterized by two features: the tilting angle of the ram under off-center loading and the total deflection under load or stiffness of the press. and bearings. [Rau. 11.15 Effect of press stiffness on contact time under pressure (Sth ⳱ theoretical displacement-time curve under load).

was placed an equal distance on the opposite side of the center. (38 mm) height were placed near the forged copper sample. a copper specimen.2 (645 cm2) and 1. The press setup was not changed throughout the tests. Especially in automated mechanical presses.. During each test.715 2. the flow stress of the copper can be used for estimating the load and energy for a given height reduction. (b) Estimated by assuming that the load-displacement curve has a triangular shape.560 2. the velocity versus time curve under load and the contact time. 11.) is measured under static loading conditions. On repeating the test for the remaining three directions. The variation of total press deflection versus forging load. However. A lead specimen. Very often the stiffness of a press (ton/in...00 2. tons Predicted energy(b). obtained from these experiments. are important and affect the tolerances of the forged part. but such measurements are misleading. 1972].038 in. Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 Height Diameter Predicted load(a). In mechanical presses. left. The off-center loading characteristics of the 500 ton Erie press were evaluated using the following procedure [Douglas et al. but of the same height were forged under oncenter conditions.18.010 in. As indicated in Table 11. Ram Tilting in Off-Center Loading. perpendicularity of slide motion. energy ⳱ 0. During the initial nonlinear portion of the curve. for the 500 ton Erie forging press. or back.. tons 2.002 in. the play in the press driving system is taken up. The slope of the linear curve is the dynamic stiffness.254 mm) [Douglas et al. the clearance in the press gibs was set to 0. is illustrated in Fig.2 The method described above requires the measurement of load in forging annealed copper samples. was placed 5 in.510 2. Lead samples of about 1 in. Offcenter loading conditions occur often in mechanical press forging when several operations are performed in the same press. variations in forging thickness due to volume or temperature changes in the stock are also smaller in a stiffer press.5 load ⳯ displacement. which requires 220 ton to forge. right. with increasing sample diameter the load required for forging increased as well.00 2. Table 11. tons Measured load. The stiffness of a press C (the ratio of the load to the total elastic deflection between the upper and lower dies) influences the energy lost in press deflection. the comparison of the final height of the copper and lead forged during the same blow gave a good indication of the nonparallelity of the ram and bolster surfaces over a 10 in.102 1.5 in. A 500 ton Erie scotch-yoke type press was used for this study [Douglas et al. 1972] . copper samples of various diameters./ft. In off-center loading with 220 ton (or 44% or the nominal capacity). the nonparallelity under unloaded conditions was about 0. in.00 2. the local elastic deflection of the dies in forging copper must be considered. tons Measured energy.00 2. Before conducting the experiments described above. 1972]./ft was measured in both directions. about 5 in. (125 mm) to the side.241 2. The press deflection is measured by the difference in heights of the lead samples forged with and without the copper at the same press setting. front. (255 mm) span. 1972]. Source: [Douglas et al. the finish blow (which requires the highest load) occurs on one side of the press. the investigation of off-center forging is particularly significant in mechanical press forging. that is.00 1.995 48 96 197 247 289 352 45 106 210 253 290 350 24 48 98 124 144 176 29 60 120 140 163 175 (a) Based on an estimate of 50 ksi flowstress for copper at 50% reduction in height. Therefore. (125 mm) from the press center in one of the four directions viz. For practical purposes the stiffness has to be determined under dynamic loading conditions. In comparison. which requires not more than 5 ton. In conducting this comparison. The nonpar- Copper samples forged under on-center conditions in the 500 ton mechanical press Sample size. The linear portion represents the actual elastic deflection of the press components. the final thickness of the copper samples was corrected to counteract this local die deflection.00 2. If instrumentation for load and displacement would be impractical for forgeshop measurements.2. an average ram-bed nonparallelity of 0. The samples of wrought pure electrolytic copper were annealed for 1 h at 900 F (480 C). Consequently.Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging / 127 ditions such as parallelism and flatness of upper and lower beds. which was determined as 5800 ton/in. front-to-back and left-to-right. To obtain the dynamic stiffness of a mechanical press. much more significant are the quantities obtained under load and under dynamic conditions. etc. (0.

7 Crank Presses with Modified Drives For a long time. The sinusoidal slide displacement of an eccentric press is compared with those of a knuckle-joint and a linkage-driven press (Fig.128 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications allelity in off-center forging would be expected to increase with increasing gib clearance. eccentric or crank drive systems were the only type of drive mechanisms used in mechanical presses. The velocity versus stroke and the load versus stroke characteristics of crank presses can be modified by using different press drives. 11. However. eccentric or crank drive is still the most effective drive system. This is especially true when using automated systems where the eccentric drive offers a good compromise between time necessary for processing and that required for part transport [Schuler Handbook. This design is capable of generating high forces with a relatively small crank drive. 11. This section discusses some modified drives such as the knuckle-joint drive and the linkage drive. in presses with capacities up to a nominal force of 560 tonf (5000 kN). [Douglas et al. This machine is successfully used for cold forming and coining applications. The relatively high impact speed on die closure and the reduction of slide speed during the forming processes are drawbacks that often preclude the use of eccentric or crank driven press for cold forging at high stroking rates.19). A well-known variation of the crank press is the knuckle-joint design (Fig.20). 11. 1998].18 ing presses used for trimming. The knuckle-joint drive system consists of an eccentric or crank mechanism driving a knuckle Total press deflection versus press loading obtained under dynamic loading conditions for a 500 ton Erie scotch yoke type press. the ram velocity slows down much more rapidly toward the BDC than in the regular crank drive. 1972] . 11.2.. In the knuckle-joint drive. Knuckle-Joint Drive Systems. such as universal or blank- Fig.

It acts as a slide and moves the attached top die up and down. [Schuler Handbook. with a relatively small connecting rod force. particularly. Furthermore. Knuckle-joint and modified knuckle-joint drive systems can be either top or bottom mounted. The knuckle joint. generates a considerably larger pressing force. Thus. Figure 11.22 illustrates the principle of a press configured according to this specification. 1998]. Figure 11.20 Schematic of a toggle (or knuckle) joint mechanical press pact unit.19 Displacement-time diagram: comparison of the slide motion performed by an eccentric. By inserting an additional joint.21 shows this concept used in a press with bottom drive [Schuler Handbook. The fixed joint and bed plate form a com- Fig. Due to the optimum force flow and the favorable configuration possibilities offered by the force-transmitting elements. a highly rigid design with very low deflection characteristics is achieved. the kinematic characteristics and the speed versus stroke of the slide can be modified. it is possible to reach around three to four times higher pressing forces as compared to eccentric presses. The lower joint moves the press frame. 11. While the upper joint pivots around this fixed point. and a linkdriven press. the slide speed in the region 30 to 40 above the bottom dead center is appreciably lower. 1998] joint.Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging / 129 Fig. the lower joint describes a curve-shaped path. with the same drive moment. the modified top drive system is in popular use. 11. The fixed point of the modified knuckle joint is mounted in the press crown. For cold forging. a knuckle-joint. This results in a change of the stroke versus .

The mechanical press drive shown in Fig. 11. This curve can be altered by modifying the arrangement of the joints (or possibly by integrating an additional joint). at the design stage. 1998] time characteristic of the slide. by adjusting the length of one of the four links or by varying the Fig.21 Knuckle-joint press with bottom drive. compared to the largely symmetrical stroke-time curve of the eccentric drive system (Fig. [Schuler Handbook. 1998] Four-bar linkage mechanism for mechanical press drives . [Schuler Handbook. 11. 11. 11. Linkage Drive.130 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Fig.19).23 uses a four-bar linkage mechanism.22 Fig. 11.23 Modified knuckle-joint drive system. In this mechanism. the load-stroke and velocity-stroke behavior of the slide can be established.

The four-bar press. Thus. the screw. When the entire energy in the flywheel is used in deforming the workpiece and elastically deflecting the press. where the loadstroke curves for a four-bar linkage press and a conventional slider-crank press are shown. 11. and Ed is the energy required for deflection of the press (bed Ⳮ columns Ⳮ screw). The four-bar press equipped with a 600 ton-in.24 Load-stroke curves for a 750 ton four-bar linkage press and a 1500 ton slider-crank press .1 Load and Energy in Screw Presses In a screw press the load is transmitted through the slide. and bed to the press frame. screw. is well suited for extrusion-type forming operations. or hydraulic drive to accelerate the flywheel and the screw assembly. which was originally developed for sheet metal forming and cold extrusion. Thus. one of the driving disks is pressed against the flywheel by a servomotor. which is connected to the screw either positively or by a friction slip clutch. Thus. To reverse the direction of flywheel rotation. is accelerated by this driving disk through friction. the servomotor activates the horizontal shaft and presses the upstroke driving disk wheel against the flywheel.. 11. Using a conventional slider-crank-type press. torque drive can generate a force of about 1500 tons at 1⁄32 in. The flywheel. the flywheel and the screw are accelerated in the reverse direction and the slide is lifted to its top position. For a downstroke. and the slide stop. 1966]. where a nearly constant load is required over a long stroke. 11. requiring 200 tons over 6 in. However. At the end of a stroke. the following relationship holds: ET ⳱ EP Ⳮ EF Ⳮ Ed (Eq 11. over a relatively long deformation stroke.3 Screw Presses The screw press uses a friction.25 shows two basic designs of screw presses [Bohringer et al. In the friction-drive press. EP is the energy consumed by the forming process. ET. The screw is threaded into the ram or the slide and does not move vertically. the flywheel. gear.Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging / 131 connection point of the slider link with the drag link.24. drive generates a force of about 750 tons at the same location. this capability can be achieved only by using a much larger-capacity press. and it converts the angular kinetic energy into the linear energy of the slide or ram. four-bar press could perform the same forming operation. It can be seen that a slider-crank press equipped with a 1700 ton-in. before BDC. Thus. In the direct-electric-drive press.3. and the bed to the press frame. If the total flywheel energy. a reversible electric motor is built directly to the screw and on the frame. a 750 ton. the electric motor is reversed after each downstroke and upstroke. above the flywheel. the flywheel and the screw come to a standstill before reversing the direction of rotation. Thus. as a 1500 ton eccentric press.. with this press it is possible to maintain the maximum load. The available load at a given stroke position is supplied by the energy stored in the flywheel. the load necessary for forming is built up and transmitted through the slide.14) where ET is total flywheel energy. Figure 11. At this moment. in both machines a 200 ton force is available at 6 in. before BDC. the screw. is larger than necessary for overcoming machine losses and Fig. A comparison is illustrated in Fig. EF is the energy required for overcoming machine friction. the driving disks are mounted on a horizontal shaft and are rotated continuously. 11. electric. The flywheel energy and the ram speed continue to increase until the ram hits the workpiece. as specified by press capacity.

for the same friction losses. results in high end load.26 Load-energy relationships in forming in a press. LM. The energy metering can also be programmed so that the machine supplies different amounts of energy during successive blows.. (b) Direct electric drive. 1966] Fig. and high deformation energy..e. 11. 11. This is illustrated in Fig.132 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications for carrying out the forming process. Ep. In a screw press.27. the load available at the end of the stroke depends mainly on the deformation energy required by the process (i. up to 160 to 200% of its nominal load. LM. The screw press can sustain maximum loads.e. 11.26. For a given press (i. which is essentially an energy-bound machine (like a hammer). press deflection. Lmax. load and energy are in direct relation with each other. the excess energy is transformed into additional deflection energy and both the die and the press are subjected to unnecessarily high loading. energy required by process. on the shape. 11.. (a) With energy or load metering. low deformation energy. the nominal load of a screw press Fig. LM. Ep. Ed. elastic deflection energy. [Bohringer et al. These relations are illustrated in the load-energy diagram of a screw press.25 Two widely used screw press drives. which results in increased die wear and noise. temperature. and available flywheel energy). the modern screw press is equipped with an energy-metering device that controls the flywheel velocity and regulates the total flywheel energy. elastic deflection properties. results in low end load. maximum machine load. LM. Thus. (b) Without energy or load metering . To annihilate the excess energy. Ep. as shown in Fig. In this sense. (a) Friction drive. d. and material of the workpiece). for constant flywheel energy.

EM. is greatly influenced by the geometry of the stock and of the part. die-todie blows without any workpiece) and do not have a friction slip clutch on the flywheel.. 11..2 Time-Dependent Characteristics of Screw Presses In a screw press. A screw press is operated like a hammer. A screw press designed for a forming operation.3. 11. np.e. the maximum load at the end of the downstroke is reduced from L to Lmax and the press is protected from overloading (Fig. 11. and screw presses.e.Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging / 133 is set rather arbitrarily.27).15) where LM is machine load and C is total press stiffness. does not influence the thickness tolerances in the formed part. Consequently. Vp. Vp. In general. the top and bottom dies “kiss” at each blow. at the clutch. 11. Ec. The significant information about the press load is obtained from its load-energy diagram (see Fig. especially in automated high-volume operations. a velocity under pressure.27 During a downstroke. After the actual deformation starts. The loadenergy curve has a parabolic shape because the deflection energy. however. Ed.27). The off-center loading capacity of a screw press is less than that of a mechanical press or a hammer. Screw presses used for coining are designed for hard blows (i. the velocity. i. increases until the slide hits the workpiece. The off-center loading capacity of the press influences the parallelism of upset surfaces. Here. the production rate of a screw press is lower than that of a mechanical press. clearances in the gibs. In this respect. such as parallelism of slide and bed surfaces. the number of strokes per minute under load.28. the dimensional accuracies of press components under unloaded conditions. 11. 11. this clutch starts slipping and uses up a part of the flywheel energy as frictional heat energy. this is quite different from the conditions found in mechanical presses. where the ram velocity is established by the press kinematics and is not influenced significantly by the load and energy requirements of the process. 1968] . however. where large energies.3 Accuracy in Screw Press Operation In general. are needed. is given by a second-order equation: Ed ⳱ LM2/2C (Eq 11. the stiffness of the press. a friction clutch is installed between the flywheel and the screw. Thus. which affects the load and energy characteristics.. Schematic of load-energy relationship in a screw press. Therefore. When the ram load reaches the nominal load. Fig. As illustrated in Fig. mechanical.3. [Klaprodt. have basically the same significance in the operation of all presses—hydraulic. largely depends on the energy required by the specific forming process and on the capacity of the drive mechanism to accelerate the screw and the flywheel. This capacity is increased in modern presses by use of long gibs and by finish forming at the center. the velocity of the slide decreases depending on the energy requirements of the process. whenever possible. a screw press behaves like a hammer. etc. can also be used for operations where smaller energies are required.

Vb. and by assuming that EF remains constant during tests. Ve ⳱ velocity at the beginning and end of forming. the energy necessary to overcome friction in the press drive. is driven by one or several electric motors and rotates at a constant speed. 11.3. By considering two tests simultaneously. is equal to the sum total of the machine energy used for the deformation process. On engagement of the clutch. EF. there are several other types of mechanical. 1968]. [Altan et al. the ram (4). the energy used for the process EP (surface area under the load-displacement curve) and the maximum forging load LP can be obtained from oscillograph recordings. 1963]. 1973] .. energy 800 kg-m).5 Variations in Screw Press Drives In addition to direct friction and electric drives (Fig. During the downstroke the total energy supplied by the screw press. Eq 11. errors in calculating EP do not impair the accuracy of the stiffness calculations. and the energy necessary elastically to deflect the press. that is. the torsional deflection of the screw may contribute up to 30% of the total losses at maximum load (about 2. Assuming that this ratio is approximately valid for the 400 ton press. high loads LP and low deformation energies EP are measured.14 can be written as: ET ⳮ EF ⳱ EP Ⳮ Fig.14).28 LM2 2C (Eq 11.16) In a forging test.4 Determination of Dynamic Stiffness of a Screw Press The static stiffness of the screw press. who conducted an extensive study of the efficiency of screw presses. EP. an oiloperated clutch (2) engages the rotating flywheel against the stationary screw (3).. A different design is shown in Fig. electric. as given by the manufacturer does not include the torsional stiffness of the screw that occurs under dynamic conditions [Bohringer et al. Expressing ED in terms of the press stiffness.134 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications 11. respectively.7 times the static stiffness [Watermann.29. in order to obtain reasonable accuracy. 11.7 ⳯ 8400  5900 ton/in. As a result. When the stroke is initiated. nominal load 180 metric ton.25). 11. A flywheel (1). the screw is rapidly accelerated and reaches the speed of the flywheel.3. the dynamic stiffness is 0. 1963]. Based on experiments conducted in a Weingarten press (Model P160. ED (Eq 11.5 times nominal load). which acts like a giant nut. one equation with one unknown C can be derived from Eq 11. 11. ET. moves Representation of slide velocities for mechanical and screw presses in forming a thick and a thin part. and hydraulic drives that are commonly used in screw presses. supported on the press frame. Thus. Waterman concluded that the dynamic stiffness was 0. However.16. it is necessary that in both tests considerable press deflection is obtained. C. As pointed out by Watermann [Watermann. This feature is similar to what is used to initiate the stroke of an eccentric forging press.

The press can also be equipped with variable-speed motors so that different flywheel and ram speeds are available. similar in principle to the wedge mechanical press seen in Fig.30 Schematic of the wedge-screw press drive for hot forging . 11. 5. 11. and to a limited extent. flywheel. or the maximum load on the ram. The hammer is an energy-restricted machine. 4. by disengaging the clutch and the flywheel from the screw when the preset forming load is reached.Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging / 135 downward. the ram is stopped and held in position by a hydraulic brake. the nickel-base superalloy used for many turbine disk applications. As a result. the screw. the oil is compressed in the hydraulic lift-up cylinders (5). it offers considerable flexibility and can be used for hot as well as cold forming operations. [Altan. for coining.29 A screw press drive that combines the characteristics of mechanical and screw presses. in the aircraft/airframe industry. The screw of this press drives a wedge that provides a large bearing surface on the top of the slide. and short contact time between the workpiece and the tools. screw. is shown in Fig. Hammers are primarily used for hot forging. During this downstroke. full press load at any position of the stroke. The downstroke is terminated by controlling either the ram position. the deformation proceeds until the total kinetic energy is dissipated by plastic deformation of the material and by elastic deformation of the ram and the anvil when the die Fig. This press provides several distinct benefits: a high and nearly constant ram speed throughout the stroke. 3. The ram is then lifted by the lift-up cylinders. by means of a position switch. including high-performance materials such as Waspaloy.30.17. high deformation energy. This technology is characterized by multiple impact blows between contoured dies. for sheet metal forming of parts manufactured in small quantities—for example. Thus. 11.4 Hammers The hammer is the least expensive and most versatile type of equipment for generating load and energy to carry out a forming process. this press can take larger off-center loads than regular screw presses. Hammer forging has a reputation as an excellent way to enhance the metallurgical properties of many materials. 2. 11. At the end of the downstroke. oil-operated clutch. 11. releasing the elastic energy stored in the press frame. Thus. and the lift-up cylinders. 1. 1978] Fig. overload protection. ram. lift-up cylinders. During a working stroke. A wedge-screw press. it can be used for multiple station forging operations.

most drop hammers are power or pressure drive. The compressed air slows Fig. At the same time. The energy per hammer blow can be metered automatically. The principles of two types of counterblow hammers are illustrated in Fig. cold air. the acceleration of the ram is enhanced with air pressure applied on the top side of the ram cylinder (Fig. 11. the lower ram is accelerated upward by a steel band (for smaller capacities) or by a hydraulic coupling system (for larger capacities). the force necessary to ensure quick lift-up of the ram can be three to five times the ram weight. or hot air pressure. In a simple gravity-drop hammer. or a piston (oil-. in addition to gravity.31. Therefore. 11. Today. cold air. the ram is accelerated by gravity and builds up the blow energy. The ram is lifted to a certain height and then dropped on the stock placed on the anvil.. the upper ram is positively connected to a board (board-drop hammer). meter-kilograms. The combined speed of the rams is about 25 ft/s (7. both Principles of various types of gravity-drop hammers. foot-pounds.e. or steam-lift drop hammer). or meter-tons. is approximately 10% heavier than the upper ram.31d). 11. 11.33. i. Counterblow hammers are widely used in Europe while their use in the United States is limited to a relatively small number of companies. after the blow. The lower ram.31 down the upstroke of the ram and contributes to its acceleration during the downstroke.32). the ram is accelerated by steam. (a) Board drop. or hot air [Kuhn.5 m/s). Ram weight can be regarded only as a model or specification number. air-. (c) Chain drop. it is necessary to rate the capacities of these machines in terms of energy. the lower ram accelerates downward and pulls the upper ram back up to its starting position. The practice of specifying a hammer by its ram weight is not useful for the user. 1963]. (b) Belt drop. The upstroke takes place immediately after the blow. see Fig. There are basically two types of anvil hammers: gravity-drop hammers and power-drop hammers. including the die assembly. (d) Air drop . the ram is lifted with oil pressure against an air cushion. In electrohydraulic gravity-drop hammers. Thus. a chain (chain-drop hammer). a belt (belt-drop hammer). 11. In both designs. The operation principle of a power-drop hammer is similar to that of an air-drop hammer (Fig. the upper ram is accelerated downward by steam. In the power-drop hammer. electrohydraulic hammer also has a minor power hammer action. The air pressure and the ram height are measured and electronically controlled as a result. Therefore. During the downstroke.136 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications faces contact each other. In the downstroke.

32 Schematic of a power-drop hammer Fig. which weighs approxi- mately 1⁄4 to 1⁄5 as much as the lower ram. relatively little energy is lost through vibration in the foundation and environment. [Altan et al. V1 is the velocity of the ram at the start of the deformation. The ram speeds are inversely proportional to the ram weights so that.Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging / 137 rams move with exactly half of the total closure speed. Due to the counterblow effect. they both have the same momentum.. the total blow energy is generated by the free fall of the ram and by the pressure acting on the ram cylinder.33 Principles of operation of two types of counterblow hammers. [Altan et al. and H is the height of the ram drop. In a power-drop hammer. is guided in the latter. The upper ram. 11. for comparable capacities.4.17) where m1 is the mass of the dropping ram. 11. a counterblow hammer requires a smaller foundation than an anvil hammer. or: ET ⳱ Fig. Thus. This facilitates the handling of the forging in the hammer.1 Important Characteristics of Hammers In a gravity-drop hammer..18) Schematic of electrohydraulic counterblow hammer. G1 is the weight of the ram. Therefore. the forging blow takes place at a lower plane than in conventional counterblow hammers. or: ET ⳱ 1 1 G1 2 m V2 ⳱ V 1 ⳱ G1H 2 1 1 2 g (Eq 11. the total blow energy is equal to the kinetic energy of the ram and is generated solely through free-fall velocity.34. The schematic of an electrohydraulically driven counterblow hammer is seen in Fig. 1973] . at the instant of blow. 1973] 1 m V 2 ⳱ (G1 Ⳮ pA)H 2 1 1 Fig. 11.34 (Eq 11. 11. g is the acceleration of gravity. 11.

000 ft • lbf (47. h. when both rams have approximately the same weight.8 to 0. for a working stroke.4.138 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications where. and many issues arise in the transfer of technology.5 kJ) and a blow efficiency. or oil pressure acting on the ram cylinder in the downstroke and A is the surface area of the ram cylinder. of a hammer is not entirely transformed into useful energy available for deformation. However. strain. only small forging hammers and impacters have benefited from sophisticated control systems that increase manufacturing speed. Because of the many benefits possible on large hammers. here. The blow efficiency varies from 0. The transformation of kinetic energy into deformation energy during a working blow can develop considerable forces. ET. in addition to the symbols given above. these advantages are enhanced tremendously by the addition of microprocessor controls. and cost containment for customers.2 to 0.4.35 Example of a load-stroke curve in a hammer blow . P. quantity of blows. While hammer forging processes have always offered thermal-control-related advantages compared to press forging processes. With this value. ET. would reach approximately double the calculated value.000 lb ⳱ 630 tons 4h If the same energy were dissipated over a stroke. Some small amount of energy is lost in overcoming friction of the guides. operational uniformity and consistency. EA. and a significant portion is lost in the form of noise and vibration to the environment. of 0. the load.) can be engineered for best control of adiabatic heating. steam. p is the air.19) where m1 is the mass of one ram. and grain growth. strain rate.000 ft • lbf (19 kJ). increases from P/3 at the start to P at the end of the stroke. EA ⳱ ETg ⳱ 14.9 for soft blows (small load and large displacement) and from 0. which is equal to 2V1. transferring small-hammer control technology to large industrial forging hammers is not a trivial undertaking. the blow efficiency.35.260. 11. the total nominal energy. computerized controls are now being adapted to large forging hammers.. recrystallization. is the surface area under the curve in Fig. It requires extensive equipment engineering. of 0. Therefore: EA ⳱ P/3 Ⳮ P 4Ph h ⳱ 2 6 11. The available energy.1 in.20) Consider a hammer with a total nominal energy. Vt is the actual velocity of the blow of two rams. Computerized hammer controls allow unique processing schemes to be developed for optimum results through computer process modeling. etc. Thus.2 Computer-Controlled Hammers Up to now. g.2 in. EA. 11. of 35.. and increase quality. of hammers is always less than one. Eq 11. For instance. During a working stroke. V1 is the velocity of one ram. Adding computerized controls to a forging hammer significantly improves the hammer process in three critical areas: microstructural quality. of 0. consider a deformation blow where the load.20 gives: P⳱ 6EA ⳱ 1. The simple hypothetical calculations given above illustrate the capabilities of relatively inexpensive hammers in exerting high forming loads.5 for hard blows (high load and small displacement). opening the door to process refinements that give engineers much greater control over the final microstructural and mechanical properties. the total energy per blow is given by: ET ⳱ 2 冢m 2V 冣 ⳱ m 4V 1 2 1 1 2 t ⳱ G1 V 2t 4g (Eq 11. reduce cost. die chilling. These enhancements grow out of the ability to tailor the forging sequence of a computerized hammer. and G1 is the weight of one ram. h. Fig. P. interblow dwell time. (Eq 11. h. g ⳱ EA /ET. Processing step combinations (blow energy. In counterblow hammers.

Kilp.. Vol 49. Werkstattstechnik. Kilp. Aug 1972.. 1968]: Kirschbaum. Springer. Z. 1988): Altan.R. Indust..” Proceedings of the 13th M. A Die Forging Press with a New Drive.. ASM International. Springer Verlag. K. [Altan et al. p 221–226. [Bohringer et al.. Metal Form.Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging / 139 The engineered processing steps are precisely controlled by the computerized forging hammer controls. H. 1998]: Schuler. 1998. 24 Sept 1963. This leads to greater computer process modeling capability through precise boundary condition definitions and outstanding simulation accuracy. Eng.J. p 1423. Nichols. 1972]: Douglas. “Use of a Four Bar Linkage as a Slide Drive for Mechanical Presses. 1963]: Watermann. No. S. 1969]: Mueller... [Altan et al. 1963]: “Counterblow Hammers for Heavy Forgings” (in German). 1959]: Riemenschneider. T. F. Forming and Forging. “Use of Standardized Copper Cylinders for Determining Load and Energy in Forging Equipment. G..H. [Mueller. 1966]: Bohringer. Feb 1968.D.” Sheet Metal Ind.-Anzeig.. “Technical and Economic Limitations of Conventional Four Column Top Drive Forging Presses. Vol 94.. Akademaii Kiado. 1978]: Altan. p 769...” Sheet Metal Ind. T. [Spachner]: Spachner. 1968]: Hutson.. J. [Kirschbaum. [Geleji. [Kuhn. Materials and Practices.E. Th. Vol 90. “Drives for Forging Presses” (in German). Nov 1966. p 53. J.. Vol 14. Vol 37. Vol 35.. [Riemenschneider et al. H. 1963. 1968]: Bohringer..H.R.. p 335. T. p 132.. Indust. SELECTED REFERENCES [Brauer. Metal Forming: Fundamentals and Applications. July 1960. Sept 1972. p 46. O. K.. Gegel. [Altan. Vol 46. H. T. 1967]: Rau.EMO. Stahl Eisen. 1960]: Hamilton. 536.” ASM Handbook. Nickrawietz. Oh. “The Blow Efficiency in Hammers and Screw Presses” (in German). The capabilities of this process have dramatic implications for users of highly engineered forgings. “The Development of Electrohydraulic Drop Hammers”(in German)..” SME Paper MF70-216. Conference.. Goppingen. K. p.. p 105. ASM International. 1961]: Brauer. Hydraulic Forging Presses. p 4–7... p 479. July 1967. 1969. 1968]: Klaprodt. E. and show why. No. T. metallurgically and economically. [Klaprodt. T.. [Pahnke]: Pahnke.-Anzeig.” Am.” Sheet Metal Ind. p 494. W. “Design Features of the Hydraulic Press and its Field of Application. “Forge Equipment. Ind.. which also allow for greater understanding of process and equipment parameters. March 1968. p 194– 198. Their Design and Characteristics. Rolling Mills and Accessories” (in English). [Douglas et al.A. [Bohringer et al. Werkstattstechnik.T. A. [Hamilton. [Peters..” HB03. 1988.. [Hutson. March 1969. p 46. S. Metal and Ceramics Information Center. 1983.” Sheet Metal Ind. “Metalforming at 2. 1959]: Kienzle. et al. p 501– 513. 1967]: Geleji.... “Hammer and Presses for Forging. [Rau.” ASME Trans. 1961. “An Investigation into Press Driving Systems. K. Vol 79... “Development Trends in Forming Equipment” (in German). “The Significant Characteristics of Percussion Presses and Their Measurements. 1983]: Altan. Dusseldorf. Germany. “Power Presses.. E. H. [Kienzle..H. hammers are a tremendously valuable piece of equipment. p 857. 1968. [Schuler Handbook.-I. C... Altan. Metal Forging Handbook. D. [Watermann.. Mach.” Iron Steel. Birmingham. 77. [ASM Handbook. “Development of the Direct-Drive Percussion Press. REFERENCES [Altan et al..” Metal Forming. 1973]: Altan... Pulldown and Horizontal Double Opposed Forging Presses.. Kleipzig Fachberichte. “Comparison of Some Characteristics of Mechanical and Screw Presses for Die Forging” (in German). 1972]: Altan. England... 1973. 1967. 11.D. “A Comparative Study of the Stability and Economic Construction of Pushdown. p 25–35. 1969]: Peters. “Forging Equipment. 1959. “Characteristics of Forging Presses: Determination and Comparison. Berlin. Jan 1978. .. H. Budapest. May 1968.” SME Paper MF70-589.. 1959.. Vol 43.

or reducer rolls.1 Fig.2 12. is shown in Fig. is seen in Fig. illustrating preforming for a truck axle forging. In roll forging. Some of these machines may also be used for finish forging.4. the shape of the die segments on the forging rolls determines the rolled configuration. or reducer rolling.1361/chff2005p141 Copyright © 2005 ASM International® All rights reserved. Thus. the workpiece is still hot and can be finish forged under a hammer or press without reheating. billet stock must be often preformed to achieve adequate material distribution.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Taylan Altan. During the portion of the roll rotation. is as follows. fed into the rolls.1 Introduction Schematic of forging rolls for reducer rolling Schematic of the reducer rolling operation . For high-volume production. when the rolls are in open position. 12. and starts the machine with a foot pedal or automatic signal. 12. the contact time between the workpiece and the roll segments is extremely short due to the high speed of the rolls. Several special machines are used for the purpose of preforming the incoming stock. transferred from one die segment to the other. The stock is gripped. This machine is generally used for volume distribution in long and thin parts. especially in hot forging with flash.2. 12.3. editors. the reducer rolling operation is automated. Therefore. These sequences are repeated for the next grooves.1.asminternational. Gracious Ngaile. and released on a conveyor using a dedicated robot. even after the final rolling operation. A typical operation on reducer rolls. prior to closed-die forging. 1973]. Another example. In producing long parts.. is illustrated schematically in Fig. the stock is placed between the rolls against a stock gage and in line with the first roll groove. forging begins and the deformed stock is forced toward the front of the machine [Altan et al. 12. Gangshu Shen. The operator or a robot places the heated stock on a table in the front of the machine. Fig.org CHAPTER 12 Special Machines for Forging Pinak Barve Prior to forging in an impression die. 12. such as those of Fig. 12. An example illustrating the application of preforming by roll forging. p141-150 DOI:10. The principle of forging rolls. www. As the rolls rotate. grasps the stock with the tongs.

10. 12. The rolls. 12. On switching on the current. As seen in Fig 12.7) A transverse rolling machine that uses two straight wedge-shaped tools (Fig. it is possible to use vertical reducer rollers. [Altan et al. two roll passes. 1973] . 2003]. After the first pass. the transverse rolling method can form axially symmetrical shafts with complex geometry in one operation.2 Transverse or Cross-Rolling Machines Transverse rolling is used for producing preforms or finish forgings from round billets. the rod section contained between the electrodes heats rapidly and the formation of the head begins. Thus. Figure 12.7. which hold replaceable die segments with appropriate impressions.or-three-roll machine. 12. (Fig. The transverse rolling machines are suitable for automatic production. three-dimensional FEM codes have been used to (a) simulate the reducer rolling operation and (b) design and optimize the configuration of the die segments.3 several times in the opposite direction.9) 12. using bar stock automatically fed to the rolls through an induction heating unit. 12. The principle of operation is illustrated in Fig. a round billet is inserted transversely between two or three rolls. 12. Recently. There are two main types of transverse rolling machines: ● ● The two. As an example.8. 12. The desired shape is produced by rolling the heated billet between two rotating dies having appropriately profiled grooves. the billet is fed into the roll segments of the second pass after 90⬚ rotation.. The design of the roll segments needs considerable experience.5. 12. The cold bar is con- Example of preforming by reducer rolling in forging of connecting rods. (a) Preforms prepared in reducer rolls.6 shows. simulated by the commercial software DEFORM 3-D [SFTC. as an example. a forging produced by this method is shown in Fig. which rotate in the same direction and drive the billet [Altan et al. A bar of circular cross section (d) is gripped between the tools (b) of the electrode (c) and is pushed by the hydraulically or pneumatically operated upsetting head against the anvil plate (f) on which the other electrode (e) is secured. make one revolution while the workpiece rotates Fig. (b) Finish forging before and after trimming. 1973].. as seen in Fig.3 Electric Upsetters Electric upsetters are used mostly in preform preparation for gathering a large amount of material at one end of a round bar.142 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications such as crankshafts and front axles.

The flat anvil electrode can be replaced by a water-cooled copper mold into which material is gathered and formed to close shape and dimensions. 1973]. Commercially available equipment is capable of upsetting 0. The doughnut-shaped blank is placed over a mandrel with a diameter smaller than the inside diameter of the blank.5 to 5 in. As seen in Fig. 12.5 Schematic of a vertical reducer roller. it is possible to roll rings with internal and external profiles [Beseler. roll stand. Fig. The vertical mills operate essentially in the same way. such as bearing races. For components required in large quantities. rolls. the process is suitable for manufacturing components such as automotive exhaust valves. 1982] 12. The principles of an automatic horizontal ring-rolling mill for manufacturing bearing races Fig. The only limitation on size is the availability of electric current. 4. applies pressure on the blank.5 to 125 mm) diameter bars. Such an installation may consist of a billet shear. and a ring-rolling mill. slide. completely automated ring-rolling installations are available. the head is formed to final shape in a mechanical or screw-type press in the same heat. [Haller. The axial rolls provide support to the deforming ring and control its width and its squareness.4 Deformation stages in reducer rolling of a forging to produce a truck axle. which is driven. 5. 3. 2. Material can be gathered at any point on the length of the bar by placing a sheath around one end.4 Ring-Rolling Mills The principle of operation of a horizontal ring-rolling mill is illustrated in Fig. in moving laterally toward the main roll.Special Machines for Forging / 143 tinuously fed between the gripping electrodes (b). [Haller. 12. thus the metal accumulates continuously in the head. 12. several units are required for achieving high volume production. Thus. 1969]. rotates the blank and the mandrel as the cross section of the blank is reduced. The anvil electrode is gradually retracted to give enough space for the formation of the head. (1)–(3) Locations where more material needed in the final forging.12. The mandrel. (b)–(e) Several reducer roll passes. As time for upsetting a head of average size is 2 to 5 min. holder on manipulator. (12.. Normally.11. by modifying the configurations of the mandrel and the main roll. a heating furnace. As soon as sufficient quantity of metal is gathered. or steam turbine blades [Altan et al. a forging press. (a) Starting billet. 1. the machine switches off and the product can be removed by its cold end. The main roll. 12. 1982] . part transfer conveyor.

in position 1.6 Computer simulation of reducer rolling operation using DEFORM—3D (only two passes are shown). 1968] Fig. As seen in Fig. these machines employ two gripper dies. [Neuberger et al. 12. 2003] .144 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications are illustrated in Fig. is rolled out into a ring as the clearance between mandrel and main roll decreases.13.7 Principle of operation of transverse rolling machines. 12. (b) Second pass after rotating 90⬚. [SFTC. 12.. and the finished ring is discharged from the machine. After having passed the rolling zone. 12.14. Four mandrels are mounted in a rotating table. (c) At the end of the second pass. 1968] Fig.5 Horizontal Forging Machines or Upsetters The horizontal forging machines are essentially horizontal mechanical presses. is driven independently by a variable-speed drive. 12. and the main roll..8 Forging produced in a transverse rolling machine. The dies are closed side-to-side by a toggle mecha- Fig. eccentrically located within the table. The blank placed over the mandrel. (a) First pass. 12. [Neuberger et al. the hinged table segment is lifted by a cam operation. one stationary and the other movable.

Several matching die inserts are placed in the gripper dies. (a) Operation. 12. [Altan et al.10 Principle of operation of the electric upsetter. Press loading is appreciably less than that of conventional upsetting because of relatively small area of instantaneous contact.. solid Fig. The cone axis is inclined so that the narrow sector in contact with the workpiece is parallel to the lower platen. 12. (b) Assembly of simple die. and (d) completes the upsetting at the end of its stroke. [Altan et al. piercing. As the cone rotates about the cone apex. The upsetters are used for upset forging..9 Principles of and tooling for transverse rolling machine with straight dies. the parts are transported by finger-type cam-operated devices or walkingbeam-type transfer devices from one die cavity to the next. 12. 12. (c) the heading tool begins to deform the bar.7 Radial Forging Machines In many applications. Instead of the direct pressing action between two flat platens. In automatic operation. during closing action. 1973] . 1958]. and reducing of bars and tubes. Most horizontal forging machines are designed such that the gripper dies are oriented vertically.Special Machines for Forging / 145 nism operated by a cam or eccentric located on the eccentric shaft. as final product or as a preforming step. The operational sequence of a horizontal forging machine is illustrated in Fig. 12.. the platens are pressed toward each other so that the workpiece is progressively compressed by the rolling action.6 Rotary or Orbital Forging Machines The principles of rotary forging machines are illustrated in Fig. while the slide carrying the punches is moved by an eccentricpitman mechanism.17. The application of a rotary forging machine to a closeddie forging operation is illustrated in Fig.16 for a simple upsetting operation. the workpiece is subjected to a combined rolling and pressing action between a flat bottom platen and a swiveling upper die with a conical working face. 1973] Fig. the contact zone also rotates. (b) the moving gripper die closes and the stop retracts. 12. i. the movable gripping die moves horizontally [Lange.e. At the same time. 12. it is necessary to forge.15 for the upsetting process: (a) the hot end of the bar is placed into the stationary gripper die against a stop. See text for details.

sizing of solid bars such Fig. [Beseler. each V-die set can be used only for a certain dimension range and frequent die changes during forging increase the production costs. Figure 12. All these parts require symmetrical reduction of cross sections. In addition. large reductions between two flat dies may cause excessive chilling at the billet corners and cracking at the center of the billet.146 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications shafts with varying or constant diameter along the length and tubes with internal or external varying diameter. For some of these applications. square. three. 1971]. 12. Automated and computer-numerical-controlled (CNC) radial forging machines can be used for hot or cold forging. 1969] Fig. Some of the principal applications are production of stepped shafts or tubes. [Beseler. 12. or profiled sections. rectangular. open-die forging presses cannot be used economically because they are limited in number of strokes per minute and in the speed of feed and manipulation of the stock during forging. There are several machine types designed specifically for this purpose of radial or draw-forging of axisymmetric parts [Haller. Although these latter problems may be reduced by using V-dies. with two.12 Horizontal ring-rolling mill for producing rings with internal and external profiles. 1969] . round.11 Operational principles of a horizontal ring-rolling mill.18 indicates that the best solution for high-production symmetrical reduction of cross sections is a forging system that squeezes the material from all sizes simultaneously. or four dies to produce solid or hollow.

centering devices. and sizing of the bores of tubes to exact round or profiled shapes. Both models use essentially the same design principles.004 (Ⳳ0. 6. 1965]. respectively [Walter. 7.14 Schematic of a horizontal forging machine.1 mm) on the inside diameter (ID). eccentric shaft. The horizontal machines consist of a forging box with gear drive. 12. The horizontal models are built in several variations depending on the application.13 1969] Fig. The core of the machine is a robust cast steel forging box that absorbs all Fig.001 in.15 Principle of semiautomatic ring-rolling machine for manufacturing of bearing races. (Ⳳ0. [Beseler.Special Machines for Forging / 147 as pilger mandrels. upsetting and piercing punch. 1958] Operating sequence in upsetting on a horizontal forging machine . end-die cavities. 12. (0. and necessary hydraulic and electronic control components (Fig. stationary gripping die. The vertical models are suitable only for relatively short components and are difficult to automate. Fig. slide carrying the punches.004 in. 3 and 4. 2. 12. 1. 12. There are two types of radial precision forging machines: vertical and horizontal. one or two chuck heads to manipulate the workpiece. [Lange.025 mm).1 mm) and Ⳳ0.19). The tolerances in hot forged tubes are about Ⳳ0. 5. movable gripping die. In cold forging the outside diameter (OD) and ID tolerances are about Ⳳ0.

This system protects the machine from overloading [Altan et al. 12. actuate the connecting rods and the forging dies at a rate of 250 to 1800 strokes/min. 1973] Illustration of closed-die forging with a rotary forging machine.. 2.. 1. adjustment nut. 12. [Walter.18 Deformation of a round cross section in stretch forging. workpiece. 12. rotating upper platen. and worm gear drive powered by one or two hydraulic motors. 1965] . lower die. P. (b) Between four curves of a radial forging machine.19 system. one or two hydraulically driven chuck heads are provided Fig. 4. [Altan et al.17 Principle of rotary or orbital forging machines. The pressure in this oil cushion is continuously monitored. which are driven by an electric motor through a gear Fig. 3. Each adjustment nut rests. through a piston. the forging pressure generates in this oil cushion a pressure proportional (about 20%) to the forging pressure. 12. load. ejector Fig.20). 12. 1973]. The stroke position of the connecting rods (or dies) is adjusted in pairs independently (for rectangles or special shapes) or in unison (for rounds and squares) by rotating each adjustment housing through a link. During operation. Depending on the machine type.16 Fig. and if it exceeds a certain limit the adjustment housings are immediately rotated to bring the dies to open position while the movement of the chuck heads is stopped simultaneously. 1971] Schematic of a GFM radial precision forging machine with two chuck heads. [Haller. The forging box contains four rotatable adjustment housings in which the eccentric shafts are mounted. The eccentric shafts. (a) Between flat anvils. on an oil cushion of a hydraulic cylinder.148 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications forging forces (Fig. screw. It is mounted with the gear box in a support bolted to the foundation frame.

T. H. J.H. p 1. Practice of Impression Die Forging (in German). (a) Dies. (i) Adjustable cam. . in one heat. 1969]: Beseler.R. [Altan et al. (g) Worm gear drive. Becker. For the forging of tubular parts. Hanser Verlag. [Haller. During forging. 1973...” Metals and Ceramics Information Center. [Altan et al. Battelle Columbus Laboratories. 1973] for holding and manipulating the workpiece during forging. Boulger. K. [Altan et al.” Met.W.W. including the chucked ends. [Haller.... “Modern RingRolling Practice. H. and profiled sections are forged at fixed positions. Henning. Handbook of Forging (in German). REFERENCES Fig. and Practices. 1982.W. which are cooled internally in hot forging applications.21 1973] Typical examples of stepped shafts produced in precision radial forging machines. Form. 1971. 12. (h) Adjustment input. 12. 1971]: Haller. Materials. 12. Vol 36. rectangular. “Forging Equipment..J.20 Forging box of a radial precision forging machine illustrating the tool function and adjustment. Central water cooling and lubrication of critical machine components are carried out automatically during the operation of the machine. Akgermon. (k) Forging box.21. the chuck heads are provided with stationary or movable mandrels... (d) Eccentric shaft.... Hanser Verlag. The radial precision forging machines are capable of producing parts similar to those shown in Fig. 1973]: Altan. 1982]: Haller. N. (b) Pitman arm. (e) Adjustment housing. (f) Adjustment screw. F. H.. Two chuck heads are used when the workpiece must be forged over its entire length. The movement of the chuck heads and the variation of the forging stroke in forging stepped components can be controlled by numerical control. round components are rotated while square. (c) Guides.Special Machines for Forging / 149 Fig. [Beseler. Feb 1969.

Vol 35. “Transverse Rolling. DEFORM 2D and 3D Software. 1958]: Lange. p 1.. Columbus.. p 296.150 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications [Lange. F. 2003]: Scientific Forming Technologies Corp.. [Neuberger et al. 1968]: Neuberger. L.” Met. Treat.. 1958. OH..” Met. 2003. et al.. [SFTC.. Form. . [Walter. Closed-Die Forging of Steel (in German). “Use of Precision Forging Machines. Aug 1965. K.. Springer-Verlag. Berlin. 1965]: Walter. Oct 1968.

13. a considerable amount of distortion occurs. Billets and bar sections are sheared between the lower and upper blades of a machine in which only the upper blade is movable. and fracture occurs. Many materials cannot be cut by simple shearing into billets with exact lengths and vol- umes. is usually one-fifth to one-fourth the diameter of the bar. In visual examination of a sheared edge.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Taylan Altan. Fig. superalloys.1361/chff2005p151 Copyright © 2005 ASM International® All rights reserved. Aluminum. www. the cut edge of some steels becomes hardened during gas cutting. the burnished portion appears smooth. Nickel-base alloys. 13. There are also shears. usually rolled round or round-cornered square bars. abrasive cutting. while the fractured portion is relatively rough.1 shows the appearance of a hot sheared round bar.2 Billet and Sheared Surface Quality Straight blades can be used to shear bars and bar sections. Gracious Ngaile. usually carbide tipped. The method of cutting off bars is determined by the edge condition required for subsequent operations. such as impact cutoff machines. Sawing usually produces a uniform cut edge with little or no damage to the microstructure in the immediate area. 2003] . as seen in Fig. In general. Gangshu Shen. but in this case. Figure 13. that utilize a horizontal knife movement to shear the bar sections. are available for billet separation.000 psi (414 MPa) are heated to between 600 and 750 F (315 and 400 C) prior to shearing in order to eliminate the danger of cracking. or depth of shear action by the blade. However. p151-157 DOI:10. or flame cutting. into billets of exact lengths and volumes prior to forging.asminternational. magnesium. Gas cutting produces an edge that resembles a sawed edge in smoothness and squareness.1 Sheared surface of a billet [Duvari et al. editors.1. and copper alloys require sawing or cutting with a friction wheel. high-strength steels having tensile strength above 60. Metal-cutting saws of various types.org CHAPTER 13 Billet Separation and Shearing Serdar Isbir Pinak Barve 13. shearing cracks appear.. 13. thus making subsequent processing difficult. and titanium alloys also require sawing or abrasive wheel cutting. The burnished area. The shear blade plastically deforms the material until its deformation limit in the shearing zone has been exhausted. Separation of billets by shearing is a process without material loss and with considerably higher output with respect to sawing.1 Introduction Forging stock must be cut from the initial mill products.

inconsistent material properties. the material stops deforming and shearing starts. the cross section is not reduced and shearing has not appeared. Preferred practice is to use blades that conform to the shape of the work metal. as seen in Fig. (2) The plas- tic deformation starts. 13. 13. the sheared surface may have different zones and defects (Fig. The material flow causes strain hardening.3). 2003] In addition. (3) Once the pressure at the cutting edges increases sufficiently. Depending on the initial geometry of the bar.152 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Fig. This means that experimentally obtained loadstroke curves may be slightly different. separating the bar and the billet. With the penetration of the blade into the bar.. Fig. 13. the shock on the blades is high when shearing with straight blades. 1997] .. 1997] Theoretical load-stroke curve [Breitling et al. which results in an increase of the shearing force up to the maximum load.4 Different zones of the sheared surface [Breitling et al. the load increases continuously. The material flows along the cutting edges in the direction of the blade penetration and into the gap between the two blades. and tool and machine inaccuracies into account.. 13. (4) Fracture starts after the shear strength of the material is exceeded. burrs. As with every process. Depending on the process parameters. and scars are undesirable.3 Fig.2. The shearing force decreases rapidly during this phase.2 Schematic display of a typical billet shearing system [Duvari et al.4): (1) The bar is deformed elastically. 13. Distortions such as ears. It should be mentioned that this is an ideal (theoretical) load-stroke curve that does not take friction forces. The quality of sheared edges usually increases as thickness or diameter of the billet decreases. the incipient cracks will run toward each other. particularly when shearing round bars. because they reduce the quality of the billet. the cutting force decreases despite the strain hardening of the material. 13. Due to a decreasing cross section. there is a load-stroke curve correlating to the different phases described previously. The load-stroke curve of the process can be divided into the following steps (Fig. At this time.

ⳮ0 in. With increasing shearing velocity. while compressive stress increases during the shearing operation. and the hardness increase in the sheared surface becomes less pronounced. When larger shears are used.. and with axial pressure application [Schuler. the smaller is the shearing clearance.5 Important parameters in shearing [Duvari et al.” . 5–10% Hard steel types. the hardness distribution becomes more uniform. ⳮ0 mm) on shears that can cut bars up to 4 in. (102 mm) in diameter. 13. billets can ordinarily be cut to lengths accurate to Ⳮ1⁄8. the material becomes more “brittle.. the deformation zone reduces. The following values may be taken as guidelines for shearing clearance of steel. 1998].. volume control. Fairly consistent accuracy in the shearing of the slugs can be obtained by careful adjustment of the Fig. For cold forging. draft angle. 1998]. tool. cutting speed. 1–3% Rough fractured surfaces. tolerance) of the sheared surface. Clearance. the breakaway of the metal can cause a variation of Ⳳ3⁄16 in. sheared billets should have the greatest possible straightness. gap clearance. i. The sheared surfaces should be free of shearing defects and exhibit only a moderate amount of strain hardening. tears. Shearing clearance. and seams indicate an excessively large shearing tool clearance. thus providing better control over the length of the cut. Most accurate billets are produced using the shearing principle with bar and cutoff holder (Fig. the given values are percentage of the starting material diameter in millimeters: ● ● ● Soft steel types. In such a setup.8 mm) [Wick et al.Billet Separation and Shearing / 153 There are four ways a billet can be sheared: without bar and cutoff holder. and little plastic deformation. 3–5% Brittle steel types.e. Both tendencies exercise a positive influence over the geometry (ovality. with bar holder. 2003] gage setting. machine. (Ⳮ3. especially if the slugs are produced on a weight-per-piece basis. The appearance of the sheared surfaces is the result of interactions between workpiece characteristics. plastic flow lateral to the shearing direction is increasingly prevented. and friction. The shearing clearance exercises a major influence in the surface quality of sheared billets. 2003. (Ⳳ4. knife and blade edge radii. 13. with bar and cutoff holder. Supporting the free end of the material on a spring-supported table will minimize bending during the shearing operation. Billets are usually supported on both sides of the shear blades by a roller conveyor table and placed squarely against a gage stop securely bolted to the exit side of the machine. Cross-fractured surfaces and material tongues indicate an insufficient tool clearance.5). Camille et al.2. In all the aforementioned methods. 1984]. and billet temperature are the parameters affecting sheared billet quality [Duvari et al.. The greater the strength of the steel.

and S is the shear strength of the work metal (in pounds per square inch).000 (Eq 13.4 mm) thick or more. The factor s varies between 20% (hard. and s is an approximate portion of the shearing stroke. the net horsepower required for shearing can be estimated from the following formula: hp ⳱ A•V•S 33.2) Fig. fracture length and burr length also increase with the increase in draft angle. 1997] . Increase in both of these parameters. a regular hydraulic billet shear. Work.4 and 0. In general. ductile material). alternatively. Draft angle and load on the tooling are inversely proportional. V is the speed of the shear blade (in feet per minute). because it provides more accuracy and productivity. k s is the shearing resistance of the billet material.746 to obtain kilowatts.1) whereby A s is the sectional surface to be sheared. When bars harder than 30 HRC are cut at speeds of 40 to 50 ft (12 to 15 m) per minute or higher.000 is foot-pounds per minute per horsepower. which is another indication of billet quality.. solely designed for shearing. Draft Angle.3 Shearing Force.e. fracture length and burr length. reduce the sheared billet quality. However. even if this increases tool forces. amounts to approximately 70 to 80% of tensile strength of the material. draft angle should be kept at minimum. increases with increasing draft angle.. Load on the tooling reduces as the draft angle is increased. The shearing resistance... The correction factor x indicates the extent to which the increase in force deviates from a rectangular forcestroke curve. It may be necessary to increase the calculated value as much as 25% to compensate for machine efficiency. i. brittle material) to 40% (soft. x is taken to be between 0. as speed increases above 20 to 25 ft (6. and shearing work.154 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Cutting Speed. i. such as a weak frame design or inconsistent blade alignment. Ws. For low-carbon steels.1 to 7.6 Stock volume monitoring system [Breitling et al.e. It is also observed that rollover length. Fs. 13. However. For metric use. problems are encountered in holding the workpiece securely at the blade without the far end whipping. The 33. There are two ways to shear billets: A shearing tool may be mounted in a mechanical press. Therefore a compromise should be made between the tooling force and billet quality. 1997]. chipping of the blade may occur. The latest shear designs incorporate the following features: ● The shearing force. The second option is more desirable. Machineand tooling-related parameters. 13. Rugged frame construction and precise guidance of all moving parts in order to eliminate deflection under load ● Adjustable hydraulic billet support and bar holder in order to minimize billet bending (Eq 13.7. k s. (6. can be calculated approximately using the following formula when separating round material with the diameter d: Fs ⳱ A s • k s where A is the cross-sectional area of the workpiece (in square inches). and Power Ws ⳱ x • Fs • s 13. The speed at which material is sheared without adverse effect can range from almost zero to 70 or 80 ft (21 or 24 m) per minute. Especially with ductile materials.6 m) per minute. or. of the bar diameter.4 Shearing Equipment The parameters influencing the quality of the sheared billet can be divided into workpiecetooling and shear-related parameters. reduce the shearing quality and should be avoided [Breitling et al. especially with material 1⁄4 in. the power in English units (hp) should be multiplied by 0. may be used.

Most conventional shears are mechanical and their operation is based on the eccentric slide principle.8 Schematic of a shear with axial load to improve shear quality [Altan et al. The use of an outboard support also improves the quality of the billets. the billet is supported during the entire operation.7. which is then sent to a programmable logic controller (PLC) that computes the adjustments and moves the back gage accordingly (Fig. The holddown mechanism is necessary for obtaining good sheared surfaces. because it is not sufficient to control the billet weight and geometrical accuracy only manually and intermittently. continuous stock volume monitoring) The last point becomes increasingly important. According to tooling arrangement..6).8. (b) Tooling for two billets per revolution [Altan et al. the energy is provided by a flywheel that carries an open-type moving blade. The system measures the bar diameter. 13. (a) Tooling for one billet per revolution. The billet is then sheared and ready for further processing. With this shear. 13. In that device. a high-velocity rotary-type shear. 13. 1973] Fast blade clearance adjustment to reduce the lead time for new setups Hydraulic knife clamps for fast blade changes A tiltable shear base that can be used for inclining the bar when blanking soft materials A high shearing speed and shear rate in order to improve billet quality and process productivity Automated billet quality control (for example.Billet Separation and Shearing / 155 Fig. 1973] . 13. It operates mechanically. A radically different design. by means of laser sensors. In this machine. the material to be sheared is confined by a close-fitting closed blade and held against a stop by an axial Fig. through an additional linkage from the eccentric. one or two billets per revolution can be obtained.. is seen schematically in Fig. which ensures the maintenance of a constant billet weight despite changes in bar diameter. In the design seen in Fig. 13. Modern shearing machines use a stock volume monitoring system.7 ● ● ● ● ● High-velocity rotary-type shear. as in mechanical forging presses. or hydraulically. production rates of 300 billets/min are feasible.

This method is fast. square. J. Chernauskas.. T.. E. and Practices.. F. any metal that can be machined can be sheared. 13. 1984]. hexagonal. [Breitling et al. Materials. Cutoff-type shearing machines are used for cutting round. (914 mm). p 4–7. but power requirements increase as the strength of the work metal increases..005 in. T. Becker. blade design is more critical and blade life decreases as the strength of the work metal increases. REFERENCES [Altan et al.. Taupin. and economical when billets in large quantities are required. Some machines are capable of maintaining the length to within Ⳳ0. Altan. Metal and Ceramics Information Center. (63.156 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Fig. distortion. Forging Equipment. (75 ⳯ 305 mm) in cross section. This process can be performed on a machine specifically designed for slug cutoff. 1984] load.” Journal of Materials . (203 ⳯ 203 ⳯ 38 mm). HB03. (152 mm) in diameter or thickness. or special-shaped bars into blanks or slugs. N.13 mm) as well as maintaining square cuts and ends that are free of burrs. 13. 1973]: Altan. J. Equipment is available for shearing round.. Henning.. Further.5 mm) diam bar having a maximum length of 36 in. efficient. H. “Precision Shearing of Billets—Special Equipment and Process Simulation....9) are actuated with short strokes by two flywheel-cam assemblies that rotate at a constant speed. Akgerman. The dies (Fig. Boulger. or it can be performed using a box-type shearing die in conjunction with a press [Wick et al. Battelle Columbus Laboratories. The axial load ensures squareness and inhibits crack propagation... In general. V. The capacity of the machine is a 21⁄2 in.. and angles up to 8 ⳯ 8 ⳯ 11⁄2 in. (Ⳳ0. or octagonal bars up to 6 in. rectangular bars and billets up to 3 ⳯ 12 in. flat. and rollover.9 Double-cutting principle [Wick et al. Production can be as high as 150 pieces per minute. 1997]: Breitling. One manufacturer of cutoff machines utilizes a double-cutting principle to shear the blanks or slugs.

J.Billet Separation and Shearing / 157 Processing Technology. “Optimization of Tool Design in Hot Shearing of Billets for Forging. Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook. Ed.. ● [Geleji et al. G.. Isbir. T. “Evolution of Machines and Automation in the Drop Forging Industry. www... Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing. 2003]: Duvari. [Duvari et al. Dearborn.. 1997. C. ● [Stotmann.. J. H. Metal Forging Handbook. May. Ngaile. Vol. S. p 136. Vol 14. “Simulation of Bar Shearing Process. Frontzek.. Schuler Group.” Metal Forming. Bemcor. 1968]: Stotmann. 1999]: Davis. Vasquez. www. [Camille et al. Forge Equipment. Springer. Goppingen.. WEB SITES ● ● ● www.sms-eumuco. Hoffman. H... Altan.” ERC/NSM-03-R-09.. Inc.it. 1998]: Schuler. Veilleux... ASM Handbook. and Accessories (in English). 1998]: Santiago-Vega. 1967]: Geleji.T.com. Forming and Forging. Society of Manufacturing Engineers. [Schuler. Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing. MI. T.. W. p 168.ficep. SELECTED REFERENCES ● [ASM International.. S. Budapest..de. p 457–459.. H.. C. R. p 714–719. Akademiai Kiado. p 11-1–11-21. Rolling Mills. V. 71.bemcor... Germany.” ERC/NSM-97-27. 1984]: Wick. [Wick et al. p 119– 125.. SMS Eumuco GmbH . Benedict.R. Altan. Ficep Corp. A.

1 Introduction In impression-die forging. the forging designer considers design parameters such as grain flow. and the initial billet geometry is determined. materials. and labor. 14. shrinkage. Before being used in production. two or more dies are moved toward each other to form a metal billet that has a relatively simple geometry to obtain a more complex shape. the blocker dies are designed.and closed-die forging can be seen in Fig. Gracious Ngaile.org CHAPTER 14 Process Design in Impression-Die Forging Manas Shirgaokar 14. Consideration is given to the shape of the part. can be used to obtain information about the effects of die design and process variables on the forging process. The flash dimensions and billet dimensions influence: ● The flash allowance. and resistance to impact and fatigue. the part is first forged in a set of busting dies. and finally forged in finisher dies. Forged components find application in the automobile/automotive industry.1361/chff2005p159 Copyright © 2005 ASM International® All rights reserved. Gangshu Shen. the type of forging equipment to be used. and fillet and corner radii. p159-183 DOI:10. namely. cold shuts. editors. If the material has been improperly distributed during the blocking stage.asminternational. parting line. physical modeling and process simulation using finite-element method (FEM)based software. toughness. draft. draft angles. Usually. the material to be forged. This often takes several iterations and is very costly in terms of time. fillet and corner radii. Some parts can be forged in a single set of dies while others. In a good-quality forging. The design of any forging process begins with the geometry of the finished part (Fig. facilities. and the part must not contain flow defects such as laps. the application of the part.1). must be shaped in multiple sets of dies. that is. railroad. When using multistage forging. The quality of the finished part depends greatly on the design of the previous stages. and positioning of the parting line. defects may appear in the finishing stage. Finisher dies are used to enhance geometrical details without significant material flow. aircraft. forging dies are tested to verify proper filling of the die cav- ities. all sections of the die cavity must be filled. In making these selections. flash dimensions. www. the billet is heated to an appropriate forging temperature and the dies allow the excess billet material to flow outside of the die cavity to form a flash that is later trimmed and discarded. In a common multistage forging process. due to shape complexity and material flow limitations. Alternatively. two other methods for modeling metal flow. Forgings offer a high strength-to-weight ratio. The most commonly used method of process verification is die tryout in which full-scale dies are manufactured and prototype parts are forged to determine metal flow patterns and the possible occurrence of defects.2. This process is capable of producing components of high quality at moderate cost. the number of parts to be forged.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Taylan Altan. the material that flows into the flash zone . and mining equipment. the shapes of the preforms are selected. and the overall economy of the process being designed. 14. or folds. The finisher die is then designed with allowances added for flash. The terminology used to describe the flash zone in impression. then moved to one or more sets of blocking dies.

. ● Variables associated with the tooling and lubrication: tool materials. Ram speed. part geometry. flow stress and the workability at various strain rates and deformation conditions. 14. friction. energy.3. design of drafts and radii.2 Forging Process Variables The interaction of the most significant variables in forging is shown in a simplified manner Fig. forging load. stock temperature. Finally. and center of loading for each of the forging operations 14.160 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications ● ● ● The forging load The forging energy The die life The overall design of a forging process requires the prediction of: ● Shape complexity and volume of the forging ● Number and configurations of the preforms or blockers ● The flash dimensions in the dies and the additional flash volume required in the stock for preforming and finishing operations ● The forging load. preform shape. 2000] .1 in Fig. flow stress. and die temperature influence the temperature distribution in the forged part. It is seen that for a given billet material and part geometry. temperature. and part geometry determine metal flow. and forging energy and consequently influence the loading and the design of the dies. configuration. 14. the following three groups of factors influence the forging process: ● Characteristics of the stock or preform to be forged. the ram speed of the forging machine influences the strain rate and flow stress. flash de- A flow chart illustrating forging process design [Vasquez et al. etc. in summary. Thus.

under load. strain. In most practical hot forging operations. forgeability decreases with increasing grain size. availability of ejectors.5. in isothermal and hot-die forging of titanium and nickel alloys. the potential production rate increases..1 Forging Materials Table 14. that are highly rate dependent. and stresses that occur in the deforming material. Thus.4 shows that owing to difficulties in forging. 14.. For example. When the contact time is large. and in some alloy systems. A diagram illustrating this type of information is presented in Fig. 14. as temperature increases.e. ram velocity under load. This depends on the ram velocity and the stiffness of a given press. i. and compression tests.2. i. both the flow stress and forgeability are influenced by the metallurgical characteristics of the billet material and the temperatures. and energy requirements. strain rates. its flow stress and forgeability ● The friction and cooling effects at the die/ material interface ● The complexity of the forging shape For a given metal. the behavior and the characteristics of the forging press influence: ● The contact time between the material and the dies. tension. the large rate of deformation would lead to an increase in flow stress and excessive die stresses.1 lists different metals and alloys in order of their respective forging difficulty [Sabroff et al. because it determines the heat transfer between the hot or warm material and the colder dies.. the strain rate. Forgeability has been used vaguely in the literature to denote a combination of both resistance to deformation and ability to deform without fracture.2 Schematic of a die set and the terminology used in impressed-die forging with flash . stress. i. 14. friction conditions. Fig.. i. and the metal flow and die filling are reduced. the load.2. Consequently. the flow stress increases. single or multiblow availability. The flow stress determines the resistance to deformation. The forgeabilities of metals at various deformation rates and temperatures can be evaluated by using various tests such as torsion. 14. provided the machine can be loaded and unloaded with billet or preforms at these increased rates. the amount of deformation prior to failure of the specimen is an indication of forgeability at the temperature and deformation rates used during that particular test. Fig. the material cools down excessively during deformation. the contact time also influences the temperatures of the forging and that of the dies. forging stresses.e.e.e. grain growth occurs. in conventional forging operations. However. Metal flow and die filling are largely determined by: ● The forging material resistance to flow and ability to flow. etc. the temperature of the workpiece material is higher than that of the dies. the forgeabilities of metals increase with increasing temperature. stiffness.Process Design in Impression-Die Forging / 161 sign. nickel alloys allow for less shape definition than do aluminum alloys. production rate. ● The production rate. In certain cases. nonisothermal. ● Characteristics of the available equipment: load and energy capacities. The forging material influences the design of the forging itself as well as the details of the entire forging process. In all these tests. 14. it is desired to have short contact times. for example. In general. With increasing stroke rate.. The contact time is extremely important. 1968]. etc. ● The rate of deformation.2 Forging Equipment In hot and warm forging.

the magnitudes and distribution of temperatures depend mainly on: . and die fill. 14.2. and m is the shear friction factor (0  m  1).05 to 0. copper.2.3 Friction and Lubrication The flow of metal in forging is caused by the pressure transmitted from the dies to the deforming material. in hot rolling of plates or slabs and in nonlubricated extrusion of aluminum alloys ● 14.15 in cold forging of steels. stiffness of the press frame. and aluminum alloys with graphitebased lubricants ● m ⳱ 0. and copper. therefore. operate with kissing dies.3 m 冪3 r¯ Variables in forging (Eq 14.162 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications ● The part tolerances. the values of m vary as follows: m ⳱ 0.. Often. in terms of a factor or coefficient. and drive also contribute to tolerances that can be achieved in forging. die life. s.7 to 1 when no lubricant is used.4 Heat Transfer and Temperatures Heat transfer between the forged material and the dies influences the lubrication conditions. In forging. the dies have flat surfaces that contact each other at the end of each working stroke of the forging press.4 in hot forging of steels.g. This allows very close control of the thickness tolerances even if the flow stress and friction conditions change during a production run. Ram guiding. f is the friction factor. 14..1 to 0. In order to evaluate the performances of various lubricants and to be able to predict forming pressures.1) where s is the frictional shear stress. Hydraulic and screw presses. is most commonly expressed as: s ⳱ f r¯ ⳱ Fig. i. the frictional shear stress.3 in hot forging of titanium and high-temperature alloys with glass lubricants ● m ⳱ 0. using conventional phosphate soap lubricants or oils ● m ⳱ 0.e. aluminum alloys. In forging. it is necessary to express the interface friction quantitatively. For various forming conditions. for example. temperatures that exist in the material during forging are the most significant variables influencing the success and economics of a given forging operation. e. the friction conditions at the die/material interface are extremely important and influence the die stresses and the forging load as well as the wear of the dies.2 to 0. properties of the forged product.

Fig. 14.4 Comparison of typical design limits for rib-webtype structural forgings of (a) aluminum alloys and (b) nickel-base superalloys (all dimensions are in mm) [Sabroff et al. 1968] whereas in the hammer. 14. where the load-displacement curves are given for hot forging of a steel part using different types of forging equipment. For the hammer. 1968] Generalized diagram illustrating the influence of forgeability and flow stress on die filling [Sabroff . 1968] Approximate range of forging temperature F C 750–1020 480–660 1110–1650 1560–2100 2010–2280 2010–2280 2010–2280 1830–2100 2010–2280 1290–1740 1920–2160 2160–2280 1740–2100 1920–2460 2100–2460 1920–2190 2190–2370 400–550 250–350 600–900 850–1150 1100–1250 1100–1250 1100–1250 1000–1150 1100–1250 700–950 1050–1180 1180–1250 950–1150 1050–1350 1150–1350 1050–1200 1200–1300 Metal or alloy Aluminum alloys (least difficult) Magnesium alloys Copper alloys Carbon and low-alloy steels Martensitic stainless steels Maraging steels Austenitic stainless steels Nickel alloys Semiaustenitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steels Titanium alloys Iron-base superalloys Cobalt-base superalloys Niobium alloys Tantalum alloys Molybdenum alloys Nickel-base superalloys Tungsten alloys (most difficult) ● ● The initial material and die temperatures Heat generated due to plastic deformation and friction at the die/material interface ● Heat transfer between the deforming material and the dies as well as between the dies and the environment (air.6.Process Design in Impression-Die Forging / 163 Table 14. The reason for this is that in the presses. the forging load is initially higher due to strain-rate effects. different forging loads and energies are required by different presses. not only the material and the formed shape but also the type of equipment used (rate of deformation and die chilling effects) determine the metal flow behavior and the forming load and energy required for the process.1 Hot forging temperatures of different metals and alloys [Sabroff et al. but the maximum load is lower than for either hydraulic or screw presses. the extruded flash cools rapidly.. for the same forging process. Fig. These curves illustrate that. Thus. due to strain rate and temperature effects. lubricant) The effect of contact time on temperatures and forging load is illustrated in Fig.. Surface tearing and cracking or development of shear bands on the formed material often can be explained by excessive chilling of the surface layers of the formed part near the die/material interface.5 et al. coolant. in hot forming. the flash temperature remains nearly the same as the initial stock temperature.. 14.

thus. which determine the final part dimensions.7 Rectangular shape and three modifications showing increasing forging difficulty with increasing rib height and decreasing web thickness [Sabroff et al.. As a result. because they have more surface area per unit volume. If the production lot size is large. Metal flow is greatly influenced by part or die geometry. 14. but die costs are very significant because these costs must be amortized over a smaller number of parts.2. for example. There is a direct relationship Fig. Forging tolerances are very important in designing the die holders and die inserts. The preforming and the finishing dies are designed such that relatively little material movement is allowed in the finisher dies.164 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications 14. these two factors have a significant influence on die design in forging. die materials and their hardnesses would be selected to be especially wear resistant even if they are made from somewhat expensive alloys. will not wear out easily. the dies must be changed more often than in large-scale production. In this case. quick die-changing and automatic die-holding mechanisms are required. and mechanical loading during the forging process itself. some of the preforming or blocker dies may be omitted even if this would cause the use of more billet material. require not only very close manufacturing accuracies on the dies but also close control of die temperatures. as is the case in the aerospace forging industry. several operations (preforming or blocking) are needed to achieve gradual flow of the metal from an initially simple shape (cylinder or round-cornered square billet) into the more complex shape of the final forging. in this case. or 1100 C) [Altan et al. 14. mechanical loading during assembling of the dies in a holder. spherical and blocklike shapes are the easiest to forge in impression or closed dies. In addition. Such variations in shape maximize the effects of friction and temperature changes and hence influence the final pressure required to fill the die cavities. 14. for economic production. Die dimensions vary during the forging operation because of thermal expansion. 1968] . Precision forging of gears and Fig. Often.3 Shape Complexity in Forging The main objective of forging process design is to ensure adequate metal flow in the dies so that the desired finish part geometry can be obtained without any external or internal defects.. In a general sense.5 Production Lot Size and Tolerances As is the case in all manufacturing operations. often it is necessary to estimate the changes in die dimensions under forging conditions so that corrections can be made while designing and manufacturing these dies. Therefore. If the production lot size is small.6 Load-displacement curves for the same part forged in three different machines with three different ram speeds (dimensions of the part in inches. the main reason for changing the dies would be die wear. because they depend considerably on the manufacturing tolerances and elastic deflections of the dies during forging. Also. die wear is not a major problem. the finisher dies. Parts with long thin sections or projections (webs and ribs) are more difficult to forge. initial temperature ⳱ 2012 F. 1973] blades.

for which two of the three dimensions (length and width) are approximately equal and are larger than the height (h). The second group consists of disk shapes. spherical and cubical shape (class 1) ● Disc shape (class 2) ● Oblong shape (class 3) The first group of compact shapes has the three major dimensions. the length (l).4) where Rg is the radial distance from the symmetry axis to the center of gravity of half of the cross section. a “shape difficulty factor” can also be calculated in nonsymmetric forgings. for expressing the geometrical complexity of round forgings (having one axis of rotational symmetry).4 P2 F Pc2 Fc (Eq 14. width (w). which is considered to be at the “neutral axis. 1959]: ● Compact shape. once this neutral surface is defined. bosses and rims placed farther from the center are increasingly more difficult to forge. namely. In round forgings. These three basic groups are further subdivided into subgroups depending on the presence and type of elements subsidiary to the basic shape. Pc is the perimeter of the axial cross section of the cylinder that circumscribes the forging.5) The factor S expresses the complexity of a half cross section of a round forging with respect to that of the circumscribing cylinder. Therefore. A “longitudinal shape factor. is defined as: b⳱ 2Rg Rc (Eq 14. and Fc is the surface area of the axial cross section of the cylinder that circumscribes the forging. during the forging operation. The third group of forgings consists of long shapes. and height (h) approximately equal. and Rc is the maximum radius of the forged piece. This method is.8. a “lateral shape factor. As shown in Fig. the majority of forgings can be classified into three main groups [Spies.” In a nonsymmetric forging the material is still moved out laterally from the “neutral surface. F is the surface area of the axial cross section of the forging (surface that includes the entire axis of symmetry).2) Design of Finisher Dies Using the shape complexity and the forging material as guidelines. which includes approximately 30% of all the commonly used forgings. such as for estimating costs and for predicting preforming steps. Figure 14. not entirely quantitative and requires some subjective evaluation based on past experience. The number of parts that fall into this group is rather small.” Thus. the factor ␣ represents a comparison of the shape of the forging with that of the cylinder. which have one dimension significantly larger than the other two (l  b ⱖ h). the forging process en- . however. On round forgings.3) where P is the perimeter of the axial cross section of the forging. 14. All the round forgings belong to this group. This “shape classification” is useful for practical purposes. The ease of forging more complex shapes depends on the relative proportions of vertical and horizontal projections on the part.” b.Process Design in Impression-Die Forging / 165 between the surface-to-volume ratio of a forging and the difficulty of producing the forging. 14.. Parts “C” and “D” would require not only higher forging loads but also at least one more forging operation than parts “A” and “B” to ensure die filling.” S. which is equal to the radius of the circumscribing cylinder. Because the circumscribing cylinder has the maximum diameter and the maximum height of the forging.7 is a schematic representation of the effects of shape on forging difficulties. incorporating both the longitudinal and lateral factors is defined as: S ⳱ ␣b (Eq 14.” ␣. A quantitative value called the “shape difficulty factor” has been suggested by Teterin et al. 1968. is defined as: ␣⳱ Xf Xc Xc ⳱ (Eq 14. A “shape difficulty factor. the material is moved laterally down (toward the ends of the cylinder) from the center.1) with Xf ⳱ and (Eq 14.

166 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications gineer establishes the forging sequence (number of forging operations) and designs the dies for each operation. 1959] forging. Starting with the forging geometry. The forging geometry in turn is obtained from the machined part drawing by modifying this part to facilitate Fig. starting with the finisher dies. The most critical information necessary for forging die design is the geometry and the material of the forging to be produced. the die designer first designs the finisher dies by: ● Selecting the appropriate die block size and the flash dimensions ● Estimating the forging load and stresses to ascertain that the dies are not subjected to excessive loading .8 Classification of forging shapes [Spies. 14.

14. To analyze stresses. (c) End.Process Design in Impression-Die Forging / 167 The geometry of the finisher die is essentially that of the finish forging augmented by flash configuration. 14. 14. two conditions must be fulfilled when this point is reached: A sufficient volume of metal must be trapped within the confines of the die to fill the remaining cavities. This stage corresponds to point P1 in Fig. The FEM approach is discussed later. In designing finisher dies. the stage at which the die cavity is filled completely. In addition. The influence of flash thickness and flash-land width on the forging pressure is reasonably well understood from a qualitative point of view. forging load. to fill the die cavity it is desirable to increase the die stresses by restricting the flash dimensions (thinner and wider flash on the dies).10). Thus. increasing frictional forces. Loads are relatively low until the more difficult details are partly filled and the metal reached the flash opening (Fig. Fig. the dimensions of the flash should be optimized. “slab method of analysis” or process simulation using finite-element method (FEM)-based computer codes is generally used. The designer must make a compromise: on the one hand.. (b) Filling. and the die life. 14. it is possible to determine the center of loading for the forging in order to locate the die cavities in the press. 14. 1983] . the designer should not allow the forging pressure to reach a high value. and the die life. As the dies continue to close. which may cause die breakage due to mechanical fatigue. and decreasing metal temperatures at the flash gap A typical load-versus-stroke curve from an impression-die forging operation is shown in Fig. but.4. conditions that appear most favorable can be selected. 1983] 14. the press speed.9. such that off-center loading is reduced. (a) Upsetting. the calculated forging stress distribution can be utilized for estimating the local die stresses in the dies by means of elastic FEM analysis.9 Typical load-stroke curve for closed-die forging [Altan et al. at this point the cavity pressure provided by the flash geometry should be just sufficient to fill the en- Fig. Ideally. the die and material temperatures. After these forging stresses and loads are estimated. and the friction factor.. the load increases sharply to point P2. By modifying the flash dimensions. (d) Loadstroke curve [Altan et al. and extrusion of metal through the narrowing gap of the flash opening must be more difficult than filling of the more intricate detail in the die. forging load. The selection of these variables influences the quality of the forged part and the magnitude of flash allowance. For successful forging.1 Flash Design and Forging Load The flash dimensions and the billet dimensions influence the flash allowance.10 Metal flow and the corresponding load-stroke curve. on the other hand. forging energy.9. The forging pressure increases with: ● ● Decreasing flash thickness Increasing flash-land width because of the combinations of increasing restriction. the die designer is able to evaluate the influence of these factors on the forging stresses and loads.

is greatly influenced by the amount of excess material available in the cavity. 1968] which case low stresses and material losses are obtained by extra preforming). The effect of excess metal volume in flash formation was studied extensively [Vieregge.11 Relationships among excess stock material. 1500 forgings from eight different forging companies were classified into shape groups. flash width/thickness ratio. These relationships are illustrated in Fig. however. In that respect.6 cm) in diameter by 3. 14. Thus. it is possible to find the corresponding flash thickness and w/t ratio. (7. This figure can be used for selecting the flash thickness based on the forging weight. (1. the die stresses. The choice is variable within a range of values where the flash allowance and the forging load are not too high. It was found that a cavity can be filled with various flash geometries provided that there is always a sufficient supply of material in the die. as shown in Fig. because that amount determines the instantaneous height of the extruded flash and. therefore. This graph also shows the relationship between the flash width/thickness (w/t) ratio and the forging weight.11) [Vieregge. There is no unique choice of the flash dimensions for a forging operation. (8. The results for group 224 are presented in Fig. forging load. 14. Q. Thus.04 in. 1968] ..2 Empirical Methods for Flash Design The “shape classification” (Fig. the dimensions of the flash determine the final load required for closing the dies. t. 14.e. flash and to do this at a lower total forging load if the necessary excess material is available (in this case. 14. Formation of the flash. it is possible to fill the same cavity by using a less restrictive. excess stock material. Thus.13 as an example [Altan et al. all the metal flow occurs near or in the flash gap. flash thickness.11 and 14.168 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications tire cavity. which in turn becomes more restrictive as the dies close. i. 14. In order to investi- Fig. There has to be a compromise between the two. the flash thickness is shown to increase with increasing forging weight. P3 represents the final load reached in normal practice for ensuring that the cavity is completely filled and that the forging has the proper dimensions. of the forging.4.12.5 in. 1973]. of 0. the user can obtain the flash dimensions based on the weight of the forging.. 14. and forging load for mechanical press forging of a round part approximately 3 in. while the ratio of flash width to flash thickness (w/t) decreases to a limiting value. 1968]. During the stroke from P2 to P3.12 Relationships among flash width/thickness ratio. By evaluating the flash designs suggested for these forgings. an attempt was made to establish a relationship between forging weight and flash dimensions. In general. thicker. knowing the weight of the part to be forged.8. For this purpose. Thus. and energy for a constant flash thickness. 14.8) has been utilized in systematic evaluation of flash dimensions in steel forgings. However. the advantages of lower forging load and lower cavity stress are offset by increased scrap loss) or if the workpiece is properly preformed (in Fig.9 cm) high [Vieregge. the detail most difficult to fill determines the minimum load for producing a fully filled forging. 14. and the forging should be completed.0 mm) (same forging as that shown in Fig.

1973].6) 30 冪冤 冢 3 2 • D2 D 1Ⳮ H(2Rh Ⳮ D) Fig. and Rh is the radial distance of the center of a rib from the axis of symmetry of the forging. and temperatures. all these variables vary continuously during the process. it is possible to obtain little flash allowance and minimize the forging energy. even though similar. which require different. i. H is the height of the ribs or shaft (mm). with weight. t. In addition.. 14.e. other subgroups were studied.Process Design in Impression-Die Forging / 169 gate the effect of forging shape on flash dimensions. Q. Variations in flash-land-to-thickness ratio and in flash thickness.7 predict the flash dimensions that are a good compromise between the flash allowance and the forging load [Vieregge. of forgings of group 224 (materials: carbon and alloy steels) . 14. forgings comprise an enormously large number of geometrical shapes and materials. Eq 14. t is the flash thickness (mm). techniques of engineering analysis. Most forging operations are of nonsteady-state type in terms of metal flow.6 and 14.13 冣冥 (Eq 14. forging loads are usually estimated on the basis of empirical procedures using empirically developed formulae. It is also possible to determine the flash dimensions for round forgings.017 • D] Ⳮ W ⳱ t (Eq 14. using the billet dimensions. For round forgings. 1968]: 冤冪D 1Ⳮ 5冥 t ⳱ [0.5 Prediction of Forging Stresses and Loads Prediction of forging load and pressure in closed. stresses. Because of these difficulties encountered in practice.7) where w is the flash width (mm). D is the outside diameter of the forging (mm).and impression-die forging operations is difficult. and it was concluded that the influence of shape is not as significant as that of forging weight [Altan et al. Thus.

. Ha. 14.14).170 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications 14. As seen in Fig. are not sufficiently general to predict forging loads for a variety of parts and materials. They found that the variable that most influences the forging pressure. For this purpose.1 Empirical Methods for Estimation of Forging Pressure and Load In estimating the forging load empirically. and rc is the flow stress in the cavity. the surface area of the forging. Hence.9 are: rep ⳱ 2 冪3 冢 rf 1 Ⳮ m Fig. w/t.5. rf is the flow stress in the flash region.. from 2 to 4 (Fig. two different flow stresses are used for the flash and cavity regions. 1962] . 14. The lower curve relates to relatively simple parts. In this analysis. the relatively simple slab method has been proven to be very practical for predicting forging loads. 14. including the flash zone. from 2 to 4 [Neuberger et al. 1980].2 Simplified Slab Method to Estimate Forging Load The slab method has been successfully used for predicting forging loads and stresses with acceptable engineering accuracy. Lacking a suitable empirical formula. 1962]. Most empirical methods..9) where R ⳱ r Ⳮ w.15 [Subramanian et al. w/t (where w is flash-land width and t is the flash thickness). the cross section is simplified to conform to this model. a forging is divided into various plane strain and axisymmetric sections. the radius (or half width of the cavity) by r. rea. 14. the flash thickness by t. This method used in the practical prediction of forging loads is shown in Fig. With the flow stress in the flash region denoted by rf and the frictional shear factor by m.. and the flash width by w. the cavity height is denoted by H. Neuberger and Pannasch [Neuberger et al. whereas the upper curve to slightly difficult ones [Neuberger et al.14 冣 w t (Eq 14. where the cavity is not rectangular. it is assumed that the cavity has a rectangular shape and the flash geometry illustrated in Fig. is the average height. Pa. 14. 14.15. For the plane-strain cross sections. is multiplied by an average forging pressure known from experience. The forging pressures encountered in practice vary from 20 to 70 tons/in.8) Because of rapid chilling and a high deformation rate. the stress at the entrance from the cavity into the flash of an axisymmetric cross section.15. is given by: rea ⳱ 冢冪3 m 冣 2 w Ⳮ 1 rf t (Eq 14.8 and 14.2 depending on the material and the geometry of the part. In actual practice. the equations corresponding to Eq 14. summarized in terms of simple formulae or nomograms. one may use suitable analytical techniques of varying degrees of complexity for calculating forging load and stresses. of the forging. The stresses at various locations of the cross section and hence the load acting on the cross section can be estimated as follows. 1962] conducted forging experiments with various carbon steels (up to 0. and then simplified equations are used to predict the average pressure and load for each section before all these load components are added together.6% C) and with low-alloy steels using flash ratios. The total load (Pta) on the cross section is the summation of the load acting on the flash region and the load acting on the die cavity: 冤 Pta ⳱ 2prf ⳮ 冢 2 m 1 3 (R ⳮ r3) 3 冪3 t Ⳮ 1 Ⳮ2 冣 冢R 冤冪m3 r3 Ⳮ 2pr2 2 m R 冪3 t c ⳮ r2 2 r rea Ⳮ H 2 冥 冣冥 (Eq 14.10) Forging pressure versus average forging height (Ha) for forging of carbon and low-alloy steels at flash ratios.5. Among these techniques. the flow stress in the flash region is considered to be different from the flow stress in the cavity.

6 Design of Blocker (Preform) Dies One of the most important aspects of closeddie forging is the design of preforms or blockers to achieve adequate metal distribution [Altan et al. defect-free metal flow and complete die filling can be achieved.15 Ptp ⳱ 2 冪3 Schematic of a simple closed-die forging and forging stress distribution [Subramanian et al. In blocking. The determination of the preform configuration is an especially difficult task and an art in itself.15.. 14. requiring skills achieved only by years of extensive experience.16 Defect formation in forging when fillet radii are too small [Haller. 14. 14.11) where L is the cavity width.e. 14. and metal losses into the flash can be minimized. L ⳱ 2r in Fig. The following information is required to perform these calculations: section is deformed in such a manner that a desired volume distribution is achieved prior to impression-die forging. in the finish forging operation.. 1971] . Thus. i. In preforming. round or round-cornered square stock with constant cross Fig. Designing a correct pre- ● ● The geometry of the part The flow stresses in the cavity and the flash during the final stages of the forging operation ● The friction at the die/forging interface Appendix A gives an example of estimation of the load required for forging connecting rods. A comparison between the theoretical prediction and the actual data from forging trials is also provided.Process Design in Impression-Die Forging / 171 Fig.. 1973]. 1980] 冢 wrf 2 Ⳮ 冣 冢 冣 mw L m Ⳮ rep Ⳮ r L t 2H 冪3 c (Eq 14. the preform is forged in a blocker cavity prior to finish forging. The above equations are relatively simple and can be programmed for practical use.

. The example steel forging presented in Fig. bent in a die to provide the appropriate shape.16 shows how a defect can form with insufficient volume distribution in an H-shaped cross section [Haller.18 illustrates the various preforming operations necessary to forge the part shown [Haller. i. (a) Planes of flow. blocked in a blocker die cavity. and finish forged. Figure 14. 1973].17 Planes of metal flow. 1971] ● Minimize the amount of material lost as flash ● Minimize die wear in the finish-forging cavity by reducing the metal movement in this operation ● Achieve desired grain flow and control mechanical properties The common practice in preform design is to consider planes of metal flow. 14. 1973] form allows the control of the volume distribution of the part during forging as well as control over the material flow. selected cross sections of the forging (Fig. (c) Directions of flow [Altan et al.. (b) Finished forged shapes.. complete with flash. In determining the forging steps for any part. 1971]. Lay out a dimensioned drawing of the finish configuration. Fig.18 Preforming.e. 14. The main objective of preform design is to distribute the metal in the preform in order to: ● Ensure defect-free metal flow and adequate die filling. The round bar from rolled stock is rolled in a special machine called a reducer roller for volume distribution. and finish forging operations for an example steel forging [Haller. 1971]: 1. 14.17) [Altan et al. it is first necessary to obtain the volume of the forging based on the areas of successive cross sections throughout the forging. Understanding the principles of the material flow during the forging operation can help attain a better understanding of the design rules. blocking. Any complex shape can be divided into axisymmetric or plane-strain flow regions. 14. The volume distribution can be obtained in the following manner [Haller.172 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Fig. depending on the geometry in order to simplify the analysis. 1971] .

(a) is the forging. ● All the concave radii. additional points should be plotted to assist in determining a smooth representation curve)..20 for H-shaped cross Figure 14. In both examples.19 Preform designs for two example parts. for distributing the metal prior to die forging in a blocker or finisher die [Altan et al. squeezed laterally toward the die cavity without additional shear at the die/material interface. a correct preform can be designed by using the following three general design rules (these rules do not apply to forging nonferrous materials) [Lange et al. ● In the forging direction. (c) and (d) are the ideal preform. The application of these three design rules for preforming of steel forgings is illustrated by examples shown in Fig. 14. Connect these points with a smooth curve (in instances where it is not clear how the curve would best show the changing cross-sectional areas. Convert the minimum and maximum area values to rounds or rectangular shapes having the same cross-sectional area. 1973.. In forging steel parts. VE and qE are the volume and cross section of the finish forging. and VG and qG.19).. 3. (b) is the cross-sectional area versus length. 14.e. Determine the maximum and minimum cross-sectional areas perpendicular to the centerline of the part. (b) cross-sectional area vs. 14. volume and cross section of the flash [Haller 1971] . and Lange et al. Thus. 7. Construct a baseline for area determination parallel to the centerline of the part. volume and cross section of the finish forging. 4.Process Design in Impression-Die Forging / 173 2. Haller. 1977]. giving consideration to those sections where the flash should be widest. 6. 1977]: The area of cross section of the preform ⳱ the area of cross section of the finished product Ⳮ the flash allowance (metal flowing into flash). (a) forging. the material will then be ● Fig. the initial stock distribution is obtained by determining the areas of cross sections along the main axis of the forging. including the fillet radii. (c) and (d) ideal preform. add the approximate area of the flash at each cross section. In both examples. length. 5. 1971. The flash will generally be of constant thickness but will be widest at the narrower sections and smallest at the wider sections (the proportional allowance for flash is illustrated by the examples in Fig. on the preform must be greater than the corresponding radii on the finished part. VE and qE. Plot these area values at proportional distances from the baseline. There are various methods of preforming i. During the finishing stage. Such conditions minimize friction and forging load and reduce wear along the die surfaces.. and VG and qG are the volume and cross section of the flash. Above this curve.19 shows two examples of obtaining a volume distribution through the above procedure. the thickness of the preform should be greater than that of the finished part so that the metal flow is mostly by upsetting rather than extrusion.

175 mm) 0. (mm) Value of C.. end) [Lange et al. (3. 14.4 (10) 0. (mm) Fig. the preform usually does not have flash.6. i. especially when the height of the rib over the web is larger than the rib width..4) are similar to those for the aluminum alloys. 14. 1977].20 Preforms for different H-shaped forgings [Lange et al.e.. The preform is usually designed to have the same draft angles as the finish part. 14. These rules are different for different proportions in an H cross-section-type part. However. preform.22).0) 0. 14. 14. For this reason it is good to have specific rules for these types of cross sections. They are basically categorized into the following three categories.2 RFF Ⳮ 0.3..174 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications sections of various rib heights and in Fig. A greater web thickness in the preform is selected when the web area is relatively small and when the height of the adjoining ribs is very large. there might be more than one preform operation involved. E. when very deep cavities are present in the finisher die. the recommended preform dimensions fall into the ● Fig. In certain cases.08 (2.0) No flash RP 艑 RF Ⳮ C or HR/6  RP  HR/4 RPF 艑 1. the fillet radius (RPF) between the web to a rib is larger than that in the finish forging (RFF). in. ● ● ● 14. following ranges given in Table 14. 1973] Dimensions of the finish forgings Flash Blend-in radii (RF) Fillet radii (RFF) Depth of the cavity (HR).21 The blocker and finish cross sections for various shapes (P.21 for some solid cross sections [Lange et al. 14.2). In the preform.4 to 1 (10 to 25) 1 to 2 (25 to 51) 0.2 Preform dimensions for carbon or low-alloy steels [Altan et al.0) 2 (51) 0. DF  WF (Fig.6. in. depending on the ratio of the height of the preform to its width. The design guidelines for preform design for rib-web-type sections must consider: 14. 1977] Dimensions of the preforms 0.2 (5.6.16 (4. Most of the parts that are closed-die forged are H cross-section-type parts or they can be decomposed into H cross sections.4 Guidelines for H Cross Sections In hammer forging of carbon or low-alloy steels. A comparison of the preform and the finished part is illustrated in Fig. larger draft angles are provided in the preform.1) .6.125 in.12 (3. 1977] Table 14. The preform is the shape of the billet before the finish operation. Preform design guidelines differ from material to material.3 Carbon and low-alloy steel parts Aluminum alloy rib-web-type parts Titanium alloy rib-web-type parts 14.2 Different rib-height (DF) to rib-width (WF) ratios ● Different distances between the ribs (WD) Guidelines for Aluminum Parts For rib-web-type aluminum alloy parts.23..1 Guidelines for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels Guidelines for Titanium Alloys The guidelines for designing the titanium alloy preforms (Table 14. The blend-in radius (RP) of the preform at the parting line is influenced by the adjacent cavity depth (Table 14.

BP.4 Preform dimensions for titanium alloys [Altan et al. All the other parameters.24).4) ● The height of the preform (HP) is obtained after calculating the preform width by dividing the surface area (SA) of the finish cross section by the preform width: HP ⳱ (SA Ⳮ flash)/BP Flash ⳱ 5 to 15% of SA Height of the Rib (DF)  2 • Width of the Rib (WF). such as radii and the draft angle. (0. It is expressed as: BP ⳱ BF ⳮ(0.. All one has to know is how to calculate the overall width of the preform. 14. For an H cross-section part in which the rib height is larger than two times the rib Table 14. 1973] Dimensions of the finish forgings Fig.Process Design in Impression-Die Forging / 175 Fig.6 to 3.2) • tf Rpf 艑 (2 to 3) • Rff Rpc 艑 (2) • Rfc ␣p 艑 ␣f Ⳮ (3 to 5) Wp 艑 Wf ⳮ 1⁄16 to 1⁄8 in. Web thickness (tf) Fillet radii (Rff) Corner radii (Rfc) Draft angle (␣f) Width of the rib (Wf) Dimensions of the preforms Tp 艑 (1.2 to 2) • Rfc ␣p 艑 ␣f Ⳮ (2 to 5) Wp 艑 Wf ⳮ1⁄32 in. For an H cross-section part in which the rib height is smaller than two times the rib width. 1973] Height of the Rib (DF)  2 • Width of the Rib (WF).8 mm) Table 14. and its height. 1973] Dimensions of the finish forgings Web thickness (tf) Fillet radii (Rff) Corner radii (Rfc) Draft angle (␣f) Width of the rib (Wf) Dimensions of the preforms Tp 艑 (1 to 1.2 to 2) • Rff Rpc 艑 (1. will be set according to the generic guidelines for different materials: ● The overall width of the preform (BP) is determined in terms of the finish cavity width (BF).2 mm) . the preform will have a rectangular shape (Fig.. 14.23 1973] Comparison of the preform and finished part for a quarter of an H cross section [Altan et al.5 to 2..3 Preform dimensions for aluminum alloys [Altan et al.22 Preform and finish shape [Altan et al.5) • tf Rpf 艑 (1. HP.. 14.08 to 0. (1.

the thinning of the web portion is calculated by setting the areas f1 ⳱ f2 (Fig. fillet and flash radius (RPF and RP). the preform has a trapezoidal shape (Fig. such as radii and the draft angle. 1955] Fig. additional rib height (x). 14. 14. The parameters to set are overall width of the preform (BP)..26).25 (HF ⳮHP) ● The overall width of the preform (BP) is determined in terms of the finish cavity width (BF).. where the web and the rib are blended together with large radii. 14.08 to 0. All the other parameters. will be set according to the generic guidelines for different materials: ● Overall width and height of the preform: BP ⳱ BF ⳮ(0. The surface area f2 can be significantly larger than the surface area f1 (Fig. 14.25). 1955] x ⳱ (0. and thinning of the web portion (y).25 Preform shape when DF  2 • WF [Bruchanov et al. The parameters to be set are overall width and height of the preform (BP and HP).24 Preform shape when DF  2 • WF [Bruchanov et al. rib height (x). For an H cross-section part in which the distance between the ribs is very large. All the other parameters. such as radii and the draft angle.8) DF . The necessary additional rib height (x) is determined by: Thinning of the web portion (y): Once the preform height and the additional rib height are determined. It is expressed as: BP ⳱ BF ⳮ(0. height of the preform (HP).6 to 0.176 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications width. 14. the preform has a trapezoidal shape.25). Distance between Ribs (WD) Very Large. The required rib height is determined by the relation: Fig. will be set according to the generic guidelines for different materials: ● ● x ⳱ 0.26). and preform thickness (HP).4) HP ⳱ (SA Ⳮ flash)/BP Flash ⳱ 5 to 15% of SA ● Rib height (x): The preform for this cross section is assumed to have a trapezoidal form. 14.4) ● The height of the preform (HP) is obtained after calculating the preform width by dividing the surface area of the finish cross section by the preform width: HP ⳱ (SA Ⳮ flash)/BP Flash ⳱ 5 to 15% of SA Additional rib height (x): The preform for this cross section is considered to have a trapezoidal form (Fig.08 to 0.

2.55.96. blocker: 0. All the cross sections had the same flash dimensions.59 During finish forging. 1955] Fillet and flash radii (RPF. RP): RPF ⳱ 1. (1. (3.9 mm) wide.1 Introduction A connecting rod (Fig.26). 14. The values of flash thickness used in the forging load estimations were those actually measured on the forged parts.53. H ⳱ 0. H ⳱ 0.32 Finish: L ⳱ 0. the central portion of cross-section A-A was relieved. only one-half of the section was considered and was treated as a plane-strain . A.1) was selected as a component to be used for practical evaluation of the calculations described in section 14. The dimensions of the rectangles (in inches) used for load estimation were: ● Section A-A: Blocker: r ⳱ 0.31 in. H ⳱ 0.93.2 RFF Ⳮ 0.26 ● Preform design when the distance between the ribs is very large [Bruchanov et al. “Simplified Slab Method to Estimate Forging Load.9 mm) wide.125 in.18 ● Section C-C: Blocker: r ⳱ 0.Process Design in Impression-Die Forging / 177 Fig. Hence. (2. as shown in Fig. H ⳱ 0. 14.5 mm) thick by 0.31 in. 14. H ⳱ 0. All the cavity cross sections were approximated as rectangles. The part was forged in a 500 ton mechanical press.1 in.32 Finish: L ⳱ 0.5.175 mm) RP 艑 RF Ⳮ C ● Preform thickness (HP): The preform thickness is determined by using the condition that the volume represented by f4 should be larger than the volume represented by f3 by the excess of the flash material (Fig. in order to reduce the excessive load resulting from forging a very thin web. finish: 0.” in this chapter. APPENDIX A Example: Prediction of Load for Forging of a Connecting Rod A.2. H ⳱ 0. (7.1). to estimate the load in this cross section.1. Three representative cross sections of the connecting rod were chosen for the estimation of the forging load (Fig.5 mm) thick by 0.06 in. A.64 Finish: r ⳱ 0.18 ● Section B-B: Blocker: L ⳱ 0..95. and the measured loads were compared with the results obtained from computer-aided analysis as well as with results from the simplified slab method. These dimensions were the dimensions of the flash lands in the dies. namely.15 and A. (7.

4 cm) and a speed of 90 strokes per minute (Fig. (c) Representative sections and their simplification . A. (25. AISI type 1016 steel billets were heated to 2100 F (1150 C) prior to blocker forging.2).178 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications cross section of a length equal to the average circumference of the lower boss of the connecting rod. A. and temperature that exist at a given (a) Geometry of the connecting rod. some cooling occurred during forging in the blocker cavity and transfer into the finisher. The temperature of the billet prior to finish forging. Thus. A. Both dies were heated to approximately 350 F (175 C). The blocker and finish dies were mounted side Fig.3).2 Estimation of the Flow Stress The forging trials were conducted in a mechanical press with a stroke of 10 in.1 by side on the press bolster (Fig. strain rate. The flow stress is a function of the strain. A. (b) Directions of metal flow. as measured during the trial runs. was approximately 1950 F (1065 C).

75 ⳮ 0. die temperature. and frictional conditions. is: T⳱ ⳱ (Average billet thickness) ⳮ (Average forging thickness) Average ram velocity 0.67 in. T. The average thickness of the blocker is 0.4. (3. Further. (25.3) Fig. Hence: V ⳱ 0.3 (7.32 in.175 mm) 2 (Eq A.89 g/cm3) To estimate the duration of contact.1. the average temperature of the forging in the cavity or in the flash can be expressed as follows: 冢 h ⳱ h1 Ⳮ (hs ⳮ h1) exp ⳮ ␣T cqt 冣 (Eq A. the temperature of the deforming material should be known. A.215 p ⳯ 90 30 冪0.0315 s 13. in order to estimate the flow stress accurately.1 mm) c (specific heat of the billet material) ⳱ 0. The instantaneous average forging temperature is: h1 (initial die temperature) ⳱ 350 F (175 C) hs (initial stock temperature) ⳱ 2100 F (1150 C) ␣ (heat-transfer coefficient) ⳱ 0. Hence.215 ⳮ 1 10 V ⳱ 13. The temperature of the stock at the end of the forging stroke depends on the stock temperature. (8. the average ram velocity during forging should be known.125 in. A.32 ⳱ 0. consider cross-section A-A of the blocker dies in Fig.75 ⳮ 0. the average distance of the ram from the bottom dead center (BDC) position during forging is: w⳱ 0.285 lb/ in.2/F (3.1) The values of C and m for the material used for the trials are given in Table A.2) As an example. if the temperature gradient is neglected and the forging is considered to be a thin plate of uniform temperature cooled symmetrically from both sides.¯e˙ m (Eq A. the temperature varies across the forging due to die chilling and due to heat generation by friction and deformation. speed of deformation.1889 W/m2-K) (estimated from values obtained from the forging of steel) t (average forging or plate thickness) ⳱ 0. (8.2 The 500 ton mechanical forging press used for forging trials .Process Design in Impression-Die Forging / 179 time during the deformation process and can be expressed approximately as: r ⳱ C. However.32 ⳱ 0.0039 Btu/ in./s (0.108 Btu/lb/F (452 J/kg-K) q (density of the billet material) ⳱ 0.35 m/s) The duration of contact. the billet has round sections with an average diameter of 0.1 mm). Hence. the ram velocity with respect to the ram location (w) before BDC obtained from the kinematics of the crank slider mechanism is: V⳱w pn 30 冪w ⳮ 1 S The mechanical press used for these trials has a stroke of 10 in.67 The values of T can also be obtained from the load or stroke versus time curve similar to the one in Fig. (19 mm). This velocity is half of the velocity of the ram when it touches the billet.1: ● ● ● ● ● ● Thus. A.32 in.4 cm) and a speed of 90 rpm. In this case. These values vary significantly with temperature.75 in.

0.127 0.090 0.3 F (1136.180 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications 10ⳮ7 Btu/in.3 Ⳮ 53.117 0.099 0.1 0.1 16.157 0.0 9.0039) (0. estimated from the initial and final thickness: h ⳱ 350 Ⳮ (2100 ⳮ 350) 冢 exp ⳮ 冣 (0.034 S.1 0. the average temperature in the cavity of the blocker die is: where.4 12.9 12.8 0.156 0.8 23.2 7.15 C.0 23.1 Summary of C (ksi) and m values describing the flow stress relation r ⴔ C.12 Si.088 0. 0.3 22.084 0.5 18.4 C) Blocker and finish forging dies as mounted on the bolster of the mechanical press Table A. hd is the temperature increase due to deformation.189 0.5 12.151 6.85 hcb ⳱ h Ⳮ hd ⳱ 2078.5 0. and e¯ a is the average strain. A is a factor used to convert mechanical energy to heat energy (A ⳱ 1.1 9.1 9.124 0.0315) (0.133 0.7 13.119 0.1 8.2 18.68 Mn.8 C) e¯ a ⳱ ln The temperature increase due to deformation is given by: Initial thickness 0.1 13.082 0. F (C) 1650 (900) Strain 0.75 Hence: hd ⳱ 53.3 冢 Final thickness 冣 ⳱ ln 0.148 0.1 12.150 0.127 9.4 0.2 18. 0. 0.205 0.3 0.7 16.141 0.¯e˙ m for AISI 1016 steel at various temperatures Value of C or m at a temperature of. or 124 MPa.098 0.099 0.130 0.097 0. assumed).025 P) in the hot rolled and annealed condition .7 12.32 ⳱ 0.7 1830 (1000) 2010 (1100) 2190 (1200) C m C m C m C m 11.108) (0.140 0.2 ⳱ 2131.000 psi.8 16.164 0.088 0.285) (0.32) ⳱ 2078.9 17.085 0.1 0. in addition to the symbols previously defined.196 AISI type 1016 steel (composition: 0.126 0.6 0.8 8.5 9.8 C) Ar¯ ae¯ a hd ⳱ cq Ignoring the heat gain due to friction.104 10.2 0.-lb) (9.4 0.798 J/m-kg).5 20. r¯ a is the average flow stress in the material (18.109 0.2 F (11.4 7.05 0. A.5 F (1166.109 0.8 22.9 23.07 ⳯ Fig.

the metal deforms by sliding along the web surfaces. In the present case. psi (MPa) A-A B-B C-C Blocker 2100 1150 18.550.32)/2 ⳱ 25.4 for most hot steel forging operations. the values for m are chosen to be 0. how- Table A. A.3 Estimated loads in different cross sections of the connecting rod forging Loads in section.00 .2 Estimated flow stresses in different cross sections of the connecting rod forging shown in Fig. to assume a nominal average m value of 0. The simplified model assumes that metal flow occurs by sliding the entire die/material interface.690 311. A.497 816.8 ⳯ 103 ⳯ 25.4 Load and displacement versus time for a forging operation Forging Simple analysis Experimental results Blocker Finish 311. Substituting the appropriate values in Eq 14.8 ⳯ 103 and m ⳱ 0. the values of C and m for a temperature of 2130 F (1165 C) and strain of 0.Process Design in Impression-Die Forging / 181 From Table A.67 425.187.998 285. (5 cm). The average strain rate in the deforming material is given by: e˙¯ ⳱ Velocity 13. would be unrealistic. but internal shearing is inevitable in the rib regions. Hence. the loads were estimated for the cross sections as shown in Table A.964 psi (124 MPa) This is the value of the flow stress in the cavity of the section A-A in the blocker shape.67 ⳱ Average thickness (0. considering a weighted average. A.000 (152) 21.214 407.3. the corresponding values of flow stress for other sections are given in Table A.7 for sections A-A and B-B and 0.11. which is usual for sliding surfaces in forging.4 for section C-C of both blocker and finish forgings.509 89.2. Similarly.3 Table A.3 320. the length of the rib sections is almost equal to that of the web regions in crosssections A-A and B-B.4 The average length of plane-strain cross-section B-B for both blocker and finish forgings is 2 in.300 (112) Finish 1950 1065 22.000 (117) 16.285 123.7 408.234 196.4 Summary and comparison of forging loads (tons) Fig.187 ⳱ 17.200 (139) Table A.85 are calculated by linear interpolation as C ⳱ 9.1.1.75 Ⳮ 0. forging trials were conducted using a 500 ton Erie scotch- 冪3 The value of m varies between 0.000 (124) 17.8 to 14. A.4.1 Stock/ blocker temperature Forging F C Flow stress in section. Using Eq A. Hence.55/s ever.947 623.25 and 0.5 A. In reality.7 408. the average flow stress is: r¯ ⳱ 9. lb Total Forging A-A B-B C-C lb Tons Blocker Finish 337.600 (149) 20.3 Estimation of the Friction Factor The frictional shear stress is given by: s⳱ mr¯ Estimation of the Forging Load Comparison of Predictions with Data from Actual Forging Trials To evaluate the accuracy of the simplified forging load estimation procedure.

N. 1955 (German translation from Russian). “Practical Method for Estimating Forging Loads with the Use of a Pro- . [Subramanian et al.M. Henning. 1968. A typical load and displacement recording is shown in Fig. J. Materials and Practices. Vol.” Doctoral dissertation. [Bruchanov et al.. 1959. are compared in Table A. 1971]: Haller..4.5.-I.R. A.. forging stress. Gegel. and Altan. and Pannasch.4. [Haller. The billets were heated in an induction coil to 2100 F (1150 C).W. Closed-Die Forging. Reinhold.N... and forging load can be made accurately. The displacement curve shows the position of the ram as a function of time. Handbook of Forging. T. For simple to moderately complex forgings. The dies were heated to 350 F (175 C) by infrared gasfired burners. Verlag Technik.. 1959]: Spies. H. [Altan et al. The forging loads. F..V. The entire forging operation takes place in less than 100 ms.L. 1973]: Altan. It is observed that the forging load starts increasing when the upper die contacts the workpiece. H.. [Lange et al. If the capabilities of a highspeed computer are available. [Sabroff et al. Oh. 1977 (in German). A. T. H.... Forging Equipment. American Society for Metals. H. The dies were lubricated by spraying with Acheson’s Delta-forge 105 (Acheson Colloids Co. S.. 1962. then detailed calculations of flow stress. and Rebelski.. F... 1977]: Lange. A. 1968]: Sabroff. it should be noted that the accuracy of the final results depends largely on proper estimation of the flow stress and frictional shear factor. this analysis can be used effectively for die material selection and for press selection. K..” Fertiegungstechnik und Betrieb. 12. Akgerman. T. However.W.. [Neuberger et al.. Boulger. 1980]: Subramanian.. 1962]: Neuberger. REFERENCES [Altan et al.. [Spies. p 775–779 (in German).. Forging Materials and Practices. A.. and MeyerNolkemper. Batelle. Both the blocker and finisher dies were mounted side by side on the press bolster. University of Hannover. A.. It can be seen that the results of the simplified analysis are within practical engineering accuracy. 1955]: Bruchanov. Some experience and knowledge of forging analyses is necessary to make these estimates with acceptable accuracy. A.. Springer-Verlag.5 Parts that were blocker and finish forged in forging trials yoke-type mechanical press.. Example forgings are shown in Fig. 1983. et al. T. 1983]: Altan. 1971 (in German). “Preforming in Forging and Preparation of Reducer Rolling. Becker. Metal Forming Fundamentals and Applications. measured in experiments and predicted by the simplified slab method. S. 1973. Carl Hanser Verlag.. “Material Consumption in Die Forging of Steel.J.L. K.182 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Fig.). Closed-Die Forging and Warm Forging. The experimental values represent averages of several measurements.

p 212–223. Oh. 1968]: Teterin. SELECTED REFERENCES ● [Brucelle et al. Ngaile. 381.W.. .” CIRP Annals. “Contribution to Flash Design in Closed Die Forging. 87. 2. No.. Du¨seldorf. O’Callaghan.D. 1986]: Snaith.. p 6 (in Russian). and Tarnovskij. Probert. Vol. “Investigation of Defect Formation in a 3-Station Closed Die Forging Operation. p. 1.D.. 1969. [Jenkins et al..” Wire. 1968.. 1986. T. Vol... p 60. [Vasquez et al. 2. Vol. p 31–84. 1968]: Sagemuller. Cold Extrusion of Steel.. [Sagemuller. 95. Vol. 1980.” Doctoral dissertation. Vol. B..J. Energy. 2000]: Vasquez. “Multi-Stage Forging Simulations of Aircraft Components. 1968]: Vieregge. G. O..P. S. 1999]: Brucelle.. 2002.. and Altan. [Shirgaokar et al. Jan. 2002]: Shirgaokar. S.. [Vieregge.. Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing.. [Feldman.. M. “Calculation of Plastic Dimensions in Forging Axisymmetric Parts in Hammers. “Methodology for Service Life ● ● ● ● ● Increase of Hot Forging Tools.” ERC/ NSM-02-R-84. H.. 1999. Vol 5. [Teterin et al.” Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 1989]: Jenkins.” Journal of Material..” Kuznechno-Stampovochnoe Proizvodstvo. Processing Technology. “New Concepts in Die Design—Physical and Computer Modeling Applications. G. Altan. Technical University of Hannover.. [Snaith et al. 22.. 1977]: Feldman. Altan..” Appl. June. “Cold Impact Extrusion of Large Formed Parts. “Thermal Resistances of Pressed Contacts.Process Design in Impression-Die Forging / 183 grammable Calculator.” Journal of Applied Metalworking. 1968. Merkblatt 201. G. P. and Bernhart.. p 243. T. 2000. 98. V.I. p 237. I.L.. K. B. 1977. No. T. F.

Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Taylan Altan. 15. by multiplying the plan area of the forging with an empirical pressure value.1. strain rate (rate of deformation). For example. This method takes into account the effects of material properties.. and friction (lubrication) on the forging load. 60 to 100 ksi (415 to 690 MPa) for forging steels and 20 to 30 ksi (140 to 205 MPa) for forging aluminum alloys. Gracious Ngaile. The effect of stock temperature on the forging load.e. and the complexity of the forging shape. for example. such as flash dimensions. For a given part. i. and billet and die temperatures. briefly discussed in Fig. can assist in optimizing the forging conditions.” The factors include: ● The flow stress of the forged material as function of strain (or amount of deformation). forging geometry. forging temperature. were discussed in detail in Chapter 14.1361/chff2005p185 Copyright © 2005 ASM International® All rights reserved. if the effect of flash dimensions on the forging load is known. elaborate input data preparation. Therefore. die fill. During the die design and process planning stage. editors.2 Effect of Process Parameters on Forging Load During the forging process. it is often desirable to use a simple method for making quick estimates by using the so called “slab method” of analysis. heating costs and scale formation can be reduced. the factors that affect the forging load. Gangshu Shen. flash dimensions.1. press ram speed. “Process Design in Impression-Die Forging. As a result. 15. In some instances. and forging load are largely determined by the flow stress of the forging materials.org CHAPTER 15 A Simplified Method to Estimate Forging Load in Impression-Die Forging Hyunjoong Cho 15. and forging temperature . by increasing the flash thickness or reducing the flash width. www. if it is quantitatively known.asminternational. 15. The forging load and die stresses may be calculated using finite-element analysis that requires a rather sophisticated software package. within limits. p185-192 DOI:10. Forging load may be estimated by experiencebased values. The interrelationships of the most significant forging variables are illustrated in the block diagram in Fig. metal flow. the friction and cooling effect at the die/material interface. it is necessary to estimate these variables to avoid unexpected die failure and provide for necessary forging load to fill the die cavity. This method may help the designer to understand the effects of several forging parameters. forging load and die stresses are important variables that affect die life and determine the selection of press capacity. then it is possible to reduce the forging pressure. and considerable computer time. friction and heat transfer at die/material interface. it may be possible to forge at lower stock temperatures.1 Introduction In hot impression-die forging. where higher values are used for thinner forgings and stronger alloys.

186 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Fig.” four broadly defined methods are used in estimating this maximum load in hot forging. blocker. “Process Design in Impression-Die Forging. As discussed in Chapter 14. and finisher) ● Flash design. (a) Planes of flow. (b) Finish forging..2 Planes and directions of metal flow for two simple shapes.1 Interaction of significant variables in closed-die forging process [Nagpal et al. ● Applied experience: The load is estimated based on available data from previous forging of similar parts. 1975] ● Friction and heat transfer at the part/die interface ● Geometric complexity of the part and the number of forging operations used (preblocker. ● Analytical methods: A forging is viewed as being composed of several unit components. 15.3 Methods for Load Estimation In impression-die forging. flash thickness and width (or flash land) 15. 15.3 Schematic of simple impression-die forging . ● Empirical methods: Use simple empirical formulas and graphs or monographs to estimate the load for simple forging operations.. (c) Directions of flow [Altan et al. These methods are quick but limited in their accuracy and are not sufficiently general to predict forging load for a variety of parts and materials. Fig. 15. the forging load is the maximum at the end of the forging stroke. 1983] Fig. These estimations are very conservative and lead to significant errors.

(c) Plan area of connecting rod and perimeter of plan area. It is successfully used for predicting forging loads and stresses with acceptable engineering accuracy. 15.A Simplified Method to Estimate Forging Load in Impression-Die Forging / 187 Forces and stresses are calculated for every unit and then added together to calculate the total forging load and stresses.4 Fig. (d) Cross section of simplified model (section B-B) . The slab method is the most widely known technique Fig. 1999]. 15. Approximate load calculation for a complex part Transformation of a complex forging part into a simplified model. (b) Simplified model of the actual forging for forging load estimation [Mohammed et al. (a) Connecting rod (example of complex forging)..5 to perform this type of analysis.

Kps.6 Possible modes of metal flow at the end of forging stroke in impression-die forging.1 Derived equations for load calculation Flash load Cavity load Stress at the cavity entrance Fictitious disk shearing Plane strain Pf ⳱ 2 冢冪3 Ⳮ 冪3 t 冣 wr¯ 2 m w Pc ⳱ 2 f r¯ c L 冢冪3 t Ⳮ r 冣L ce rce ⳱ 冢冪3 Ⳮ 冪3 t 冣 r¯ 2 2m w f Axisymmetric 冢 Pf ⳱ 2pr¯ f ⳮ 2m R3 ⳮ L3 2m R Ⳮ 1 Ⳮ 3t 冪3 冪3 t 冢 冣 冢 冣冢 R2 ⳮ L2 2 冣冣 Pc ⳱ 2pL2 r¯ c L rce 冢3冪3 t Ⳮ 2 冣 冢 rce ⳱ 1 Ⳮ 冣 2m w r¯ f 冪3 t Sliding in the cavity center Plane strain Pf ⳱ 2 冢冪3 Ⳮ 冪3 t 冣 wr¯ 2 m w f 冢冪3 Ⳮ 冪3 t 冣 r¯ 2 Pc ⳱ 2(Kp r¯ c t Ⳮ rce L) rce ⳱ Pc ⳱ (Kar¯ c t2 Ⳮ prce L2) rce ⳱ 1 Ⳮ Pc ⳱ 2(Kpsr¯ c t Ⳮ rce L) rce ⳱ Pc ⳱ (Kasr¯ c t2 Ⳮ prce L2) rce ⳱ 1 Ⳮ 2m w f Axisymmetric 冢 Pf ⳱ 2pr¯ f ⳮ 2m R3 ⳮ L3 2m R Ⳮ 1 Ⳮ 3t 冪3 冪3 t 冢 冣 冢 冣冢 R2 ⳮ L2 2 冣冣 冢 冣 2m w r¯ f 冪3 t Complete shearing in the cavity Plane strain Pf ⳱ 2 冢冪3 Ⳮ 冪3 t 冣 wr¯ 2 m w f 冢冪3 Ⳮ 冪3 t 冣 r¯ 2 2m w f Axisymmetric 冢 Pf ⳱ 2pr¯ f ⳮ 2m R3 ⳮ L3 2m R Ⳮ 1 Ⳮ 3t 3 冪 冪3 t 冢 冣 冢 冣冢 R2 ⳮ L2 2 冣冣 Note: The factors Kp. 冢 冣 2m w r¯ f 冪3 t . (a) Fictitious disk shearing. Ka. (b) Sliding in the central portion of the cavity. and Kas are determined from L/t and H/t ratios. 15. (c) Complete shearing in the cavity Table 15.188 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Fig.

In addition. Even though the slab method cannot be as accurate as the FEM because of the assumptions made in developing the mathematical approach.7 simplification mation units together. Then. The advantage of the slab method is that a complex forging can be divided into basic deformation units or blocks. The major advantage of this method is its ability to generalize its applicability to various problems with little restriction on workpiece geometry. The plane-strain flow occurs in relatively long forgings where the deformation along the length is relatively small and can be neglected.A Simplified Method to Estimate Forging Load in Impression-Die Forging / 189 ● Numerical methods: The finite-element method (FEM) is the most widely used method in this field. The FEM is able to analyze metal flow during hot forging and is able to predict instantaneous strains. Axisymmetric flow is encountered in round forgings and at the end of long forging where the metal flows radially toward the flash. and temperatures within the deforming metal. (c) representative sections and their . directions of metal flow and representative cross sections of a connecting rod: (a) cross-sectional views of the connecting rod. Figure 15. the slab Geometry. depending on the problem. Metal flow for the deformation units is assumed to be either axisymmetric or plane strain.2 shows examples of plane-strain and axisymmetric flow in complex forgings. stresses. The disadvantage of the FEM is a large amount of computation time and expensive system requirements. loads for any complex shape forging can be determined. by putting the defor- Fig. and these could be analyzed separately. it is still attractive because it does not require considerable computation time and does not require training for the user. 15. (b) directions of metal flow (A ⳱ axisymmetric. P ⳱ plane strain).

12 (28) 0. in. The advantage of this approach is that the effect of certain process parameters on the forging load can be investigated quickly.5) 0. The plan area. 15.6) 0. This model. (mm) Perimeter. In actual practice. of a simplified model is equal to the perimeter of the plan area of the actual forging and is expressed by Ps ⳱2pL Ⳮ 2Ls.4 A Simplified Method for Load Estimation The present method. w. (mm) 1. as illustrated in Fig. heat-transfer analysis is conducted.055 (1124) 2.4. in. lb/in. For example. the perimeter.3 (7. F (C) Flow stress. Btu/lb•F (J/kg•K) Density.3 Lead disk forging Simplification of Forging Geometry Any arbitrary three-dimensional forging is transformed into a simplified forging model.013 (1101) 2. The load calculation is simplified by dividing a complex forging in simpler components where metal flow is either axisymmetric or plane strain.6) 13.3 (g/cm3) SS 304 0. In load estimation. Once As Estimated flow stresses and forging loads Axisymmetric portion Component Temperature. including the simplified plane-strain and axisymmetric metal flows. to take into account the change of flow Table 15. tons Cavity Plane-strain portion Flash Cavity Flash 2. allows conducting slab analysis for load estimation.1889 W/m2•K) 2050 (1120) 400 (205) method can show the trend in the calculation of forging load while the FEM only provides the final calculated results. 15.3).8) Equipment data Press type Press speed. Then the load is estimated by adding the loads calculated for each component.063 (1128) 2. As shown in Fig. 15. Ps. rpm Press stroke. the effect of dimensional parameters such as flash thickness.4.467 (127) 14. F (C) 0.958 (103) 18.0039 Btu/in.2) Interface data Friction factor Heat-transfer coefficient Initial billet temperature. the cavity is rectangular and has the flash geometry. in. F (C) Initial die temperature.7) 6. works on a simplified model of impression-die forging and uses the slab analysis technique.409 (127) 34 18 241 47 52 (cavity Ⳮ flash) 288 (cavity Ⳮ flash) 340 (axisymmetric Ⳮ plane strain) .2 Inputs for the load estimation of connecting rod Material data Flow stress Specific heat. As and Ps of an actual forging part can be determined from any solid modeling software commonly used in industry. the cross section is simplified to conform to this model. As.67 (34. tons Total forging load. stress due to temperature change during the hot forging operation. used in practical prediction of forging load.5(b).8 Geometry data Initial billet height.285 (7.116 (486) 0.015 (1102) 15. of a simplified model is equal to the plan area of the actual forging and is represented by As ⳱ pL2 Ⳮ 2LsL. psi (MPa) Forging load.55 (16. (mm) Flash thickness. and width.3 0. 15. (cm) Projected area. It is assumed that for all cross sections of forging. in. in. it is assumed that a simplified forging model is divided into an axisymmetric component of radius L and a plane-strain component of length Ls.190 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Table 15. This enables an industrial designer to know the trend of design variables by conducting a parametric study when he is designing a new forging operation. (mm) Flash width. (cm) Mechanical 50 14 (36) Fig.298 (105) 18. 15.1 15. in. as shown in Fig.3. (cm) Cavity height.2/s/F (3.1 (2. Also. on the total forging load can be easily obtained (Fig. where the cavity is not rectangular.56 (14. in. 15. t.

the flash thickness by t and the flash width by w. the friction factor is then 1. 15. and the material slides along AB and flows by internal shearing along the line BC (Fig. Table 15. The cross section of the simplified model is simplified.877 (22.2 Metal Flow in the Cavity The load estimation is made for the final stage of forging operation when the die is totally filled and the load has its maximum value.6(a).10) 0.. ␣.5(d). However. In such cases.5482 in.4 Comparison of forging load Total forging load. The cavity height. The perimeter. in. 15.A Simplified Method to Estimate Forging Load in Impression-Die Forging / 191 and Ps are known. and volume of the forging were found by using a solid modeling software. With the perimeter and projected area of the connecting rod. A copy of ForgePAL is included in Appendix 15. and shearing angle. is the average height of the actual forging and is obtained by dividing the volume of the forging without flash by its plan area. w. Ls. is determined analytically. in. 15.5 ForgePAL Nagpal and Altan Experimental results 340 312 320 15. material is assumed to flow into the flash by shearing along a fictitious disk having the same thickness as the flash. Table 15. In the present method. given on the CD attached to this book. the material forms a dead metal zone at the die corners.7).1 shows the equations derived for each type of metal flow to calculate the load components.113 in. ForgePAL first calculated the average forging temperature required for estimating the flow stress value at the end of the forging stroke. ton Cavity load.6b). were found as follows: L ⳱ 0. L. (mm) Flash width. If the die cavity height is small in relation to its width. The other necessary forging conditions are approximated here. Based on the geometry transformation rule.2 (5. in. H.5 Example of Load Estimation The introduced load estimation method has been programmed at the Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing. ForgePAL is a computer program running on the programmable controller and calculates the forging load of impression-die forging. the type of metal flow in the die cavity is determined based on the principle that material flows in a manner that consumes a minimum amount of plastic deformation energy. ton Total load. 15. and flash thickness. the user should experiment with results and try to guess a more realistic height input. in. At the surface BC. and heat-transfer coefficient of SS 304. For a large flash thickness (cavity width to cavity thickness ratio is greater than 2). the connecting-rod part was simplified. and the depth of the plane-strain component. hf..6c). In the impression-die forging. m ⳱ 1) (Fig. plan area. Simplification of Forging Geometry.. the material forms a shear surface ABC.004 (0. and a sticking friction condition is assumed at this surface (friction factor.3. and Ls ⳱ 5.8) 0. ton ForgePAL 7 35 42 Measured N/A N/A 41 . Estimation of Flow Stress. (mm) Half die length. Flash load. 15.5. an approximate metal flow in the die cavity at the final forging stage depends on the cavity height. If the profile of the die is too complex (changing greatly in height). t. Using the material input data. the cavity width. as shown in Fig. (mm) 0. 1975] calculated the forging load for the stainless steel connecting rod. tons Table 15. specific heat.3) .4. The results of the calculations are summarized in Table 15.A. the half cavity length. simply dividing volume by plan area may yield poor results. L and Ls are found. (mm) Cavity height.1) 0. L. such as density. this average height may not be realistic for certain forging parts.780 (19. Examples of ForgePAL were shown in this section. and the cavity height was calculated (Table 15. 15. 15.2). For a high cavity height to cavity width ratio. Nagpal and Altan [Nagpal et al. Geometry input and estimated forging load for a lead disk forging Flash thickness. The same dimensions are used in ForgePAL to estimate the forging load (Fig.1 Connecting Rod Forging As discussed earlier in Appendix A of Chapter 14. hs. The cavity height is denoted by H and the radius (or half width of the cavity) by L. The shearing height. as shown in Fig.

“Develop- ment of Computer Program for Estimation of Forging Load and Die Pressures in Hot Forging. Altan. T.8. 1980. 15.” Trans. p 66. as shown in Fig. the flow stress values in the cavity.. Illinois.” Journal of Applied Metal Working.5.” Report No. IIT Research Institute.L. Battelle Columbus Laboratories. 1981.. and Altan... and Altan. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 1981]: Schultes. 1985. a total forging load of 340 tons is predicted and its results are compared with experimental results. T. M.. 15. 4.. ASME. r¯ c.2 Forging of a Lead Disk with Flash [Schey et al. Chicago..300 psi The part is symmetric and round about the center axis with flash at the periphery.. Vazquez.192 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Estimation of Forging Load. V.. 1999]: Asaduzzaman. 15. K. “Flow Stress Determination for Metals at Forging Rates and Temperatures. “Prediction of Forging Load and Stresses Using a Programmable Calculator. Altan. Jan.. The necessary axisymmetric geometry inputs obtained from Fig. J.A. “Estimation of Forging Load in Closed-Die Forging. A. ● [Lange. The load calculation method for a complex part is based on the addition of the loads calculated for each component.8 and estimated forging loads are summarized in Table 15. In this reference. 1975. 2. p 60. The forging load of each component consists of the cavity load and the flash load. T. Eng. the total forging load for the connecting rod is equal to the combination of the load for the axisymmetric and plane-strain portions. SELECTED REFERENCES ● [Douglas et al.]: Schey. REFERENCES [Altan et al. are given as: r¯ c ⳱ 2. 1983. As is shown in Table 15.R. No. Oh.. T. 1980]: Subramanian. J.. r¯ f. 1999. V. 1983]: Altan.] measured separately the flash and the cavity loads in lead disk forging.5. et al. and Altan.” Research Report to American Iron and Steel Institute. Feb. 1985]: Lange....” Topical Report No. Metal Forming Fundamentals and Applications. K. Finally. and in the flash. .... Industry. H.4.. T. F/ERC/NSM-99-R-18. Demir.. J.” Battelle Columbus Laboratories. ● [Subramanian et al. Gegel. [Schey et al. Handbook of Metal Forming. Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing. S... ● [Schultes et al.. [Mohammed et al. American Society for Metals.. “Practical Method for Estimating Forging Loads with the Use of a Programmable Calculator. The Ohio State University. 1989]: Douglas. T. [Nagpal et al. T. 1989. 1975]: Nagpal.300 psi and r¯ f ⳱ 5. Thus. “Metal Flow in Closed-Die Press Forming of Steel.I. T. Sevenler. 1975.. the axisymmetric model is selected for load calculation in ForgePAL.

.asminternational. In its earlier application. and Oh. and die wear can be controlled ● Improve part quality and complexity while reducing manufacturing costs by: a. These functions of process modeling provided an insight into the forging process that was not available in the old days. 1989. such as effective strain.. Gracious Ngaile. and temperature at any instant of time during a forging. Metallurgical aspects of forging. 2000]. the contours of state variables. Process modeling of closed-die forging using finite-element modeling (FEM) has been applied in aerospace forging for a couple of decades [Howson et al. Predicting and improving grain flow and microstructure b. Gangshu Shen. friction conditions. Microstructure modeling allows the right-the-first-time optimum metallurgical features of the forging to be previewed on the computer.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Taylan Altan. 1982]. Integrated with the process modeling. effective strain rate. Process simulation to assure die fill b. Commercial FE simulation software is gaining wide acceptance in the forging industry and is fast becoming an integral part of the forging design and development process. At that time. automatic remeshing was not available. Premature tool failure can be avoided.. b. Preventing flow-induced defects such as laps and cold shuts c. and therefore. Reducing die tryouts and lead times c. The goal of using computer modeling in closed-die forging is rapid development of right-the-first-time processes and to enhance the performance of components through better process understanding and control. After the forging simulation is done. 1999]: ● Develop adequate die design and establish process parameters by: a.. www. Predicting temperatures so that part properties. and Shen et al. the development of remeshing methods and the advances in computational technology have made the industrial application of FE simulation practical. 1993]. microstructure modeling is a new area that has a bright future [Sellars. editors. 2002]. The thermomechanical histories of selected individual locations within a forging can also be tracked [Shen et al.1361/chff2005p193 Copyright © 2005 ASM International® All rights reserved.org CHAPTER 16 Process Modeling in Impression-Die Forging Using Finite-Element Analysis Manas Shirgaokar Gracious Ngaile Gangshu Shen 16. The appropriate forging machines can be selected for a given application.1 Introduction Development of finite-element (FE) process simulation in forging started in the late 1970s. The main objectives of the numerical process design in forging are to [Vasquez et al. can be generated. 1990. Reducing rejects and improving material yield ● Predict forging load and energy as well as tool stresses and temperatures so that: a. a considerable amount of time was needed to complete a simple FE simulation [Ngaile et al. However. Predicting processing limits that should not be exceeded so that internal and surface defects are avoided d. p193-209 DOI:10.. such as . process modeling helped die design engineers to preview the metal flow and possible defect formation in a forging.

elastic recovery. The histories of the state variables. maintenance. axisymmetric or plane-strain. improvement in process variables and die design to reduce die failure Prediction and elimination of failures. Process modeling input is discussed in terms of geometric parameters. which need a two-dimensional geometry handling. All of the information generated is used for judging the closed-die forging case. a time-consuming process modeling is useless because of a small error in input preparation. 16. The diameter and the height of the cylinder are defined in the preprocessing stage. For this purpose it is appropriate to use well-established commercially available computer codes. and residual stresses 16. Some of the proven practical applications of process simulation in closed-die forging include: ● ● ● ● ● ● Design of forging sequences in cold. Verify the initial design and process conditions using process modeling. 2002]. Complete the die design phase and manufacture the dies. and hot forging.1 [Shen et al. etc. If the process involves multiple stations. The input of the geometric parameters. or a three-dimensional problem. warm. surface folds. The modeling is then performed to provide information on the metal flow and thermomechanical history of the forging. 16. including the prediction of forming forces. 2001]. and the equipment response during forging. the optimum process is selected for shop practice. as needed. fracture.3 Process Modeling Input Preparing correct input for process modeling is very important.2 Information Flow in Process Modeling It is a well-known fact that product design activity represents only a small portion. and material parameters sets up a unique case of a closed-die forging. since process modeling is expected to be accurate and sufficient to make all the necessary changes before manufacturing the dies. decisions made at the design stage determine the overall manufacturing. Modify die design and process conditions. the following steps lead to a rational process design: 1. a forging process can be simulated either as a two-dimensional. 6.. 2. and support costs associated with the specific product. and preform shapes Prediction and optimization of flash dimensions in hot forging from billet or powder metallurgy preforms Prediction of die stresses. The nonsatisfaction in any of these areas will require a new model with a set of modified process parameters until the satisfied results are obtained. are then input to the microstructure model for microstructural feature prediction. can be predicted with reasonable accuracy using computational tools prior to committing the forging to shop trials. 3. There is a saying in computer modeling: garbage in and garbage out. the distribution of the state variables at any stage of the forging. 5. 4.3. or fractures as well as internal fractures Investigation of the effect of friction on metal flow Prediction of microstructure and properties. temperature. Conduct die tryouts on production equipment. at this stage little or no modification will be necessary. Then. Hopefully. such as strain. Depending on its geometrical complexity.194 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications grain size and precipitation. 5 to 15%. the die geometry of each station needs to be provided. process parameters. based on the results of process simulation. Information flow in process modeling is shown schematically in Fig. to produce quality parts.. of the total production costs of a part. and material parameters [SFTC. Sometimes. die stresses.1 Geometric Parameters The starting workpiece geometry and the die geometry need to be defined in a closed-die forging modeling. Once the part is designed for a specific process. However. strain rate. 16. Establish a preliminary die design and select process parameters by using experiencebased knowledge. A typical starting workpiece geometry for a closed-die forging is a cylinder with or without chamfers. A lot of closed-die forgings are axisymmetric. and die wear. Boundary conditions on specific segments . if necessary. Modify die design and initial selection of process variables. process parameters.

Flow chart of modeling of closed-die forging [Shen et al. The actual die speed recorded from the forging can also be used to define the die velocity profile. for an axisymmetric cylinder to be forged in a pair of axisymmetric dies. If a hydraulic press is used. the blow efficiency. and the distance from the bottom dead center when the upper die touches the part need to be defined. For example. 2002]: ● ● ● ● The environment temperature The workpiece temperature The die temperatures The coefficients of heat transfer between the dies and the billet and the billet and the atmosphere ● The time used to transfer the workpiece from the furnace to the dies ● The time needed to have the workpiece resting on the bottom die ● The workpiece and die interface heat-transfer coefficient during free resting Fig. and the time interval between blows must be defined. 16. If a mechanical press is used. have been simulated successfully using the commercial FE software DEFORM (Scientific Forming Technologies Corp. the efficiency.3. The die velocity is a very important parameter to be defined in the modeling of a closed-die forging. the nodal velocity in the direction perpendicular to the centerline should be defined as zero. the number of blows.) [SFTC. the rpm of the flywheel. with unique velocity versus stroke characteristics. 2001] . the die velocity can be defined as a constant or series of velocities that decrease during deformation. the press stroke. depending on the actual die speed profiles.2 Process Parameters The typical process parameters to be considered in a closed-die forging include [SFTC. If a hammer is used. the mass of the moving ram and die. and the heat flux in that direction should also be defined as zero.1 ● The workpiece and die interface heat-transfer coefficient during deformation ● The workpiece and die interface friction. and the ram displacement need to be defined. Forgings performed in different machines. etc. If a screw press is used. 16. the total energy..Process Modeling in Impression-Die Forging Using Finite-Element Analysis / 195 of the workpiece and dies that relate to deformation and heat transfer need to be defined. the blow energy. 2002].

and forming pressure. and the relative motion between the deforming material and the die surface is significant. temperature. die stress analysis is a crucial part of process simulation to verify the die design and the forging process parameters. In most simulations. the mesh tends to get distorted significantly. The flow stress of the workpiece material is very important for the correct prediction of metal flow behavior. 1992]. the torsion test can be used or.” Friction factors measured with the ring compression test. In order to maximize the geometric conformity. it is necessary to use reliable input data. The material parameters commonly used for heattransfer modeling are the thermal conductivity.4 16.. The mesh density should conform to the geometrical features of the workpiece at each step of deformation [Wu et al. are not valid for precision forging processes (hot. “Temperatures and Heat Transfer. As the simulation progresses. the constant shear friction factor gives better results than the coulomb friction coefficient. it is necessary to consider mesh densities that take into account the boundary curvature and local thickness. however. However. 1996]. it is possible to estimate the heat-transfer coefficient. the double cup extrusion test is recommended for estimation of the friction factor. due to the high contact stresses at the interface between the workpiece and the die. two-dimensional (2-D) simulations use quadrilateral elements.3. heat capacity.3 Tool and Workpiece Material Properties In order to accurately predict the metal flow and forming loads. it is necessary to generate a new mesh and interpolate the simulation data from the old mesh to the new one to obtain accurate results. warm. From these tests. It is usually defined as a function of strain.4 Interface Conditions (Friction and Heat Transfer) The friction and heat-transfer conditions at the interface between the die and the billet have a significant effect on the metal flow and the loads required to produce the part.1 Characteristics of the Simulation Code Mesh Generation and Automatic Remeshing In forging processes. it is possible to set up a simulation model and run it to the end with very little interaction with the user. in precision forging operations. as discussed in Chapter 7. and the thermal expansion of the die materials are important parameters for die stress analysis.5 Material Parameters The closed-die hot forging modeling is a coupled heat-transfer and deformation simulation. and cold) where the interface pressure is very high and the surface generation is large. strain.3. The Young’s modulus. The friction conditions change during the process due to changes in the lubricant and the temperature at the die/ workpiece interface.” 16. In forging simulations. the relatively small elastic deformations of the dies may influence the thermal and mechanical loading conditions and the contact stress distribution at the die/workpiece interface. In DEFORM. 16. there are two tasks in AMG: 1) determination of optimal mesh density distribution and 2) generation of the FE mesh based on the given density. the starting mesh is well defined and can have the desired mesh density distribution. flow stress and friction as a function of temperature. The most common way to determine the shear friction factor in forging is to perform ring compression tests. In order to obtain the flow stress at large strains and strain rates. and emissivity of the workpiece and die materials. With this automatic remeshing capability. Automated mesh generation (AMG) schemes have been incorporated in commercial FE codes for metal forming simulations. the test is limited in achievable strains. the Poisson’s ratio as a function of temperature. In the simulation of such processes. 16. die deformation and stresses are neglected.196 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications 16. Thus. Hence. strain rate. the tools are considered rigid. These parameters are usually defined as a function of temperature. whereas three-dimensional (3-D) simulations use tetrahedral elements for meshing and automatic remeshing [Wu et al. thus. In DEFORM.4.. strain rate. In such applications. The stress-strain relation or flow curve is generally obtained from a compression test. alternatively. However. Material parameters that relate to both heat transfer and deformation need to be defined. the workpiece generally undergoes large plastic deformation. . and possible starting microstructures. as discussed in Chapter 6. “Friction and Lubrication. the compression data is extrapolated with care.3.

16. and input data. With an effective strain of 2.2 shows the lap formation for a rejected process in the design stage. 16. the bore rim transition region has the largest strain. Qform (2-D and 3-D). Whether there is a defect formed and how it is formed can be previewed before the actual forging.).5. 1996]. and the flow behavior of the deforming material at the relatively large strains that occur in practical forging operations ● Analysis capabilities that are able to perform the process simulation with rigid dies to reduce calculation time and to use contact stresses and temperature distribution estimated with the process simulation using rigid dies to perform elastic-plastic die stress analysis The time required to run a simulation depends on the computer used and the amount of memory and workload the computer has. such as point tracking and flow line calculation ● Appropriate input data describing the thermal and physical properties of die and billet material the heat transfer and friction at the die/workpiece interface under the processing conditions investigated. while a 3-D simulation can take anywhere between a day to a week.9 in the bore die lock region. Figure 16.7 to 0. if there is one. the distribution and history of state variables. such as DEFORM (2-D and 3-D). The output of process modeling can be discussed in terms of the metal flow. interactive postprocessing that provides more advanced data analysis.1 Metal Flow The information on metal flow is very important for die design.. at any stage of a closed-die forging can be plotted from the database file saved for the forging simulation. Process Modeling Output The process modeling provides extensive information of the forging process. the state variable at a specific stage of the forging is known.3(a) shows the effective strain distribution of a closed-die forging forged in an isothermal press.9. it is necessary to wait until the forging is finished to see the forged part and the defect. FORGE (2-D and 3-D) (Ternion Corp. 1992]: ● Interactive preprocessing to provide the user with control over the initial geometry.8.4 to 0. The history of these state variables can also be tracked. automatic remeshing to allow the simulation to continue when the distortion of the old mesh is excessive. The computer modeling can again indicate if the corrective measure works or not. or the die geometry. the equipment response during forging. strain rate. and temperature. the accurate and efficient use of metal flow simulations require [Knoerr et al.5.Process Modeling in Impression-Die Forging Using Finite-Element Analysis / 197 16. it is possible to run a 2-D simulation in a couple of hours. The lap formation can be eliminated by changing the workpiece geometry (the billet or preform).9. such as the strain. and the microstructure of the forging. 16. The region that is in contact with the upper die has an effective strain value of 0. Improper metal flow pro- Fig.4 to 0. In real closed-die forging. and the region that is in contact with the lower die. From the state variable distribution plot. This specific stage. In addition to a reliable FE solver. Figure 16.5 for both the rim and the midheight of the bore region.2 Distribution and History of State Variables The distribution of the state variables.. a value of 0.2 Reliability and Computational Time Several FE simulation codes are commercially available for numerical simulation of forging processes. with today’s computers.4. 16. depending on the part complexity [Wu et al.0 to 2. etc.5 duces defects in the forging. The effective strain value is approximately 1. The advantage of computer simulation of forging is that the entire forging process is stored in a database file in the computer and can be tracked.2 Lap prediction using process modeling tool . or both. mesh generation. However. The effective strain has a value of 0.

The information is usually not available in the hammer shop. In this isothermal forging case. This zero position is the same for all of the eight hammer blows. Figure 16. Examples of equipment response discussed here are forging load and ram velocity of hammer forging.5. the workpiece increases its contact area with the dies. and temperature) provides valuable information on the thermomechanical history of the forging that determines its mechanical properties. The distribution of the state variables can be plotted for any other stages of forging as well.198 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications shown in Fig. The last blow of the sequence has the shortest stroke. 16. The figure shows that there are eight blows in the hammer operation. The final strain value. is the end of the forging. With the increase in forging load. 1. The history plot of state variables (strain. where the first die/workpiece contact occurs during forging.3(b) shows the effective strain versus time of a material point located at midheight of the bore section of the forging.3(a). 16.5. The zero stroke refers to the position of the die. 16. Each ends with a zero load. it is useful for understanding the hammer response to a forging process.3 Fig.3(a). the load increases and the stroke per blow decreases. 16. strain rate. 16. a 20 min deformation time was used. Figure 16. This behavior is very real for hammer forging operations.3 (a) Effective strain distribution and (b) the effective strain history of the center location of a closed-die forging Fig. The total available blow energy is fixed for a hammer. 16.5 Ram velocity versus stroke obtained from a hammer forging simulation . 16.3(b) is in agreement with the value shown in the distribution plot in Fig.3(a). shown in Fig. The stroke in the figure is the stroke of the ram/die.4 shows the load versus stroke predicted for a hammer forging operation. as shown in Fig.4 Load versus stroke obtained from a hammer forging simulation Equipment Response/Hammer Forging Process modeling also provides the information regarding the response of the equipment. However. the length of Fig. During a hammer forging operation. as shown in the figure. which increases the forging load. With the increase in the number of blows. 16.

The velocity of the first blow was smaller than the other eight blows. Thus. is also Fig.7 Comparisons of hot-die forging and mechanical press forging of an experimental part using process reduced with the increase in forging load. 16. Figure 16.8 Rene 88 experimental part out of forging press [Hardwicke et al. which is the ratio between the energy used for deformation and the total blow energy.6 Prediction of the distribution of the size (lm) of gamma prime for a Rene 88 experimental forging Fig. and (c) fine grains [Hardwicke et al. In a soft blow. because a soft blow was used initially to locate the workpiece. After the first blow. the first blow has a smaller starting ram velocity. 16. 2000] Predicted model and optically measured grain sizes in the three developmental Rene´ 88DT disks with (a) coarse. 2000] . Thus. Thus.5 gives the ram velocity versus stroke obtained from a simulation of another hammer forging process. the blow efficiency. full energy was applied to the forging.9 Fig.Process Modeling in Impression-Die Forging Using Finite-Element Analysis / 199 stroke is reduced. 16.. a smaller amount of energy is available toward the end of a blow sequence and with the decrease in the stroke per blow.. (b) medium. the starting ram ve- modeling Fig. There are nine blows for this hammer operation. 16. Moreover. there is only a portion of blow energy applied to the workpiece.

The size and spacing are two features of interest in gamma-prime precipitation.21 lm. Conducting experiments can be a very time-consuming and expensive process.5. The microstructure prediction feature is useful for the process development for closeddie forging. coupled with a few measurement points. 16. blow efficiency does not influence the starting velocity of the ram/die. Two important microstructural features of superalloy forgings are the grain size and the gamma-prime precipitation. which pointed out the need for further improvement of the gamma-prime model. It is possible to reduce the number of necessary experiments by using FEM-based simulation of metal forming processes. the blow efficiency only has an effect after the ram/die workpiece are in contact. The measurement made is in the range of 0.14 lm. Hence. especially in forging aerospace alloys such as nickel and titanium superalloys. 16. Therefore.” The prediction of gammaprime distribution is discussed here.10 strengthening superalloys. The grain size modeling is discussed in detail in Chapter 19.4 Microstructures in Superalloys Microstructure and property modeling is now the major emphasis in advanced forging process design and improvement.08 to 0. “Microstructure Modeling in Superalloy Forging. The fine gamma prime was correctly predicted and the coarser gamma prime was underpredicted. 16.. the effect of the most important process parameters has to be investigated. The development and utilization of physical metallurgy-based microstructure models and the integration of the models with finiteelement analysis has allowed for microstructure prediction by computer. However.200 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications locity for the rest of the blows was the same. blow efficiency needs to be factored in for each hammer blow. The decay in ram velocity in each blow is a result of both the energy consumption in deforming the workpiece and the energy lost to the surroundings. Figure 16. Gamma prime is a very important precipitation phase in Fig. Investigation of defects in ring gear forging using FEM [Jenkins et al. There is always an energy loss to surroundings in a hammer blow.07 to 0. The model predicts a range of 0. In order to optimize a process. Rene 88. 1989] . It is factored in during the blow.6 Examples of Modeling Applications One of the major concerns in the research of manufacturing processes is to find the optimum production conditions in order to reduce production costs and lead-time.6 shows the prediction of the distribution of the size of gamma prime of an experimental nickel-base superalloy forging.

During the postprocessing in DEFORM. 16. the hotdie forging appears to generate better strain and temperature distributions than the mechanical press. and ASTM 12 (fine). using FEM code DEFORM. Each disk hit its assigned grain size goal.Process Modeling in Impression-Die Forging Using Finite-Element Analysis / 201 16.11 Modified blocker design (broken lines) positioned in the open finisher dies (solid lines) [Jenkins et al. With the guidance from the process modeling integrated with microstructure modeling. The process modeling.. Disks used in different sections of a jet engine require different grain sizes and properties. The grain sizes obtained from three production processes of the disks were actually uniform ASTM 5–6. A coarse grain disk provides excellent creep properties with a lower tensile strength. A disk of fine grain produces excellent tensile and fatigue properties but with reduction in creep property. respectively.12 1989] Deformed mesh of the finishing simulation with the modified blocker design [Jenkins et al. and there were no abnormal grains observed on any of the Fig. the entire thermomechanical history experienced in each local point and the starting grain size at that point were used to calculate the final grain size. where the user-defined subroutine can be linked with DEFORM. 1989] geted grain size. processing conditions were selected for producing disks with the three targeted grain sizes: ASTM 6 (coarse).1 Process Modeling for Equipment Selection Figure 16. Effective strain and temperature distributions are compared in this figure.6. In this example. A disk with a medium grain size yields balanced tensile and creep properties. provided the actual thermomechanical histories of each disk.8. after a couple of iterations. The microstructure modeling provided possible process windows for producing each disk with the tar- Fig. Process modeling coupled with microstructure modeling was used to develop processes to produce disks with different grain sizes for a potential new product. ASTM 7–9. One forged disk is shown in Fig.. The actual forging process was performed for a reality check. There was a preferred strain and temperature window for the selection of the process to meet the customer’s property requirements.6. A new disk product can be defined by meeting new requirements for distribution of grain size and related properties. The microstructure model developed for Rene 88 was integrated to DEFORM postprocessing module. and fine (ASTM 12) grain sizes. ASTM 8 (medium). medium (ASTM 8).7 illustrates an example of the application of process modeling to select the most suitable equipment (a hot-die hydraulic press or a mechanical press) for forging a superalloy part in a hot-die hydraulic press or a mechanical press. and ASTM 12–13. 16. The specific goal was to produce Rene 88 (a nickel-base superalloy) disks with coarse (ASTM 6). it is extremely important to meet specific grain size requirements. 16. 16.2 Optimization of Microstructure in Forging Jet Engine Disks For manufacturing superalloy disks for jet engines. .

10a). a billet is placed in the busting dies and upset (Fig.. In production. a new blocker die design was required. where the grain size is a little different than the bulk. 16. The measurements agree well with the predictions in all of the three cases. 16. Figure 16. The first step in the manufacturing process involves cold shearing the billets from stock and induction heating them to 2200 ⬚F (1200 ⬚C). 16. the complex friction phenomenon in real forgings makes it difficult to predict the exact die lock location. The measured grain sizes in the disk proved this phenomenon. Because of this defect. and as the upsetting and radial flow combined. lubricated with a graphite and water mixture and maintained at approximately 300 ⬚F (150 ⬚C).9 compares the grain sizes obtained from the model prediction (color coded) and the optical rating (number in the block) for the three disks [Hardwicke et al. 1999] . With Fig. 16. To counter the above problem. The success in producing disks with the required grain size was attributed to both the selection of proper process conditions aided by the process and grain size modeling as well as good production process control. 16. 16. 1989]. the inside surface of the blocker began to buckle.12 shows the die fill in the simulation run with the new blocker design.. the following modification was made to the original blocker design: ● The corner radius (region A of Fig.3 Investigation of Defect Formation in Ring Gear Forging The process analyzed was the forging of an automotive ring gear blank [Jenkins et al.11) was increased by a factor of 2 to aid the metal flow around the corner. However. In the coarse and finegrained disks. the workpiece followed the walls of the upper and lower die. 2000]. Figure 16.13 1999] Automotive component formed by forward/ backward hot forging process [Brucelle et al.10c).10b) and finally transferred to and forged in a finisher die (Fig.11) was decreased until it was horizontal to increase the height of the blocker. buckling flow in the blocker dies caused a lap to be formed intermittently around the circumference of the part (Fig. 16. 16.14 Cracks formed as a result of thermal cycling [Brucelle et al. ● As the workpiece contacted the uppermost surface of the top die and began upsetting. The following observations were made during simulation of the process: ● The sharp corner radius and steep angle of the inside wall on the upper die resulted in the formation of a gap between the inside die wall and the workpiece.202 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications disks. ● The radial flow from the web region forced the buckle out toward the outer die walls.6. ● The outer wall of the lower die (region C of Fig. During initial forging trials. the part is hot forged from AISI 4320 steel in three sets of dies. the part was rejected. ● The angle of the top surface of the upper die (region B of Fig. At the start of the working stroke.. 16. It is then transferred to a blocker die and forged (Fig.11) was modified so that upsetting flow from the top die would fill voids in the upper die cavity instead of voids in the lower die cavity. The dies were of H11 steel. the buckling became more severe. Fig. and hence. the lap worsened.10d). Next. the model predicted two small die lock regions (where metal flow is prevented). 16.. As the finish dies filled.

16 Forging sequence of the aircraft wheel. the workpiece contacted the uppermost wall of the top die. the workpiece contacts the outer web region of the upper die. the result from the finisher simulation indicates that the modified blocker workpiece fills the finisher die without defects. With further upsetting of the workpiece. . 16. As the stroke continues. and a gap formed between the inside wall of the top die and the workpiece. Figure 16. Either thermal cracking or Fig. Hence. the uppermost fillet of the top die and the outside fillet of the bottom die continue to fill. Part geometry courtesy of Weber Metals Inc. Part geometry courtesy of Weber Metals Inc. the inside corner fills up without any indication of defective flow pat- terns. 16.6. Fig. the upper die pushes the workpiece down until contact is made with the outer wall of the lower die. With further reduction.12(a–c) shows the finish die operation with the modified blocker output. Upon deformation.15 Forging sequence of the titanium fitting. a small gap remained along the inside wall of the upper die. 16.4 Investigation of Tool Failure Hot forging is a widely used manufacturing process in the automotive industry. and the die cavity fills up completely. At the final stroke position. High production rates result in severe thermomechanical stresses in the dies.Process Modeling in Impression-Die Forging Using Finite-Element Analysis / 203 further deformation. but no buckle was formed.

16. Industrial forging test validation of the thermal boundary conditions for the punch The surface temperatures on the punch are a factor of the heat-transfer coefficient at the tool/ workpiece interface. Metallurgical validation of the constitutive laws of the workpiece material b. In order to reduce the thermal stresses. The stresses due to thermal cycling were found to comprise approximately 75% of the total stress field.13 [Brucelle et al.. resulting in an increase in flow stress) or 2) use of lubricating/insulating Sections taken along the fitting to check for die filling at the blocker stage [Shirgaokar et al. 1999]. 2002] . The punch was from tool steel (X85 WCrMoV6-5-4-2).204 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications wear governs the life of the dies. Finite-element modeling simulation and experimental work were used to conduct a parametric study to determine the optimum process parameters to achieve higher life expectancy of the tools. The resulting stresses in this process are a combination of the purely mechanical stresses due to forging and the thermomechanical stresses as a result of thermal cycling of the punch surface due to the alternating hot forging and waiting periods. and duration of contact [Snaith et al. such as surface topography. contact pressures.17 ● A two-step numerical simulation: a. known as heat checking. 16. The workpiece was from austenitic stainless steel AISI 316L. It is a commonly known fact that geometry changes are not the best way to reduce the stress level with regard to thermal stresses. This combined numerical and experimental approach can be summarized as: Fig. 1986]. temperature difference. 16. the punch had to be changed approximately every 500 cycles due to cracking as a result of thermal cycling (Fig. In the forging industry. This coefficient is a function of various factors. Forging tests were conducted on an industrial press using a test punch with five thermocouples. Thermoelastic simulation for thermal stress analysis of the punch ● A two-step experimental stage: a. thus reducing the flow stress. and thermal boundary conditions for the punch b. Several numerical iterations (FEM simulations) were performed by using different heat-transfer coefficients until the calculated temperature distribution was in agreement with that from the experiments. Originally. it was determined that increased tool life could be achieved by modifying the hot forging process parameters such as billet temperature and the forging rate. From this study. or decreasing workpiece temperature. the tooling cost alone can constitute up to 10% of the total cost of the component.14). forging loads. This cycling causes tool damage. There are two options: 1) modification of process parameters to decrease the temperature (reduction of the punch speed. Process simulation to determine the purely mechanical stresses. a reduction of the thermal gradient during forging must be obtained. This example deals with the investigation of the effect of thermomechanical stresses on the tool life in the hot extrusion of the automotive component shown in Fig...

Flash removal between the forging stages also had to be considered for the simulations in order to ensure appropriate material volume in the dies for the subsequent forging stage.. two blocker stages followed by a finisher stage. volume manipulation. respectively.18 Section A-A of the fitting after the first blocker operation [Shirgaokar et al.16 show the forging sequence of the titanium fitting and the aluminum wheel. die filling.19 Forging of AISI 4340 aerospace component . In order to reduce computational time. it was necessary to run nonisothermal simulations. The two components considered for this study are produced by closed-die forging with flash. The first option was selected. The simulations were stopped when die filling was achieved. resulting in a 30% decrease in the stresses..Process Modeling in Impression-Die Forging Using Finite-Element Analysis / 205 products during forging to reduce the heat transfer. 16.. since the available press could handle increased forging loads as a result of increased flow stress. and die stresses [Shirgaokar et al. the dies were kept rigid throughout the simulation. i. Fig.e. temperature distribution. At the last step. 16. and it was this stage of the simulation that was used to determine the stresses in the dies. Thus. namely. A parametric study was conducted to investigate the influence of forging speed and initial workpiece temperature on the final thermomechanical stresses. 16. This was done by using the Boolean capability of DEFORM. metal flow during forging. The commercial FEM code DEFORM-3D was used for these simulations.6. Since the parts are forged at elevated temperatures.18).15 and 16. which is an empirical approach. Figures 16. Each of the components was forged in three stages.5 The simulation strategy adopted for the two components was to remove the flash in-between stages. die filling. temperature distribution. 16. they were changed to elastic. 2002]. The optimum process parameters were thus determined. a combination of process simulation and experimental verification resulted in an increase in the tool life for the punch in this hot forging process. and strain distribution. Die filling was checked by examining various cross sections along the length of the forging (Fig.17 and 16. 2002] Fig. The results obtained at the end of the simulations were the effective stress distribution. and the stresses from the workpiece were Multistage Forging Simulations of Aircraft Components Multistage forging simulations of two aircraft components (a titanium fitting and an aluminum wheel) were run to study metal flow.

20(b) shows the initial pre- Development of the preform shape for flashless forging of a connecting rod [Vasquez et al. In order to accelerate the development process and reduce prototyping costs. 16. physical modeling experiments were conducted using plasticine.6. The simulation results are used to obtain the loading on the die and the punch. which means that the mass distribution and positioning of the preform must be precise. 2000]: ● The volume of the initial preform and the volume of the die cavity at the final forging stage must be approximately the same. The loading on the punch is used to perform a stress analysis and correlate the punch deflection to thickness measurements taken at various locations of the forgings. the design of a flashless forging operation is more complex than that of a conventional closed-die forging with flash. It is equally important that the preform be simple enough to be mass-produced. The requirements for conducting a successful flashless forging process are [Vasquez et al.. It is essential to accurately control the volume distribution of the preform to avoid overloading the dies and in order to fill the cavity.7 Die Design for Flashless Forging of Connecting Rods In conventional hot forging of connecting rods. 16. 2000] . In order to verify the applicability of the simulation results. The simulated part is shown in Fig. it is essential to conduct a substantial amount of the design process on the computer. ● There must be neither a local volume excess nor a shortage.6 Precision Forging of an Aerospace Component The simulation of a precision-forged aerospace component was conducted as part of a study to develop guidelines for the design of prestressing containers for dies used in forging of complex parts. 1972]. ● If there is a compensation space provided in the die. the material wasted to the flash accounts Fig. The 2-D and 3-D FE simulations were used extensively to analyze and optimize the metal flow in flashless forging of the connecting rod shown in Fig.6.20 for approximately 20 to 40% of the original workpiece.20(a). and the temperature distribution. the maximum principal stress. Thus. 16. Using these results.. The load on the die is used to perform stress analysis and design a cost-effective prestressing container. Experiments for this component were conducted in a previous study conducted at Batelle Columbus Laboratories [Becker et al. 16.. The results obtained from the die stress analysis simulations were the effective stress. Figure 16.206 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications interpolated onto the dies.19(b). 16. the real cavity must be filled first. an effective die design was established. The results from the simulations were compared to the experimentally determined loads and were found to be in good agreement.

. which was modified accordingly to give a defect-free connecting rod (Fig.21 Deformation sequence for flashless precision forging of a connecting rod [Takemasu et al. Contours of effective strain (darker areas indicate higher strain) are shown in Fig.8 Integrated Heat Treatment Analysis The forming of a medium-carbon manganese steel bevel gear was analyzed using DEFORM 3D. 16. Thus. the gear was austenized by heating to 1560 ⬚F (850 ⬚C) and cooled in 60 s with a heat-transfer coefficient representative of an oil quench.21). Finite-element simulation predicted underfilling with the initial preform. 16. 2001] . The modified gear geometry was used to simulate a heat treatment operation. 1996] Fig. This gear was hot forged with flash. In this simulation.6. the gear geometry was modified to account for the flash removal and drilling the inside diameter.22(a).Process Modeling in Impression-Die Forging Using Finite-Element Analysis / 207 form design along with the final modified preform.. 16.22 (a) The deformation simulation of a hot forged gear with flash. After the forging simulation. 16. A time-temperature-transformation diagram for medium-carbon manganese steel determined the Fig. only 1⁄20th of the total volume was simulated. (b) The volume fraction of martensite (dark is higher) in a steel gear after quenching [Wu et al. Mesh density windows were used for local mesh refinement during simulation. 16. The simulation was conducted utilizing rotational symmetry.

J. Sept 14–18. Energy.. Douglas. 22 1986.Y. T. 2002]: DEFORM 7... [Wu et al. and Altan. Mech.A. M. G.. Ngaile.I. 1999. 1989. p 479. Srivastava.” Materials Science and Technology. In Fig. G....22(b). France. B. and K.” Journal of Materials Processing Technology. Walters. T. Vasquez. 1992]: Knoerr. [SFTC. P. Science. W. T. S.2 User Manuals. J. 1989]: Jenkins. G.. [Brucelle et al.. “Modeling Microstructural Development during Hot Rolling. [Shen et al. V. Feb. and K. “Finite Element Analysis of Metal Forming Problem with Arbitrarily Shaped Dies. S. 2001]. Japan. T. W. Probert. B. p 31. 2001.. [Takemasu et al. “Investigation of Metal Flow and Preform Optimization in Flashless Forging of a Connecting Rod. J. and Materials Society... 1992]: Wu. V. G. 2002.. Pollock... Li. Ed.E. Oct 2002. 2002. [Ngaile et al.. Lee..” Proceedings of the Conference on New Developments in Forging Technology. R.L.. [Vasquez et al. “Forging Process Simulation— State of the Art in USA.” Materials Design Approaches and Experiences.. Altan.. 1990. OH. [Snaith et al. Bain. p.M. S. Vol... 1999]: Vasquez.D. Simonen. and Shen... p 223–231. J.J. 2002]: Shirgaokar. 87.. [Jenkins et al. Zhao.” NUMIFORM ’92.” Methodology for Service Life Increase of Hot Forging Tools. p 95. “Die Design for Flashless Forging of Complex Parts.” JOM. S. F. Altan. REFERENCES [Becker et al. 1972]: Becker. K. 1992.M. 16... [Shen et al. Semiatin. Vol. “Optimal Mesh Density Determination for the FEM Simulation of Forming Processes. 2000.” Journal of Materials Processing Technology.. C.. D. Vol. K. 1986]: Snaith. 2002]: Ngaile.. “Microstructure Modeling of Forged Components of Ingot Metallurgy Nickel Based Superalloys. 42/1.” CIRP Annals. 33..U. O. 4) 1982. J. Altan. Denkenberger. Furrer. Germany.” Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 24 (No. Ed. 1982]: Oh.R. TMS.. G.. M. Altan. D. Scientific Forming Technologies Corporation. and Altan. T. Vol. G.C.. R. [Howson et al. 1993]: Shen. Miller. M.R.. Srivastava. p 32–34. J.A. May 19–20. “Simulations of Manufacturing Processes: Past.R.. [Sellars. O’Callaghan. Vol. 1972. “Thermal Resistances of Pressed Contacts.. p 31–84. 1996]: Takemasu. Vol. R.. Stuttgart.. p 1072. G. [Knoerr et al. 2000.I. 59.. Ed.” Appl.208 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications diffusion behavior during the austenite-pearlite/ bainite transformation.. Oh. 1993. and Delgado... Furrer.W. S. C.. 6.I. H. p 243.. Lee.. 1990]: Sellars. p 343– 346.” Advanced Technologies for Superalloy Affordability. 2000]: Shen. S. Battelle Columbus Laboratories. Columbus.-M.T.... “Application of the 2D Finite Element Method to Simulation of Various Forming Processes. “Effective Tooling Designs for Production of Precision Forgings.. 2000]: Vasquez. 1989]: Howson.U... Vol... 2000. T. Metals. Chang. Bain.. Chang. Fahrmann.. Vol. Arvind. “Investigation of Microstructure and Thermomechanical History in the Hammer Forging of an Incoloy 901 Disk. A.. “Aerospace Forging—Process and Modeling.. [Wu et al.. “Investigation of Defect Formation in a 3-Station Closed Die Forging Operation.” Proceedings of the Seventh ICTP. [Vasquez et al. B.R.K. D.E. 1992.” Technical Report AFML-TR-72-89..” ERC/ NSM–02-R-84. 1996. The Minerals.” Proceedings of the Third Biennial Joint Conference on Engineering Systems . 381. G.. [Oh. p 237. Painter.P. “Computer Modeling Metal Flow in Forging.. “Multi-Stage Forging Simulations of Aircraft Components. 98.. p 271. Shivpuri.” Advanced Technologies for Superalloy Affordability.. Altan.” Int. 1996]: Wu. and the light areas indicate a mixture of bainite and pearlite [Wu et al. p 347– 357.L. J. S. and Altan. TMS. “Modeling Grain Size Evolution of P/M Rene 88DT Forgings.. Furrer.” Annals of the CIRP. Oh. and T. 1999.T. whereas the Magee equation was used to model the martensite response. “Development of a Three Dimensional Finite Element Based Process Simulation Tool for the Metal Forming Industry.. Vol.M. [Hardwicke et al. T. V.” Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 2000]: Hardwicke.K. Present and Future. Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing. G. [Shirgaokar et al. and Bernhart. T.. 81. T. 1999]: Brucelle... the volume fraction of martensite is shown after quenching. 2001]: Shen. Tang... The dark regions represent a more complete martensite transformation. T. [Shen et al.

Loria. 1995]: Shen... A. ● [Shen et al. A. p 1795–1802.. W... p 449– 460. 1989]: Shen. G. S. G.” Superalloys 718.. “Effect of Flash Dimensions and Billet Size in Closed-Die Forging of an Aluminum Alloy Part.V. Columbus. C.” Met. Trans.. Semiatin. Microstructural Evolution.. E. Furrer. A. ● [Wu et al. J. 625. 1996. 1996. Y. Kahlke. T. W. ● [Shen et al. I. “Investigation of Metal Flow and Preform Optimization in Flashless Forging of a Connecting Rod. 1985]: Wu. 706 and Various Derivatives. Arimoto. .. p 95. ● [Walters et al. J. Ed. “Advances in the State-of-the-Art of Hammer Forged Alloy 718 Aerospace Components. 2001. Vol. S. Wu.T.” Transactions of the NAMRI of SME.. Vol. Vol. D. Lambert. V.Process Modeling in Impression-Die Forging Using Finite-Element Analysis / 209 Design and Analysis. ● [Shen et al.” Met. France. and Altan.I.T.. Berkeley.. 26.. 1995..... Oh. and Oh. Montpellier. Ohio.. 59. Hawbolt.” Proceedings of North American Manufacturing Research Conference (NAMRC) XIII..... 111. L. p 335– 349. “Recent Developments of Process Simulation for Industrial Applications.. “Recent Developments in Process Simulation for Bulk Forming Processes..A..” Journal of Materials Processing Technology.. 1998.T. CA. “ALPID—A General Purpose FEM Code for Simulation of Non-isothermal Forging Processes. Altan. Society of Manufacturing Engineers.I. R... 1989. Im.T.. K. T. W. Shivpuri. R. 1991.” Journal of Materials Processing Technology.. SELECTED REFERENCES ● [Devadas et al. p 34–40.” Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Precision Forging—Cold. S. p 2–9. Samarasekera. 2001.. 1998]: Walters. 1991]: Devadas. 1985. 2001]: Wu. Denkenberger. D. p 237–247.L. Oct 12–14. 2001]: Shen. [Wu et al.P. “Modeling Microstructural Development during the Forging of Waspaloy. Arvind.B. ● [Vasquez et al. Tang. Guoji. G... “The Thermal and Metallurgical State of Strip during Hot Rolling: Part III. D... 12. 1996]: Vasquez. Trans. Warm and Hot Forging. E.

(c) Forward extrusion. www. In cold forging.3. the billet is heated to temperatures below the recrystallization temperature. The terms cold forging and cold extrusion are often used interchangeably and refer to well-known forming operations such as extrusion. as illustrated schematically in Fig. the billet or the slug is at room temperature when deformation starts. in order to lower the flow stress and the forging pressures. starting with a slug or billet of simple shape. Watkins. and Altan et al. “Process Design in Impression-Die Forging”). and.1361/chff2005p211 Copyright © 2005 ASM International® All rights reserved. upsetting or heading. 1973. (e) Simultaneous upsetting of flange and coining of shoulder [Sagemuller. Through a combination of these techniques.” Several forming steps are used to produce a final part or relatively complex geometry. p211-235 DOI:10. (d) Backward cup extrusion. 1961. 17. 1973. Gangshu Shen.1 usually performed in mechanical or hydraulic presses. These shapes are usually axisymmetric with relatively small nonsymmetrical features.1 Introduction Cold forging is defined as forming or forging of a bulk material at room temperature with no initial heating of the preform or intermediate stages. unlike impression-die forging (see Chapter 14. and swaging [Feldmann. Some basic techniques of cold forging are illustrated in Fig. a very large number of parts can be produced. up to 1290 to 1470 F (700 to 800 C) for steels. 1968] .Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Taylan Altan. Billigmann et al. (a) Sheared blank. ironing. (b) Simultaneous forward rod and backward extrusion.” and Chapter 11. “Principles of Forging Machines. In warm forging. coining. 17. Wick.org CHAPTER 17 Cold and Warm Forging Prashant Mangukia 17. Gracious Ngaile. editors. Cold extrusion is a special type of forging process wherein the cold metal flows plastically under compressive forces into a variety of shapes. which are discussed in Chapter 10. for example. Schematic illustration of forming sequences in cold forging of a gear blank. 17.2. 1961. 17. as shown in Fig..asminternational.1. 1983]. These operations are Fig. “Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging.. the process does not generate flash.

1977] Fig. 1977] . ejector) [Feldmann. C.3 Examples of cold forged tubular or cup-shaped parts [Feldmann. Some of the advantages provided by this process are: ● ● High production rates Excellent dimensional tolerances and surface finish for forged parts ● Significant savings in material and machining Fig. container. punch. 17. workpiece.2 Various types of cold forging (extrusion) techniques (P. 17. especially for producing round or nearly round parts in large quantities. E.212 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Cold and warm forging are extremely important and economical processes. W.

The key to a successful metal forming operation. beryllium. 2017. these materials are difficult to lubricate. This group consists primarily of steels and aluminum alloys. off-highway equipment. cold forged parts are also used in manufacturing bicycles. and nuts and bolts. 1045. comprises all the input variables such as billet or blank (geometry or material). Fig. is the understanding and control of metal flow. and the temperatures involved greatly influence the properties of the formed components. 1015. zinc. farm machinery.4. the tooling (the geometry and material). alloyed: 5140. 8620 ● Stainless steels: pearlitic: 410. 17. motorcycles. 4140. 321 Stainless steels usually are not easily forged. 1070.. The local metal flow is in turn influenced by the process variables. the magnitude of deformation.3 Materials for Cold Forging All metals that exhibit ductility at room temperature can be cold forged. austenitic: 302. alloys of copper. the equipment used. to obtaining the desired shape and properties. 17. 17.Cold and Warm Forging / 213 ● Higher tensile strengths in the forged part than in the original material. 5152. 2002]. and 7075 Aluminum may be used as an alternative to steel to save weight [ICFG. the mechanics of plastic deformation. 5120. 2024. The “systems approach” in forging allows study of the input/output relationships and the effect of process variables on product quality and process economics. 316.2 Cold Forging as a System A cold forging system. 304. However. the characteristics of the final product. and nickel are also cold forged for special applications [Gentzsch. and finally. titanium. Examples of steels that are used extensively for producing cold extruded parts are: ● 17. Table 17. However. Examples of commonly cold forged aluminum alloys are: ● Pure or nearly pure aluminum alloys: 1285. and 5052 ● Hardenable aluminum alloys: 6063. Metal flow determines both the mechanical properties related to local deformation and the formation of defects such as cracks or folds at or below the surface.4 Cold forging as a system Case hardening steels: unalloyed: 1010. the plant environment where the process is being conducted. The direction of metal flow. 4130. alloyed: 5115. 6066. cold forging of austentic or austentic-ferritic steels (which work harden very strongly) require high forces and tool pressures. 6053. 1050. because of strain hardening ● Favorable grain flow to improve strength By far the largest area of application of cold and warm forging is the automobile industry. 2001a]. Furthermore. 430. tin. 1035. and 1100 ● Nonhardenable aluminum alloys: 3003. i. as shown in Fig. . Especially.e. 3115 ● Heat treatable steels: unalloyed: 1020. 1967]. Cold forging of stainless steel is sometimes limited due to lack of information on the behavior of the material [ICFG. 431. the material at the tool/ material interface.1 summarizes the properties of aluminum alloys suitable for cold forging.

**** ⳱ best Materials for cold forging are supplied as rolled or drawn rod or wire as well as in the form of sheared or sawed-off billets. grease. the lubricant is required to withstand high pressures. vertical presses are used. so as to avoid metal-to-metal contact between the tool and the extruded material. usually with stearate soap but sometimes with other types of lubricants. The success of the zinc phosphatizing treatment is influenced by the composition of the steel.1 Aluminum alloy Properties of aluminum alloys suitable for cold forging [ICFG. or alkali stearates (especially zinc stearate). Rinse in neutralizing solution if a pickling process was used. The phosphating and lubricating steps given in Table 17. This requires careful degreasing and pickling of the surface before coating [Bay. 7. Remove scale. 2002] Heat treatable Strength Elongation Corrosion resistance Machinability Weldability No No No Yes Yes Yes * ** *** *** *** **** **** * ** ** *** ** **** **** **** * *** ** * * ** *** ** *** **** **** ** * **** * 1050 3103 5056 2014 6061 7075 Note: * ⳱ poor. on the order of 280 ksi (1930 Mpa) in extrusion of steel. Rinse in cold water. horizontal mechanical presses. Lubricate the slugs. and surface finish of the sheared (or sawed) billet or preform must be closely controlled in order to maintain dimensional tolerances in the cold forged part and to avoid excessive loading of the forging press and tooling. especially the chromium content. are used. 8. In cold forging of low-carbon and low-alloy steels. 5. and individual billets (after being lubricated) are fed into the first die station. and it is desirable to obtain square billet faces during shearing or sawing [Herbst. are commonly used as lubricants for forging and extrusion of steel at room temperature. where surface generation and forming pressures are large [Doehring. it is accepted practice to coat the surface of the billet or coil with a lubricant carrier. are preferred for austenitic stainless steels. This zinc phosphate coating provides a good substrate for lubricants that withstand high forming pressures. Cold forging plants usually receive small-diameter material in coils and large-diameter stock in bars. Stearate-type soaps. normally zinc stearate.2 are almost universally employed for cold extrusion of steels. Dip in a zinc phosphate solution (usually of a proprietary type) for approximately 5 min at 180 to 203 F (82 to 95 C) to develop a uniform coating of appropriate thickness. special procedures and other conversion coatings.4 Billet Preparation and Lubrication in Cold Forging of Steel and Aluminum By far.2 Typical procedure for phosphating and lubricating billets of carbon and low-alloy steels for cold extrusion 1. The coil. where it is sheared and forged in several steps. Billet volume or weight is closely controlled. In cold forging. The types of alloys and the surface expansion have a major influence on the choice of the lu- Table 17. 1997. Conse- quently. weight. Lubrication for cold forging of aluminum may be divided into two categories: ● ● Lubrication without conversion coatings Lubrication with a conversion coating The lubricants applied without conversion coatings are oil. Degrease and clean slugs in a hot alkaline solution for 1 to 5 min at 151 to 203 F (66 to 95 C). and Bay. 17. 1972].214 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Table 17. 3. The most common conversion coatings are calcium aluminate and aluminum fluoride coatings. Rinse in cold water. Solid lubricants such as MoS2 and graphite have proved to be beneficial under severe forging conditions. 9. 4. . It is essential that the slug surfaces are completely clean when applying the conversion coating. is fed into the machine. 1994]. the largest area of application for cold forging is the production of steel parts. called headers or upsetters. usually by pickling. such as oxalates. adherent coating of lubricant adsorbed on the zinc phosphate coating. neutralize if necessary. which adhere tenaciously to the phosphate coatings. In both cases. Air dry the slugs to obtain a thin. the conversion coating is combined with a lubricant. 2. 6. coated with lubricant. 1967]. Rinse in cold water. In forging of relatively small production lots. In very large-volume production. The dimensions.

For alloys in series AA 6000 and 5000.3 can be achieved in one hit if the deformation occurs over a portion of the workpiece. its formability..3 ⱕ4. 17. and for series 7000.6. When forming in several stages. In upsetting. the desired accuracy. which affects the buckling of the workpiece: Ru ⳱ 冢hd 冣 0 (Eq 17. The abscissa indicates the different series of aluminum alloys.3 Recommended Ru values for cold upsetting [Lange et al. only light reductions are possible without conversion coatings. which affects the forming limit or forgeability of the workpiece material: e¯ ⳱ ln 冢hh 冣 0 (Eq 17.. Table 17.0 . by which a billet or a portion of a workpiece is reduced in height between usually plane. 1985] 17.1) 1 ● Fig. conversion coatings are always necessary [Bay. depending on the forming process. Larger values of Ru require several deformation stages. The lubricant system is divided into three groups: ● ● ● In cold upsetting. medium. its strength.6 Sketch of upsetting process [Lange et al. arranged with increasing hardness corresponding to increasing difficulties in forging.5 Upsetting Upsetting is defined as “free forming. 17. and rivets. the following parameters are significant: dimensions of the workpiece. or zinc stearate may be applied in cases of low to medium surface expansion. e¯ . Large reductions can be achieved by using conversion coatings.0 ⱕ20. even in cases of large surface expansion (for example. can extrusion). as shown in the corresponding sketches. lubrication with oil.3 gives the recommended values for Ru.5 Choice of lubricant system for different aluminum alloys for different processes [Bay. The ordinate indicates the degree of surface expansion at low. grease. 17. For the series 2000. Figure 17. the required upset ratio. 1994]. and the surface quality. and high levels.5 ⱕ8.0 ⱕ10. A sketch of the upsetting process is shown in Fig.2) 0 bricant system.5 shows the appropriate lubricants for different aluminum alloys and surface expansions. parallel platens.Cold and Warm Forging / 215 cess that can be varied in many ways. 1985] Table 17. 1997] Upset ratio. a ratio of Ru ⱕ 2. 1997 and Bay. the design of the heading preforms affects the fiber structure Oil or grease Zinc stearate Conversion coating Ⳮ lubricant Series AA 1000 and 3000 can be cold forged without conversion coatings. nuts. Fig. A large segment of industry primarily depends on the upsetting process for producing parts such as screws.” Upsetting is a basic deformation pro- Operation One operation (single-stroke process) Two operations (two-stroke process) Three operations (three-stroke) Multistroke (more than three) with whole die (limited by difficulties arising during ejection) Multistroke (more than three) with split die Ru value ⱕ2. Successful upsetting mainly depends on two process limitations: ● Upset strain.

(d) Stock supported in heading tool recess and die impression [ASM.4a) where L ⳱ maximum load on tooling d1 ⳱ final upset head diameter rf ⳱ material flow stress ⳱ K¯en ⳱ rf ⳱ K(ln h0 /h1)n . and Lange et al. the forming load increases dramatically as the corner filling occurs. Undersizing a header will lead to overloading the press.7 illustrates different techniques for upsetting. based on geometry and material properties is [Altan et al.8a). (b) Stock supported in die impression.6 In cold forming operations. It consists of a flatfaced punch and a simple round die cavity. L. thus. because it allows greater upset ratios than cylindrical upsetting. based on material properties and process geometries.7 Different techniques for upsetting. and it corresponds to the conditions found in practice..3) where d1 and d2 are diameters of the tapered die cavity. The limits on the length of the unsupported stock may vary. depending on the type of the heading die and the flatness and squareness of the end surface of the bar. At the beginning of the stroke. At this point. In order to apply the above rules to taper upsetting. Heading preforms are to be shaped such that the workpiece is guided correctly to avoid buckling and folding [Lange et al. 1996]. Oversizing a header will result in unnecessarily large machine cost. The equivalent diameter (dm) is calculated as: dm ⳱ d41 Ⳮ d42 2 冢 1/4 冣 (Eq 17. an “equivalent diameter” must be calculated. 17. These two factors determine the press size and the maximum production rate. (a) Unsupported working stock. and higher part costs.. The load required to fill the cavity is extremely high (approximately 3 to 10 times the load necessary for forging the same part in the cavity without corner filling) [Altan et al.7c) is commonly used for the intermediate stages of a multistage upsetting process. the billet is cylindrical and undergoes a process similar to an open upset until it makes contact with the die casing (Fig. (c) Stock supported in heading tool recess. This design method allows greater material to be gathered in a single stage for taper upsetting. 1970] Load Estimation for Flashless Closed-Die Upsetting p 2 md1 d1rf 1 Ⳮ 4 3冪3h1 冢 冣 (Eq 17.. It is important to correctly estimate the forming load for each die station. Upsetting with tapered dies (Fig. the two primary considerations in determining process feasibility are the load and energy required to form the part. The amount of corner filling is expressed as the ratio of the length of die wall in contact with the deformed billet to the length of the die wall and is termed in percentage of die wall contact (%DWC). Figure 17. 17. 1996]: L⳱ Fig.8. 17. the number of stages required may be reduced. resulting in frequent downtime for maintenance and repairs [Altan et al. 1985].216 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications of the final shape.. 17. as seen in the load-stroke curve (Fig. 1985]. 17. The tooling used in this process is shown in Fig. 1982. Slab method analysis is used to predict the forging load required. 17.8b). The maximum tooling load. lower production rate..

. 1996] (Eq 17. 1996]. as shown in Fig. a modification of the traditional slab method is made to account for the reduced deformation zone to predict the forging load. 1 is found by using: h⬘1 ⳱ 冢100% ⳮ2 %DWC冣h 1 (Eq 17. 17.4(a) needs to be modified for closed-die upsetting. 17.4d) . Also. as shown in Fig. Fig.Cold and Warm Forging / 217 m ⳱ shear friction factor h1 ⳱ final height of the upset head h0 ⳱ initial height of the billet K ⳱ strength coefficient n ⳱ material strain-hardening exponent Equation 17.4(a) is modified and presented as [Altan et al.4c) where h1 and h⬘1 are the same as in Eq 17.4(a) and (b).. h⬘0. the initial head diameter and the head height must be known.4 was verified by comparing the predictions with experiments [Altan et al. Hence.. The final slab height.4b) h⬘0 ⳱ initial height corresponding to final height of layer 1 (or 3). To find the corresponding initial slab height.9 To use the modified slab analysis. the final head diameter. deformation is less than in the open upset. 1996]: L⳱ p 2 md1 d1rf 1 Ⳮ 4 3冪32h⬘1 冢 冣 (Eq 17. and amount of die wall contact must be known.9 The validity of Eq 17.8 Tooling for flashless cold upsetting process and load-stroke curve [Altan et al. Since the material flow is restricted by the cavity in the closed-die upset. 17. Equation 17. h⬘. the volume constancy principle is used: 4 V pd40 where. in addition to the symbols given above: h⬘0 ⳱ rf ⳱ material flow stress ⳱ K¯en ⳱ rf ⳱ n K(ln 2h⬘/2h⬘) 0 1 h⬘1 ⳱ final height of layer 1 (or 3). respectively. height.

1 Variables Affecting Forging Load and Energy In cold extrusion. Fig. which is constant. 17.10..10 both the peak load at the beginning of the stroke and the end load at the end of the stroke are known. forward rod extrusion and backward cup extrusion..9 Fig. 17.218 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications 17. 17.7 Extrusion The two most commonly used extrusion processes. are illustrated in Fig. The areas under these curves represent energy and can be easily calculated when the extrusion load in backward extrusion. is estimated. or when. 17. 17. r. the material at various locations in the deformation zone is subject to different amounts of deformation. 1983] .11.7. and the corresponding flow stress. e. 1996] Schematic illustration of (a) forward rod and (b) backward cup extrusion processes [Altan et al. in forward rod extrusion. Dividing layers for the modified slab analysis method [Altan et al. The qualitative variations of the punch load versus punch displacement curves are shown in Fig. The values of strain.

and effective strain.11 Schematic illustration of punch load versus punch displacement curves in forward rod and backward cup extrusion processes ● length of the die decreases.Cold and Warm Forging / 219 vary within the deformation zone. Also.5) where Pfd is the load necessary to overcome friction at the die surface (in forward extrusion) or at the die and punch surfaces (in backward extrusion).5. 17. 17. which results in a decrease in die friction load.13a). and consequently. In backward extrusion. r. e. The total forging load consists of the following components: ● P ⳱ Pfd Ⳮ Pfc Ⳮ Pdh Ⳮ Pds (Eq 17. Fig. the billet length has little effect on the extrusion load. for a given reduction and given friction conditions. Typical limits of reduction in area for open-die extrusion are 35% for low-carbon steel. because the amount of deformation. the load required must be less than that causing buckling or upsetting of the unsupported stock. Lubrication: Improved lubrication lowers the container friction force. to characterize the total deformation of the material. Pfc is the load necessary to overcome container friction in forward extrusion (Pfc ⳱ 0 in backward extrusion). and 40% for AISI 4140 steel. 25% for aluminum.11. The variations of the extrusion load for forward rod and backward cup extrusion are shown in Fig. for a given reduction.5. Higher reduction ratios can be obtained in trapped-die extrusion (Fig. Pdf. increases with reduction. This is illustrated in Fig. resulting in lower extrusion loads. 1987].. this limit is much higher. the extrusion velocity does not significantly affect the load in cold extrusion. radii): The die geometry directly influences material flow.. . of Eq 17. Billet dimensions: In forward extrusion. and therefore. In open-die extrusion (where the billet is not entirely guided in the container. the bottom thickness cannot be less than 1 to 1. there is also a limit for the minimum reduction in area. the average strain. For trapped die. Therefore. 17. 17. The temperature of the workpiece material influences the flow stress. These effects counteract each other. r¯ . Another rule is that the maximum height of the cavity cannot exceed three times the punch diameter. there is an optimum die angle that minimizes the extrusion load. On the other hand.10a). a larger die angle increases the volume of metal undergoing shear deformation and results in an increase in shear deformation load. 17. The extrusion angle is also a function of the reduction in the area. the Fig. both the strain rate and the temperature generated in the deforming material increase. In forward extrusion. it affects the distribution of the effective strain and flow stress in the deformation zone. In backward extrusion. In forward extrusion. Pdh is the load necessary for homogeneous deformation. Workpiece material: The flow stress of the billet material directly influences the loads Pdh and Pds of Eq 17.5 times the extruded wall thickness. ● Die geometry (angle. Pdf. for low-to-medium carbon steel. It is therefore necessary to use average values of flow stress. In backward extrusion. Extrusion velocity: With increasing velocity. R: The extrusion load increases with increasing reduction. the most important rule is that the reduction in area cannot exceed some known limits. Consequently.e. 1983]. Pfd.11. and the die friction force. about 70 to 75% [Drozda. flow stress values depend not only on the chemical composition of the material but also on its prior processing history. maximum reduction in area of 70 to 75% is allowed. Pds. and Pds is the load necessary for internal shearing due to inhomogeneous deformation. The prior heat treatment and/or any prior work hardening also affect the flow stress of a material. an increase in billet length results in an increase in container friction load. Pfc. The loads are influenced by the following process variables: ● ● ● Extrusion ratio. which is 20 to 25% [Altan et al. i.

Fig.12c): A hollow cup.13). 1.220 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications These rules are also affected by several factors.12b): A hollow cup or can of reduced wall thickness is produced from a hollow can or sleeve. coating. 17. lubrication. 17.7. 17. 17. (e) Backward tube. (h) Side tube. (d) Backward rod. The die determines the shape of the tool opening. (c) Forward can. 17. 17. The die and the counterpunch determine the shape of the tool opening. such as blank material. ● Forward extrusion: The metal flow is in the direction of action of machine motion. 17. The billet is pressed through a die by a punch. (g) Side rod. The process is also known as hooker extrusion. (b) Forward tube. (a) Forward rod. Schematic representation of extrusion process for components.12)..12a): A solid component is reduced in cross section. (f) Backward can.12 ● Rod forward (Fig.12. higher strains are possible compared to open-die extrusion (Fig. 1985] . and final part shape. or sleeve is produced from a solid component.2 Trapped-Die or Impact Extrusion In this process (Fig. 2. initial shape of workpiece. ● Can forward extrusion (Fig. final shape of workpiece [Lange et al. 17. ● Tube forward extrusion (Fig. Different types of these processes are described below and illustrated in Fig. can. Both the die and the punch determine the shape of the tool opening.

with rn normal stress) used in some literature references. Both the die and the punch determine the tool opening. 1967]. The split die determines the tool opening. Fig.13a): Reduction of the cross section of a solid body without supporting the undeformed portion of the component in the container. The tool opening is determined by the punch only. 17. the volume of the material near the die Schematic representation of free-extrusion processes. Wick. initial shape of workpiece. Friction is discussed in detail in Chapter 7. final shape of workpiece [Lange et al.12d): A solid component is reduced in cross section. (b) Hollow bodies (nosing). or cup) is extruded from a solid component.12f): A thin-walled hollow body (can. Due to inhomogeneous deformation and internal shearing. 17. in addition to the approximation inherent in a given formula.12g): A solid body with a solid protrusion of any profile is extruded.08 in cold extrusion. 2. 1. or tube) at its end. In the deformation zone. used in expressing the frictional shear stress: s ⳱ f r¯ ⳱ mr/ ¯ 冪3 is in the order of 0. Tube side extrusion (Fig. 1985] . (a) Solid bodies.3 Free or Open-Die Extrusion The process of free or open-die extrusion is used for relatively small extrusion ratios. These formulas are derived either through approximate methods of plasticity theory or empirically from a series of experiments. 17.” The value of the friction factor. sleeve. 17. The unsupported portion should neither upset nor buckle during the process. In both cases. f. ¯ vary with location.13 ● Free extrusion of hollow bodies. Tube backward extrusion (Fig. This value is approximately the same as the value of l (used in expressing s ⳱ rnl. consequently. 17. Can backward extrusion (Fig. and Gentzsch. Both the die and the punch determine the tool opening.8 Estimation of Friction and Flow Stress There are a number of formulas for predicting the pressures in forward and backward extrusion [Feldmann. 1961.12h): A workpiece with a hollow protrusion of any profile is extruded. r. Different types of these processes are described below and illustrated in Fig. estimation of the material flow stress and of the friction factor for a specific process also introduces inaccuracies into the predictions. 17.13: ● Free-die extrusions of solid bodies (Fig. (c) Hollow bodies (sinking) with container. 17. 17. Rod backward extrusion (Fig. The split die and the mandrel determine the tool opening.03 to 0. 17.12e): A sleeve or a can with reduced wall thickness is produced from a sleeve or a can. or nosing (Fig. Rod side extrusion (Fig. sleeve.7.Cold and Warm Forging / 221 ● ● ● ● ● ● Backward extrusion: The metal flow is opposite to the direction of the action of the machine. 17. 1961. the strain and.13b and c): This process consists of extruding the hollow body (can.. the flow stress. “Friction and Lubrication. The requirement of the container shape at the end of the hollow body depends on its wall thickness. 17.

are also influenced by tool geometry and lubrication.8 u (ln R) ⳱ A02.72(ln R)0.25 Ⳮ 2l [Pugh et al. R ⳱ A0 /A1: a⳱ 1 ln R (Eq 17.73 P ⳱ 8. 1 ton ⳱ 2240 lb (1016 kg). is not reflected in the approximate estimation of the average flow stress.5.3% C steels 4lL D n 冢n冣 Originally derived for steels with zinc phosphate Ⳮ MoS2..7A H0.2A0r0.1 to 0.72 P ⳱ A06. container friction. i.. die friction. e ⳱ 2.. and K is the flow stress at effective strain e¯ ⳱ 1. r¯ a. used Kc ⳱ 3 . r. can be obtained from the curve for flow stress. The formulas that gave the best results are summarized in Tables 17.72 r¯ 0 Ⳮ ruFn e¯ a P ⳱ A0 2.E.4 and 17. hardness in kg/mm2 r0 in tons/in. ru in tons/in.6) • 1. e¯ a. P in tons Based on average strain.R.36 ln R Ⳮ 0. determined in model test with lead and with 5% cone-nosed punch. to the final cross-sectional area. This fact. e¯ . H ⳱ hardness of billet before extrusion. 1966] [James and Kottcamp.71828 Kc ⳱ 2.71828 e¯ a ⳱ 1.15) 0. Since the flow stress varies over the deformation zone.8H0. then: r¯ ⳱ K¯e n 冮 where n is the strain-hardening exponent.2 Based on average strain.15) 冪A 冣 冢 P ⳱ r¯ a • A0(ln R Ⳮ 0.45 ln (A0/A1) Ⳮ 1. the strain distribution and consequently the average strain.53 Table 17.1 to 0. r¯ a. If the flow stress can be expressed in the exponential form.4 ea ⳱ 2. described above. and the average flow stress. Values of container friction were included in predictions of pressures in forward extrusion [Altan et al. 1961] 2 A0r¯ a ln Rl Ⳮ pD • Lr¯ 0l P ⳱ A0 • r¯ a ln R Ⳮ ␣A0r¯ a Ⳮ 3 cos ␣ sin ␣ [P.9) Prediction of Extrusion Loads from Selected Formulas Various formulas for forward and backward extrusion were evaluated in predicting loads for 35 different material values (17 different steels with various heat treatments).7) Table 17. where R is the ratio of the initial cross-sectional area.9 rd ¯ e¯ (Eq 17. which is difficult to determine accurately.. 1966] [James and Kottcamp. ea. 1973] [Pugh et al.78(ln R)0.4 ln R 0 K¯enrd e¯ ⳱ K(ln R)n nⳭ 1 (Eq 17.E. as follows: ra ⳱ 1 ln R ln R 冮 rd ¯ e¯ ⳱ 0 a ln R and r¯ a ⳱ ln R 冮 (Eq 17. kg/mm2.24 ln R Ⳮ 0. r¯ a.78 0 u (ln R) P ⳱ 0. 1965] pL 0 0.45 ln R Ⳮ 1.28 Fn ⳱ (e¯ea/n)n P ⳱ A0Kcruln(A0/A1) 冢 冣 Remarks For 0.A. however.5 Formulas for calculation of forming load in backward cup extrusion Source [P.. For 0. Since the material flow is influenced by tool geometry and by interface lubrication conditions. determined in model test with lead and with ␣ ⳱ 27 e ⳱ 2. 1970] Formula P ⳱ A0r0(3.R. the local strains and flow stresses are higher.5A0(r¯ 0 Ⳮ ru • Fn)¯ea exp Fn ⳱ e¯ea P includes loads due to homogeneous deformation. 1950] [Feldmann.5 to 3 for low-carbon steel..e. ¯ versus effective strain. 1965] [Altan. A1.8) Formulas for calculation of load in forward rod extrusion Source Formula Remarks [Siebel. shearing.6) 0 17. e¯ . Near the interface. A reasonable approximation of the average flow stress.A. r¯ a.2. 1972]. The The value “a” of the integral is the surface area under the effective stress/effective strain curve and corresponds to the specific energy for homogeneous deformation up to the strain e¯ i ⳱ ln R.73 ⳱ 2. therefore. most formulas use a so-called “average” or “mean” flow stress.222 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications surface is subject to more severe deformation. 1973] P ⳱ A0r¯ 0(3. A0.0r0.3% C steel Steels with zinc phosphate Ⳮ Bonderlube 235 H.

09 in. The experimental results were obtained by extruding various steel billets 1 in. (2. For comparing the predicted and measured punch pressures. (3. or 2. suggested by P. annealed 1038. radii.250 0. yield stress. In some formulas..3 mm.9.6 with experimental data in Table 17. in most backward extrusion trials. or pressures. or a coefficient of friction l ⳱ 0.. hot rolled 1018. ksi (MPa) Reduction. annealed 8620. in cold forging (zinc phosphate coating Ⳮ Bonderlube 235 lubricant.0 in. or 1.R. they include the container friction. As expected. The predicted and measured punch pressures are compared in Table 17. an average of the pressures obtained Mechanical properties of forward and backward extruded steels r0 K 1005.8 for five steels. The predicted extrusion pressures obtained by use of the formulas in Table 17. f.A..5 takes into account the tool geometry (punch angles. 1973] and by Pugh [Pugh et al. The mechanical properties of backward extruded steels are given in Table 17. (3.6. and 0.5.5 in.R. A friction factor. annealed 1038. for two punch designs (with 0.05 in. (2.7 Comparison of measured and predicted breakthrough punch pressures in forward extrusion of various steels Measured pressure Steel 1005.03 and 0. The properties of the billet materials considered in this study are given in Table 17. from tensile tests.5 cm) in diameter and 1.173 35 45 43 44 55 241 310 296 303 379 47 68 59 70 74 324 469 407 483 510 50 70 60 71 82 Table 17.Cold and Warm Forging / 223 flow stress data were obtained. i. The value l ⳱ 0.e. at different reductions through a die with a 60 die half angle and a 1⁄8 in. The formulas that gave the best-predicted values of punch loads. The predicted pressure values correspond to breakthrough pressures. l can be estimated to be between 0. None of the formulas given in Table 17. Whenever necessary.7. The lubrication was the same as in forward extrusion. die angles). hot rolled 12L14.A.04 was used in evaluating all formulas. r¯ u.4. HRB 86 117 115 134 120 593 807 793 924 827 0. with zinc-phosphate-stearate lubrication.04 was selected on the basis of previous studies that indicated that. The formulas that gave the best predictions for punch loads in forward extrusion are given in Table 17.224 0.3 mm.4 are compared Table 17. punch edge radii).6. [P.2 mm) die land.E. or hardness were used. in the form r¯ ⳱ K¯en. the average flow stress. It can be seen in Table 17.e. used in the formulas was determined from Eq 17.312 0.9 cm) in length.E. (2.4. hot rolled 12L14.5 to 3.4 that the simplest formulas.08. r¯ a. give predictions approximately as good as those given by the other formulas in Table 17. The experimental results are obtained.8 to 8. 1966].. in backward cup extrusion are given in Table 17. Henkel Surface Technologies). values of tensile strength.R. subcritical annealed ru 103 psi MPa n 103 psi MPa 103 psi MPa Hardness. zinc-phosphate-stearate lubrication.5 cm) in diameter and 1. hot rolled 1018. annealed 8620. subcritical annealed Pressure predicted using formula from Table 17. The backward extruded billets were 1 in.A.255 0.5 cm) long. % ksi MPa Siebel P. r¯ 0. the predicted extrusion pressures would vary considerably with the value of the friction factor.4. Billigmann Pugh James and Kottcamp 20 50 60 70 20 50 60 20 50 60 20 50 60 20 50 60 68 120 144 161 111 186 205 96 172 187 103 190 210 98 178 205 469 827 993 1110 765 1282 1413 662 1186 1289 710 1310 1448 676 1227 1413 84 (579) 132 (910) 153 (1055) 184 (1269) 118 (814) 183 (1262) 212 (1462) 99 (683) 165 (1138) 194 (1338) 124 (855) 200 (1379) 234 (1613) 137 (945) 202 (1393) 230 (1586) 70 (483) 128 (883) 154 (1062) 189 (1303) 92 (634) 166 (1145) 201 (1386) 87 (600) 158 (1089) 191 (1317) 87 (600) 161 (1110) 195 (1344) 112 (772) 202 (1393) 245 (1689) 64 (441) 127 (876) 155 (1069) 194 (1338) 93 (641) 178 (1227) 216 (1489) 75 (517) 159 (1096) 197 (1358) 99 (682) 197 (1358) 241 (1662) 106 (731) 194 (1338) 232 (1600) 60 (414) 132 (910) 161 (1110) 195 (1344) 80 (552) 176 (1213) 214 (1475) 72 (496) 158 (1089) 192 (1324) 82 (565) 181 (1248) 220 (1517) 86 (593) 188 (1296) 230 (1586) 84 (579) 137 (945) 153 (1055) 181 (1248) 115 (793) 187 (1289) 208 (1434) 111 (765) 185 (1276) 209 (1441) 121 (834) 198 (1365) 221 (1524) 124 (855) 195 (1344) 216 (1489) . i..E.

The right side of Eq 17.A.12 gives: pa ⳱ K¯eanⳭ1 (Eq 17. subcritical annealed 1038. pa is average punch pressure.10 represents the amount of mechanical energy necessary for deformation. By use of Eq. If a strain-hardening material is considered and the friction at the tool/material interfaces of the deformation zone is neglected. i. and Dt is time increment.14 and the known K and n values of the model material. . which moves at a velocity (v) during the time (Dt) necessary to extrude the volume of material equal to the volume of the 冢pK冣 a (Eq 17. a model material (plasticine. then Eq 17.8 Comparison of measured and predicted punch pressures in backward cup extrusion of various steels Measured pressure Steel 1005. This energy is introduced by the punch. the calculated values of e¯ a and the K and n values of the real material are used with Eq 17. e¯ . annealed 1018.13 to estimate the real extrusion pressure.14 can be used for predicting extrusion pressures from a model test. aluminum. the external mechanical energy is equal to the internal deformation energy [Altan. e¯ a.: pa A0vDt ⳱ ¯ e dV 冮 rd¯ (Eq 17.5.10) v deformation zone (V ⳱ A0vDt). the following averaging method can be used. and the same average flow stress. and Sashar.13 and 17. 1970.224 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Table 17. Then.13) or 1/nⳭ1 or paV ⳱ Pressure predicted using formula from Table 17. Assuming that every volume element in the deformation zone has the same average strain. hot rolled 12L14. is measured. ¯ and effective strain. Pugh James and Kottcamp Schoffmann 50 60 70 50 60 70 50 60 70 50 60 70 50 60 70 223 228 249 305 309 341 304 313 327 286 293 313 274 282 316 1538 1572 1717 2103 2130 2351 2096 2158 2255 1972 2020 2158 1889 1944 2179 245 (1689) 248 (1710) 260 (1793) 389 (2682) 393 (2710) 412 (2841) 309 (2130) 312 (2151) 327 (2255) 320 (2206) 323 (2227) 338 (2330) 303 (2089) 306 (2110) 321 (2213) 236 (1627) 240 (1655) 249 (1717) 340 (2344) 345 (2379) 359 (2475) 325 (2241) 331 (2282) 344 (2372) 317 (2186) 322 (2220) 335 (2310) 284 (1958) 288 (1986) 300 (2068) 214 (1475) 237 (1634) 270 (1862) 300 (2068) 326 (2248) 366 (2523) 309 (2130) 343 (2365) 392 (2703) 290 (1999) 319 (2199) 362 (2496) 293 (2020) 329 (2268) 380 (2620) 194 (1338) 213 (1469) 240 (1655) 307 (2117) 337 (2324) 377 (2599) 290 (1999) 319 (2199) 357 (2461) 281 (1937) 308 (2124) 345 (2379) 245 (1689) 269 (1855) 301 (2075) with both punches was used whenever experimental data were available for both cases. This total deformation energy can be calculated only if the flow stress. V is volume of deforming material. and the extrusion pressure.10 represents the total deformation energy obtained by adding the deformation energies consumed within each volume element in the deformation zone. 1970].e. e¯ . metal flow in extrusion is influenced mainly by tool geometry and lubrication conditions. 17.10 Prediction of Extrusion Loads from Model Test Except where exaggerated inhomogeneities are present in the deforming material.12) and r¯ ⳱ K¯en with Eq 17. the average strain. % e¯ a ⳱ e¯ h 冮 0 rd ¯ e¯ (Eq 17. ksi (MPa) Reduction. Since this information is not usually available.11) where. 1967]. annealed ksi MPa P. The effects of material properties on metal flow are relatively insignificant [Altan. in addition to the symbols previously defined. v is punch velocity. at each volume element are known.E. First. is calculated.R. r¯ a. hot rolled 8620.14) Equations 17. pa. or mild steel) is extruded using certain tool geometry.11 can be written as: paV ⳱ r¯ ae¯ aV (Eq 17. The left side of Eq 17. r. 17.

Eq 17. The results are compared with experimental values in Table 17. in Eq 17. f.10(a). hot rolled 1005 steel. is determined from Eq 17. within 10 to 15% and can be considered acceptable for practical purposes. For instance. It should be noted that the extrusion pressure. pa. for R ⳱ 80%. are calculated for different steels using Eq 17.13. The shear friction factor. px ⳱ pe in Eq 17. 17.1 Punch The punch is the portion of the tool that forms the internal surface of the workpiece in a can extrusion. in most cases.15 transforms into: dpx 4f r¯ 0 ⳱ dx D 4f r¯ 0 L D (Eq 17. 1992] A tooling setup for cold forging is shown in Fig. annealed 115 793 0.173 1038. sf. or that pushes the workpiece through a die in a rod. the equilibrium of forces in the axial direction gives: 冢pD4 冣 ⳱ dxs pD 2 dpx (Eq 17. hot rolled 117 807 0..15) f Assuming a constant frictional shear stress. Table 17. the end pressure. i. would not significantly change from one steel to another. the friction in the extrusion container must be considered. 17. The end pressure.000¯e0. of the model material. It can be seen that the largest difference between the two values does not exceed 20%. The average strain.18 for a given billet length.14.17) The integration constant C is determined from the condition for x ⳱ 0. sf ⳱ fr¯ 0.18 illustrates that the peak pressure. Finally. pfc ⳱ 4f r¯ 0 L/D. tube. L. the peak pressures.Cold and Warm Forging / 225 Using 1005 hot rolled steel (r¯ ⳱ 86.18) Equation 17.000 e¯ 0. A comparison of the experimental and predicted values is given in Table 17. at the tool/material interface. can be predicted from a model test. and for the known yield stress. subcritical annealed 120 827 0. 1985. The agreements between prediction and experiment are.9 Comparison of measured and predicted (model test) punch pressures in backward extrusion of various steels (model material. With the symbols listed in Fig. pe. f.11.14. In order to predict the maximum load. necessary for deformation and the additional pressure. The punch pressure is obtained from the extrusion ratio.11 (Eq 17.. in this case. or open-die extrusion. In forward extrusion. while predictions are within 10% for most extrusions.244 12L14. It is reasonable to assume that the friction factor. by integrating.80.13 is the same as the ejector pressure. e¯ . necessary to overcome the container friction.13.16 gives: px ⳱ px ⳱ pe Ⳮ 4f r¯ 0 x ⳭC D (Eq 17.25 psi) K Measured pressure Predicted pressure Steel ksi MPa n Reduction. 1005HR steel.18. pp.16) Tooling for Cold Forging [Lange et al. is then determined from Eq 17. in forward extrusion: 17. pp. using the data for 1005 HR steel. only the deformation pressure. pe.9.e. Eq 17. % ksi MPa ksi MPa 8620. punch pressure ⳱ pa /0. or.10. r¯ 0. the model test method described above was applied in order to predict punch pressures in forward extrusion for a series of the other steels. r¯ ⴔ 86. annealed 134 924 0. 17. and ICFG. is to be determined from Eq 17.312 50 60 70 50 60 70 50 60 70 50 60 70 305 309 341 304 313 327 286 293 313 274 282 316 2103 2130 2351 2096 2158 2255 1972 2020 2158 1889 1944 2179 304 308 334 347 357 387 300 305 335 302 315 343 2096 2124 2303 2392 2461 2668 2068 2103 2310 2082 2172 2365 . in forward rod extrusion is equal to the sum of the end pressure.25 psi) as the model material.255 1018.

255 4340.173 1038. annealed 167 1151 0. subcritical annealed 120 827 0.312 8620.193 20 50 60 20 50 60 20 50 60 20 50 60 20 50 60 111 186 205 86 172 187 98 178 205 103 190 210 122 228 251 765 1282 1413 593 1186 1289 676 1227 1413 710 1310 1448 841 1572 1731 95 165 190 90 158 192 100 182 220 100 180 220 132 232 275 655 1138 1310 621 1089 1324 689 1255 1517 689 1241 1517 910 1600 1896 Fig.226 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Table 17. annealed 134 924 0. % ksi MPa ksi MPa 1018.10 Comparison of measured and predicted (model test) peak punch pressures in forward extrusion of various steels Measured pressure Predicted pressure Steel ksi K MPa n Reduction.14 Tooling setup for cold forging. (a) Can extrusion.224 12L14. 1992] . (b) Upsetting. annealed 115 793 0. hot rolled 117 807 0. 17. (c) Forward extrusion [ICFG.

11. Depending on size. 17. The heading die contains the shank and forms the underhead surface of the workpiece.11. 17. the punch is subjected to compressive and bending load as well as heavy wear. 17. Stress Rings The stress rings form the intermediate and outer portions of the die assembly to prevent the die from bursting. 17. both tool steels and cemented carbides may be selected as tool materials. Sufficient thickness is important in order to spread the load properly and to avoid bending. An extreme degree of parallelism and squareness is essential. both tool steels and cemented carbides may be selected for the die insert. and costs . and therefore. Due to high tensile stresses. During stripping. Case (Combined Case and Die Insert) The die is the portion of the tool assembly that contains the workpiece and forms the external surfaces. the counter punch is subjected to compressive stresses similar to those occurring in punches. bides may be used when long runs demand high wear resistance. Compressive stresses range up to 350 ksi (2413 MPa) and sometimes slightly more. The choice of the material depends on the maximum internal pressure and fatigue as well as the toughness and wear-resistance requirements.12 Punch Design for Cold Forging Figure 17. and the demand for wear resistance and toughness. principal designs used in the industry are as follows: ● ● ● ● Die Die with one-piece insert Die with axially split insert Die with transversely split insert Depending on size and shape. wear of the punch is normally not a problem.7 Pressure Pads The pressure pad is the block of material that supports and spreads the load behind the pad or die. The choice of the material depends on the section used and the ejection pressure. tensile stresses occur. The mandrel is subjected to wear and high tensile stresses. shape. The design process for punches and mandrels can be divided into the following stages: ● ● Determining the forming load Deciding the overall shape and proportions of the tool. tool steels are used.11.3 Counter Punch The counter punch forms the base shape and is usually used to eject the workpiece from the die. usually without taking part in the forming operation. Normally.6 Die.5 Mandrel (Pilot) The mandrel or pilot is that part of the punch assembly that enters a hollow billet and forms the inside wall. for a range of small and medium section sizes. tool life. tool steels are used. the detailed shape of the punch nose is to be determined. the choice of material is aimed at properties such as wear resistance and/or high yield strength. and wear. ● Choosing an appropriate tool material.11. Besides tool steels. cemented car- 17.11. The tensile stresses will amount to 200 ksi (1379 MPa) and more. the punch pushes the workpiece through the die and forms its internal surface. For can extrusion. Normally. section size.8 Ejector The ejector is the part of the tooling that ejects the workpiece from the die. 17. In ironing. Depending on the stress state. considering the stresses. 17. Container. tool steels are normally used. dies are reinforced by one or more stress rings.Cold and Warm Forging / 227 In forward rod extrusion. Normally. Die Insert. Both tool steels and cemented carbides may be selected. Choice of the tool material and its heat treatment depends on the compressive stresses (up to 300 ksi.11.2 17. especially in high-speed presses. In both can extrusion and coining or sizing. and more). tool steels are used. Normally. manufacturability. loading. The tool material should provide high compressive strength up to 220 ksi (1517 MPa).11.15 shows some punches and mandrels used for solid and hollow forward extrusion. or 2068 MPa. In can extrusion. availability. which increases the temperature at the punch nose.4 Heading Punch/Heading Die The heading punch upsets the head of the workpiece.

● In forward extrusion. Fig. nicely rounded and polished. The changes in the cross sections should be done using small cone angles and large transition radii.16c) is that the lubricant carrier and the lubricant cannot be separated easily or overextended locally. 1985. or finite-element simulations For punches.15 General designs for punches used in cold extrusion [ICFG. Figure 17. and Lange et al. 17.228 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications ● Verifying the design with model tests. The details of punch design and parameters calculation can be found in the literature [ICFG. Figure 17. The design should also avoid excessive bending stress that may occur due to buckling of the punch. an approximate design guideline is to determine the maximum compressive stress expected in the process and comparing this with the compressive properties of the tool material.16 shows different types of punch face shapes..17 shows the parameters involved in design for backward can extrusion punches. to avoid burr formation. 1992] Fig. In general. There is sufficient entry clearance for the punch. c.13 Die Design and Shrink Fit [Lange et al. prototyping. b. 1992. and ICFG. Punches for can extrusion are more susceptible to buckling failure than those for rod or tube extrusion. 17... The clearance between the punch and the die should not be very large.16 Punch face shapes for backward can extrusion [Lange et al. 1985] . 1985]. The punch face shape has a significant effect on the friction force and the material flow. 1992] Dies for cold extrusion can be of different configurations. ● Large and abrupt changes in cross sections should be avoided over the whole punch length in order to minimize undesirable stress concentration. The clearance should not be too small. The advantage of using a flat/conical punch geometry (Fig. as is the case with conical faces. The punch will buckle if the stress exceeds a certain level for a given length-to-diameter ratio. Some recommendations for designing punches are as follows: ● Punches should be made as short as possible. 17. the diameter of the punch at the deformation zone should be chosen such that: a. 17. depending on the design preferences or operational requirements. or else the punch will wear out due to elastic deflection of the tooling.

18 are as follows: ● ● ● ● ● The die entry radius should be as large as possible so as to minimize high stress concentrations. 17. (0.06 in. and strain rate ● The type of the process ● The geometry of the die and the slug or preform ● Friction and lubrication prestress of the die inserts. One half of each figure illustrates the use of split dies. between 0.e. (2 and 4 mm).Cold and Warm Forging / 229 the design of dies and die assemblies requires consideration of the following: ● The flow stress of the workpiece material. in excess of 300 ksi (2068 MPa). One or more rings are used to assemble the container with interference fits in order to apply compressive stresses to the die ring or liner. 17.19 shows the dies with two stress rings.08 and 0. respectively. In applications where the extrusion pressure is very high. Figure 17. temperature. Heat treatment of stress rings is very important to develop the desired mechanical properties. 1997].17 Can extrusion punch design guidelines [ICGF.2 and 1. Table 17.5 mm). leading to an improvement of two to ten times in die life. cold forming requires several stages to transform the initial simple billet ge- Figures 17. Strip-wound containers have strength that is twice or three times higher than the conventional stress rings. it is recommended to use stress rings that are strip wound. depending on the cold forging operation [Groenbaek.8(a) and (b) show the general nomenclature for extrusion dies. Extrusion dies are generally very highly stressed. i. The die relief should be kept small to provide guidance for the extruded rod and should be higher than the permitted wear allowance on the die throat. The length of the die land should be between 0..008 and 0.11 gives guidelines for the diameters of the stress rings. depending on the diameter of the die throat. The die land radius should be fairly small. Plastic deformation in conventional stress rings makes it difficult to control the compressive prestress and results in die failures. This high strength of strip-wound containers makes it possible to provide optimum Fig. The recommended design guidelines for the parameters in Fig. The number and diameter of the rings depend on the magnitude of stresses needed and the overall die space available in the press. which is affected by strain.14 Process Sequence Design In practice.16 in. The included die angle for minimum extrusion pressure should lie between 50 and 70 for extrusion ratios of approximately 2 and 4. depending on the throat diameter. 1992] . 17.

15 various parameters that affect tool life [Yamanaka et al. More examples can be found on the CD available with this book. and tool quality. (b) Can extrusion [ICFG..22 show some examples of forging sequences. 1992] ometry into a more complex product.23 shows the Fig. Tool quality is affected by how well the tool is designed.230 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Fig. and it requires both experienced judgment and the application of established design rules [Sevenler et al. are used to assist the die designers while they establish the forming sequences in cold forging [Altan et al. Parameters Affecting Tool Life Tool life in cold forging is important.19 Die with two stress rings [ICFG. 1987]. The FEM simulation of metal flow and tool deflection may be required at this stage of design. as it affects the tool cost and thereby increases the process and parts costs. The designer then calculates the volumes and tries to establish the accurate workpiece dimensions.. and the heat and surface treatment conditions. Highly experienced die designers do this work. Figures 17. The FEM can be used as a validation tool before tryouts. 1992] . work material. 17. the manufacturing of the tool.24 shows the typical tool defects encountered in cold forging tooling.20 through 17. the material selected. One of the major efforts required in applying the use of the cold forging process successfully is the design of the forming sequences for multistage forging operations. human skills. the designer draws rough sketches of the preforms for each station. 1992]. The designer may then want to change some part or preform dimensions to examine various design alternatives while keeping the workpiece volume constant. Figure 17. (a) Rod/tube extrusion. such as finite-element modeling (FEM) simulations.. Tool life depends on the production conditions. In the early stages of forming sequence design. Figure 17. 17. Computer-aided tools. 2002].18 General nomenclature for extrusion dies. 17.

1992] Internal pressure ksi MPa Number of stress rings required Up to 150 150 to 250 250 to 300 Up to 1034 1034 to 1724 1724 to 2068 None One Two Required ratio of overall diameter to die bore diameter (D/d) (approx. so that regrinding and finishing can be carried out. which may arise from insufficiently high pressures. 17. If extruded components show bright areas.6 to 1.9 ␯ Dd d: d1: d2: D  1: 1. Fracture of Inserts [ICFG. Tool steel dies are more prone to pickup and heavy wear than cemented carbide dies. and d2 are the same as in Fig. and score lines in the direction of extrusion. Pickup and Wear [ICFG. The die should be taken out for service as soon as the effects of pickups are observed. 1992]. Fractures of this type are usually the result of overstressing. Guidelines for stress rings diameter calculations [ICFG. Die inserts may fail in different ways.) Intermediate diameter (approx.20 Forging sequence (example 1) Fig.Cold and Warm Forging / 231 17.19. Fig. too low die insert hardness. 1992].15. or unsuitable tool geometry. scratches. a rough slug surface.1 Die Failure In general.21 Forging sequence (example 2) . These conditions may be caused by insufficient lubrication.2: 4 to 6 Note: ␯ is the Poisson’s ratio. die failure may occur in one or more of the following forms. 17. too rough die surface (owing to incorrect manufacture or heavy Table 17.11 wear). d1  0.5 to 3. and D. d. then unfavorable frictional conditions between the die and workpiece result in pickup on the die.. Axial Cracks. 17.8: 2. d1..) 4 to 5 4 to 6 4 to 6 .

17. and experience. To prevent transverse cracks. In all the situations. The most frequent reason for this could be high flow stress of the slug material as a consequence of inadequate annealing or departure from correct material composition. and/or increasing the die entry radius could be helpful [ICFG.25 describes a typical procedure to improve tool life in the cold forging process. Using experience and finite-element simulations. the interference must be adjusted appropriately. then fracture is due to excessive extrusion pressure.2 Procedure to Improve Tool Life Figure 17. decreasing the hardness of a tool steel insert by 2 to 5 points in the Rockwell C scale. A transverse crack. 1992]. If the die design is already considered as the best possible. is usually in one-piece rod extrusion die inserts and occasionally in tube extrusion dies in the vicinity of the die shoulder entry.22 Forging sequence (example 3) Fig. a new Fig. fatigue failure (after the production of a fairly large number of parts) is responsible. A similar type may also occur in the die bore at locations corresponding to the position of the rear face of the slug at the beginning and end of the extrusion stroke. In most cases. Transverse Cracks.232 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications If insufficient prestressing is suspected. 2002] . which is most common. a tool failure mechanism can be assumed. knowledge. splitting the die or decreasing the die angle. use of a tougher die material. These are due to stress concentration or triaxial stresses involving a high component of axial tensile stress. 17. or using stress rings of greater strength. increasing the overall diameter of the assembly.15. Based on the causes of the failures discussed above. then it could be increased by using additional stress rings. Observation and proper inspection of the failed tool must be done.23 Parameters affecting tool life in cold forging [Yamanaka. 17.

The normal temperature range is considered to be 1110 to 1650 F (600 to 900 C). i. This allows more complex shapes to be forged. tool stresses and forging loads are reduced (Fig. Greater ductility of the forged part. An exception is the warm forging of austentic stainless steels. short tool life and defects formed during forging limit the economic use of the cold forging processes. Selection of warm forging lubricants has proved to be especially difficult. at approximately 400 to 800 F (205 to 425 C). 17.16 Warm Forging In cold forging of parts with relatively complex geometries from high-carbon and alloy steels. It can be seen that the tensile stress does not decrease continuously with temperature. This is applicable. 2002] . then it could be finalized for the process. 17. The factor that limits the use of warm forging is that the tech- Typical defects in cold forging tools [Yamanaka et al. variations of tensile stress and ductility (as indicated by reduction of area) with temperature are shown in Fig. steels are usually heated between room temperature and usual hot forging temperature. wherein forging would not be recommended. As a result.26 for 1045 steel. If the new design gives a satisfactory tool life. Greater toughness of the forged part Improved accuracy as compared to hot forging Enhanced product properties through grain refinement and controlled phase transformations in heat treatable steels As an example.e. 1983]. forging at temperatures below recrystallization temperature.. 17.Cold and Warm Forging / 233 design can be suggested to overcome the tool failure. A reduction in strain hardening. There is a temperature range. 2001b]. is commonly used [Altan et al. forging pressures are extremely high and the ductility of the material is low. to high-alloy steels. in particular. The process may be interpreted broadly as thermomechanical processing at elevated temperature to achieve the following advantages: Fig. Warm forging requires determination of the optimum forging temperature and the suitable lubricant. in many cases. which usually are forged between 390 and 570 F (200 and 300 C) [ICFG.24 ● ● ● ● A reduction in flow stress. warm forging. ● ● 17. in this case. For warm forging..26). Consequently.. As a result. This may reduce the number of forming and annealing operations.

1972]: Altan. T. internal die cooling. Altan. Oh. 1983] nology is still undergoing development.. of Materials Processing Technology.. K. S. 1994]: Bay. Society of Manufacturing Engineers. T.” SME Tech- nical Paper MF72-142. 1982]: Raghupathi.-I... and tooling.” Manufacturing Engineering.. No.. (No.” SME Technical Paper MF72-526. Vol 90.. Oh. and Feldmann..” Transactions ASME. 1970]: Forging and Casting. p 57–76. and Beckner. 14. 1982. T. [Altan et al. and venting of coolants. American Society for Metals..D. R. 17. [Bay.. “Methods of Load Estimation in Flashless Forging Processes. 1972. T. J. Vol 46. [Altan et al.” Journal of Mechanical Working Technology... p. [Feldmann. “Prediction of Punch Loads and Pressures in Cold Extrusion of Steel.D. 8th ed. “Flashless Closed-Die Upset Forging-Load Estimation for Optimal Cold Header Selection. 1983. 1992. J. “Upsetting and Pressing. 1970]: Altan.” Journal of Materials Processing Technology. S. May 1996. 1– 2).. Raghupathi. H.” Journal of Materials Processing Technology. p 81–94. 1970. Painter. [ASM. [Doehring.234 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Fig. p 72. Vol. p 121–135. N. Sevenler. “The State of the Art in Cold Forging Lubrication. 1997. May 1970. Vol 59. particularly in aspects of surface treatment. “New Developments in Cold and Warm Forging. “Cold forming of Aluminum—State of the Art.. 1987]: Sevenler. 1–2. Tooling for warm forging is similar to that for cold forging.. T..C.. 1997]: Bay... [Altan et al.. “Forming Sequence Design for Multistage Cold Forging. 1987.. B. Altan. Vol 71. [Drozda. 10. Gegel... P. 1961]: Feldmann.. 1983. 1994. M. H. Munich. 32–39. “Computer Aided Part and Processing Sequence Design in Cold Forging.. T. 1992]: Kim. Vol.25 Procedure for improving tool life [Yamanaka et al..J. Battelle Columbus Laboratories. Altan. “Cold Forging of Steel.” Journal of Materials Processing Technology. [Altan et al. prepared for . p 94..” Carl Hansen Verlag.. 1983]: Drozda..S.” Merkblatt 201. Maul. T. p 19. K..L.I. 2).. 1996]: Altan. P.” Hutchinson and Company Ltd. p 76–90. 1961. 1972. [Altan et al. [Billigmann et al. Society of Manufacturing Engineers. 1977]: Feldmann..D. p 444. [Altan et al.. H. [Bay. [Feldmann. 1973 (in German). REFERENCES [Altan.” American Society for Metals.26 Effects of test temperature and test speed (strain rate) on tensile strength and reduction of areas of hot rolled type 1045 [Altan et al. London. T. 1973]: Billigmann. Vol 33 (No. Metals Handbook. G. with some modifications made in the die to allow increased temperatures.. “The Use of Model Materials in Predicting Forming Loads in Metal Working. O’Connell. 1972]: Doehring.. H.R.S. 17. 5. lubrication. “Metal Forming Fundamentals and Applications.” Topical Report No..” J. 1983]: Altan.. 2002] Fig. “Cold Extrusion of Steel.. N. H. “Money Saving Innovations in Automatic Forming.

“Some Aspects of Cold Extrusion of Steel. 2001b]: “Warm Forging of Steels. 1967]: Gentzsch. and Nielsen. p 121–135. 1967]: “Prediction of Extrusion Pressures in the Cold Forging of Steel.. Vol.. Vol 71 (No. Cold Extrusion and Coining. 1992]: “Objectives.. 1987.. 1973]: “Cold Extrusion of Carbon Steels. p 123. “Handbook of Metal Forming. [ICFG. 2002]: “Cold Forging of Aluminum.. Hanover. H. [Sagemuller. June 1968. 2.. p 373 (in German). 9. 1992. No. [ICFG. 1967 (in German). Technical University. 69. Essen. International Cold Forging Group.. International Cold Forging Group. Society AIME. p 1461– 1468.3. Influence of Phosphate Coating Thickness and Lubricants. Nov 14.. 1966. 1997. [Herbst. Vol 239. 1977 (in German). M. 1965. 1).” Society of Manufacturing Engineers. and Kottcamp.T. 20. Institute for Forming. International Cold Forging Group. 1985.” Doctoral dissertation. F. “Stripwound Containers for Combined Radial and Axial Prestressing. References. [Sahar. [P.” Wire... p 2.” Review 176.. 2001.” Vol. 1961. Dusseldorf.Cold and Warm Forging / 235 Beratungsstelle fuer Stahlverwendung. 1950]: Siebel. [ICFG. K. Vol 18. P. 1950. 14.. p 2.. [ICFG. 1961]: Wick. Forming.R. 11/01. p 162). Part III: Economics and Future Applications. SELECTED REFERENCES ● [Wick.” Sheet Metal Ind. 1967]: Herbst. History and Published Documents. “Cold Impact Extrusion of Large Formed Parts. Metall.B..A. 1985]: Lange. Ltd. [James and Kottcamp. V. T. 1984. 1973]: “Cold Forging and Extrusion of Steel. Literature Review.” Document No. Dusseldorf. C. “Cold Upsetting. of Mechanical Working Technology. . Part II: Properties and Tooling. 1987]: Sevenler. J. Technical University. 1966]: Pugh.” presented at Cold and Warm Precision Forging Workshop (Canton.H. 2001. “Selection of Steel and Heat Treatment for Ease of Cold Extrusion. 1. Verlag Girardet. E.” Journal of Material Processing Technology.A. and Sunami. K.. 6.E. ● [Witte.” Werkstattstechnik and Maschienbau.” Document No.” Trans. Vol 40. “Accurate Shearing of Workpiece Materials for Cold and Warm Forging. “Tools and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook: Volume I. Germany. VDI Verlag.. Vol 43. 1967. 2002]: Yamanaka. C.H. 1973 (Part I: Basic Principles.H. G.. 1984]: Wick.” Document No.” Industrial Press.” ISBN 3-87525-058-3. E.. 1968]: Sagemuller.. Raghupathi. [Groenbaek. Yamanaka Engineering Co.. Report No.. [Yamanaka et al. 1967.” paper presented at Chicago Technical Meeting of the American Meeting of the American Iron and Steel Institute.19. [Sevenler et al. Oct..R.. 1967]: “Investigation on the Variations of Loads and Energies in Cold Extrusion under Production Conditions. Altan. et al.. [Pugh et al. (in German). ”Chipless Machining. p 268–305.. 2001. 2002. E. “Tool Design for Precision Forging. 1997]: Groenbaek. 1973. “Fundamentals and Concepts of Forming. [Wick. [Watkins. et al. 13/02.” Report No. International Metallurgical Review. p 147. 1967 (in German). 95.” McGraw-Hill. “Forming Sequence Design for Multi-Stage Cold Forging. [Siebel. 2001a]: “Steels for Cold Forging: Their Behavior and Selection. [Gentzsch. MI). C. International Cold Forging Group. Stuttgart. p 30. Vol.” J..” P. 12/01. 1965]: James.S. F..E. New York. [Lange et al.

The effectiveness of this method is now widely recognized. as well as friction characteristics at the interface.2 Tool and Workpiece Material Properties In most cold forming simulations. the cylindri- .2. in order to have an efficient simulation it is necessary to remove all minor geometrical features. 18. is usually obtained by the cylinder compression test. it results in shorter computing time. To be applicable without errors or corrections.1 Introduction The finite-element method (FEM) is one of the numerical techniques used for solving differential equations governing engineering problems. “Process Modeling in Impression-Die Forging Using FiniteElement Analysis.3. 18. Gracious Ngaile. Other inputs required are the geometric parameters of the objects and the process parameters. material is modeled as deforming elastic-plastically.. 1994]. namely.2.2 Process Modeling Input As discussed in Chapter 16. and remeshing capability. The inputs to FEM are discussed in detail in section 16. editors.1361/chff2005p237 Copyright © 2005 ASM International® All rights reserved. In general.asminternational.” in Chapter 16 of this book. such as small radii in the dies that do not have a significant effect on the metal flow [Altan et al. p237-246 DOI:10. the simulations are usually carried out under isothermal conditions.” the accuracy of finite-element (FE) process simulation depends heavily on the accuracy of the input data.org CHAPTER 18 Process Modeling in Cold Forging Using Finite-Element Analysis Prashant Mangukia 18. strain. strain rate. such as material properties. and microstructure. including metal forming. Thus. or a three-dimensional problem. flow stress as a function of temperature. a forging process can be simulated either as a twodimensional. in comparison to elastic-plastic simulations. 18. commonly referred to as the flow stress curve. Rigid-plastic simulation assumes material to deform only plastically. the size effects should be taken into account in the simulation [Messner et al. must be considered in cost-effective and reliable application of numerical process modeling. Temperature increases in cold forging have little influence on the process.. “Process Modeling Input. The stressstrain relation of materials. the results are given for not only the plastic deformation but also for elastic deformation such as residual stresses and springback. and. geometry representation. for some specific applications.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Taylan Altan. computation time. Finite-element methods for simulations of metal forming processes are classified into those for the elastic-plastic and rigid-plastic analyses. such as microforming processes.1 Geometric Parameters Depending on its geometrical complexity. In the elastic-plastic simulation. Several issues. 1990]. axisymmetric or plane-strain. Gangshu Shen. www. tools are considered as rigid. This method has been applied to various engineering processes. Therefore. However. A brief summary is presented below in terms of important inputs for modeling the cold forging process.

This method..3 Interface Conditions (Friction and Heat Transfer) The friction and heat-transfer coefficient are not readily available in literature. By measuring the amount of barreling (Fig.. In general. Correction of flow stress data obtained from a compression test [Altan et al. 18.. “Inverse Analysis of Simultaneous Determination of Flow Stress and Friction. and cold) where the interface pressure is very high and the surface generation is large. The details of flow stress determination and inverse analysis can be found in Chapter 8. barreling is inevitable. 2001] . 18. the double-cup extrusion test is recommended for estimation of the friction factor (see Chapter 7. and procedures for correcting flow stress errors due to barreling may be necessary (see Chapter 4.1(a) shows a sample that was upset to 62% reduction (true strain of 0.2. is to simulate the compression process by FEM using various friction factors (Fig.1). “Flow Stress and Forgeability. surface defects. it is possible to obtain more reliable flow stress data at higher strain levels. This sample shows significant barreling. called the inverse analysis technique.” of this book. specimen preparation. implying that the lubricant applied was ineffective at this high level of strain. or determining approximately the error magnitude at high strain levels caused by inadequate lubrication (barreling). One way of correcting the flow stress.96). Friction factors measured with the ring compression test.” in this book). The most common way to determine the shear friction factor in forging is to perform ring compression tests.. 2001]. parallelism of platens. The friction conditions change during the process due to changes in the lubricant and the temperature at the die/workpiece interface.1c) [Altan et al. Attention should also be given to other sources of flow stress error determined through Fig. 2003]. Figure 18. 18.238 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications cal sample must be upset without any barreling (Fig. 18. In such applications. 18.1a) and comparing the experimental data with FEM predictions. however. in practice. Though in most FE simulations the tools are considered rigid. the experimental flow stress curves were found to be reliable only up to a strain level of 0. Use of adequate lubrication prevents barreling to some extent. Hence. particularly in microforming applications. depending on the part complexity. such as variation in coil material properties. warm. has been used to simultaneously determine friction and stress/strain data using a ring test [Altan et al. i. The failure of the lubricant is evident by the two different regions (shiny and nonshiny areas) depicted on the surface of the sample (Fig. elastic-plastic properties of the tools/dies become an important component in the simulations. and specimen size. 2001]. a state of uniform stress must be maintained in the sample at all times during the test.1a). 18.1 compression tests.5 [Altan et al. are not valid for precision cold forging processes (hot. “Friction and Lubrication..” in this book).e. for process modeling of precision forging. However. this assumption may not hold for complicated forgings with tight tolerances.

Therefore. as discussed in Chapter 16.) was used for this study. 18.. The objectives of this study were to measure the critical damage values for typical materials used in cold extrusion and to develop criteria or Fig. Other factors that influence fracture include chemical composition. Two different materials were selected. many shaft and shaftlike components.3 Process Modeling Output The process modeling provides extensive information on the forging process. including fasteners. because they provide more uniform grain flow around corners and improved dimensional controls on net shape surfaces.4 Process Modeling Examples A few case studies from the literature are discussed below to examine the applications of FEM in cold forging processes.2 Modeling of Golf Ball Mold Cavities [Hannan et el. These defects could be visible external ones. It was based on the modified Cockroft and Latham criterion. 2000] . and the microstructure of the forging.2 guidelines for designing forward extrusion dies for producing chevron-free extrusions. rate of deformation. 18. 18. Ductile fracture can be defined as a fracture that occurs after a component experiences a significant amount of plastic deformation and is influenced by numerous parameters. Figure 18. it is possible to predict through FEM simulations the formation of cracks in forming operations. as shown in Fig. or nonvisible internal defects.3. several tests should be performed to obtain. surface conditions. such as chevron cracking (Fig. and homogeneity. The output of process modeling can be discussed in terms of the metal flow.4. “Process Modeling in Impression-Die Forging Using Finite-Element Analysis. using this concept and FEM simulation. microstructure. 2000] In the automotive industry. Spherical dies are sometimes used in extrusion of safety parts. it is beneficial to investigate the occurrences of chevron cracks in extrusion with spherical dies. 18. Once the CDV for a specific material is obtained. At the Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing (ERC/NSM). a methodology for predicting ductile fracture via FE simulations was developed. the flow stress and the critical damage value (CDV).1 Prediction and Elimination of Defects in Cold Extrusion [Hannan et al. the equipment response during forging. Assuming the critical damage value is a material constant.e. 2000]...4. the distribution and history of state variables. details of which could be found in [Hannan et al. The commercial FE code DEFORM (Scientific Forming Technologies Corp. This process allows the Automotive axle shaft with chevrons [Hannan et al. 18. Some of these components are critical for vehicle safety and must be free of defects.” in this book. and friction). including the deformation history of the workpiece material and the process conditions (i. die design and process sequence can be modified to avoid fracture defects in cold extrusion.2) [Hannan et al.Process Modeling in Cold Forging Using Finite-Element Analysis / 239 18... 1999] Golf ball mold cavities are manufactured by the hobbing process. the CDV concept can be used to predict the possibility of fracture formation in cold extrusion. are produced by forward extrusion. 18. Thus. lubrication. In summary.4 shows that FEM can successfully predict the formation of chevron cracks in forward extrusion using this methodology. for a given material.. such as laps or cracks. 2000].

18.3 Methodology to predict and prevent the formation of cracks in metal forming operations [Hannan et al.4 Simulation of chevron cracks and experimental validation [Hannan et al. 2000] Fig. 18. Two-dimensional (2-D) and three-di- Fig. A parametric analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of various process conditions on the material flow and forming load for the hobbing process. However. Using the information from this study. as shown in Fig. The results of FEM simulations showed that a design can be formulated that resulted in a forming load that was realistic and did not surpass the yield strength of the tool material. the tool design shown in Fig.6.. 2000] . 18. 18. parametric analysis also showed problems with material flow of the preform.5 was used. For the parametric study. a design that resulted in good material flow (all dimples filled) and low forming loads was developed. In each simulation. dimples did not fill completely.240 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications molds to be manufactured more efficiently and reduces the cost. Finite-element modeling was used in this study to design the tooling..

tool life. and inner races presents a great challenge.3 Design of Automotive Parts Net shape forging of power steering pinions with helical teeth. However. 18. The details of the study can be found in [Hannan et al. The advantages of using FEM to simulate and hence design the optimum process were [Yamanaka et al.7 shows the application of FE simulations in the design and development of the helical extrusion process for manufacturing the pinion shown.. which has underfill and fracture. the use of commercial 3-D FE software in process development has drastically reduced the production costs by eliminating multiple trials and. 18.4. 1999] . Figure 18... 18. and geometric complexity of forgings. at the same time.4. The actual part is shown. 1999] Fig. 2002]: ● ● ● Obtain a better drive feeling Generate the tooth profile freely Establish an iterative technique for die and process design as well as heat treatment Figure 18. and the results show similar underfill and explain the fracture in the part. The one-die two-blow process used to manufacture this part was successfully simulated. helical gears. as predicted by two-dimensional FEM simulations [Hannan et al. 18.5 Tool setup and studied parameters in FEM [Hannan et al.8 shows the simulation of cold forging of an automotive part. 1999].4 Microforming of Surgical Blades The trend in miniaturization allows the production of cold forged parts with dimensions Fig..6 Incomplete filling of the dimples.Process Modeling in Cold Forging Using Finite-Element Analysis / 241 mensional (3-D) FEM simulations were used to analyze the modified design that fills the dimples of the lower punch completely and at realistic loads. has improved part quality.

2002] Fig.242 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications less than 0. c.. 18. Courtesy of DEFORM . and process control and capability. These parts are currently produced by 3-D etching and other metal-removal processes. However. a comprehensive knowledge pertaining to the following factors is needed: scale effects/microplasticity. With the aid of FEM.04 in.8 Cold forging of an automotive part (a. effect of microstructure on the process. Microforming is a potential process for mass production of net shape/ near-net shape microcomponents. for microforming to be cost-effective and competi- tive. b. the interrelationships between these variables can be studied so as to Fig. and d are the stages of forming). 18.7 Development of steering pinion with the aid of FE simulation [Yamanaka et al. (1 mm) range for electronics and biomedical applications. relative stiffness of the tooling.

1 mm) and final edge thickness of 0... 18. (0.0004 in.5 Fig.9 shows an example of 3-D FE simulations for a surgical blade with initial blank thickness of 0. 2001] Double-cup extrusion test for determination of friction conditions in microforming [Tiesler et al. 2001]. with oil as a lubricant (Fig. The friction observed for a 0.0004 in.004 in. 18.. 1999] provide guidelines for developing microforming processes. final blade thickness ⳱ 0.9 Fig. 18. 1996] Figure 18. the ERC/NSM has developed a microforming process for making surgical blades. 18.10 Microforming of surgical blades.01 mm) [Palaniswamy et al. friction becomes even more important than in conventional forging. 1996] FEM Analysis of Process Design to Cold Forge a Cross-Groove Inner Race [Vazquez et al. Cold forging of this part is very difficult.10). (0.11 shows the cross-groove inner race. Figure 18. .11 Possible areas of underfill in cold forging of a cross-groove inner race [Vazquez et al.Process Modeling in Cold Forging Using Finite-Element Analysis / 243 Fig.04 in. Comparisons between experiment and simulation show that friction effects increase with a decrease in size of the specimen. (0.16 in. In cooperation with industry. (1 mm) diameter billet was four times that for a 0.01 mm) [Palaniswamy et al. 18. Blank thickness ⳱ 0. Due to the high surface-to-volume ratio in the microforming process. (0.1 mm)..4. Effects of miniaturization on friction have been investigated by using the double-cup backward extrusion test.004 in.. (4 mm) diameter billet.

12 cavity filling and pressure must be achieved. It consists of three parts: a computer program called FORMEX. This shows that FE simulations of Example of FEM analysis of forging process sequence design [Kim et al. and the contact pressure distribution between the billet and the die. The calculations showed that. due to symmetry) were conducted. 1996] Instead of trying to develop computer systems to automate the forming sequence design.” Finite-element simulations were conducted to evaluate the sequence generated. while they “do” the design. Figure 18. Physical modeling and FE analysis were used to analyze the designs selected. Thus. DEFORM. the objective of this study was to develop a new design concept for tooling to improve the tolerance that is achievable in the cold forged groove. 18. it is necessary to control the motion and pressures of the inner punches. The results of 2-D simulations give a window of operation for further investigation. Two plausible designs were chosen for investigation from several other designs... Three-dimensional FEM simulations of different concepts for the punch motion help to select the best tool design before the actual tooling is built. at the end of the stroke. Two-dimensional FEM simulations were performed for preliminary investigation of the metal flow. though they may not accurately predict all the parameters. the die cavity pressure increases considerably. Such a computer-aided design (CAD) system was developed at ERC/NSM. In order to increase the capabilities of FORMEX. strains. 1996] . 3-D FEM simulations (one-sixth of the billet. forging sequences collected from references and industry were entered in the “sequence library. In order to obtain a more accurate prediction of the metal flow. The details of this study are given in [Vazquez et al. Figure 18.. 1996]. Since the maximum pressure should not exceed a certain limit.6 Computer-Aided Design System and FEM Application for Process Design in Cold Forging [Kim et al. This study clearly illustrated that in the multiaction forming process of the cross-groove inner race. DEFORM was used for both 2-D and 3-D FEM simulations. and a commercial FE program. a compromise between Fig. 18. a commercial CAD program. the goal should be to develop computer-aided tools to assist die designers.4.12 shows an example of FE simulation of such a sequence.244 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications as the grooves of the inner race act as undercuts.11 shows the possible areas (marked as B) of underfill.

submitted for publication to CIRP. a full 3-D modeling is required. N. 18... Figure 18. 2003] metal forming processes can assist the designers in establishing and optimizing process variables and die design. orbital forging simulations were conducted to study and develop a robust assembly process of an automobile spindle. T. Also...4. Oh. 2003] Orbital forging is an incremental forging process with a complicated die movement that can be used to reduce axial load requirements for axisymmetric or near-axisymmetric forging operations. p 1779.14 [Altan et al. a relatively large number of simulation steps are required to minimize the errors in solution accuracy. H. “Simulation of Orbital Forming Process Using 3-D FEM and Inverse Analysis for Determination of Reliable Flow Stress. As a result. 2003]: Cho. At the ERC/NSM.. Altan.. Ngaile.. Kim.. 2003] . 2003]: Cho. Orbital forming requires a number of revolutions to form a part.” ERC/NSM-01-R-05.. REFERENCES Fig... Therefore.” submitted Predicted metal flow at intermediate stages of simulation [Cho et al. R. 2001]: Dixit. 18.. 1990]: Altan. Altan. [Altan et al. “Measurement of Flow Stress for Cold Forging.” Advanced Technology of Plasticity.7 Advanced Orbital Forming Simulations [Cho et al. “Application of FEM to 2-D Metal Flow Simulation: Practical Examples.... Vol 4.13 Three-dimensional finite-element model for orbital forming simulation [Cho et al. [Cho et al.. G. Altan. S.. [Altan et al. 18.I. Figure 18. Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing. due to an asymmetric rotational tool movement.13 shows the FE model. “Simultaneous Determination of Flow Stress and Interface Friction by Finite Element Based Inverse Analysis Technique.. G.” Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing. and good agreement was obtained. process development effort and cost can be reduced. 1990. in FEM Fig. H. Solution accuracy was verified by comparing the predicted forces and tab outer diameters with experimental measurements. T.14 shows the predicted metal flow at intermediate stages of forming. T.Process Modeling in Cold Forging Using Finite-Element Analysis / 245 simulation. Ngaile. T.

D.. K. ”Tooling and Process Design to Cold Forge a Cross Groove Inner Race for a Constant Velocity Joint—Physical Modeling and FEM Process Simulation. “Cold Forging of Steel—Practical Examples of Computerized Part and Process Design. Yamanaka Engineering. H.. PF/ERC/NSM99-R-12A. 2002 (Canton. [Messner et al. 1994]: Messner. p 125. . 2002]: Yamanaka.. M..246 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications to Third International Seminar for Precision Forging. U. Plasticity and Plastic Working... “Prediction and Elimination of Defects in Cold Forging Using Process Simulation.. [Yamanaka et al.. Sept. International Cold Forging Group. M. Japan Society for Technology of Plasticity (Nagoya. R. [Hannan et al. Vol 59...” Report No.” Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 1996]: Vazquez. 1999]: Tiesler. [Kim et al. T. Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing. SELECTED REFERENCE ● [Hayama. F. Engineering Reseach Center for Net Shape Manufacturing. and Altan. Proceedings of the Sixth ICTP.. 2000 (Stuttgart)... 2000]: Hannan.. p 122. 19–24. U. F.. Vol 45.. Wallace. H.” Cold and Warm Precision Forging Workshop. D. and Sunami... Vol 59. Scientific Forming Technologies Corp. 2001]: Palaniswamy. T.. T. N. Vol. Geiger. Ohmusha. T. Vollertsen. Wolff. V... Ober. [Hannan et al. Vazquez. 1969. 1994 [Palaniswamy et al.” JMPT.... Schuler Inc. D. M. 2003. Sept 13– 15... MI). and ERC/NSM.” JMPT.. Ngaile.. V. A. [Vazquez et al.” F/ERC/NSM-01-R-26. 2. Altan.. p 144–157. Kals. p 374. Sweeney.. Altan. Altan. [Tiesler et al. M. Japan). and Altan. “Tool Design for Precision Forging.. 1996. Engel.. “Coining of Surgical Slit Knife. Nov 14. T. 1996]: Kim. “Forming of Microparts—Effects of Miniaturization on Friction. 1999. “Size effect in the FE simulation of microforming processes.. G....” Tenth International Cold Forging Congress. 1969]: Hayama.” Advanced Technology of Plasticity. Engel. 1999]: Hannan. “Precision Forging of Golf Ball Mold Cavities. C.

These methods were good. and the application of the microstructure model in superalloy forgings are discussed. and postdeformation hold times to characterize dynamic recrystallization during forging and meta-dynamic recrystallization and static grain growth during postforging .. 2000]. were used in the past to understand the impact of temperature. and strain rate on microstructures and properties and to guide metallurgists in process development [Deridder and Koch. and dwell (resting) between operations and final postforging cooldown. Real-scale tests were run to compare the model prediction with reality. strain.1 Introduction In aerospace forging. aspreheated grain sizes. meeting microstructure and mechanical property requirements of components plays a major role in the development of the forging processes and sequences. deformation.2. Three sets of experiments were used in the model development. The application of finite-element modeling (FEM) to forging made it possible to obtain the detailed thermomechanical histories at each individual location of the forged components. 1995. Microstructure modeling procedures were developed to make use of this information for grain size and property predictions for steels [Sellars. 1979] and superalloys [Shen et al. the grain growth model for preheating of a particular billet pedigree was developed. strain rates.asminternational. 1979]. In this chapter. Many tools.2 Experiments for Microstructure Model Development Hot forging involves preheating. the experimental procedure. The understanding and prediction of microstructures that develop during the hot deformation processing has long been the “art” of forging metallurgists. www.org CHAPTER 19 Microstructure Modeling in Superalloy Forging Gangshu Shen 19. 19. 19.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Taylan Altan. and Shen and Hardwicke. 19. p247-255 DOI:10. microstructure model formulation.2 Compression Tests Laboratory upset tests were conducted with different temperatures. and Gangshu Shen. editors. This model was then used to establish the preheated grain size (d0) just prior to subsequent forging operations. in addition to meeting the geometry requirements. but quantitative extraction of various processing parameters on the resulting microstructures and properties was not effectively accomplished.1 Preheating Tests Heat treatment studies were conducted with different temperatures and hold times to produce the as-preheated grain size for a forging operation. Small-scale experiments were run to simulate these operations and to establish the relationship between variables and microstructures and to generate data for the development of a microstructure model.2. such as wedge tests. From these tests. strains. Gracious Ngaile. transfer.1361/chff2005p247 Copyright © 2005 ASM International® All rights reserved.

accurate thermal-mechanical histories of local points of forged samples were used to develop the models for the microstructure evolution of Waspaloy during the forging process. Information regarding meta-dynamic recrystallization and postforging grain growth was also obtained from compression tests with controlled postforge hold times.2) Strain for 50% Dynamic Recrystallization. As a result of dynamic recrystallization.and in-c⬘ solvus) 0. average flow stress intermediate between the yield stress and the peak stress is maintained. This information included: time for 50% meta-dynamic recrystallization (t0.3. Thus. Peak Strain. 1995]. Finite-element analysis was used for each experiment to provide detailed information for each test. which is related to the critical strain for dynamic recrystallization (¯ec). Microstructure model formulation is discussed in these three categories. Before recrystallization is complete. 19. The fraction of dynamic recrystallization can be obtained by examining micrographs obtained from samples quenched after the deformation. the dislocation densities at the center of recrystallized grains have increased sufficiently that another cycle of nucleation occurs. metadynamically recrystallized grain size (dm-dyn). the fraction of dynamic recrystallization (Xdyn).5 fraction) dynamic recrystallization (¯e0. There are four important parameters related to dynamic recrystallization: the peak strain (¯ep). At the strain rates typical for forging of Waspaloy.5). the fraction of dynamic recrystallization (Xdyn). the stress diminishes to a value intermediate between the yield stress and the peak stress once past the peak strain. The amount of dynamic recrystallization is related to the as-preheated grain size (d0). Z ⳱ e˙¯ exp[468000/RT] for Waspaloy). fraction of meta-dynamic recrystallization (Xm-dyn).106 e¯ p ⳱ 5. information related to dynamic recrystallization kinetics was obtained. The equations developed for the peak strain for Waspaloy are: 0.54 0 Z (Eq 19. Thus. temperature (T).3 Microstructure Model Formulation The processes that control grain structure evolution during hot working of superalloys were found to be dynamic recrystallization.1 Dynamic Recrystallization Dynamic recrystallization happens instantaneously during high-temperature deformation. Waspaloy formulas are used as examples here [Shen et al. 19. the dislocation density can be built up very fast. The advantage of the Gleeble test is that it can perform a fast postforging cooling with a controlled manner.2. and new grains begin to grow again. The strain corresponding to the peak stress (¯ep) in the flow stress curve is an important measure for the onset of dynamic recrystallization. The occurrence of dynamic recrystallization modifies the appearance of flow curves. large pancakes and generic component configurations were produced on production equipment under various forging conditions and methods to assess the microstructure model. Micrographs taken from quenched compression samples show that dynamic recrystallization progresses in a sigmoidal manner with respect . single-peak stress-strain curves are most common. From these compression tests with rapid postdeformation cooling. This is because meta-dynamic recrystallization often follows immediately. and the size of dynamically recrystallized grains (ddyn). and grain growth at a given temperature and time after the completion of meta-dynamic recrystallization.3 Pancake and Generic Forgings In addition to laboratory tests.54 0 Z (sub.5).685 ⳯ 10ⳮ4d0. The kinetics information included: peak strain for dynamic recrystallization (¯ep). and the size of dynamically recrystallized grains (ddyn). meta-dynamic recrystallization. Under production conditions.5).1) (super-c⬘ solvus) (Eq 19. Both the MTS Systems Corporation compression stand and Gleeble test unit were used to perform these compression tests.106 e¯ p ⳱ 1. 19. The reason for this curve following a single peak is that under the condition of high Z (Zener-Hollomon parameter. and static grain growth.375 ⳯ 10ⳮ4d0. effective strain (¯e). The advantage of the MTS test stand is that it can provide more uniform temperature of the workpiece. the strain for 50% dynamic recrystallization (¯e0. and effective strain rate (¯e˙ ) in a hot deformation process. pure dynamic recrystallization is difficult to achieve.248 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications cooldown. the strain that corresponds to 50% (0.

29 0 Z (super-c⬘ solvus) (Eq 19.0} (sub-c⬘ solvus) (Eq 19.8 e¯ p The Size of Dynamically Recrystallized Grain.5]n} (Eq 19. 1979]: e¯ c ⳱ 0.0} Xdyn ⳱ 1 ⳮ exp{ⳮln2[¯e/¯e0. 19. and as-preheated grain size. The subsolvus forging results in finer grain sizes. The exponent can be obtained by taking the logarithm of Eq 19.Microstructure Modeling in Superalloy Forging / 249 to strain.7. The strain for 50% recrystallization. strain rate. The relationship between dynamically recrystallized grain. Under meta-dynamic recrystallization conditions. The critical strain for the start of dynamic recrystallization usually follows the relationship [Sellars. 19.3.5]1.5 ⳱ 0.3 are determined. equations for the fraction of dynamically recrystallized grains can be formulated for Waspaloy as below: Xdyn ⳱ 1 ⳮ exp{ⳮln2[¯e/¯e0. 1975]. the . Though the dynamically recrystallized grain size is not related to strain. and Z by: 0.5]3.11 and 19.04 e¯ 0.16 Schematic of strain corresponding to 50% (0.4 and 19.2(a) and (b) summarize the experimental data and the fitted model for Waspaloy dynamic recrystallization at 1850 and 1951 F (1010 and 1066 C). strain rate.4) 0.035 d0.8) Xdyn ⳱ 1 ⳮ exp{ⳮln2[¯e/¯e0. The Avrami equation can be used to describe a sigmoidal curve for the fraction of dynamic recrystallization versus strain: Xdyn ⳱ 1 ⳮ exp{ⳮln2[¯e/¯e0. and Z is shown as follows: ddyn ⳱ 8103 Zⳮ0.10) Meta-Dynamic Recrystallization Meta-dynamic recrystallization is important in the determination of the grain size obtained under practical forging conditions.85 Zⳮ0.5 ⳱ 0. only. and as-preheated grain size (sub.145 d0.1 (Eq 19. It is seen that there is a difference between subsolvus forging and supersolvus forging in terms of the sizes of the dynamically recrystallized grains. e¯ 0.03 e¯ 0.5 is related to aspreheated grain size.2 Fig.11) ddyn ⳱ 108. the relation for the fraction of dynamic recrystallization is determined. as shown in Fig. subsolvus forging needs large strains to finish dynamic recrystallization. respectively.5.32 0 Z (sub-c⬘ solvus) (Eq 19.03 e¯ 0.9) Figures 19. e¯ 0.3) When the constants e¯ 0.5 and n are determined. However.3 shows the correlation between the experimental data and Eq 19.0456 (super-c⬘ solvus) (Eq 19. 19. ddyn.and in-c⬘ solvus) (Eq 19. which is the case for most regions in a forged part. as shown in Eq 19.6) Fraction of Dynamic Recrystallization.056 d0. d0. can be obtained from compression tests with different magnitudes of strain for a given condition of temperature. the strain has to reach the value of steady-state strain to result in full dynamic recrystallization.8} (super-c⬘ solvus) (Eq 19.7) (in-c⬘ solvus) (Eq 19.12) Figure 19.12. This is because Z defines the density of the subgrains and the nuclei.5]2. The dynamically recrystallized grain size is the function of the Zener-Hollomon parameter.5 ⳱ 0.5 fraction) dynamic recrystallization (DRX) for a given condition of temperature.32 0 Z (in-c⬘ solvus) (Eq 19. Z.3. while supersolvus forging results in coarse grain sizes. Meta-dynamic recrystallization occurs when a deformation stops at a strain that passes the critical strain for dynamic recrystallization but does not reach the steady-state strain for dynamic recrystallization [McQueen and Jonas.5) 0. After the strain for 50% dynamic recrystallization and the exponent n for Eq 19.1.

3 tests Measured (data points) dynamic recrystallization (DRX) kinetics for hot deformation of Waspaloy at (a) 1850 F (1010 C) and (b) 1951 F (1066 C) and fitted curves Logarithm of dynamically recrystallized grain size (in lm) versus ln Z obtained from compression partially recrystallized grain structure that is observed right after deformation (Fig. the strain. .4b) by continuous growth of the dynamically recrystallized nuclei at a high temperature. and the holding time in a hot deformation process. 19.2 Fig. The meta-dynamically recrystallized grains are coarser than the dynamically recrystallized grains. 19. 19. the strain rate. However.250 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Fig.4a) changes to a fully recrystallized grain structure (Fig. they can often provide the uniformity of the grains under a production condition. The amount of meta-dynamic recrystallization is related to the as-preheated grain size. the temperature. 19.

5 ⳱ 4. 19. The fraction of meta-dynamic recrystallization progresses according to: Xm-dyn ⳱ 1 ⳮ exp{ⳮln2[t/t0. and strain rates is shown in Fig. and aspreheated grain size.5]1.5).33e¯ ⳮ0. and higher temperatures.54 ⳯ 10ⳮ5 d00.51e¯ ⳮ1. (a) Rapidly cooled immediately after deformation.5 can be obtained from compression tests with different holding times for a given temperature. strain. it tends to minimize itself whenever possible by decreasing the grainboundary area. Z: dm-dyn ⳱ 14. Meta-Dynamic Recrystallized Grain Size. Grain-boundary energy is comparable to the surface energy. and the Zener-Hollomon parameter. higher strain rates.026 (Eq 19. and the size of the meta-dynamically recrystallized grain (dm-dyn). strain. and strain-rate conditions. finer as-preheated grain sizes. The empirical t0. and Devadas et al. the fraction of meta-dynamic recrystallization (Xm-dyn). grain growth will continue to occur at elevated temperatures until Micrographs obtained from Waspaloy samples with different cooling histories after forging.0} Fig.073 exp(9705/T) (Eq 19. Grain-boundary energy is the driving force causing grain-boundary motion at high temperature.13) The t0.16) The meta-dynamic recrystallized grain size in ASTM number versus strain under conditions with different as-preheated grain sizes.Microstructure Modeling in Superalloy Forging / 251 Important parameters related to meta-dynamic recrystallization are the time for 50% meta-dynamic recrystallization (t0. 19.3. Time for 50% Meta-Dynamic Recrystallization.5 for meta-dynamic recrystallization follows: t0. 1991]. 1976.44Zⳮ0.14) The exponent. temperatures. 19.28e˙¯ ⳮ0. Meta-dynamic recrystallization is time dependent. n. or 1066 C) . In general. strain rate. for meta-dynamic recrystallization is found to be 1 for Waspaloy.15) Figures 19. and as-heated grain size. The grain size obtained at the end of meta-dynamic recrystallization is found to have the following relationship with the strain.5]n} (Eq 19.3 Grain Growth Under high-temperature deformation conditions.e.5(a) and (b) show the fraction of meta-dynamic recrystallization versus time obtained from the experiments and the predictions at 1951 F (1066 C) with different as-preheated grain size. the as-preheated grain size. Fraction of Metadynamic Recrystallization. strain rate. meta-dynamic recrystallization progresses in the following manner with respect to time: Xm-dyn ⳱ 1 ⳮ exp{ⳮln2[t/t0.56d00.4 (Eq 19. (b) Rapidly cooled after a 5 s hold at deformation temperature (1951 F. The meta-dynamic recrystallization finishes sooner for cases of larger strains.. grain growth happens rapidly after the completion of meta-dynamic recrystallization. This number is typical for meta-dynamic recrystallization [Jonas. i.6.. For a given strain.

There was not much difference in grain size after the completion of meta-dynamic recrystallization between the two samples obtained from compression tests at 1951 and 2050 F (1066 and 1121 C) (Fig. Grain growth is characterized by compression tests with different postforging hold times. 19. From the micrographs obtained from these tests.252 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications the balance between the grain-boundary energy and the pinning effects of precipitates (precipitate size and spacing) is reached. 19. However.7).17) The form of Eq 19.22 and (b) 0.3 .17 is well known for the characterization of grain growth.6 to 1. the dislocations have essentially disappeared. the grain growth results in a large difference in the final grain size between the two sets of tests.7. Fraction of meta-dynamic recrystallization (DRX) versus time at 1951 F (1066 C) with a strain of (a) 0. The change in grain size versus time after the completion of meta-dynamic recrystallization is found to follow: d3 ⳮ dm-dyn3 ⳱ 2 ⳯ 1026 t exp(ⳮ595000/[RT]) (Eq 19. 19. The reason for Fig.5 emphasizing that the dm-dyn is the grain size after complete meta-dynamic recrystallization is that after the completion of meta-dynamic recrystallization.3 and 19. the microstructural evolution from partial dynamic recrystallization to full meta-dynamic recrystallization and to grain growth was observed. The experimentally obtained data and the model prediction for the short-time grain growth are shown in Fig. and the driving force for grain size changes is the grain-boundary energy only. It is seen from this figure that the grain growth at a temperature of approximately 2050 F (1121 C) is very fast.

the larger the grain-boundary area and the volume of distorted metal. temperature-compensated strain rate. 19. and the as-preheated grain size. because when polycrystalline metal is deformed.3. the lattice adjacent to grain boundaries distorts more than the center of the grain. the size of the recrystallized grains decreases [McQueen and Jonas. Hence.6 19. dislocations rearrange into subgrains.1. the number of possible sites of nucleation increases. the nuclei of new grains form. The smaller the as-preheated grain. 1975]. Thus. Moreover. larger strains result in a higher percentage of recrystallization. the as-preheated grain size plays an important role in the determination of the fraction of recrystallization and recrystallized grain size. the greater the amount of dislocations and the greater the number of cycles of recrystallization. 19.7 forging Grain growth versus time after the completion of meta-dynamic recrystallization in Waspaloy .4 Meta-dynamic recrystallized grain size versus strain for various process conditions Model Summary It is seen from these equations that the major factors in the control of the grain size in the forging of Waspaloy are strain. Fig. As a consequence.Microstructure Modeling in Superalloy Forging / 253 Fig. which gives a higher density of nuclei. the grain boundaries interrupt the slip processes. Thus. The higher the strain. Strains create localized high densities of dislocations. the uniformity of distortion increases with the decrease in as-preheated grain size. the rate of nucleation increases. The equations developed for the quantitative prediction of these phenomena for Waspaloy are summarized in Table 19. There are also more cycles of recrystallization present under high values of Z. At a given strain. and the size of the recrystallized grains decreases. When the subgrains reach a certain size. To reduce their energy. The reason that deformation under high-Z conditions gives finer grain size is that an increase in Z results in the increase in the subgrain density. having a fine as-preheated initial grain size is very important for obtaining a fine recrystallized final grain size. Therefore.

5 ⳱ 0. Again.035 d00.28e¯˙ ⳮ0.8¯ep Subsolvus forging e¯ p ⳱ 5.54 Z0.106 e¯ 0.0456 Meta-dynamic recrystallization t0..16 In-solvus forging e¯ p ⳱ 5. Figures 19. The blow-by-blow simulation was run for the hammer forging in the FEM code DEFORM that allows the entire thermal-mechanical history of the hammer forging to be stored in the computer.44Zⳮ0.9 show that the fraction of recrystallization and the ASTM average grain size predicted by the model agree well with the experimentally measured values.026 Figures 19.073 exp(9705/T) Xm-dyn ⳱ 1 ⳮ exp{ⳮln2[t/t0.51 e¯ ⳮ1. The microstructure model uses the thermal-mechanical history of the hammer forging to predict the recrystallization and grain size of the hammer-forged 718 disk.03 Xdyn ⳱ 1 ⳮ exp{ⳮln2[¯e/¯e0.04 Xdyn ⳱ 1 ⳮ exp{ⳮln2[¯e/¯e0. Multiple dies were used in this hammer forging.8 Fig.106 e¯ 0. and Scientific Forming Technologies Corp. Table 19. 19. Figure 19.9 Grain Growth Comparison of model prediction and experimental results. such as hammer forging with multiple blows and die sets and the combination of press and hammer forgings.5]1.54 Z0.8 and 19.29 Z0. lm as-preheated grain size.54 ⳯ 10ⳮ5 d00.8 and 19. 1988].1 Mathematical model for microstructure development in Waspaloy forging Dynamic recrystallization Z ⳱ e˙¯ exp(468000/RT) e¯ c ⳱ 0.4 Prediction of Microstructure in Superalloy Forging The methodology used in Waspaloy microstructure model development has also been used for superalloy 718 [Shen.. Average ASTM grain size of a 718 developmental forging .) to predict microstructures developed for different forging processes [Wu and Oh. 19.5 ⳱ 0. The models are integrated into finite-element software DEFORM (Scientific Forming Technologies Corp.33e¯ ⳮ0. 1985.10 shows the model-predicted ASTM grain sizes and the experimentally measured ASTM grain sizes for an experimental Waspaloy disk.8} ddyn ⳱ 108.0} dm-dyn ⳱ 14.5 Nomenclature of Microstructure Model final grain size.145 d00.5 ⳱ 0. These examples show that the microstructure model is capable of predicting the recrystallization and grain size for quite complex processes.056 d00. 2002].9 are the comparison of model prediction and experimentally obtained values (numbers shown on the contours) of recrystallization and average ASTM grain size of a hammer-forged 718 disk [Shen et al.54 Z0.85 Zⳮ0.375 ⳯ 10ⳮ4 d00.5]3. 2001].5 ⳱ 4.5]1.0} ddyn ⳱ 8103 Zⳮ0. the model predicted well the average grain size of the forged Waspaloy disk.03 Xdyn ⳱ 1 ⳮ exp{ⳮln2[¯e/¯e0.254 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications 19. 19.0} ddyn ⳱ 8103 Zⳮ0. lm d3 ⳮ dm-dyn3 ⳱ 2 ⳯ 1026 t exp(ⳮ595000/[RT]) d d0 Fig.685 ⳯ 10ⳮ4 d0. 2000].375 ⳯ 10ⳮ4 d00. The forging process involved a hydraulic press isothermal forging followed by a hammer forging [Stewart.32 Z0.56d00.106 e¯ 0. Fraction of recrystallization of a 718 developmental forging Comparison of model prediction and experimental results.16 Supersolvus forging e¯ p ⳱ 1.32 Z0.5]2.

London. “Modeling Grain Size Evolution of P/M Rene 88DT Forgings.” Advanced Technology for Superalloy Affordability. “The Thermal and Metallurgical State of Strip during Hot Rolling: Part III. Ed. 1979]: Deridder.. E.. CA). p 1795–1802.M. lm meta-dynamically recrystallized grain.. Ed.” Treatise on Materials Science and Technology. A. et al. Ed.M. [Stewart. SELECTED REFERENCE ● [Shen et al..” Advanced Technologies for Superalloy Affordability. CA). Academic Press. s time for 50% meta-dynamic recrystallization fraction of dynamic recrystallization fraction of meta-dynamic recrystallization Zener-Hollomon parameter. Chang et al. S. TMS.. 625.. [Devadas et al. Ed.. “Microstructure Modeling of Forged Components of Ingot Metallurgy Nickel Based Superalloys. Davies. A... S.” Met. C. p 547– 563. 1996]: Shen.M. 2000]: Shen. K time.A. et al. Average ASTM grain size of a Waspaloy developmental forging ddyn dm-dyn n Q R T t t0. C. Ed. p 3–15. J. “Recovery. and Hardwicke. Microstructural Evolution.. J/mol gas constant.” The Proceedings of the Symposium on Advances in Science and Technology of Titanium (Anaheim. “ALPIDT—A General Purpose FEM Code for Simulation of Nonisothermal Forging Processes.J. “Modeling Microstructural Development during the Forging of Waspaloy. 1975]: McQueen. [Jonas.. and Materials Society. 1/s effective strain effective strain for 50% dynamic recrystallization critical strain for dynamic recrystallization peak strain for dynamic recrystallization effective strain rate REFERENCES [Deridder and Koch. 2002]: DEFORM 7. p 393–493.. Abrams et.” Met.. and Koch. Reichman et al. [Scientific Forming Technologies Corp. “Recovery and Recrystallization during High Temperature Deformation. Scientific Forming Technologies Corp... p 449–460..J..J. 1995]: Shen. J... OH.. [Shen. C. lm exponent for Avrami equation activation energy.. 1988]: Stewart.” Superalloys. and Jonas.. 1979]: Sellars.. C. and Oh. .314 J/(mol•K) temperature.5 Xdyn Xm-dyn Z e¯ e¯ 0. G. [Sellars. 19.Microstructure Modeling in Superalloy Forging / 255 Fig. 2001]: Shen. R. Metals. Hot Working and Forming Processes.” Superalloys 718. TMS. p 545– 551. Sellars and G.10 Comparison of model predicted and experimentally obtained. Ed.M..J.... American Society for Testing and Materials. [Shen et al. G. [Wu and Oh. The Minerals. Properties.. 1976]: Jonas. H.J. p 976–1002. The Minerals Metals and Materials Society.. STP 672.. Loria. 6. Vol. “Advances in the State-of-the-Art of Hammer Forged Alloy 718 Aerospace Components. K. H. Trans. and Service Performance through Microstructural Control. Chang et al.2 User Manual.. K. Recrystallization and Precipitation under Hot Work- ing Conditions. [Shen et al. [Shen and Hardwicke. Columbus.” Proceedings of North American Manufacturing Research Conference (NAMRC) XIII (Berkley.I. 8. TMA. al. G.T. 706 and Various Derivatives. France). TMS. G. Trans. “Microstructure Development in a Titanium Alloy.. 2000]: Shen. G.. 1991]: Devadas.. [McQueen and Jonas. A. “ISOCON Manufacturing of Waspaloy Turbine Discs.. D. 1985]: Wu. p 335–349. et al.5 e¯ c e¯ p e˙¯ dynamically recrystallized grain.” MiCon 78: Optimization of Processing. “Forging and Processing of High Temperature Alloys.. W.” Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Strength of Metals and Alloys (Nancy.

allowing near-net shape configurations to be formed. Though the strain rate is low and the forging time is long in isothermal forg- . 20. Rene 95. Waspaloy.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Taylan Altan. 1996]. property requirements. U-720. Isothermal forging. they are difficult to process in the wrought form. The strain rate used in isothermal forging is usually low to reduce the adiabatic heating. Titanium and nickel-base superalloys. requires a large initial capital investment for equipment. Hot-die forging was developed to make some sacrifice in die temperature and net shape capability while lowering the initial investment. In an isothermal forging process. which results in the use of less raw material and minimum postforging machining. however. The new. including component geometry. superalloys and molybdenum alloys are often used as tooling materials. Ti-6-2-4-6.1361/chff2005p257 Copyright © 2005 ASM International® All rights reserved. and others can be forged economically only by using the isothermal forging technique. www. Since molybdenum alloys are prone to rapid oxidation at high temperatures. the dies are heated to the same temperature as the workpiece. IMI 834. and Noel et al. N 18. Rene 88. In isothermal forging of titanium and nickelbase superalloys. all forging operations must be optimized to reduce the amount of metal required to make the final component shape. Ti-6Al-4V. Isothermal forg- ing was first practiced in production using IN100 material. editors.2 Isothermal Forging Isothermal hydraulic press forging has been developed for near-net shape forging of materials that are difficult to process. Therefore. a vacuum or inert atmosphere is used. Gangshu Shen. Highly alloyed cast and wrought superalloys have a very narrow processing window. All of the isothermal and hotdie forged aerospace parts require a stringent postforging heat treatment to produce the optimum microstructure and properties of the components. which also increases the capital investment in isothermal forging. 1996. are relatively expensive and hard to machine. maintain superplastic material behavior. p257-275 DOI:10. and economics [Williams. or 925 to 1205 ⬚C). Gamma-TiAl.1 Introduction The manufacturing processes used to produce aerospace forgings depend on several factors. two widely used materials for aerospace components. Adding extra metal to the forging configuration results in added input metal and machining costs to produce the final components. Alloys such as IN-100... and meet the processing requirements of P/M superalloys. since the forging temperatures are very high (1700 to 2200 ⬚F. Nickel-base superalloys were developed for superior elevated-temperature strength and creep resistance.org CHAPTER 20 Isothermal and Hot-Die Forging Manas Shirgaokar Gangshu Shen 20. Gracious Ngaile. 1997].asminternational. With regard to economics. Isothermal forging was developed to provide a near-net shape component geometry and well-controlled microstructures and properties with accurate control of the working temperature and strain rate. even higher-alloycontent powder metallurgy (P/M) materials are even more temperature and strain-rate sensitive and require a low strain-rate superplastic forging condition to avoid abnormal structure being developed during postforging heat treatments [Soucail et al.

which is not usually possible for isothermal forging. 1988]. This method consists of [Altan et al. 1973]: ● Preconditioning the stock under controlled conditions to secure a temporary condition of low strength and high ductility ● Hot working to the desired shape while maintaining those attributes ● Restoring normal properties to the workpiece through heat treatment With Gatorizing. fast post-forging cooling processes. and the higher strength that could be obtained from these alloys resulted in higher strength-to-weight ratios in aircraft components such as jet engine disks. and stringent requirements on component microstructure and properties. In the forging of high-alloy-content P/M superalloys. Induction. The die temperatures used in hot-die forging are usually a few hundred degrees lower than the workpiece temperature. This technique is referred to as IsoCon and is made up of a controlled isothermal forging operation followed by a controlled conventional hammer forging operation [Stewart... The deformation may be carried out by means of various . To keep a constant high temperature of the dies. Utilization of deformation and metallurgical models for IsoCon process design optimization has been beneficial in obtaining the final component results. the microstructure and property requirements. they are much higher than the die temperatures used in conventional forging. 20. Higher die temperatures require stronger materials for the dies. an improved method for forging hightemperature alloys.2 Hot-Die Forging Gatorizing IsoCon A process that combines isothermal forging and hammer forging has been developed for the processing of Waspaloy. This metallurgical-based process requires a high In addition to isothermal forging. Successful application of these processes demands accurate temperature and strain-rate control. hard-to-work nickel alloys were forged for the first time. 1976. The strain rate used is usually an order of magnitude higher than that used in isothermal forging. to reduce die chilling.3 20. 1980]. in 1970.. was patented by Moore et al. titanium alloys and cast and wrought superalloys are often forged by hot-die forging processes. and McLeod et al. Due to the higher strain rates used in hot-die forging. and radiant systems are usually used for die heating in hot-die forging. due to the fact that the dies are heated to the same temperature as the workpiece.1 Alloys destined for use in rotating machinery such as gas turbines are designed to have high strength at elevated temperatures. as in conventional forging. advances in titanium and nickel-base superalloy materials. can be applied immediately after forging. consistent heating of the die is required. resistance. This process also led to development of techniques for isothermal forging of integrally bladed engine rotors (disks of superalloys forged integrally with ceramic blades) [Walker et al. Their performance characteristics make them a challenge to forge or machine using conventional techniques. Since hot-die forging is not performed in a vacuum/inert environment. the isothermal forging process is the only proven method for success. Thus.2. 20. Superalloys are often used as die materials for hot-die forging. degree of process control for both the isothermal and hammer forging operations. there is no die chilling.258 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications ing.2. ranging from 400 to 800 ⬚F (205 to 425 ⬚C). a nickel-base superalloy material. The isothermal step results in the required microstructure and general component configuration. such as water quench and oil quench. known as Gatorizing. while the final hammer forging step results in controlled cold strain. and the economics. 20. Whether an isothermal forging or a hotdie forging should be selected for a component depends on the material. On the other hand. P/M superalloys are usually not forged by this process. hot-die hydraulic press forging is also widely used for producing aerospace components. which significantly increases the properties of the final part and imparts the final geometry refinement. However.4 Benefits of Isothermal and Hot-Die Forging Forging basically involves the deformation of a metal billet or a preform between two or more dies in order to obtain the final part.

since they lose their strength and hardness above this temperature range [Semiatin et al. and thus reduce die stresses.. At intermediate strain rates. Thus. 20. making these materials extremely suitable for isothermal and hot-die forging. These forging processes allow for smaller corner and fillet radii. the deformation behavior of a material is best understood by examining the flow stress dependence on strain rate [Chen et al. such as hammers or mechanical. smaller draft angles. slow deformation speeds can be used (e. The high strain-rate sensitivity of superplastic materials promotes die filling and resists localized plastic deformation. Due to reduction of forging pressures. the flow stress dependence on e¯ is often large.2). increase formability. Dies are thus normally heated to approximately 600 to 800 ⬚F (315 to 425 ⬚C) to reduce the heat transfer. since the selection of the other elements. During hot forging.e. especially in aerospace forging. 1980. Reduction of machining costs and material losses. the heat transfer from the hot material to the colder dies can result in die chilling. Parts with complex geometries are forged in impression dies that have the shape of the desired part. and it is in this region that superplastic behavior is predominant (Fig. a hydraulic press). preforming and blocking). 20. it is more appropriate to concentrate on high-temperature alloys such as titanium and nickel. and lubricants. or screw presses. This process results in very high die stresses and hence calls for the material to be forged at elevated temperatures in order to reduce the flow stress.. This industry produces a relatively small number of parts. 1978]. 1983]: ● Closer tolerances than conventional forging due to elimination of die chilling. the flow stress is usually a function of strain rate. Forging of steels and high-temperature alloys can be an expensive process due to the preforming and blocking operations needed to achieve the desired part geometry. since the dies are readily heated to the same temperature range as the material (approximately 800 ⬚F.. consequently leading to materials savings and a reduced forging weight (Fig. except at very low strains. This may be done in one step or a sequence of steps (i. Isothermal and hot-die forging offer the following advantages [Semiatin et al. Figure 20. such as equipment. This cost ratio has been a driving factor for the development of isothermal (dies and workpiece at the same temperature) and hot-die (die temperature close to that of the workpiece) forging methods. not suitable for titanium and nickel alloys that are more expensive in comparison to steel and aluminum. which does not justify the high die costs. however.1 and 20. where Tm is the melting point or solidus temperature of the material). it is considered economical to forge a part with high machining allowances to reduce die costs while simultaneously increasing machining costs and material losses. Consequently.g. or 425 ⬚C). Aluminum alloys are generally isothermally forged. Since isothermal forging of aluminum alloys is a well-established state-ofthe-art process. This approach is. ● Since die chilling is not a problem. and smaller forging envelope.5 High-Temperature Materials for Isothermal and Hot-Die Forging An in-depth understanding of the plastic properties of the forging material is extremely crucial for the design of an isothermal forging process. the reduction of flow stress with decreasing strain rate lowers the forging loads. At hot forging temperatures (Tⱖ 0.. 20. hydraulic. die material. Conventional die materials do not allow the use of temperatures higher than 800 ⬚F (425 ⬚C). larger parts can be forged using existing equipment... This reduces the strain rate and flow stress of the forged material. Isothermal forging also reduces the number of forging steps and ancillary operations that are necessary in conventional forging. is based on this knowledge.6 Tm.3 shows a comparison between isothermal forging and other conventional methods of producing a typical rib-web-type aircraft structural component. ● Elimination of die chilling also results in reduction of preforming and blocking steps. thus making it possible to form a part isothermally with a smaller press than in conventional hot forging. The dependence of the flow stress on temperature is minimal at very low (creep) as well as high (conventional hot forging) strain rates. 20.Isothermal and Hot-Die Forging / 259 machines. and Greenwood et al.5. depending on the part complexity. thus reducing die costs. Also. however.4).1 Titanium Alloys Titanium alloys are among the most commonly used materials for isothermal and hot-die . 1983].

.6 and 20. beta (␣) alloys. Table 20. The beta transus temperatures for common titanium alloys are given in Table 20. and alpha Ⳮ beta alloys. even if die chilling could be avoided.1 surface to a temperature of 1600 ⬚F (870 ⬚C) could lead to severe deformation inhomogeneities. 20. the beta and near-beta titanium alloys were developed and put into commercial Weight reduction obtained by forging a disk by isothermal methods rather than conventional forging. The temperature at which this transformation occurs is known as the beta transus temperature.2 lists some of the commercially used titanium alloys with their classification. A 60 lb (27 kg) weight reduction was obtained [Shah.260 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications forging. 1983]. Figures 20. however. The practical use of these forging rates. chilling of the workpiece Fig.3. The forging pressures near the transus temperature are similar to those encountered at a temperature several hundred degrees lower when the strain rate is slowed down to those employed in creep forging. Thus. near-alpha. Compared to the alpha. The flow stress of these alloys is very sensitive to temperature and strain rate. This is because the flow stress of this alloy at 1600 ⬚F (870 ⬚C) is approximately three times that at the desired forging temperature of 1725 ⬚F (940 ⬚C). or alpha Ⳮ beta (␣ Ⳮ ␣) alloys. 20. the alpha phase (hexagonal close-packed structure). is restricted by economic considerations. Unalloyed titanium occurs in two forms. and the beta phase (body-centered cubic structure). especially for the alpha Ⳮ beta alloys and near-alpha alloys below the beta transus temperature. parts can be forged isothermally at lower strain rates and lower preheat temperatures than in conventional forging processes with higher strain rates. which is stable from 1615 ⬚F (880 ⬚C) to the melting point. Titanium alloys are classified as either alpha (␣) alloys. for a given press capacity. Also. 1988]. namely. near-alpha.1). This results in lower energy expenditure and less contamination through alpha case formation at lower preheat temperatures [Semiatin et al. which is stable up to approximately 1615 ⬚F (880 ⬚C).7 illustrate these points.5 are indicative of the advantages of isothermal forging over conventional nonisothermal methods for alpha. and alpha Ⳮ beta alloys. . It is possible to increase or lower this temperature by the use of alloying elements known as stabilizers (Table 20. a substantial reduction in the forging pressures is possible by reducing the strain rate by a factor of a hundred or a thousand. The data given in Fig. If Ti-6Al4V were forged conventionally at a temperature of 1725 ⬚F (940 ⬚C).

however. to stabilize the high-temperature body-centered cubic phase at room temperature. the data provided in Fig.. or iron as beta stabilizers.3 Fig.. The data for Ti-10V-2Fe-Al is. 20.. 1980] .8). 20. significantly lower in magnitude compared to that of Ti-6Al-4V (Fig. 1975 and 1976) Deformation regimes for superplastic materials [Chen et al. As shown in Table 20. The lower transus temperatures of the beta alloys may lead one to conclude that these alloys would have a lower flow stress compared to the alpha and alpha Ⳮ beta alloys [Semiatin et al.5 does not support this conclusion. which could be due to high levels of vanadium and chromium [Altan et al. 20. 1983]. the beta transus temperatures of these alloys are relatively low. The figure shows that the flow stress data for the beta alloy at 1500 ⬚F (815 ⬚C) are comparable to that of Ti-6Al-4V at the Fig. These alloys contain molybdenum. 1988] application much later. i. it should be noted that the beta phase in these alloys is only metastable.e. 1973]. with a lower percentage of the alpha (hexagonally close-packed) phase. vanadium.3.2 Comparison between conventional and hot-die forging of a Ti-6Al-4V structural part on the basis of raw material saved [Shah. 20.Isothermal and Hot-Die Forging / 261 Fig.4 Comparison of various methods of producing torque ribs [DuMond. It is found that the beta alloy Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al does not show this behavior.. 20. However. However.

Ti-8Mo-8V-2Fe-3Al. This behavior is typical of materials that undergo dynamic recrystallization. Al)] and various carbides.5Cu. which are often a few hundred degrees below the working temperature. strain rate. a result of the higher strain rates of conventional forging. since it implies cost savings by the use of less expensive die materials. could lead to melting.5Mo-6Zr-4. This observation is of significance to the isothermal and hot-die forging technology. Ti-6Al-4V-2Sn. 20. with high m values of 0. 1973] Beta transus temperature Alloy Commercially pure Forging temperature ⬚F ⬚C ⬚F ⬚C 1760 960 1600/1700 870/927 1900 1860 1040 1015 1725/1850 1725/1850 940/1010 940/1010 1820 1735 1825 1750 993 945 995 955 1550/1800 1550/1675 1700/1800 1625/1700 843/982 843/915 927/982 885/927 1400 1325 1475 1475 760 718 800 800 1550/1650 1600/1800 1500/1600 1400/1600 843/900 870/982 815/870 760/870 Alpha alloys Ti-5Al-2.5 at strain rates of 10ⳮ3 and lower [Moskowitz et al. temperature rise during deformation. Die chilling can lower the workpiece temperature to below the solutioning temperature. molybdenum. copper Table 20. and formation of phases containing boron and zirconium [Altan et al. Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr2Mo.10 show the flow stress data for nickel-base superalloys such as Waspaloy and Inconel 718. and microstructure. leading to precipitation and the subsequent drop in workability and the possibility of fracture. In forging nickel alloys. It was also found experimentally that the flow stress data could be considerably different for materials with different grain sizes or grain structure.5V Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al.9 and 20.5Sn. 1973]. Figures 20. nickel-base alloys are among the most difficultto-work alloys in commercial use today. Ti-11. These materials show a strong dependence of the flow stress on temperature. The working temperature regime of the former is lower and wider than that of the highly alloyed regions. Ti-6242.. particularly the precipitation-hardening elements. isothermal and hot-die forging have clear advantages over conventional hot forging of superalloys. The decrease in the flow stress following the maxima can be attributed to deformation heating.2 Common titanium alloys used in isothermal and hot-die forging Classification Alpha and near alpha Alpha/beta Beta Titanium alloy Commercial-purity titanium and Ti-5Al-2.2 Nickel Alloys Nickel-base superalloys have a degree of alloying in order to increase strength as well as creep and fatigue resistance at elevated temperatures.1 Alpha and beta stabilizers for titanium alloys Alpha stabilizers (increase the beta transus temperature) Beta stabilizers (decrease the beta transus temperature) Aluminum. This also presents problems when it comes to producing ingots or bar stock suitable for forging. Ti-3Al8V-6Cr-4Mo-4Zr. resulting in regions with higher alloy content as well.and microsegregation during solidification of the superalloy compositions [Daykin et al.262 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications higher temperature of 1700 ⬚F (925 ⬚C) for a given strain rate.. and it promotes ductility and workability.3 Beta transus temperatures and forging temperatures for titanium alloys [Altan et al. Ti-5Al-5Sn-2Zr-2Mo Ti-6Al-4V. P/M materials have been found to show lower flow stress than cast products. As a result of this alloying.8 Mo. Also. In one study. Thus. tin Vanadium. Ti-2. precipitation of gamma prime [Ni3(Ti. Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V. 1972]. Ti-3Al-2. chromium.5Sn. regions low in alloy content. freeze first. During solidification. followed by a drop and eventually a steady-state regime.. . problems arising from high alloy content and segregation become worse when conventional hot forging is employed [Cremisio et al..5. and fewer problems with lubrication as a result of lower processing temperatures.. Flow stress data for fine-grained superalloys produced by P/M show characteristics that make them desirable for isothermal forging. This is done Table 20. 1972]. This situation arises due to macro. 1972]. particularly at the grain boundaries where lower-melting-point phases are found.5Sn Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V Alpha ⴐ beta alloys Ti-6Al-4V Ti-6Al-4V-2Sn Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo Beta alloys Beta III Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Mo-4Zr Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al through a combination of solid-solution strengthening. Ti-6Al2Nb-1Ta-0. less die wear. Ti10V-2Fe-3Al Table 20. It is observed that the curves show a maximum.

. Practically. since the part geometry. it is necessary that the preform or billet have a fine grain size.1 to 1 in./min (0.. with hot-die forging being slightly faster to avoid die chilling [Semiatin et al. Thus.5 presses make them more suitable for isothermal and hot-die forging operations. The flow stress of the material and hence the die pressures can be maintained within allowable limits by lowering the strain rate and press speed. the maximum allowable die pressures dictate the forging speed. metal flow. Isothermal forging processes are carried out under constant load at approximately 0.25 to 2. These machines make it possible to use the high strain-rate sensitivity of the forging materials at low strain rates as an advantage. This is an essential requirement. Hence.5 cm/ min). leading to reduced forging loads and better die filling. it is possible to start the forging stroke with a higher ram speed. 20. it is necessary to control the press ram throughout the forging stroke so that the desired strain rates can be applied at different stages. 20. since the part is initially thick with a relatively small surface area and requires little pressure for deformation. and forging pressure vary throughout the stroke. 1983]: ● Strong dependence of the flow stress on temperature ● High rate sensitivity at low strain rates ● Fine grain size These properties make the titanium and nickel-base superalloys more suitable for isothermal forging than conventional hot forging. which should be retained during forging. The size of the part and the allowable forging pressure on the dies can be used as the criteria for selecting the hydraulic press for the desired Effect of strain rate on forging pressures for titanium alloys at different temperatures [Altan et al. the slow speeds of hydraulic Fig. 1983]. It is possible to forge parts at lower strain rates. Wrought titanium alloys and wrought and P/M nickel-base superalloys are therefore among the most appropriate high-temperature alloys for isothermal and hot-die forging.6 Equipment and Tooling Of all the equipment available to carry out a forging operation. The flow stress is dependent on the strain rate (press speed). in order to maintain a high rate sensitivity during forging. alloys with a homogeneous two-phase structure are most likely to meet this requirement. which in turn determines the forging pressure.. Thus. 1973] . However.Isothermal and Hot-Die Forging / 263 The main characteristics of the materials discussed above can be summarized as [Semiatin et al. Isothermal forging avoids the problems in metal flow and microstructure arising out of die chilling.

Isothermal presses have been utilized for the most demanding aerospace component applications.6 Ladish Company designed and constructed two isothermal presses (5. 20.1 Die Materials Due to the very high temperatures of the dies in isothermal and hot-die forging. Wyman-Gordon has one 8. which are usually very expensive. Figure 20. 20.000 ton isothermal presses. The high levels of process control that are achieved through isothermal forging have allowed near-net forging of complex components from alloys with very narrow processing windows. hot Effect of deformation rate and temperature on flow stress of Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn alloy under isothermal forging conditions [Fix.000 ton). Fig. The size of the dies is governed by the limitations of the technique used to heat them as well as the cost of the die materials. Pratt & Whitney-Georgia has one 3. Isothermal forging can be a very cost-effective manufacturing process for the manufacture of critical components that are required to be produced from very expensive and difficult-to-process materials. the 10. 1972] .000 ton and two 8.6.11 shows a jet engine disk being forged in an isothermal press.000 and 10.12). selection of the die materials is an extremely critical part of the forging process design. Sensors are used in conjunction with press equipment to form a closed-loop control system in the isothermal forging press. The various factors to be taken into consideration during die material selection are wear and creep resistance.000 ton isothermal press. 20. Between the two presses. Vast quantities of quality jet engine parts have been produced by isothermal forging.264 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications isothermal forging process.000 ton press is the largest isothermal press in the world (Fig.

and Unitemp AF2-1DA are well suited for isothermal forging of titanium alloys at 1700 ⬚F (925 ⬚C) and lower. and TRW-NASA VIA [Simmons.and cobalt-base superalloys have been found. Astroloy. This makes it a case of near-isothermal forging instead of isothermal forging. When die temperatures are in the range of those encountered in conventional hot forging. Udimet 700.7 Effect of temperature on forging pressure in isothermal forging of Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn [Kulkarni et al.13).. Cast nickel-base superalloys such as IN-100. to be unsuitable as die materials for isothermal forging. unlike the ironbase materials (Fig.13 shows a drastic drop in the strength of these die materials after a temperature of 1700 ⬚F (925 ⬚C) because of reversion of the gamma-prime precipitates. What makes these wrought nickel-base superalloys attractive as die materials is their structural integrity and resistance to defects such as porosity in large forged die blocks.. 20. MAR-M-200. TZM mo- Fig. 1971] have also found acceptance as die materials. Figure 20. TZC. 1983].14 shows that these alloys are comparable and sometimes superior in strength to the wrought alloys. such TZM molybdenum. Wrought nickel-base superalloys such as Waspaloy. and Mo-Hf-C [Clare et al. 20. in general. it is possible to use a variety of low-alloy tool steels or hot working die steels. 1972] hardness. and overall structural integrity.Isothermal and Hot-Die Forging / 265 Fig. ranging from superalloys and refractory metal alloys to ceramics [Semiatin et al. Due to their low strength and creep resistance above 1500 ⬚F (815 ⬚C). They also retain their strength in the temperature range of 1500 to 1700 ⬚F (815 to 925 ⬚C). in practice. the temperatures for nickel-base superalloy dies are maintained at approximately 1650 ⬚F (900 ⬚C) or lower to extend die life in case of large production runs. 1978] . one is restricted to a limited range of die materials. where temperatures are in the range of 1500 to 2000 ⬚F (815 to 1095 ⬚C). 1977–78]. However.. toughness. iron. 20. when forging titanium or nickel-base alloys. Figure 20. Isothermal forging of wrought nickel-base superalloys requires special die materials. However. Inconel 713C.8 Flow stress data for Ti-10V-2Fe-Al compared with that of Ti-6Al-4V [Rosenberg.

20.9 Fig. making it necessary to have a surrounding inert atmosphere or a vacuum. and induction heating. making the isothermal forging of wrought nickel-base superalloys very expensive. This increases the cost of the forging process. 20. There are several options available for heating the die holders and inserts. resistance heater bands. These alloys have higher re- Fig.. such as gas-fired burners..6. The major drawback of this alloy is that it readily reacts with oxygen. requiring the Flow stress data for Waspaloy [Guimaraes et al. gas-fired burners tend to be bulky. Of these. 1981] . Both TZC and Mo-Hf-C have significantly higher strength at isothermal forging temperatures compared to TZM.10 sistance to plastic deformation and better wear resistance.2 Die Heating Techniques One of the greatest challenges to be overcome in isothermal and hot-die forging is the development of methods for heating the dies to a uniform elevated temperature.266 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications lybdenum has good strength and stability up to temperatures of 2190 ⬚F (1200 ⬚C) as well as good resistance to fatigue crack initiation and crack propagation [Hoffelner et al. 20. 1982].. 1981] Flow stress data for Inconel 718 [Guimaraes et al.

such as graphite used in the Gatorizing process. it is possible to use nickel-base superalloys as bolster materials. Susceptors. . die inserts of IN-100 are held in place by die holders (IN-100) and backed by bolsters of IN-100 and H21 hot work die steel. 20.11 A jet engine part being forged in an isothermal press at Ladish. Fig. which may cause cracking..12 10. a portable dummy resistance furnace is used to heat the outer portion of the dies. more sophisticated heating systems utilizing two or more heating methods can be implemented (Fig. Courtesy of Ladish Co. This system enabled precise temperature control over even the largest die areas. Fig.15 shows the heating setup for isothermal forging of titanium alloys using resistance heaters. such as metallic sheets coated with ceramics such as zirconium oxide. low frequencies of alternating current of 40 to 100 Hz are used. consisting of devices surrounding the horizontal and vertical portions of the die assembly [Chen et al. 1980]. Alumina blocks and spacer plates are also effective means of reducing heat losses. 20. 1977].Isothermal and Hot-Die Forging / 267 use of nozzles and additional equipment. Temperature variations were limited to within Ⳳ50 ⬚F (28 ⬚C) for dies with an outer diameter of 42 in.16) [Prasad et al. 20. whereas the remainder of the die assembly can be made from tool steels and stainless steels. can also be used in conjunction with the induction coils to promote uniform heating through radiation.18). The use of insulators. Depending on the die geometry and operating temperature. The temperature gradients arising out of nonuniform heating may induce large thermal stresses. These coils are usually water cooled and can be bent to various shapes depending on the die geometry. 20. the rate of heat generation is higher at die circumference than the cavity.. A similar two-part system was implemented at Wyman-Gordon. This makes use of the property that difference in local heating rates reduces when the frequency is reduced. which can hamper easy access to the actual forging area by occupying a large amount of space. (107 cm). designed. Courtesy of Ladish Co. Hence. 1969]. whereas the horizontal part contains resistance heater rods set into Waspaloy heater plates directly above the top die insert and die holder and below the bottom die insert and holder (Fig. This combination of back-up materials is necessary because of the conduction of heat into the die stack. constructed. and water cooling reduces heat losses and prevents damage to the press. 20. and operated by Ladish. It has been found that the use of a single method of die heating often leads to nonuniform temperature distribution in the die. In this setup. which tend to be one of the simplest to implement [Antes. thus making it possible to remove it during the forging operation.000 ton isothermal forging press. In this particular case. The second part of the heating system consists of a set of gas burners that are aimed toward the center of the die. In induction heating. The vertical part contains gas-fired.17). In order to get uniform heating. Figure 20. infrared heating elements. Induction coils made of copper tubing are another simple means of die heating (Fig.

Various glass mixtures. with H-11 being included for comparison [InternationalNickel Co. in the form of frits Yield strengths of some wrought nickel-base superalloys. since they do not operate over a range of temperatures. thus. At the same time.and graphite-based lubricants as well as molybdenum disulfide are unsuitable for isothermal and hot-die forging. 20. and to obtain a good surface finish. these lubricants can be developed to deliver an optimum performance at the operating temperature of the isothermal forging process or a narrow temperature range. 1983].6. Lubricants in isothermal forging are not required to have the same characteristics as those used in conventional forging...3 Lubrication Part Separation Systems in Isothermal and Hot-Die Forging Lubrication systems in isothermal forging are required to provide low friction for good metal flow. these lu- Fig. since they rapidly decompose at elevated temperatures. which might cause problems in achieving the desired finished part tolerances. ease of release of the forging from the dies.13 bricants should not react with either the workpiece or the dies [Semiatin et al. 1977] . These systems should not lead to any sort of a buildup of the lubricant.268 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications 20. Petroleum. Billet lubricants must provide a protective coating to prevent the surface from oxidation during heating or forging.

20. glassy layer providing lubrication and oxidation protection. The heat treatment of titanium and nickel-base superalloys. This coating. 1983]. leaving behind a powderlike coating on the billets. 1977. is critical to overall component performance. Figure 20. provide the best lubrication in isothermal forging.19 shows frit selection on the basis of forging temperature.14 vent galling under high pressures [Semiatin et al.Isothermal and Hot-Die Forging / 269 (composed of a variety of glass-forming oxides) or premixed compounds with their own aqueous or organic solvent carriers. 20. Glass of 200 to 1000 P viscosity has been found to give good lubricity and a good continuous film characteristic required to pre- Fig. The alcohol evaporates..7 Postforging Heat Treatment Postforging heat treatments are always used for isothermal and hot-die forged aerospace components. becomes a viscous. and Simmons. Frits are normally ground into a fine powder. The microstructures produced from hot working operations alone are not optimized for most applications. so the microstructure of forging must be tailored by heat treatment to re- Yield strengths of several cast and wrought nickel-base superalloys [International Nickel Co. which is then converted into a slurry (alcohol bath) used for dipping the forging billets. like most engineering materials. under forging temperatures. 1971] ..

machining distortion. grain-boundary morphology. 1978] Fig. Other times. and Koul et al. and phase distributions. and the component heat treat Fig. and residual stresses of a forging. 20. mechanical properties. The imposed cooling rate. other significant factors deserve consideration. Large variations in cooling rate within a given part will create large thermal stresses and hence high residual stresses [Chang. or unexpected mechanical properties and performance in the final component. Various quench media (air. 20.17 Die heating system utilizing resistance heaters and gas burners [Kulkarni.270 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications sult in the optimum grain size. along with the material transformation and phase growth kinetics. oil. 1976. 1988] . 1997 and 1996]. phases. One of the most important parameters in heat treatment is the cooling method and part cooling rate profile. 20.. 1997].16 Die setup for isothermal/hot-die forging with induction coils [Prasad et al. Although mechanical properties are often the most significant driving force for selecting various cooling methods and rates. slower cooling rates are desired to develop serrated grain boundaries and optimum microstructures in nickel-base materials [Myagawa. polymer. water). This issue has led to engineering of specialty heat treat cooling methods for forgings. 20. flow patterns imparted on the component. Thermal and residual stresses can result in problems with quench cracking. sequences of quench media and method used. Often.18 A two-part die heating system comprising gasfired infrared heater and resistance heaters [Shah. The goal of modern heat treatment practices for aerospace forgings is to achieve the best balance Fig. 1969] Fig. high cooling rates are required to produce high strengths [Chang. controlled.15 Die setup for isothermal/hot-die forging with resistance heaters [Antes. 1980] geometry are all utilized to tailor the cooling rate and subsequently.. 1985]. controls the development of the required mechanical properties. the microstructure.

The backside. 1983] .20(b) shows an engine mount that was hot-die forged to net dimensions on the surface shown.20. Process modeling is vital to design of the optimum combination of forge geometry.1 kg) forged in Astroloy dies at 1700 ⬚F (925 ⬚C).Isothermal and Hot-Die Forging / 271 of mechanical properties with the minimum residual stress. heat treatment geometry. Some examples are shown in Fig.. and heat treat cooling method [Shen et al.8 Production of Isothermal/Hot-Die Forgings The development of the isothermal and hotdie forging technology started in the early 1970s and was put into production in approximately the late 1970s. 20.20(c) was forged in one step from a billet using TZM Viscosity temperature curves for various metalworking glasses [Semiatin et al.5 lb (21. was machined during the final machining operations.19 Figure 20. with conventional forging processes ● Finish forging as doubles in Astroloy hot dies Figure 20. 20. which is flat. 20. The forged IN-100 disk shown in Fig. This part was forged in three stages: ● Preblock and block. 20.20(a) shows Ti-6Al-4V hot-die forged F-15 bearing supports weighing 46. 2000 and 2001].. Fig.

.9 Economic Benefits of Isothermal and Hot-Die Forging Isothermally forged parts are similar in properties to conventionally forged parts. This part was machined all over to yield the final shape. This reduces the overall tooling costs when compared to conventional forging. the main advantage of using isothermal forging stems from the differences in the manufacturing costs. 20. 1983]: Fig. isothermal forging requires fewer number of forging stages and therefore fewer die sets. Forgeability and savings in material costs were the two driving forces behind selecting isothermal forging for this component. it had no net surfaces. The cost of making a forging can be split up into the following categories [Semiatin et al. ● ● ● ● ● ● 20.e..272 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications dies. 1988] . Another factor to be taken into consideration is the production run and the performance of the dies in runs of varying dura- Production examples of isothermal/hot-die forged aircraft components [Shah. Thus. However.20 Die material Die machining and die installation (labor costs) Workpiece materials Lubricants and lubrication systems Preheating and forging (labor and energy costs) Rough and finish machining after forging (labor costs) Die materials for isothermal forging are much more expensive and difficult to machine than conventional die materials. i.

Figure 20. Though the die costs are high in isothermal forging. 20. The same is true for the machining costs required to produce the finished forging. hotdie forging was not economically viable for production runs of less than 500 parts in this case. isothermal and hot-die forging have found wide ac- Cost comparison between conventional forging versus isothermal/hot-die forging [Shah.21a) using the conventional method weighed 38. the difference in die costs between conventional and hot-die forging was greater.3 lb (17. It was seen that the forging for the connecting link (Fig. a connecting link and a bearing support [Shah. The high die costs associated with isothermal and hot-die forging are justified by the subsequent savings in material and machining.21(a) and (b) show the cost comparison for two aircraft parts. mostly in the aircraft industry. Figure 20. due to its larger size compared to the link. the break-even point for this part was less than 200 [Shah. with some net surfaces. Due to significant reduction in material and machining costs.20(a). 20. as shown in the examples of the comparative studies between isothermal/hot-die forging and conventional methods Titanium and nickel-base superalloys are excellent candidates for isothermal forging due to the strong dependence of their flow stress on temperature and strain rate. namely. which was also forged in Astroloy dies at 1700 ⬚F (925 ⬚C). the material input and costs are lower. The hotdie forging process used a die stack with Astroloy dies at approximately 1700 ⬚F (925 ⬚C). Due to the advantages discussed earlier. 1988]. 1988]. whereas a hot-die forged part weighed in at 29 lb (13 kg). 1988] .10 Summary Isothermal and hot-die forging technologies were developed in the 1970s and are used in current applications in production of precision forgings. Fig. 20. Thus.21(a) shows significant savings in initial tooling costs and that it took over 500 forgings for the higher tooling costs of hot-die forging to be justified. Figures 20.21 20.4 kg).Isothermal and Hot-Die Forging / 273 tions. However. These processes have proven to be economically feasible for forging expensive high-temperature titanium and nickel-base alloys contingent on: ● Proper understanding of the workpiece material properties and deformation characteristics ● Proper tool material selection and die design as well as process conditions such as temperatures and die-workpiece lubrication ● Costs.21(b) shows a similar cost comparison for the bearing support shown in Fig.

.J. Yue. The Metals Society.” Proceedings of the Metals Society Conference on Forging and Properties of Aerospace Materials.W. Becker.. “Isothermal Forging of Titanium Alloys for Aerospace Applications. 1980]: Chen. p 1655–1666.. R. Jan 1985. “Some Observations of Hot Working Behavior of Superalloys According to Various Types of Hot Workability Tests. Metals and Ceramics Information Center.” Journal of Institute Metals. D. p 24–32.” High Temperatures—High Pressures.C.A. p 46–48... Metallwerk Plansee (Reutte.M. G.... R. 1978]: Kulkarni. L. and De- Ridder. “Complex Parts of Titanium Alloy by Isothermal Forging. Vol.E. Metals and Ceramics Information Center. [Cremisio et al.. 1973]: Altan. 4.E.. July 1976. C.” Iron Age Metalworking International. [Clare et al. Proceedings of the Second International Conference. “Putting the Squeeze on Titanium Forging Costs. p 347–348. 1972. Vol. G. REFERENCES [Altan et al. and Rhodes.J. H. Wuthrich. 1997. 16... [Chen et al. 1997]: Chang. 12..M. H. J.C. 1978. [Chang. Henning. May 1972. 341–349. 22 (No. and Rhodes. “Superior Powder Metallurgy Molybdenum Die Alloys for Isothermal Forging... 1977]: Chen.. and Coyne. [International Nickel Co. 1978]: Greenwood. . 1978. 7)... p 33– 40. W..” Acta Metallurgica Sinica. Schroder. C. A.P. Inc. T. T. [Kulkarni. 1980]: Antes. [Greenwood et al.W..” Superalloys Processing. Sept 1972. J. Nickel-Base Alloys... Wyman-Gordon Co. unpublished research.. 1996]: Chang. “Primary Working of Superalloys.. “Superior P/M Mo Die Alloys for Isothermal Forging. Society of Manufacturing Engineers. “Forging Equipment. Vol. T. 1977]: Clare. R. [Daykin et al.” The International Nickel Co. Vol.P.. G. p 146–151. “Serrated Grain Boundary Formation Potential of Ni-Based Superalloys and Its Implications. 14. p 2513–2522. 1982]: Hoffelner.” Metallurgical Transactions A. Columbus. “Recrystallization and Aging Effects Associated with High Temperature Deformation of Waspaloy and Inconel 718. [Koul et al. London. 1985]: Koul..” Proceedings of the Sixth North American Metalworking Research Conference.P. 11)..” Titanium’80. 1.. “Isothermal Forging—New Ti Forming Process. “Titanium Precision Forgings. High Strength. Battelle’s Columbus Laboratories. 1977. Vol.. p 20–26. “TZM Molybdenum as a Die Material for Isothermal Forging of Titanium Alloys. p 255–265.C.-M. Worcester.C. 1980. “Isothermal Hot Die Forging of Complex Parts in a Titanium Alloy.... “Critical Issues of Powder Metallurgy Turbine Disks. [Guimaraes et al. H. Materials and Practices. MCIC Report 72-10. 15 (No.. N..” Met.W. MCIC Report 72-10. and Watmough.H. [Antes..” Industrial Research/Development.” MCIC Report HB-03.H. OH.” Proceedings of the Ninth Plansee Seminar (III). Trans. W.” Proceedings of Seventh International Symposium on Physical Simulation of Casting.274 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications ceptance in the production of aircraft components such as titanium structural members and turbine engine components made of titanium and nickel-base superalloys.H.. W. F. 1972]: Cremisio. J.. Parikh. K. OH. K. Austria).. [Chen et al... New York. Vol. 1976]: DuMond.. Plenum Press.P. 1996. Columbus. Section F.. Vol. and Jonas.. Nov 1980. Gessinger... 1981. Jain. and McQueen. C.M. Battelle’s Columbus Laboratories.” Titanium Science and Technology. [DuMond.. “Physical Simulation of Quench Cracking for P/M Superalloy Turbine Disks. K. 1972]: Kulkarni. 216 (No. Vol.S.K. R. Vol. The Metallurgical Society of AIME. 1975]: DuMond. 1972]: Daykin. [DuMond. Oct 1977. Hot Rolling and Welding. Jan 21–23. 1972]: Fix.J. T. Couts. p 116–119. Columbus. 100.. N..” High Temperatures—High Pressures. L. “Recent Developments in Hot Die Forging of Titanium Alloys. “Isothermal Forging—From Research to a Promising New Manufacturing Technology. 22). 10. 1977]: “High Temperature. 1982. and Thamburaj. Seeds. Vol. [Hoffelner et al.. Metals and Ceramics Information Center. Sept 1972. National Research Institute for Metals (Japan).K.-M. C. 1978]: Clare. 1977. [Clare et al.. Dec 1975. 1981]: Guimaraes. Vol. OH.” Iron Age Metalworking International.” Superalloys Processing.C. S. K. Boulger.. [Chang. A.. [Fix.J. [Kulkarni et al. Oct 1973. A.. 9. 1978. Gure.R. p 31–32. R.H.. A. Battelle’s Columbus Laboratories. Section F. Proceedings of the Second International Conference. p 509–512. S. Akgermann. p 467–471.. MA.. p 441–451.

. D. Defense Metal Information Center. Pollock.. B.W.” MiCon 78: Optimization of Processing.. TMS. 14. AGARD.. p 289–296. G... J. p 189–195. 1980]: McLeod. and Altan.. G. AGARD Conference Proceedings No. 1988]: Stewart. D. [Simmons..” Ceramics for Turbine Blade Applications. 98. 1983]: Semiatin. p 663–666. Ed. “ISOCON Manufacturing of Waspaloy Turbine Discs. “The Effect of High Temperature Deformation on Grain Growth in a PM Nickel Base Superalloy. 2000]: Shen. L. Battelle’s Columbus Laboratories. Ed.” Superalloys 1996. 1996]: Williams.” Transactions of American Foundrymen’s Society. D. 77. 1986. Ed. “Ti-10V2Fe-3Al—A Forging Alloy Development.. The Metals Society... Patent No. Battelle’s Columbus Laboratories. Furrer. France. Oct 1983. A. “Development of a Ceramic Blade Superalloys Disk Attachment for Gas Turbine Rotors. “Isothermal and Hot-Die Forging of High Temperature Alloys. A.D. S. [Stewart. [Myagawa et al. 1979]: Deridder.. TMS. S. and H. and Carruthers. M. Nathal. N. 760240. Proceedings of the Second International Conference. Zhao.A. 1972]: Moskowitz. Grant. “Precision Cast Superalloy Dies for Isothermal Forging of Titanium Alloys. [Moore et al.. Vol.. p 183–201. ● [Lawley.C.. Anton.. Deye. Maniar. STP 672. M.. G.. 1971]: Simmons. “Forging of Titanium Alloys. 1980. ● [Spiegelberg. “Business Directions and Materials Challenges for the Aircraft Engine Industry.D. and Furrer. 3. April 1977. D. R.” Paper No. S. 14. Denkenberger..503.. and Athey. MCIC Report 72-10. p 245–254. Fahrmann. Metals and Ceramics Information Center. H. OH.N. 1988. S.” MCIC Report 83-47.S. 2001. 9 (No. M. [Moskowitz et al. “Forging— Business & Technology Perspective. R. 1969]: Prasad.S. [Shen et al. [Rosenberg. 2000..” DMIC Memorandum 255... Vol. Reichman.V. 6).. [Semiatin et al. O. [Soucail et al. Cetel. and C.. W. 1977]: Spiegelberg. H... and T.Isothermal and Hot-Die Forging / 275 [McLeod et al. U. ASM International. 1976]: Walker. “Development of an Integral Ceramic Blade Metal Disk with Circumferential Blade Attachment. [Noel et al.H.” Superalloys 1988. J. p 279–299.J. Antolovich.-C. 1970]: Moore. D. [Shen et al... and Service Performance Through Microstructural Control. D. J. Marty M. 1988]: Shah. June 1971.. p 407. 1979.” Technical Report AFML-TR-7787. 276. Abrams. Properties. H.J..D. 25–27 June. Society of Automotive Engineers.” Acta Metallurgica Sinica. Pittsburgh. G. 1976]: Myagawa. J. “Trends in Atomization and Consolidation of Powders for High-Temperature Aerospace Materials. R.. 1988. ASM Handbook. 1988]: Kuhlmann. Ed.” Superalloys—Processing.I.M. Duhl.. Section Z. American Society for Testing and Materials. p 547–563. Maurer. “Properties of IN100 Processed by Powder Metallurgy. Lemsky.. T..519. OH. Pelloux. ● [Kuhlmann..N..” Journal of Materials Processing Technology. Vol.D.F. 1978. . Woodford. OH.L. D. London. 1986]: Lawley. Battelle’s Columbus Laboratories. [Walker et al... G. Shen.” Forming and Forging.. [Shah. “Manufacturing of Aerospace Forgings. “Forging and Processing of High Temperature Alloys..” MICON 86.. “Aerospace Forging—Process and Modeling. Octor. [Williams.. Pollock. 1996]: Soucail. Walker. Metals and Ceramics Information Center.. “Zigzag Grain Boundaries and Strength of Heat Resisting Alloys. R..A. SELECTED REFERENCES ● [DeRidder et al.. TMS. 1978]: Rosenberg. R.. and D..” Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Metallurgy and Manufacturing of Superalloys. TMS. Dec 1996.A. “Interface Separation—Lubrication Substances for Isothermal Forging at 1300 ⬚F to 1500 ⬚F. 1997. 2001]: Shen. W.” Proceedings of the Metal Society Conference on Forging and Properties of Aerospace Materials. ASM International. [Prasad et al.. M. R. R. W. and Koch. 1997]: Noel. 1988.R.. May 5–9. “Isothermal and HotDie Forging.M. “Description and Engineering Characteristics of Eleven New High Temperature Alloys.M. Columbus. Furrer. Vol. Mendelson.. Westinghouse Electric Corporation. B. ASM Handbook. Sept 1972..H.W.” Forming and Forging. A.D. Columbus. Soloman. and Watmough. Vol. Hoffman. T.. G. J. L. 1976. et al. T.. Columbus. p 545–551. PA.N. Nail. ASTM. Kissinger. 1976.” Proceedings of the Third ASM International Paris Conference (Paris.” Materials Design Approaches and Experiences.L. 1996. 1969. France). D.. Lund.

to a large extent. for example. Gracious Ngaile..1361/chff2005p277 Copyright © 2005 ASM International® All rights reserved. Proper selection of the die materials and the die manufacturing technique determines. Low-alloy steels are listed in Table 21. or 510 to 565 C) without any cracking or distortion. such as changes in dimensions due to wear or plastic deformation. with reasonable resistance to abrasion and heat checking.e. including hardenability. impact strength. die holders for hot forging or hammer die blocks. and number of parts to be produced ● Variables related to the type of die loading. Dies may have to be replaced for a number of reasons.1. the useful life of forming dies. determination of the surface finish. maximum load and pressure on the dies. have higher hardenability and toughness and can be used in more severe applications than steels 6G. Often. 6F2. maximum and minimum die temperatures. 21. 6F2. i.1.5.asminternational. Steels with ASM designations 6G. type of machine used. including factors such as size of the die cavity. 1983]: ● Variables related to the process itself. Hot work die steels are used at temperatures of 600 to 1200 F (315 to 650 C) and contain . The dies must be made by modern methods from appropriate die materials in order to provide acceptable die life at a reasonable cost. Classification of tool steels by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) is presented in Table 21. www. and 6F3.3. selection of the appropriate die material depends on three variables [Altan et al. and resistance to thermal and mechanical fatigue These factors are summarized in Fig. p277-293 DOI:10. 21. impact or gradual contact time between dies and deforming metal (this contact time is especially important in hot forging).org CHAPTER 21 Die Materials and Die Manufacturing Prashant Mangukia 21. editors. and cracking or breakage.. and number of loading cycles to which dies will be subjected ● Mechanical properties of the die material. Gangshu Shen. initial stock size and temperature. The precipitation-hardening steel 6F4 can be hardened by a simple aging operation (950 to 1050 F. However. these steels are tempered at relatively low temperatures. including speed of loading.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Taylan Altan.3 through 21. production rate. these materials are listed in Tables 21. hot strength (if hot forming is considered). In hot forging in presses. Low-alloy steels with higher (2 to 4%) nickel contents. deformation speed. die temperature to be used.2 provides a good summary of certain material properties of dies for hot forging and the corresponding failure mechanisms that they affect. lubrication. and 6F3 possess good toughness and shock-resistance qualities. the economic success of a forging process depends on die life and die costs per piece produced.2 Die and Tool Materials for Hot Forging Table 21. For a given application. primarily for hot forging applications. Die materials commonly used for hot forging can be grouped in terms of alloy content. heat transfer from the hot stock to the dies causes this steel to harden and become more abrasion resistant.1 Introduction The design and manufacture of dies and the selection of the die materials are very important in the production of discrete parts by forging. breakdown of lubrication. with ASM designations 6F5 and 6F7.

75 0.10 0.. .00 1.1 AISI classification and composition of tool steels [Krauss et al..70 4.70 1.25 0.55 0. these Table 21.55 0..55 0.. 0...55 0....25 0..75 3.. % C Mn Si Co Cr Mo Ni V W 0.. 1980] chromium. Generally.80 3...25 3.30 0....35 0.30 .00 1.25 2. The tungsten-base hot work steels contain 9 to 18% W (Table 21.5 0.00 4.. they also contain 2 to Table 21.....00 2.35 0. Table 21. . chromium. .. (Table 21. These elements induce deep hardening characteristics and resistance to abrasion and softening.00 1..40 0. .40 0.35 0.50 0.278 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Fig.. steels containing tungsten are not resistant to thermal shock and cannot be cooled intermittently with water...30 0.. % C Mn Si Co Cr Mo Ni V W 0. 21.00 . .00 1..4 Chromium-base hot work die steels [Altan et al. ..30 0. .00 4.35 0.00 1. High molybdenum content gives these steels high resistance to softening. The chromium-base steels contain 5% Cr. however. 1.. 1983] Designation (ASM) H10 H11 H12 H13 H14 H19 Nominal composition..50 1.00 . 4. .25 1... and.40 0. 1998] Group Identifying symbol Water-hardening tool steels Shock-resisting tool steels Oil-hardening cool work tool steels Air-hardening.. 1. .50 ..25 5.20 0....25 0.10 0...10 . vanadium content increases resistance to heat checking and abrasion.00 ..00 5.. .85 0. 0.38 0..10 ..50 1. 5.60 0. high-chromium cold work tool steels Mold steels Hot work tool steels. 1.. 0. ..40 . .00 0.50 . .40 0.80 0. .10 ..50 1.... ..50 0..2 Critical die-related factors and corresponding properties in the die material used in hot forging [Krishnadev et al. vanadium or molybdenum or both.35 0.1 Factors affecting die steel selection [Nagpal et al.00 0. .. medium-alloy cold work tool steel High-carbon.00 1..00 1.. 1997] Critical die-related factor Critical properties in die material Heat checking Hot strength (hot hardness) Tempering resistance Toughness/ductility Thermal expansion Thermal conductivity Toughness/ductility Hot strength (hot hardness) Chemical resistance Hot strength (hot hardness) Tempering resistance Gross cracking Erosion Plastic deformation steels are hardened by quenching in air or molten salt baths.30 1..50 1. .50 1. in some cases. 0.. 2...40 0. 1983] Designation (ASM) 6G 6F2 6F3 6F4 6F5 6F7 Nominal composition.. .00 5.. ....3 Low-alloy steels for hot forging [Altan et al.40 0. . and molybdenum Tungsten high-speed tool steels Molybdenum high-speed tool steels W S O A D P H T M Table 21..5).45 0.4).40 0.. Tungsten improves toughness and hot hardness.75 .. tungsten...30 5. tungsten.10 . . ..

30 0. .35 0. M4. . All of these steels have about the same initial hardness after heat treatment. . ASM-6F2. T4. and removal or transportation of the wear products. originally developed for metal cutting. .1 Comparisons of Die Steels for Hot Forging Properties of materials that determine their selection as die materials for hot forging are: ● ● ● ● ● ● Ability to harden uniformly Wear resistance (this is the ability of a die steel to resist the abrasive action of hot metal during forging) Resistance to plastic deformation (this is the ability of a die steel to withstand pressure and resist deformation under load) Toughness Ability to resist thermal fatigue and heat checking Ability to resist mechanical fatigue Ability to Harden Uniformly.C. .30 0.00 12.30 0. (H.C.00 15. .). Ni V W . M1 Hot hardness T15.).30 0. In general. M10. and tungstentype high-speed steels. T6.. M10 (H.). M15. M.00 12. M10 (H. M15.00 18. i. . .30 0. . 12% Cr and may have small amounts of vanadium. Figure 21. M2 (H. . M42 M3. abrasion.2 shows the hot hardness of six hot work die steels at various temperatures.00 0. not that it will have a higher hardness.30 0. . M4. and toughness at elevated temperatures.45 0. Hardness measurements were made after holding the specimens at testing temperatures for 30 min. The DI of steel is the diameter of an infinitely long cylinder that would just transform to a specific microstructure at the center. M10 (H.30 0.e. Wear is a gradual change in dimensions or shape of a component caused by corrosion. however.6). . . 15. AISI-H10. The higher the strength and hardening of the steel near the surface of the die.50 2. . .) T4. Co Cr . designated by the letter M.00 3. ASM-6F3.).3 shows the resistance of some hot work die steels to softening at elevated temperatures for 10 h of exposure. .C. . strength. M42 M4. All of these steels were heat treated to about the same initial hardness. . .) T.30 0. there is not much variation in resistance to softening at tem- Wear resistance T15. . For the die steels shown.00 4.00 15. 1983]. Except for H12.). if the surface attained the temperature of the quenching medium instantly. .0 . Wear Resistance. 88 [Altan et al. Figure 21. . M1 M3. T5 T1.50 0.Die Materials and Die Manufacturing / 279 Table 21. . .30 . T1.C.6 Approximate relative rankings of 15 selected high-speed steels for three properties Material evaluation Highest Medium Lowest material can be hardened. . . M42. the greater the depth to which a Table 21. High-speed steels. . . . .0 4.C.50 1. 128.40 1.5 Tungsten-base hot work die steels [Altan et al. . M1. M2. if heat transfer during cooling were ideal. the approximate nominal hardenability factors DI (inches) for a few die steels are as follows: ASM-6G. % C Mn Si 0. There are two types of high-speed steels: molybdenum-type high-speed steels.30 0.. . T6 . 0. Mo . high carbon Toughness M2. A larger hardenability factor DI means that the steel will harden to a greater depth on quenching. . The differences in hot hardness show up only at temperatures above 900 F (482 C). . . the die steel should have a high hot hardness and should retain this hardness over extended periods of exposure to elevated temperatures. Hardenability depends on the composition of the tool steel. the higher its hardenability. 1983] Designation (ASM) H21 H22 H23 H24 H25 H26 Nominal composition. M2 (H. . dissolution. M7.50 0. M2 (H. M15. . and AISI-H12. M10.45 0. T4. can also be used in warm or hot forging applications. .C. as measured by the DI factor (in inches).00 9. T5.30 0. in hot forging. M2. M7. the greater its resistance to abrasion. 15. all the die steels considered have about the same hot hardness at temperatures less than about 600 F (315 C). T5. M7. . M10. the higher the alloy contents of a steel. 36. . M3 T1.30 0.C. . . .25 11. These steels offer good combinations of hardness. . Thus. The higher the hardenability. Abrasion resulting from friction is the most important of these mechanisms in terms of die wear. tungsten-type high-speed steels.00 . T6. molybdenum-type high-speed steels. .. .25 0.30 0. . For example. . it also makes it possible to water cool these die steels. 3.2. designated by the letter T (Table 21. T15. 21. The high tungsten content provides resistance to softening at high temperatures while maintaining adequate toughness.30 0.

Fig. yield strength is also dependent on prior heat treatment. As can be seen in Fig.280 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications peratures below 1000 F (538 C).4. retain hardness better than the medium-alloy steels such as H11. However. Resistance to Plastic Deformation. 21. Courtesy of Universal Cyclops Steel Corp. such as H19.). high-alloy hot work steels. 21. . H21. the yield strengths of steel decrease at higher temperatures. Courtesy of Latrobe Steel Co. for longer periods of exposure at higher temperatures. composition. and hardness. However.3 Resistance of hot work die steels to softening during elevated-temperature exposure as measured by room-temperature hardness. and H10 modified. The higher the Fig.2 Hot hardness of hot work die steels (measurements made after holding at testing temperature for 30 min. 21.

Die Materials and Die Manufacturing / 281

initial hardness, the greater the yield strengths at
various temperatures. In normal practice, the
level to which die steel is hardened is determined by the toughness of steel. Thus, in forging
applications, the die block is hardened to a level
at which it should have enough toughness to
avoid cracking. Figure 21.5 shows that, for the
same initial hardness, 5% Cr-Mo steels (H11,
etc.) have better hot strengths than 6F2 and 6F3
at temperatures greater than 700 F (371 C).
Tensile strength, creep properties, and toughness
of various die steels are given in Fig. 21.6 and
21.7.
Toughness is the ability of the material to absorb energy without fracture. It is a combination
of strength and ductility. It increases with increasing temperature and is important in avoiding brittle fracture (Fig. 21.7 and 21.8). Most
materials exhibit a ductile-to-brittle transition
temperature. To avoid immediate and catastrophic failure, dies must be put into service
above this temperature. Ductility, as measured
by reduction in area measured in a tensile test,
also increases with temperature (Fig. 21.8).
Figure 21.8 shows the ductility of various hot
work steels at elevated temperatures, as measured by percent reduction in area of a specimen

before fracture in a standard tensile test. As the
curves show, high-alloy hot work steels, such as
H19 and H21, have less ductility than mediumalloy hot work steels such as H11. This explains
why H19 and H21 have lower toughness than
that of H11.
Fracture toughness and resistance to shock
loading are often measured by a notched-bar
Charpy test. This test measures the amount of
energy absorbed in introducing and propagating
fracture, or toughness, of a material at high rates
of deformation (impact loading). Figure 21.5
shows the results of V-notch Charpy tests on
some die steels. The data show that toughness
decreases as the alloy content increases. Medium-alloy steels such as H11, H12, and H13
have better resistance to brittle fracture in comparison with H14, H19, and H21, which have
higher alloy contents. Increasing the hardness of
the steel lowers its impact strength, as shown by
data on 6F7 steel hardened to two different levels. On the other hand, wear resistance and hot
strength decrease with decreasing hardness.
Thus, a compromise is made in actual practice,
and dies are tempered to near-maximum hard-

Fig. 21.4

Fig. 21.5

Resistance of die steels to plastic deformation at
elevated temperatures (values in parentheses indicate hardness at room temperature). Courtesy of Universal Cyclops Steel Corp. and A. Finkl and Sons Co.

Variation of Charpy toughness with different hardness levels and testing temperatures on hot work
die steels (values in parentheses indicate hardness at room temperature) [Nagpal, 1976b]

Fig. 21.6

Tensile strength and ductility versus test temperatures for selected die materials [Thyssen]

Die Materials and Die Manufacturing / 283

ness levels, at which they have sufficient toughness to withstand loading.
The data shown in Fig. 21.5 also point to the
importance of preheating the dies prior to hot
forging. Steels such as H10 and H21 attain reasonable toughness only at higher temperatures
and require preheating. For general-purpose
steels, such as 6F2 and 6G, preheating to a minimum temperature of 300 F (150 C) is recommended; for high-alloy steels, such as H14,
H19, and 6F4, a higher preheating temperature

Fig. 21.7

Comparison of toughness properties for H13, H21,
and a new hot work tool steel, QRO80M, in function of test temperature [Johansson et al., 1985]

of 480 F (250 C) has been recommended [Altan et al., 1983].
Resistance to Heat Checking. Nonuniform
expansion, caused by thermal gradients from the
surface to the center of a die, is the chief factor
contributing to heat checking. Therefore, a material with high thermal conductivity will make
dies less prone to heat checking by conducting
heat rapidly away from the heat surface, reducing surface-to-center temperature gradients. The
magnitudes of thermal stresses caused by nonuniform expansion or temperature gradients also
depend on the coefficient of thermal expansion
of the steel: the higher the coefficient of thermal
expansion, the greater the stresses. Thermal conductivities for some hot working steels are given
in Table 21.7. From tests in which the temperature of the specimen fluctuated between 1200 F
(650 C) and the water-quench bath temperature,
it was determined that H10 was slightly more
resistant to heat checking or cracking, after 1740
cycles, compared with H11, H12, and H13. After 3488 cycles, H10 exhibited significantly
more resistance to cracking than did H11, H12,
and H13.
In Table 21.8, die materials are rated relative
to each other on resistance to wear, resistance to
thermal shrinking, impact toughness, and hardenability. Comparison of die materials based on
material property and their response to surface
treatments is listed in Table 21.9.
21.2.2

Maraging Steels

Maraging steels are steels that have high
nickel, cobalt, and molybdenum content but
very little carbon. These steels are mostly used
in die casting and very rarely in forging. Some
of the compositions, of common maraging steels
are given in Table 21.10.
21.2.3

Superalloys

Superalloys are based on nickel, cobalt, and
iron. They are resistant to thermal softening.
Table 21.7 Thermal conductivities of different
hot work die steels [Kesavapandian et al., 2001]
C

Cr

Mo

V

W

Co

Thermal
conductivity,
W/cm • K

0.30
0.30
0.30
0.32
0.40
0.38

2.65
2.30
2.35
3.00
5.30
5.30

...
...
...
2.80
1.30
1.10

0.35
0.25
0.60
0.55
1.00
0.40

8.50
8.50
4.25
...
...
...

...
2.0
...
...
...
...

0.23
0.26
0.27
0.32
0.33
0.34

Composition, wt%
Alloy No.

Fig. 21.8

Ductility of various die steels at high temperatures
[Nagpal, 1976a]

2581
2662
2567
2365
2344
2343

284 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications

Their strength is due to the precipitation
strengthening of intermetallic compounds. Thus,
these materials are used in selected forging applications even though they are expensive.
Superalloys are of four types, namely:

small quantities of molybdenum, titanium,
and vanadium. The carbon content in these
alloys is very low.
● Nickel-base alloys contain 50 to 80% Ni,
20% Cr, and a combination of molybdenum,
aluminum, tungsten, cobalt, and niobium
(Waspalloy, Udimet 500, and Inconel 718).
The iron content is very low in these types
of alloys. These alloys can be put in service
up to a temperature of 2200 F (1205 C).
● Cobalt-base alloys are primarily made up of
nickel, iron, chromium, tungsten, and cobalt.
These alloys are more ductile and can be
used up to a temperature of 1900 F (1040 
C). Selected properties of various superal-

Iron-base alloys comprise die materials such
as H46 and Inconel 706 and contain over
12% Cr. They also contain molybdenum and
tungsten to provide the matrix with hightemperature strength. Iron-base superalloys
also include austenitic steels with high chromium and nickel content. These dies can be
used up to a temperature of 1200 F (650 C).
● Nickel-iron-base alloys contain 25 to 27%
Ni, 10 to 15% Cr, and 50 to 60% Fe, with
Table 21.8

Comparative properties for the selection and use of die steels [Nagpal et al., 1980]

Material

Relative wear resistance

6C
6F2
6F3
6F4
6F5
6F7
H10
H11
H12
H13
A8
A9
6H2
6H1
H14
H19
H21
H26

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

Relative resistance to thermal shrinking

|

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

Relative impact strength (toughness)

|

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

Relative hardenability

|

|
|
|

|
|

|
|
|

|
|
|
|

|
|
|
|

|
|
|

|
|
|
|

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

Table 21.9 Relative ranking of die materials and their response to surface engineering [Krishnadev
et al., 1997]
Material

Impact
toughness

Hot hardness

Resistance to
die softening

Thermal checking
resistance

Wear resistance

Resistance to surface
engineering(a)

H13
ORVAR Supreme
QRO Supreme
AerMet 100
Matrix 11
D2

Medium
High
High
Very high
Medium
Low

Medium
Medium
High
Low
Very high
NA

Medium
Medium
High
Low
Very high
NA

High
High
Very high
NA
Very high
NA

Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
High

Ion nitriding, laser, PFS, PVD, TD-VC
Ion nitriding, laser, PFS, PVD, TD-VC
Ion nitriding, laser, PFS, PVD, TD-VC
Laser, PFS, PVD, TD-VC
Ion nitriding, laser, PFS, PVD, TD-VC
Ion nitriding, PFS, PVD, TD-VC

(a) PFS, powder flame spray; PVD, physical vapor deposition; TD-VC, thermal diffusion-vanadium carbide

Table 21.10

Composition of common maraging steels [Kesavapandian et al., 2001]
Composition, wt%

Type

I-VascoMax C-200
II-VascoMax C-250
III-VascoMax C-300
IV-VascoMax C-350
HWM
X2NiCoMoTi 12 8 8 Thyrotherm 2799
Marlock (Cr 0.2)

Ni

Co

Mo

Ti

Al

C

Si

Mn

S

P

18.5
18.5
18.5
18.0
2.0
12.0
18.0

8.5
7.5
9.0
11.8
11.0
8.0
11.0

3.25
4.8
4.8
4.6
7.5
8.0
5.0

0.2
0.4
0.6
1.35
...
0.5
0.3

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
...
0.5
...

0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.05
0.03
0.01

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
...

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.01

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.01

Die Materials and Die Manufacturing / 285

loys are given in the literature [Semiatin et
al., 1981].
21.2.4

Ceramic Dies

Some of the newer nonferrous alloys have
marked improvements over the traditional die
materials (Cr-Mo-V-base steels) used in hot forging. For example, Nissan Motor Co. is using cermet dies in extrusion [Kesavapandian et al.,
2001]. The material is composed of MoB (ceramic) and nickel (metal.) Boron improves resistance to oxidation at high temperatures. The material is powder formed and sintered. Die life
improvements over traditional materials is 2 to 1.
Hot forging wear tests [Bramley et al., 1989]
compare silicon-base ceramics to conventional
die steels. Silicon-base ceramics exhibit far less
wear than the conventional die steels. These materials are very pure, with fine grains and uniform microstructures. They have high hardness,
strength, and resistance to mechanical and thermal shock. However, these materials are brittle
and must not be subjected to tensile stresses; in
addition, they are expensive. Therefore, they are
used only in selected applications.
21.2.5

Nickel Aluminides

Nickel aluminides are attractive because they
derive their strength from their ordered microstructure instead of heat treatments. Their yield
strength increases with temperature up to about
1560 F (850 C), and they have excellent resistance to oxidation up to 1830 F (1000 C). Information on the composition and properties of
various nickel aluminides is available in the literature.
[Maddox et al., 1997] documented the results
of a series of performance tests between the
nickel aluminide alloys 221M-T and more traditional die steels. Whereas H11 and H13 lose
strength and hardness above 1000 F (540 C),
nickel aluminide alloys have improved hightemperature strength, oxidation resistance, and
thermal stability at temperatures ranging from
1500 to 2300 F (815 to 1260 C). The composition of this alloy is Ni3Al, with additions of
chromium for ductility and resistance to oxidation; molybdenum for strength; zirconium for
strength, resistance to oxidation, weldability,
and castability; and boron for ductility. The alloy
is stronger than Inconel 718 in both tension and
compression. The results of the performance test
are impressive for the nickel aluminide die material. For the particular part being forged (at

2300 F, or 1260 C), conventional dies typically
failed after 5000 parts due to erosion, whereas
the nickel aluminide dies lasted for 35,000 parts
(a sevenfold increase). After resinking the cavity, the nickel aluminide dies lasted for 50,000
parts (a tenfold increase). Hardness in the flash
actually also went up due to work hardening.
This alloy keeps its hardness at high temperatures from the cast microstructure and not
through a thermal treatment. Also important is
that, while heat checking was detected in the
dies, it was not important, because of the high
ductility of the material.

21.3

Heat Treatment

Heat treatment of die steels involves the following steps:
1. Austenitizing temperature of a hot work tool
steel ranges from 1830 to 2730 F (1000 to
1500 C). During this phase, the structure of
steel transforms from a ferrite-pearlite structure to austenite. The dies are held at these
temperatures for a long time, which is called
a “soak” or “hold” time, to convert the entire
structure uniformly to austenite. Carbides or
alloying elements go into solution [Krauss et
al., 1998 and Kesavapandian et al., 2001].
2. After soaking, the dies are quenched in a
quench medium to a temperature below the
transformation temperature. Based on the
cooling rate, the die transforms into different
phases. Martensite is the ideal final structure,
but lower bainite, upper bainite, pearlite, or
retained austenite can be present in the structure.
3. During tempering, the martensite is tempered
to a tougher structure. This can be done in
several stages to maximize toughness without reducing hardness.
Hardening and tempering temperatures for
various tool steels are available in literature and
from die steel suppliers [Roberts et al., 1980].

21.4

Die and Tool
Materials for Cold Forging

The tooling for cold forging is described in
Chapter 17, “Cold and Warm Forging,” in this
book. The back or pressure plates, which must
have high compressive strength, are made from

286 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications

steels hardened up to 62 HRC, as given in Table
21.11. Selection of the punch material depends
on the type of deformation. For example, in forward extrusion, the punch material must have
high compressive strength, whereas in backward
extrusion, the punch must also have very good
Table 21.11 Tool steels for pressure plates
[Lange, 1976]
Required
strength
ksi

MPa

240

1700

200

1400

155

1100

100

700

Required hardness

Designation
(AISI)

HRC

HB

A2
D2
D3
O1
H13
O1
A8
O1
4340
4140

58 to 62
58 to 62
58 to 62
58 to 61
50 to 54
50 to 54
40 to 44
40 to 44
...
...

...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
270 to 330
270 to 330

Table 21.12 Tool steels for cold extrusion
punches [Lange, 1976]
Required
strength
ksi

Tool steel

MPa

Designation (AISI)

Required hardness, HRC

M2
D2
O1
S1

62 to 64
60 to 62
60 to 62
56 to 58

M4
M2
D2

63 to 65
62 to 64
60 to 62

Forward extrusion
300
285

2100
2000

230

1600

Backward extrusion
315
300
285

2200
2100
2000

wear resistance, as a considerable amount of
metal flow occurs along the punch surface. Cold
work steels are a class of tool steels in which the
surface temperature does not exceed 390 F (200 
C) during use. These steels offer high hardness,
good toughness, and good resistance to shock,
pressure, or wear. The subdivisions of this class
are water-hardened steels, medium-and high-alloyed cold-worked steels, and high-carbon chromium steels. Tool steels commonly used for cold
forging punches are given in Table 21.12. The
dies are subjected to high cycling pressure as
well as abrasion. Therefore, die materials must
have high fatigue strength and good resistance
to wear (Table 21.13). In cold extrusion, the die
inserts are prestressed with one or two shrink
rings so that they can withstand the high stresses
present in the die cavity. Materials suitable for
shrink rings are given in Table 21.14. Tool steels
used for ejectors and counterpunches are given
in Table 21.15 [Lange, 1976]. Table 21.16 gives
the relative performance of different cold forging tools.
The special-purpose steels are the materials
that cannot be classified as either cold-worked
or high-speed steels. They are required when
certain properties are particularly important,
such as corrosion resistance. Hardenable hard
materials are a class between high-speed steels
and carbides. They have good machinability, as
long as they have not been hardened, and a very
high resistance to wear in the hardened state.
They are used to form very large cold forgings
[ICFG, 1992].
21.4.1

Table 21.13 Tool steels and tungsten carbides
for die inserts [Lange, 1976]
Tool steels
Designation
(AISI)

Required
hardness,
HRC

D2
M2

60 to 62
60 to 64

Table 21.14
1976]
Designation (AISI)

H13

4340
4140

Tungsten carbides
Co, wt%

Density,
g/cm3

Hardness,
DPH

25 to 30
18 to 42
15 to 18

13.1 to 12.5
13.6 to 13.2
14.0 to 13.7

950 to 750
1050 to 950
1200 to 1100

Steels for shrink rings [Lange,
Required hardness, HB

470 to 530
440 to 510
330 to 390
330 to 390
270 to 330
270 to 330

Cemented Carbide

Cemented carbides are composite materials
consisting of hard, wear-resistant material in a
more ductile metallic matrix. The two elements
are formed into one through a sintering process.
Tungsten carbide, which consists of tungsten in
a cobalt matrix, is typical in tool and die applications.
As manufacturing processes have improved,
the use of tungsten and other cemented carbides
Table 21.15 Tool steels for counterpunches
and ejectors [Lange, 1976]
Designation (AISI)

M2
D2
A2
O1
S1

Required hardness, HB

62
60
60
60
56

to
to
to
to
to

64
62
62
62
58

all corners of a carbide die must have generous radii. while the tensile strength is limited. Since cemented carbide has a very high compressive strength.5. If the punch will be used for can extrusion. D.5 4 4 4 9 10 10 10 10 9 8 8 4 2 2 2 6 8 8 5 4 3 1 1 8 8 8 7 5 2 1 1 Cold worked (CW) Plain carbon Medium/high-alloy CW High-carbon chromium Hot worked (HW) Medium-alloy HW High-alloyed HW High-speed steel Note: 10 ⳱ best.17 displays typical ranges for the mechanical properties of each carbide class. carbide is used almost exclusively for dies in high production.. Carbides are characterized by high hardness. since carbide cannot sustain tensile stresses. In the case of free extrusion. and D is the diameter of the punch. the first decision is whether to use tool steel or carbide. the length of the punch should be kept as short as possible [ICFG. Important factors to consider are the forming process.. When deciding between the two. Table 21. (30 mm) in diameter or less. and bore diameter of the die insert. it should be used if the maximum compressive stress is greater than 365 ksi (2500 MPa). if the die insert is 1. it is especially important to consider the size of the die Table 21. C.2 in. tool steel should be used. It is important to note that Rockwell C is completely inadequate for measuring carbide hardness. the batch size. In general. E. the material is used for more complex shapes and many forms of extrusion tooling. D. 1 ⳱ poor . 1992]. and an attempt to do so could likely damage the diamond tip on the hardness machine. 6 7 8 10 4 3 9 9 8 8 7 6 3 6 10 10 7 9 8 8 4 3 6F2 H13 H10 H19 M2 M3 T15 T42 45 45 45 45 60 64 64 64 2. Today. and forming load. must be greater than 4. 1992]. With respect to geometry. When carbide is used for backward extrusion. press parameters. When choosing a die or insert material. 1992] Tool steels Designation (AISI) Hardness. the shapes must be simple in order to use carbide. and the operating conditions.5 for carbide to be applicable. carbide can be used.18 displays common tool steels for each component in the two most common processes. batch size. high modulus of elasticity. the geometry of the die profile.19 indicates which carbide groups are appropriate for the individual components. The International Cold Forging Group has broken cemented carbides into six groups: A. B. d1.2 insert. Also. where H is the depth of the can bore hole. These classifications are based on composition as relevant to cold forging applications [ICFG.Die Materials and Die Manufacturing / 287 has grown drastically. When selecting a material for warm forging dies. If the ratio is less than the critical value or the geometry is too complex for carbide. Processes such as free extrusion permit die of greater size to be made from cemented carbide. Table 21.4. Considerations for selecting the punch material are very similar to those accounted for in die material selection. the tolerances of the component to be manufactured. cemented carbide may be used if the H/D ratio is greater than 2. HRC Wear-resistance index Toughness index Machinability index Grindability index W1 W2 A2 O1 S1 6F7 D2 D3 60 60 60 60 55 55 60 60 7 7 7 7 5 4 8 8 5 . Table 21. the ratio can be reduced to 3. In general. 21. The ratio D/d1 that compares the overall diameter of the die. Carbide inserts must be under compressive stresses. and great compressive strength. The hardness is typically measured using the Vickers or Rockwell A scale.16 Relative performance of tool steels [ICFG. and F. the preliminary concerns must be the ther- Material Selection for Cold Forging Tools The material used to produce each tool component can be selected once the dimensions of the tool have been selected.

g/cm3 HRA 1450–1550 90.5 0–2.23 0.2% proof stress 91.3 ⳯ 10ⳮ6 7.000 MPa Young’s modulus 0.22 0. Hardness 1200 1050 1000 900 750 600 HV 570 F (300 C) Table 21.5 0–2.1–14. wt% size.5 950–1000 85.5 0.0 1.000 65.000 88.000 570.5 1.0 ⳯ 10ⳮ6 5.4–14.4 13.7 14.1 14.6 ⳯ 10ⳮ6 6.7–15.8–14.000 73.5 1100–1150 87–87.9 1800 2000 2200 2500 2500 2300 MPa Room temp.17 Cemented carbide properties [ICFG.2 1. Co C TiC lm 14.8 12.5–84 HV Room temp.5 0–2.000 83.5–86 800–850 83.9 ⳯ 10ⳮ6 5. 230 260 290 335 320 275 ksi 1600 1800 2000 2300 2200 1900 MPa 570 F (300 C) Transverse rupture strength 9 9 10 10 11 11 Weibull exponent 595 550 520 480 450 390 ksi 4100 3800 3600 3300 3100 2700 MPa Room temp.5–91 1300–1400 89–90 1200–1250 88–88.5 0–2.24 Poisson’s ratio 4.7 1.000 540.2 13.4 ⳯ 10ⳮ6 5.3–13.000 450.0 ⳯ 10ⳮ6 Coefficient of thermal expansion 288 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications .5 0–2. 1992] ksi 260 290 320 360 360 335 TRE 0. 450 420 405 390 360 335 ksi 3100 2900 2800 2700 2500 2300 MPa 570 F (300 C) Compressive strength 70 65 60 55 45 35 0.22 0.000 ksi 630.000 500.000 78.1–5 1–5 1–5 1–5 1–5 1–5 A B C D E F 1 1 1 1 1 1 5–7 8–10 11–13 14–17 18–22 23–30 Group 0–2.22 0.000 610.5 WC grain Composition.6–13 Density.22 0.

and tryout. or EDM. thus... High acceleration and deceleration capabilities of the machine tool in the range of 2...5 Die Manufacture Forging dies or inserts are machined from solid blocks or forged die steels.01 in. High-speed machining of hardened dies (40 to 62 HRC) has. . Due to the importance of the thermal properties.8 to 1.6 to 3... TiCN.9 ft/s2 (0.. X X X X X X X X X X X . 2001].. . and TiAlN... X X X ... X X X X .000. . within an approximate range.9. X X X . .or four-axis computer numerical controlled (CNC) milling. (0. quality is increased and costs are reduced. and machining is mainly devoted to producing the cavities or punches. the time necessary for manufacturing a die set is reduced. 1992] Carbide group Tool part Extrusion punch Die insert Heading punch Heading die insert Reducing die insert Ironing die insert Ironing punch A B C D E F X . The main object of high-speed machining of hardened dies is to reduce benching by improving the surface finish and distortion.. . . By using hard machining. EDM. both in roughing and finishing. The trend in die manufacturing today is toward hard machining. .3 mm) oversize dimensions.. Most commonly used tools have indexable cutting inserts from cemented carbide coated with TiN. usually through the spindle Spindle rpm: 10.. .. which is usually in the range of 45 to 62 HRC. An information flow model (including the use of a coordinate measuring machine but neglecting heat treatment and coating) is pre- sented in Fig. High-Speed and Hard Machining Feed rates: 50 ft/min (15 m/min) or higher when appropriate-pressured air or coolant mist is provided. By using standard support components such as die holders and guide pins... the number of necessary machine setups is reduced and throughput is increased.Die Materials and Die Manufacturing / 289 mal conditions. forging dies are primarily manufactured by three. depending on the hardness of the die/mold steel and the chip load High-speed control with high-speed data and look-forward capability to avoid data starvation.. heat treatment. As seen in this figure. or a combination of both. the following requirements and characteristics [Altan et al... 21. and in replacing EDM whenever possible. tool path generation.5. 21.. electrode). and then EDMed to final dimensions. ● Backward extrusion Forward rod extrusion Punch 6F7 D2 D3 M2 M3 T42 Container Die insert Punch O1 6F7 D2 D3 M2 M3 S1 6F7 D2 6F2 H13 M2 M3 A2 D3 H13 M2 M3 T42 Container or die insert ● Counterpunch O1 S1 6F7 D3 H13 M2 M3 O1 D2 D3 H13 M2 M3 ● ● Table 21. polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN). which may cause some distortion.. When considering the material properties. depending on tool diameter Surface cutting speeds: 985 to 3280 ft/min (300 to 1000 m/min).19 Recommended carbide groups [ICFG.1 In a typical conventional die-making operation.... or cubic boron nitride. The information flow and processing steps used in die manufacturing may be divided into die design (including geometry transfer and modification).. minimal applications exist for carbide dies in warm forging... allowing the machine to accelerate and decelerate effectively for maintaining the prescribed surface contour. . The die is then hardened. rough machining (of die block and/or electrical discharge machining. tool steels are the most applicable material. . the same approach can be applied as in cold forging. finish machining (including semifinishing where necessary)..18 1992] Tool component materials [ICFG. which assure the overall functionality of tooling assembly. thus. . X X X X . manual finishing. Recent technological advances in high-speed machining of hardened die steels make this trend feasible and economical [Altan et al. 21..2 m/s2) Hard machining requires cutting tools that can withstand very high temperatures and provide long tool life. The look-forward capability tracks surface geometry. 2001]: ● Table 21. The term hard refers to the hardness of the die material..000 to 50.. the die cavity is usually rough machined to about 0. or benching (including manual or automated polishing)..

In manufacturing cold forging dies from tool steels. from solid-coated carbide or with inserts. EDM. Using an appropriate step-over Fig.290 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Ball-nosed end mills. hard-turning PCBN tools are used. The ball nose allows the machining of complex curves and surfaces in the die cavity. are commonly used in the production of die cavities. coordinate measuring machine. most cavities can be machined with acceptable surface finish. CMM. computer numerical control. 21. How- Information flow and processing steps in die manufacturing. electrical discharge machining . CNC.9 distance and computer-aided tool-path generation.

002 to 0. the electrode.10 Schematic of electrodischarge machining [Altan et al. When a better surface finish is required.. WEDM is mainly used for manufacturing trimming dies. A single hobbing punch can be used to manufacture a large number of cavities. and the removed particles. accuracy and repeatability are high. Graphite is used because it is a soft material that can easily be polished with sandpaper.10. a flushing fluid is passed through the gap to remove the particles. Therefore. As the spark removes material. the workpiece begins to take the form of the electrode. a hardened (58 to 62 HRC) punch is pressed into an annealed.5. The wire EDM (WEDM) functions in much the same way as the SEDM. The electrodes are most frequently created by CNC milling. Process concerns include electrode wear.5. which severely reduce the fatigue life of the die material. material removal rate. The EDM technol- ogy functions on a much smaller scale than conventional machining. The cost of discarding this residue is high. and the hardness of the material does not influence the efficiency of the process. In addition to an improved surface finish.3 Fig. the table that holds the workpiece can move in the same directions. In the United States.012 in. (0. copper electrodes can produce much tighter tolerances. The spark vaporizes portions of both the electrode and the workpiece. The disadvantages of the SEDM process begin with the lead time required to design and manufacture the electrodes.05 to 0. Movement of the guides and worktable is controlled by numerical-controlled programming. the large majority of the electrodes are made from graphite. the SEDM is used because the desired geometry requires the technology. In addition. The sink EDM (SEDM). The dielectric fluid used in the EDM process is filtered to collect the particles flushed during the process. using a hydraulic press. 21. As the electrode moves closer to the workpiece. The fluid also cools the workpiece. This process is particularly attractive for making dies with shallow cavities or dies that can be hardened after the cavity has been produced. 21.and y-directions. Advantages of the SEDM are that it creates a good surface finish. The primary difference is that the electrode is a wire ranging in diameter from 0. the gap between the two will become sufficiently small. and a spark will pass from one material to the next. copper is selected for the electrode material. Major . 21. the majority of die makers use EDM mainly for finishing of dies from already roughmachined and hardened die steels and for manufacturing of carbide die inserts. because the process consumes it in addition to removing the workpiece material. As the workpiece material is removed. This limits the repeatability of the process. which produces inherently lower material removal rates. This reduces the efficiency of the process. as shown in Fig.2 Electrodischarge Machining (EDM) The EDM process is a versatile process for die manufacturing. In forging. 21. EDM must be utilized. There are two types of electrodischarge machines: sink and wire. Typically. because it is environmentally hazardous. soft die steel block. and the removed material is washed away by a dielectric flushing fluid. The process may be cold or at elevated temperatures (warm or hot hobbing). almost all machines are four-axis centers in which the upper and lower wire guides can move independently of one another in both the x. 1983] Hobbing In hobbing. This surface is composed of high tensile residual stresses from the thermal cycle and may have numerous surface cracks. Particles resolidify to the workpiece surface during cooling and form a martensitic layer referred to as the white layer. Today. Copper is the second most common material used in the United States. Electrode wear is caused. in manufacturing carbide inserts. and more common in Europe and Japan. and particle flushing.Die Materials and Die Manufacturing / 291 ever. creating a voltage potential between it and a conductive workpiece. The process consists of a power supply that passes a current through an electrode. generates internal cavities by lowering a graphite or copper electrode into the die block.30 mm).

difficult to predict. Yen.e. this method is used for die making only in selected applications.. Electrochemical machining is similar to EDM but does not use sparks for material removal.e. nickel plating. Another drawback is that having a surface treatment on the die decreases its potential to be remachined. TiCN.292 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Table 21. TiC. there exist certain drawbacks as well. however. Cast dies. Lilly B. 1983] In addition to the methods discussed above. it is best to cast these dies and obtain the finished die cavity geometry by EDM.and cobalt-base high-temperature alloys. Because these surface treatments can significantly increase (50 to 100%) the tool life of hot forging dies. Electrodischarge machining has a significant advantage to HSM in that even after coatings have been applied. Y. FUTURA multilayer) and duplex treatments. die life. PVD coating. Feb 2001. In this application. i. TiN. after the die cavities of hot forging dies are formed using EDM or high-speed machining (HSM). 1997] Surface treatment/coating Ion nitriding CrN TiN TiAlN TD-VC Laser PFS Impact toughness Maximum exposure temperature Thermal checking resistance Wear resistance Low High High High High High High Same as base 1380 F (750 C) 840 F (450 C) 1470 F (800 C) 1470 F (800 C) Same as base Tailorable Medium Very high Very high Very high Very high High Not applicable Medium High High High Very high High High to very high examples are coining dies and dies for hot and cold forging of knives. carburizing. there are a few other methods commonly used for die making. S.” American Society for Metals. TiAlN. and Geghel. Some common methods of surface treatments include physical vapor deposition (PVD) (CrN. etc. [Altan et al. H. As a result. CrxCy. or surface finish. i. abrasive-resistant coating processed at a relatively low temperature (around 930 F. This alternative may be attractive where many dies of the same geometry are to be made. This is especially a drawback when it comes to HSM. 21. ... because the surface treatments can be detrimental to tool inserts. Because these alloys cannot be machined easily. it has been shown that the die cavity can be resunk using EDM. 2001]. VC. The common coatings used in forging are reactive coatings (nitriding or nitrocarburizing. One drawback is the added operation to the die-making process. the surface of the die is treated with special methods to increase hardness.. the dies are made from nickel. vanadizing. Plasma nitride surface welding is a process that adds nitrogen to the die cavity surface to increase its wear capabilities. T. handtools. 21. TiN. “Manufacturing of Dies and Molds. electrode wear is also quite large and. This method is more efficient than EDM in terms of metal removal rate... boriding.. 1997].4 Other Die-Making Methods [Altan et al. have been used successfully in some applications. The simultaneous need for high hardness to resist wear and high ductility to prevent fracture can be achieved using surface treatments. 1983]: Altan.20 REFERENCES [Altan et al.. TiC/TiN. Vol 50. hard facing. or 500 C). which can be costly in terms of both money and time. TiCN.. forks. CrN) [Krisnadev et al. Special cases in which cast dies are made cost-effective is isothermal or hot-die forging. Annals of the CIRP. chemical vapor deposition coating. The qualities of various surface treatment techniques are given in Table 21. 1983... “Metal Forming: Fundamentals and Applications. Physical vapor deposition is a process that coats the surface of the die with a hard..5. Only direct current between the metal electrode and the die steel is used for material removal.” Keynote Paper.C.20 Relative ranking of various surface treatments and coatings [Krishnadev et al. TiAlN.6 Surface Treatments Sometimes. WC. which include PVD and plasma nitride welding of the surface [Navinsek et al. and ion implantation) and deposited coatings (hard chromium coating. spoons.. Oh. 2001]: Altan.. more importantly. T. although not extensively used in practice.

G. Contract No. [Bramley et al.. “Fine Machining of Cold Forging Tools. Instn. [Cerwin.. P.. M. “Some Aspect in the Properties of QRO 80M and Die Casting Die Performance.” Forging.. 2001. and Surface Treatments.” SME Technical Paper MF73-565.” Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Vol 75. 1973. L. Engr. TN.. “The Role of Tool Steels in Extrusion Tooling. Guiyun. Mech. 1975]: Bramley. C.. “Improvement of Hot Forging Manufacturing with PVD and DUPLEX Coatings. 1985.. Vol 1. 1976 (in German).. History and Published Documents. 1992. Ngaile. and Jain.A. Selection of Tool Steels for Forging Dies. [Kesavapandian et al. [Roberts et al. Vol 38/1. 1998]: Guobin.” Proceedings. E. B. New York.. 1998. p 231–234..” Battelle. “Tool Life and Tool Quality in Bulk Metal Forming. F... 1976a]: Nagpal. Beeley.. Vol 137. Lange. J. 1981. L. N. [Cser et al. Tech. et al.. 1976. OH. Xiangzhi. Jonsson.. Germany).. 1985]: Johansson. Battelle. American Society for Metals. “Performance of Nickel Aluminide Forging Dies.. A. Krauss... OH. L.. G.... p 175.” Annals of the CIRP. and Lahoti.B. WI).” J. 1976]: Lange. Selection of Die and Mandrel Materials. Tool Steels.. Sept 3–15. Geiger.. [Blackwood. M. G. et al. winter 1997. “The Friction and Lubrication of Solids. Columbus. [Bramley et al. [Nagpal. [ICFG. p 152–156. p 520–526.D. 1997]: Maddox. International Cold Forging Group. 2001]: Navinsek. 1995. A. Oak Ridge.. 1992]: Blau.. DAAA22-78-C-0109... [Guobin et al.. [Nagpal. ASM International..” Vol I. 2. C. prepared for Watervliet Arsenal by Battelle-Columbus Laboratories.L.” presented at the 13th International Die Casting Congress and Exposition (Milwaukee. T. 1989. Coatings. B. K. 1992]: “Objectives. “Enhancing Hot Forging Die Life. W. [Johansonn et al. Vol 207. [Navinsek et al. [Lange.. Jianjun. Iron Steel Inst. K. p 38. OH. “Finkl Die Handbook. B/ ERC/NSM-01-R-42A..Die Materials and Die Manufacturing / 293 [Blau. and Barry. winter 1997. G. and Lahoti. May 1980.. 1980. Finkl and Sons Co. “A Further Consideration of Factors Affecting the Life of Drop Forging Dies. 7). [Thyssen]: Thyssen. Tenth ICFG Congress (Tagung Fellbach. Society of Manufacturing Engineers. and Orth. “Determination of Wear Resistance of Hot Work Die Materials. B.. North American Die Casting Association. London.. Vol 210 (No. . Lord. [Maddox et al. J. “Selection of Steels for Forging Dies. [Semiatin et al.. series of brochures from Thyssen Company. 1992. 2000. p 75–78. 2000]: Klocke. p 255.” Final report.. Columbus.” J.” Textbook of Metal Forming. 1976. 1975.. and Davies. G.. 1980]: Roberts. 2001]: Kesavapandian.. S. SELECTED REFERENCES ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● [Aston et al. July 1969. “Forging Die Materials.D.” Proc. [Krishnadev et al. Hansel.. 1993]: Cser.. and Robert. 1995]: Cerwin. 1998]: Roberts.. “Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Ni3Al Alloyed with Iron Additions.” Surface and Coatings Technology. et al. A..” ERC/NSM Report No. [Klocke. J. Mat.. P. 2001. “The Properties and Application of Bi-Metal Hot-Forging Die. [Horton et al.. G.C. Altan. L. 1993. T... 1997]: Krishnadev. J. V.]: Horton..... V. SpringerVerlag...” Vol 1–3 A. 1981]: Semiatin. 1976b]: Nagpal. L. B.. The Ohio State University. J. Tool Steels. Vol.. 1998. 1980]: Nagpal..” Battelle.. V. Columbus. Oxford University Press. p 67–72. [Nagpal et al. 1973]: Blackwood.. G. International Cold Forging Group.. Friction and Wear of Ordered Intermetalic Alloys of Ni3Al. [Krauss et al. 1969]: Aston. “Massive Forming.... “Application of the Radial Forging Process to Cold and Warm Forging of Common Tubes. Columbus.” Forging. G. ASM International. et al. 1989]: Bramley. Proc.” ISBN 3-87525-058-3.. Lord. OH. “Evaluation of Die Materials and Surface Treatments for Hot Precision Forging. Liu.

org CHAPTER 22 Die Failures in Cold and Hot Forging Mark Gariety 22. and Dahl et al. which encompasses the costs of material. the part tolerances will not meet the customer’s specifications. The high pressures and sliding velocities as well as the sudden changes in temperature may induce die failure due to several mechanisms. Eventually. Also. Fatigue occurs as the result of the continual stress cycles that the dies are subjected to. editors. These changes are mainly due to contact with the hot workpiece and the cooling and lubrication practices. Precision forging processes are utilized to produce complex-shaped parts that require little or no finishing. Die wear occurs as the result of the die and the workpiece sliding relative to one another while in contact. and surface treatment as well as the cost of labor. In any case. making the dies more expensive than those needed to produce parts with conventional tolerances [Dahl et al. thereby reducing manufacturing costs.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Taylan Altan. die wear is thought of as removal of material from the die surface. Consequently.. Typically.2 Classification of Die Failures In forging. the production cost will be significantly reduced if the die life can be increased. Gangshu Shen. and a new die or die insert will need to be manufactured. . When a failure occurs. In addition. the production must stop to replace or repair the die.. in hot forging operations. coating.1 Introduction In forging. www. p295-317 DOI:10. but it also may include buildup of material on the die surface or damage to the die surface. Complex precision-forged parts are almost exclusively produced in closed dies. the die surface is subjected to sudden changes in temperature. Die wear results in the gradual loss of part tolerances. the manufacturing time for the dies increases considerably. such as small radii. machining. As a consequence. 22. ● The third cause of die failure is plastic deformation. Fatigue is accelerated in the vicinity of stress concentrations. the amount of surface generation and the sliding velocities at which the billet material moves along the die surface are very large. The stress cycles are attributed to both mechanical and thermal loading and unloading of the dies. die failure can be a significant portion of the overall production cost. 1998. the dies have to withstand high contact pressures well above the flow stress of the billet material at the forging temperature. the dies must be produced with higher accuracy and tighter tolerances than the part to be forged. die failures may be classified by one of the following three failure modes: ● The most common cause of die failure is wear. Therefore. In order to achieve both accuracy and complexity in a forged part.. the most important cost of die failure is related to the downtime of the manufacturing system. ● The second most common cause of die failure is fatigue fracture. Plastic deformation results from forming pressures that exceed the yield strength of the die material. Gracious Ngaile. which reduces the overall productivity [Liou et al. 1999]. The cost to replace a die includes the basic cost of the die.asminternational. 1988]. The dies that fail must be either repaired or replaced.1361/chff2005p295 Copyright © 2005 ASM International® All rights reserved.

surface finish. These microscopic cracks may grow and lead to crack propagation into the cross section of the tooling if they are subjected to tensile stresses during loading [Knoerr et al. because the bulk die temperature does not fluctuate drastically during typical metal forming operations. there are four primary mechanisms by which wear may occur. ● Thermally induced fatigue fracture occurs when a crack is induced and propagates through a die due to thermal loading. When there is metal-to-metal contact between the surface asperities of the workpiece and the die. die failure is primarily the result of fatigue fracture. In hot forging.4 22. In hot forging.” In general.. residual stresses.296 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Figure 22.3 In order to maximize die life. Thermal-induced fatigue fracture is not as common as mechanically induced fatigue fracture. some small portion of the workpiece surface may be sheared and remain attached to the die surface [Schey. 1983]. fatigue wear is affected by surface defects that act as stress-concentration points. 22. the remainder of this chapter focuses solely on wear and fatigue fracture. ● Fatigue wear occurs when small cracks form on the surface or subsurface of the die and subsequently break off in the form of small fragments.” occurs when material is removed from a soft surface due to interaction with a hard asperity on another surface (two-body abrasion) or due to interaction with hard. 1994]. and a localized plastic zone forms. 22. 22. the repeated thermal loading and unloading also contributes to fatigue wear and is often called “heat checking. it is important to understand the primary mechanisms of fatigue fracture.2 Adhesive wear mechanism [Bay. Thus. 1983] Fig. Crack initiation occurs if the tool load exceeds the yield strength of the tool material in the area of a stress concentration. which are the primary failure modes in hot and cold forging. .2). A major concern is the abrasive wear of the die by hard oxides such as scale or intermetallics on the surface of the workpiece. and the lubricant chemistry.3). thus leaving small voids in the die surface (Fig. respectively. sometimes called “plowing. The plastic cycling leads to the initiation of microscopic cracks.1 illustrates a typical precisionforging die and the locations where these various failures may occur. This zone generally forms during the first loading cycle and undergoes plastic cycling during subsequent unloading and reloading. ● Abrasive wear. 2002] In order to maximize die life. die wear is responsible for nearly 70% of die failures [Schey. 1983]. This phenomenon is a result of the repeated mechanical loading and unloading that dies are subjected to. work simultaneously and may be difficult to distinguish in an actual die: ● Adhesive wear occurs when two surfaces slide relative to one another. These mechanisms. Fig. it is also important to understand the primary mechanisms of wear. summarized as follows: ● Wear Mechanisms Fracture Mechanisms Mechanically induced fatigue fracture occurs when a crack is induced and propagates through a die due to mechanical loading. In metal forming. summarized below. In cold forging. 22. For example. water-based lubricants may accelerate fatigue wear due to hydrogen embrittlement.4).1 Typical failure modes and locations in precisionforging die [Schey. and material from one surface is sheared and remains adhered to the other surface (Fig. 22. loose particles trapped between two surfaces (threebody abrasion) (Fig. 22.

5 Analytical Wear Models Some of the earliest analytical wear models were developed by Holm (1940s). K.1 V⳱ K•P •S H (Eq 22. shape. a material with a lower flow stress will produce less pressure at the die/workpiece interface and thus less die wear [Dahl et al. and Rabinowicz (1960s). However. S is the sliding length. oxidation) are removed as a result of the relative sliding between the die and the workpiece in a corrosive environment (Fig.01 for three-body abrasive wear.. K is the experimental wear coefficient. 22. In addition.. and Schey.3 Parameters Influencing Die Failure Incoming bar Billet Material. the normal pressure.5). Therefore. 1998]. have been determined for many die/workpiece material combinations... In general. this level of wear is generally accepted in order to prevent the more severe forms of adhesive wear that would result if lubricants were not used. Approximate values of the experimental wear coefficient. 22. 2002] . 22. In general. It acts as an insulator and thus protects the die against increased heating and thermal fatigue.2 for two-body abrasive wear and 0. The scale present on the workpiece surface influences the interface conditions. 2002]. a material with a high hardness (but less than die hardness) will produce less adhesive die wear [Dahl et al.001 to 0. 22.02 to 0. For adhesive wear. The flow stress of the workpiece material influences the normal pressure at the die/workpiece interface.1) where V is the wear volume.6. and H is the hardness of the softer material. The properties of the scale are influenced by billet heating time and temperature [Dahl et al. and the trends are important to understand in order to maximize die life. 1998]. Table 22. these models characterized adhesive and abrasive wear as follows: the die surface and usually varies from 0.e. 1998. The interaction of these parameters is complex. Kadh varies based on the material pair and the lubricant used [Bay. it causes abrasive wear. adhesive wear is inversely proportional to the workpiece material hardness. 1983]. Billet Surface. These parameters are discussed in the following sections and shown in flow chart form in Fig. 22. Kabr depends on the size. They may increase or decrease die failure. 22. P is the normal pressure. but if it is hard and brittle. corrosive wear is accelerated by the use of lubricants. Thus. For abrasive wear. and orientation of the asperity/particle interacting with Fig. it was recognized very early that adhesive and abrasive die wear could be minimized by minimizing the wear coefficient. Archard (1950s).1 summarizes these values. Two-body and three-body abrasive wear mechanisms [Bay.Die Failures in Cold and Hot Forging / 297 ● Corrosive/chemical wear occurs when surface films (i. Considering that wear is proportional to interface pressure.6. and the sliding length and by maximizing the die hardness.6 There are numerous parameters that influence die failure in cold and hot forging processes.

In addition. This is likely the effect of increased interface pressure and contact time. Die wear increases with increasing billet weight. and Schey. 2002] Corrosive wear mechanism [Bay. The geometry of the billet influences the amount of sliding that will take place during the forging process.. there is little metal flow in the finisher die. 22.. . 1998]. if the billet weight exceeds the weight tolerances (i.. In large-volume production. 1998.e. Billet Weight and Weight Tolerances. the use of preforms where die wear is a concern will increase die life. for adhesive wear [Bay. Because abrasive and adhesive wear are proportional to sliding length. which is used for coining in order to reduce the die wear and maintain part tolerances [Dahl et al.298 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Fig. 1983].4 Fig. the volume of the billet is larger than the volume of the die cavity). the die will fill prematurely.1 Summary of wear coefficient. 22. A billet or preform that requires a small amount of deformation can be forged with a lower load (pressure) and a shorter contact time.5 Fatigue wear mechanism [Bay. Thus. most of the forging deformation is completed in preform or blocker dies. causing increased interface pressures and thus increased wear and decreased fatigue life [Dahl et al. 2002] Table 22. 2002] Surface condition Clean Poor lubrication Average lubrication Excellent lubrication Like metallic pairs 5⳯ 2⳯ 2⳯ 2⳯ 10ⳮ3 10ⳮ4 10ⳮ5 10ⳮ6 to 10ⳮ7 Unlike metallic pairs 2 2 2 2 ⳯ ⳯ ⳯ ⳯ 10ⳮ4 10ⳮ4 10ⳮ5 10ⳮ6 to 10ⳮ7 Billet Geometry. Kadh.

Die Failures in Cold and Hot Forging / 299

22.6.2

Billet Separation

Separation Method. The separation method
influences the obtainable weight tolerances. The
effect of exceeding the weight (volume) tolerance was discussed previously. In general, cropping and sawing are the primary methods by
which billets are separated. Cropping is known
to produce a geometrically inferior billet to sawing. This method results in more surface and
edge defects (i.e., cracks and burrs) than sawing
[Dahl et al., 1998].
Sorting of billets either by weight or size can
help to extend the useful life of the dies. Billets
can be sorted into two or more groups based on
weight or size. The smaller billets should be
forged first. As the dies begin to wear and the
cavities become larger, larger billets may be introduced. The largest billets are forged at the end
of the die life when the cavity is the largest. This
technique helps to reduce the risk of excessive
interface pressures generated as a result of premature die fill [Dahl et al., 1998].
Edge Quality. Angularity and other geometrical imperfections that result from billet separation can cause uneven loading of the dies. If
the imperfections are consistent in the billet separation process, the uneven loading becomes a
repeated problem occurring at every stroke of
the press. This may cause high local wear [Dahl
et al., 1998].

Fig. 22.6

22.6.3

Billet Heating

The billet heating process must be closely
controlled in order to keep the billets in the optimum forging temperature range and to reduce
scale formation. As discussed previously, hard,
abrasive scale can be a major source of die wear.
Scale may accumulate on the billet surface as a
result of burning during the heating process and
excessive transportation times between heating
and forging. Coatings may be applied to the billets before heating in order to reduce scale formation [Dahl et al., 1998].
22.6.4

Forging Equipment

The press or hammer type influences the
length of the contact time. Increased contact
times result in increased wear. The reason for
this is that the longer the die is in contact with
the hot billet, the more the temperature of the
dies increases and the temperature of the billet
decreases. The increased die temperatures cause
decreased die hardness due to thermal softening.
Therefore, abrasive wear increases. In addition,
the decreased billet temperatures cause increased flow stress, which leads to increased interface pressures. This also leads to increased
wear. If the die experiences large temperature
oscillations due to long contact times and sub-

Process parameters leading to die failure [Artinger, 1992]

300 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications

sequent lubrication/cooling, thermal fatigue
wear may also be a concern [Dahl et al., 1998,
and Schey, 1983].
In general, hydraulic presses transfer energy
from the ram to the workpiece and die slower
than other press types. Thus, the contact time is
longer. Hammers typically transfer energy very
quickly. Thus, the contact time is shorter; however, fatigue fracture is a major concern for dies
with low toughness. In addition, the stiffness of
the press influences the contact time. If a press
has low stiffness, there is more elastic deflection
during loading. As a result, the contact time is
longer [Kesavapandian et al., 2001].
The press (ram) speed influences the relative
sliding velocity between the billet and the dies.

Increased sliding velocity results in increased
strain rates, which cause increased flow stress
and thus increased wear and decreased fatigue
life. However, if the press speed it too slow, long
contact times may become important [Dahl et
al., 1998].
The effect of the press (ram) speed and the
contact time is extremely important for die life.
The longer the contact time between the billet
and the dies, especially under pressure, the
shorter is the die life. It is useful to divide the
total contact time, tT, in precision forging into
its various components, as follows (using forging in a vertical press as an example) (Fig. 22.7)
[Dahl et al., 1998]:
tT ⳱ t1 Ⳮ t2 Ⳮ t3 Ⳮ t4 Ⳮ t5

(Eq 22.2)

where:
t1 ⳱ rest time. (The heated billet or preform
is placed on the lower die. The pressure at
the die/workpiece interface is due to the
workpiece weight only.)
● t2 ⳱ initial dwell time under pressure. (The
upper die touches the workpiece. The ram
stops for a very short time while the pressure
builds up. This is the case in some hydraulic
presses, or when a mechanical press ram has
some excessive clearances in the eccentric
bearings, or the lift-up cylinders are not
functioning properly.)
● t3 ⳱ contact time under pressure. (Deformation occurs during this time. This time is
influenced by the press stiffness. The effect
of elastic deflection, i.e., press stiffness, is
especially important in mechanical and
screw presses.)
● t4 ⳱ final dwell time under pressure. (The
forging stroke is completed. The ram is at
bottom dead center (BDC). The ram must be
lifted upward. This dwell time is due to elastic deflection of the press in mechanical and

Fig. 22.7

Contact time components in forging processes
[Dahl et al., 1998]

Fig. 22.8

Heat-transfer coefficient and temperature changes
in a typical hot forging operation (A, heated billet
resting on lower die; B, contact time under pressure; C, forging
removed from lower die; D, lubrication of die; E, dwell time with
no billet on lower die before next cycle begins) [Knoerr et al.,
1989]

Fig. 22.9

Temperature-hardness curve [Dahl et al., 1999]

Die Failures in Cold and Hot Forging / 301

screw presses and the time necessary to reverse the hydraulic pressure to lift up the ram
in some hydraulic presses.)
● t5 ⳱ final dwell time without pressure. (The
upper ram has lifted, but the forging is still
in the die before it is removed manually or
lifted out by a knockout mechanism.)
As shown in Fig. 22.8, the heat-transfer coefficient at the die/workpiece interface is different for the different contact time components.

Fig. 22.10

Fatigue analysis method [Knoerr et al., 1994]

22.6.5

Forging Dies

Die Material and Heat Treatment. The
strength (i.e., flow stress), toughness, resistance
to thermal softening, and hot hardness of the hot
forging die material influence its wear resistance. Recall that abrasive and adhesive wear are
inversely proportional to the strength/hot hardness of the die material. In addition, good toughness is also important for resistance to fatigue
wear/fatigue fracture. Because toughness is a

302 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications

function of strength and ductility, it usually increases with increasing temperature [Altan et al.,
1983, and Dahl et al., 1998]. A typical temperature-hardness curve is shown in Fig. 22.9. Additional information on die materials is given in

Chapter 21, “Die Materials and Die Manufacturing,” in this book.
Alloying elements such as chromium, tungsten, vanadium, and molybdenum are typically
employed in hot forging dies in order to improve
the wear resistance of the die. In particular, molybdenum is responsible for resistance to thermal softening at hot forging temperatures. Vanadium improves the resistance to abrasion and
thermal fatigue. Tungsten increases toughness
(resistance to mechanical fatigue) and resistance
to thermal softening [Dahl et al., 1998, and Tulsyan et al., 1993].
In addition, the microstructure resulting from
heat treatment influences die wear. It has been
shown that microstructure type, grain size, uniformity, and the number of microcracks affect
die wear [Shivpuri et al., 1988].
The thermal properties of the die material also
influence its wear resistance. High thermal conductivities eliminate the large thermal gradients
that lead to thermal fatigue wear by carrying the

Fig. 22.11

Fatigue fracture in forward extrusion die [Lange
et al., 1992a]

Fig. 22.12

Forward extrusion die cross section used by Hettig for fatigue failure investigation [Hettig, 1990]

Table 22.2 Test conditions and results of Hettig’s fatigue failure investigation along with fatigue
analysis results [Knoerr et al., 1994]

Case

I
II
III
IV

Insert material

Hardness, HRC

Die opening angle (2␣),
degrees

AISI M2
AISI D2
AISI D2
AISI D2

61
60
60
60

120
120
90
90

Transition
radius (R)
in.

mm

Experimental die life,
parts

Predicted die life,
parts

0.04
0.04
0.04
0.10

1
1
1
2.5

50–400
65–200
900–1000
10,000–11,000

280
210
950
10,500

Die Failures in Cold and Hot Forging / 303

Fig. 22.13

(a) Plastic zone at the transition radius. (b) Tensile maximum principal stress at transition radius [Knoerr et al., 1994]

heat away from the die surface more quickly.
Low thermal expansion rates reduce stresses induced by dimensional changes in the die at high
temperatures [Dahl et al., 1998].
Surface Treatments. Because dies simultaneously require high hardness to prevent wear
and high toughness to prevent fatigue fracture,
many dies incorporate a surface treatment, such
as nitriding or boriding in hot forging or a coating such as TiN or TiAlN in cold forging, that
improves the hardness of the surface while leaving the bulk of the die relatively soft [Dahl et
al., 1998].
Die Design. In hot forging, die design parameters, such as flash geometry, fillet radii, draft
angles, and die face contact area, influence die
wear and fatigue life. It has been found that die
wear decreases and fatigue life increases with an
increase in flash thickness, because the contact
stresses between the die and the flash decrease.
In addition, die wear increases and fatigue life
decreases with an increase in flash-metal escape,
because higher contact stresses are produced by
the higher loads required to deliver higher flashmetal escape rates [Aston et al., 1969].
As fillet radii increase, die wear decreases and
fatigue life increases, because small radii introduce stress concentrations. Increasing draft angle decreases die life, because higher draft angles require higher loads to fill the die cavity
[Knoerr et al., 1989].
Die Manufacturing. The method used to
manufacture the die influences the surface characteristics and thus the wear of the die. For example, electrical discharge machining typically

produces a very hard and brittle surface that has
been shown to be more wear resistant than those
produced with other manufacturing methods
[Knoerr et al., 1989].
Surface Finish. Generally, the rougher the
surface, the more wear is produced. This results
because the number of asperities in contact is
less for a rough surface. Thus, greater loads per
asperity are generated on rough surfaces. However, in cases where the surfaces are very smooth
and, more importantly, very clean, adhesive

Fig. 22.14

Fatigue fracture in backward extrusion of constant velocity joints [Nagoa et al., 1994]

304 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications

wear is likely to occur unless coatings are used
[Tulsyan et al., 1993].
22.6.6

Lubrication

Die Lubricant Type. The lubricant type influences the interface pressure and the heat
transfer between the die and the billet. In general, decreasing lubricity results in increased interface pressure and thus increased die wear and
decreased fatigue life. Also, the lubricant acts as
an insulator in order to protect the die against
extreme temperature changes and thermal fatigue wear [Schey, 1983, and Dahl et al., 1998].
Mode of Application. In hot forging, the lubricant application parameters, i.e., spray time,

spray angle, spray distance, and flow rate, influence how the lubricant covers the die. Inadequate lubrication results in increased interface
pressure and reduced insulation against extreme
die-temperature changes. However, excessive
lubricant can result in the buildup of solid lubricant particles in die cavities. This buildup
may cause premature die fill and increased interface pressure [Dahl et al., 1998].
22.6.7

Process Conditions

Die Temperature. The die temperature influences the hardness of the die. In general, the die
hardness is inversely proportional to the die temperature. Thus, because abrasive and adhesive

Fig. 22.15

(a) Plastic zone at the cup bottom. (b) Tensile maximum principal stress at cup bottom [Nagao et al., 1994]

Fig. 22.16

(a) Plastic zone at the flange area. (b) Tensile maximum principal stress at flange area [Nagao et al., 1994]

. In addition.e. The higher the sliding velocity. While the exact number of forging operations is not important. i. Sliding Velocity. appropriate and economic preforming operations should Fig.. the amount of scale typically increases with increasing temperature [Tulsyan et al. 22. 1983]. Increasing the sliding velocity between the die and the workpiece increases die wear. the more heat is produced. 1993]. the relative sliding between the die and workpiece creates heat. 1998 and Schey. what is important is that there are enough operations so that the severity of the deformation at one station is not excessive. the billet temperature influences the amount of scale on the workpiece surface. In general. 1993].. which results in increased die wear. This heating lowers the hardness of the die [Tulsyan et al. As discussed previously. Excessive deformation in one die cavity causes large sliding between the billet and the die. 1998. and Schey.. Number of Forging Operations.17 Deformation of the inserts under load for the straight container (original design) and the profiled container (optimum design) [Nagao et al. 2001] .. The billet temperature influences the flow stress of the material.Die Failures in Cold and Hot Forging / 305 Fig.. Therefore. 22. increased flow stress results in increased interface pressure and thus increased wear and decreased fatigue life [Dahl et al. die wear is proportional to die temperature.18 Knockout pin design and insert failure point [Hannan et al. which is significantly affected by contact times [Dahl et al.. 1994] die wear are inversely proportional to die hardness. 1983]. Billet Temperature.

Cycle Time/Production Rate..e. 22.. amount of time required to transfer the billet from the furnace to the press.20 Tensile maximum principal stress in failure area [Hannan et al. the billet will cool and the die will heat.306 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications be used. Transfer Time. i. influences the temperature of the billet. Thus. large amounts of coolants and lubricants Fig. In such cases. 1998].. in highspeed horizontal hot forging machines.19 FEM model of knockout pin [Hannan et al. i. because the flow stress of the billet will be increased and the hardness of the dies will be decreased [Dahl et al.. 1998]. Large production rates in hot forging will increase the overall temperature of the dies. especially just prior to the final forging operation where wear rates must be kept low to maintain desired tolerances [Dahl et al. 1998]. Cooling of the billet will raise the flow stress of the billet. If the heated billet is allowed to rest on the die for a long period of time before deformation occurs. 22.. 2001] Fig..e. wear will be increased. 2001] .. increased flow stress results in increased interface pressure and thus increased wear and decreased fatigue life [Dahl et al. As discussed previously. The transfer time.

Alternatively. the effect and importance of each variable based on the nature of the given component must be assessed. With FEM-based fatigue analysis. 22. Figure 22. and Table 22. an experimental investigation of fatigue fracture of forward extrusion dies.7 Prediction of Die Fatigue Fracture and Enhancement of Die Life in Cold Forging Using Finite-Element Modeling (FEM) A reliable method to analyze. If the predicted tool life is insufficient. Redesign the process to avoid drastic changes in the direction of the material flow. Split the tooling at the highest loaded zone. which usually leads to peaks in the contact stress. 1994.. 1994]: ● ● ● ● ● Change material flow in the die to reduce the contact stresses on the tool.13 also shows that the maximum principal stresses in this same region are tensile.. In order to verify the fatigue analysis method for evaluating tool life. 2001] .. This may be achieved by the following means [Knoerr et al. predict.7. the predicted die lives were in the range of those found experimentally.Die Failures in Cold and Hot Forging / 307 are needed in order to reduce die temperatures. A significant increase in tool life can be achieved by reducing the stresses in the highest loaded zone below the yield strength of the tool material. such as strip-wound containers or profiled stress rings. performed at the Institute for Metal Forming (IFUM) at the University of Stuttgart. and Matsuda. ● The stress-strain analysis is used to perform a damage analysis and estimate the number of cycles until fatigue fracture.2 summarizes the results obtained from the fatigue analysis for the same test conditions. Therefore. a multitude of variables. and/or control die fatigue fracture has long been one of the most important issues in cold forging. must be carefully considered. ● Apply advanced stress ring techniques. Increase the transition radii to reduce the notch effect.11). Fig. In order to produce an economically sound part with prolonged die life by either cold or hot forging. 22. In addition. 22. this effect is noted quickly and economically. Several case studies where this fatigue analysis method was employed are presented as follows. it is also possible to leave one forging station intermittently empty in order to provide time for the dies to cool.2 illustrates that the die opening angle and the transition radius have a large effect on the die life.21 Split knockout pin insert design [Hannan et al. Also.2 summarizes the test conditions and the results obtained. Increase the interference of the stress ring. the fatigue analysis method was verified. as discussed above. Figure 22. prevent. Figure 22. 22.10) [Knoerr et al. 22. the FEM-based fatigue analysis easily determines the location where fatigue fracture will occur. As the table shows.1 Forward Extrusion—A Case Study In forward extrusion. fatigue cracks initiate at the transition radius to the extrusion shoulder and propagate in the radial direction (Fig. was used [Hettig. 2002]: ● The forging process is simulated using FEM in order to estimate the tool stresses.13 shows the local plastic zone at the transition radius found during the FEM-based stress-strain analysis of the die. Table 22. In particular. a fatigue analysis method that can be utilized to estimate tool life has been developed and can be summarized as follows (Fig. ● The tool stress values are used to complete an elastic-plastic stress-strain analysis of the tooling using FEM. Table 22. 1990]. changes in the process and tooling design must be made in order to reduce the loading conditions. Thus.12 shows the cross section of the forward extrusion die.

Figure 22. 22.2 Backward Extrusion of Constant Velocity Joints—A Case Study In cold forging of outer races for constant velocity joints.7. Figure 22. (b) Finite-element model of modified punch geometry (A. fillet radius. cone angle...14 illustrates the backward extrusion process and the locations where fatigue fracture is experienced [Nagao et al. D.308 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications which facilitates the propagation of cracks formed in the plastic zone. 1992b] . face. lower punch corner. 1994]. 22. where fatigue Fig. (b) Punch used to form bevel gear [Lange et al.. B. fatigue fracture is the common failure mode for the tooling.22 (a) Bevel gear. E. edge) [Lange et al. C. 22. 1992b] Fig.23 (a) Finite-element model of original punch geometry.15 shows the results from the fatigue analysis at the cup bottom. tool stresses during the backward extrusion operation lead to very high loading conditions in the tool inserts. Therefore.

21.2 in. there is a localized plastic zone and tensile maximum principal stresses in this region. fatigue analysis of the tooling showed a large plastic zone and tensile maximum principal stresses in the flange area (Fig. Fig.16). Both of these conditions contribute to the onset of fatigue fracture.. face. Once again. and Luig.17).24 22.000 parts were forged without experiencing any cracks.Die Failures in Cold and Hot Forging / 309 fracture was experienced under production conditions. a new tooling geometry with a profiled container was designed (Fig. 22. the billet resting on the lower die.14) was manufactured and tested at Honda Engineering Co.. B. 1994].3 Upset forging conditions used in die wear tests [Bobke. 1991.3 Knockout Pin Insert—A Case Study This case study analyzed a knockout pin insert that was used to indent a hole on the bottom of a workpiece in a cold heading operation. the forged billet resting on the lower die.7. 1992b] .7) placing the billet on the lower die. (a) Normal stress distribution for original punch geometry. the forging stroke. and the maximum principal stresses remained compressive. 22. The Table 22. (30 mm) Dies Material: H-10 Coating: various Temperature: 430/570 F (220/300 C) Lubrication: various (a) The cycle time included (Fig. and lubrication (when applied). (20 mm) Height: 1. Once again. 22. The results from the fatigue analysis on this tooling showed that there was no plastic zone in the flange area.09 MN (347 tonf ) Stroke: 7 in. 1993] Press Type: mechanical Capacity: 3. C. removal of the forged billet. With this new tooling geometry.8 in. In order to further verify the fatigue analysis method. (b) Normal stress distribution for modified punch geometry (A. tooling capable of developing a stress state similar to the actual tooling (Fig. cone angle. Similar results were obtained in the flange region [Nagao et al. lower punch corner. E. fillet radius. (180 mm) Stroke rate: 2/s Cycle time(a): 13 s Billet Material: 1045 steel Temperature: 2010 F (1100 C) Diameter: 0. In order to improve tool life. cracks were experienced in the flange area after 7000 parts. 22. 22. With this tooling. D. edge) [Lange et al.

22. 2001]. Figure 22.7. The resulting tool life increased from 53. 22. 22. 1988] .000 parts [Hannan et al.000 parts..18 along with the point of failure..25 Upset forging process [Luig.27 Comparison between predicted and experimental die wear [Liou et al. Figure 22.20 shows that there is a large tensile maximum principal stress in the region of the failure point [Hannan et al. 22. 1996] Fig. The original insert had an average tool life of 53.22b) used in the cold forging Fig. 2001].310 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications insert and original pin design are shown in Fig.000 parts to 200. 22. One design change analyzed in this case study was to split the pin insert where it was failing.21. The radius where failure occurs is eliminated using a straight pin (E) and a sleeve (D). This tool was manufactured for a production run. The design is shown in Fig...4 Bevel Gear Punch—A Case Study This case study analyzed the fatigue fracture of a punch (Fig. 22. 2001]..19 shows the FEM model of the knockout pin operation used for the fatigue analysis. This is about a 300% increase in tool life [Hannan et al.26 Typical wear profile for upset forging [Doege et al. 22. 1993] Fig.

22. especially at the upper fillet radius where the fatigue fracture occurred (Fig.. 1995] ..Die Failures in Cold and Hot Forging / 311 of a straight bevel gear (Fig.28 Exhaust valve forming process. all of Fig. The finiteelement model is shown in Fig.23b). 22. it was possible to reduce the peak stresses. 22.23(a). 1993]. The ability to predict die wear allows for the optimization of process variables such that die life is improved [Tulsyan et al. In general. 22. (b) Extrusion of valve stem. By modifying the punch geometry (Fig.24a). (c) Upsetting of valve head [Tulsyan et al.29 (a) Comparison between predicted and experimental die wear. 1988].22a). 1992b]. Fatigue analysis of the punch showed that very high stresses were generated in the lower punch corner and the upper fillet radius (Fig. Many researchers have applied FEM to estimate die wear in hot forging. (a) Initial billet. 22.8 Prediction of Die Wear and Enhancement of Die Life in Hot Forging Using FEM Several studies have been conducted in an attempt to estimate die life in hot forging [Liou et al.... 22. 1993] Fig. 22. 22. (b) Axial position along extrusion die throat (picture is rotated 90) [Painter et al. the punch life was increased by a factor of 6 to 8 [Lange et al. As a result of these geometric changes.24b).

Measurements of die wear in a simple upsetting operation were made at the IFUM at the University of Hannover in Germany. Typical wear profiles after upsetting are shown in Fig. however. 1993] Press Type: mechanical Capacity: 3.0 ⳯ 10ⳮ7 1. a differential form of Holm’s wear equation was adopted: dV ⳱ Kadh • ⳱ Kadh • dW • dL H p • dA • U • dt ⳱ dZ • dA H (Eq 22. in order to reduce unexpected machine downtime. 1995]: ● Die changes can be scheduled.. the billet resting on the lower die.25 illustrates the upset forging process.. The prediction of die wear (fatigue fracture as well) with FEM has the following specific advantages [Painter et al. adhesive wear was considered to be the dominant wear mechanism. and Luig. and lubrication (when applied). 2003]. The different temperatures on the billet surfaces result in an asymmetric flow pattern of the deforming workpiece. The general profiles of the predictions have agreed with experiment. and Lee and Jou.6 in. die materials.0 ⳯ 10ⳮ3 Table 22. 1999. the forging stroke.30 Hot precision forging die [Bobke. along with the asymmetric temperature distributions on the die surfaces.1 High-Speed Hot Upset Forging—A Case Study In hot upset forging. This phenomenon. 1988]. Fig. 1991] . and workpiece and die temperatures can be optimized to increase die life in an economical manner. the forged billet resting on the lower die. 22. removal of the forged billet. predicting the exact magnitude of die wear is difficult [Dahl et al. (40 mm) Dies Material: H-10. based on estimated die lives. (30 mm) Heght: 1.0 ⳯ 10ⳮ3 2.8. 1991.3 [Bobke.17/0.2) Table 22. as opposed to expensive experimental studies.7) placing the billet on the lower die. Therefore. using the conditions given in Table 22. Analytical Wear Prediction.09 MN (347 tonf ) Stroke: 7.22/0. Due to the free resting of the workpiece on the bottom die prior to deformation of the billet. In order to predict die wear using FEM analysis.. strongly affects die wear behavior on the two surfaces [Liou et al. 22. 1993]. ● The effects of die geometry changes on die wear can be rapidly investigated. H-12. the temperature distributions at the top and bottom surfaces are not symmetric. H-13 Hardness: 0. 1995] Die set A B C Die material Kabr Kadh H-11 tool steel Silicone nitride ceramic H-11 tool steel 3. 22. Figure 22. ● Forging parameters such as press speed.26.25 psi (1200/1500/1700 Pa) Temperature: 285/430/570 F (140/220/300 C) Lubrication: various (a) The cycle time included (Fig. and Luig. heat is transferred from the billet to the lower die. again avoiding the high cost of experimental studies.1 in.5 ⳯ 10ⳮ6 2. (180 mm) Stroke rate: 2/s Cycle time(a): 13 s Billet Material: 1045 steel Temperature: 595 F (1100 C) Diameter: 1. Experimental Wear Measurement..5 Upset forging conditions used in die wear tests [Bobke.6 ⳯ 10ⳮ3 7. 1991.2 in.312 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications the results have been similar. 22.2 ⳯ 10ⳮ6 6.4 Summary of Kabr and Kadh values in extrusion die wear [Painter et al.

i ⳱ 0. the wear depth can be predicted as: M Zi ⳱ 兺 Kadh • j⳱1 pij • Uij • Dt . [Bobke. the predicted results were scaled up to 2000 forging cycles. N is the total number of nodes on the die surface. i represents the ith node. With this data. 1988].31 In this case. and Kadh is the dimensionless adhesive wear coefficient.Die Failures in Cold and Hot Forging / 313 where dV is the wear volume and is equal to dZ • dA (wear depth • contact area). this may be attributed to asymmetric temperature. Fig. die temperature vs. number of forging cycles. the wear coefficient was assumed to be Kadh ⳱ 7. Dt is the time interval of the calculation step.0 ⳯ 10ⳮ5. As discussed previously.3) where Zi is the accumulated wear depth at the ith node.3 was used to calculate the predicted die wear at each contact node on the upper and lower die for the ten simulation steps of one deformation cycle [Liou et al. 1988]. M is the total number of calculation steps.1. based on the approximations given in Table 22. and j represents the jth time step [Liou et al.. 22. It should be noted that the interface pressure and the sliding velocity are local values. dL is the sliding distance and is equal to U • dt (sliding velocity • time).3) were extracted from the FEM simulation. the parameters needed for the die wear model (Eq 22. . It is immediately noted that the maximum die wear depth was greater on the top die than on the bottom die.27 shows the comparison between the predicted and experimental die wear. Figure 22. H is the die hardness.. the FEM simulation of the hot upset forging process was divided into ten steps. Eq 22. Measured die wear profile vs. On completion of each step. . dW is the normal load to compress the billet and is equal to p • dA (interface pressure • contact area). In addition. N Hij (Eq 22. Thus. 1991] . In order to compare the die wear predictions to experimental results.

22. FEM simulation of the heat transfer for the postfree resting and empty periods of the first upsetting cycle was performed. 22.. the Fig. In high-speed hot extrusion and forging of exhaust valves. and in the second stage. 1993]. number of forging cycles [Bobke. Experimental Wear Measurement.4 summarizes the die materials used for the experiments. wear increases. with the billet heated to 2000 to 2100 F (1100 to 1150 C) [Tulsyan et al. The temperature fields in the top and bottom die were then used as the initial temperatures for the second upsetting simulation and so on. 1995]. In this analysis. Because of the success of the Holm’s-based adhesive wear equation for highspeed hot upsetting discussed previously. and interface pressure distribution on the top and bottom die due to the diechilling effect of the free resting billet on the lower die prior to deformation. Because there is relatively little movement between the workpiece and the die during the second stage. In the first stage. exhaust valves are typically formed in two stages. Measurements of die wear in the extrusion operation of the exhaust valve forming process were performed. die temperature vs.28 shows. The difference between the maximum wear depth on the bottom die predicted by the model and the experiment was explained by considering the effect of consecutive forging cycles.. The typical wear profile after extrusion is shown in Fig.32 valve stem is formed by extruding the bottom of the billet.314 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications sliding velocity. its hardness decreases.2 Extrusion and Forging of Exhaust Valves—A Case Study As Fig. Both the die geometry and the die material varied from die to die because it was expected that different wear mechanisms would dominate in each die. The process is generally completed in a 500 to 700 ton mechanical press at 45 to 60 strokes per minute. Analytical Wear Prediction. Table 22. This explains why scaling the wear predicted on the bottom die for the first forging cycle resulted in a maximum wear depth less than that indicated by experiment. 1991] . a similar model was established for abrasive wear: Measured die wear at location I vs. and thus. Because the temperature of the bottom die increases.29.8. abrasive wear is assumed to be the dominant wear mechanism. 22. Simulation of three consecutive forging cycles predicted a temperature increase in the bottom die but not in the top die. The experiments were performed with three different extrusion dies. lubricant vs. 22. the die wear measurement of the extrusion die used in the first stage was the primary focus of this study [Painter et al. The figure also shows that the die wear profile predicted by the model closely resembled experimental results. the valve head is formed by upsetting the top of the billet.

In order to make this comparison. 1995]. while adhesion was the dominant wear mechanism in extrusion with tool steel dies. Figure 22.. 1993].5) where all the variables are as defined previously [Tulsyan et al. except Kabr is the dimensionless abrasive wear coefficient. and m is an exponent equal to 2 for steels. N Hijm (Eq 22.4 outlines the Kabr and Kadh values [Painter et al. the experimental results were scaled down to one forging cycle. 22. The predicted die wear profile matched the die wear experiment.5) were extracted from the FEM simulation. i ⳱ 0.4) where all the variables are the same. however. the parameters needed for both the adhesive wear Fig..33 model (Eq 22. A comparison of the results from the experimental die wear measurements and the FEM die wear predictions showed that abrasive wear was the dominant wear mechanism in extrusion with ceramic dies. On completion of each step.. .. and both the adhesive and the abrasive wear depths were predicted. the wear depth can be predicted as: M Zi ⳱ 兺 Kabr • j⳱1 pij • Uij • Dt . as discussed previously. the FEM simulation was divided into 18 steps. In this case. . FEM model of hot precision forging process [Dahl et al. Thus. 1999] .3) and the abrasive wear model (Eq 22. Table 22.29 shows the comparison of the results for the ceramic extrusion die. the die wear magnitudes did not exactly match because wear mechanisms other than abrasion were also acting [Painter et al. 1995].Die Failures in Cold and Hot Forging / 315 dV ⳱ Kabr • • dW • dL ⳱ Kabr Hm p • dA • U • dt ⳱ dZ • dA Hm (Eq 22.

p 520– 526. Therefore.8. “Analysis and Prediction of Die Wear in Precision Forging Operations. 2001]: Kesavapandian. Altan. Typical wear profiles after forging are shown in Fig. 1983]: Altan. J.31. Analytical Wear Prediction. “Effect of Process Parameters on Die Life and Die Failure in Precision Forging. D. C... “Influencing Variables of Tool Fracture at Impact Extrusion.. G.. 1996]: Doege. It is not intuitive that die wear would decrease with increasing friction factor. Thus..” J.. 2001]: Hannan. [Aston et al. and the wear depth was predicted. T.. On completion of each step.. PF/ ERC/NSM-01-R-42. 22. the parameters needed for the die wear model (Eq 22... Aug 2001. H. as discussed previously. Altan. C. 1992 (in Hungarian). [Artinger. Ngaile.. 1999]: Dahl. different materials have different temperature-hardness curves). Measurement of die wear for the hot precision forging process was carried out at the IFUM at the University of Hannover in Germany. IFUM. Based on typical experimental values for two-body abrasion.. [Dahl et al. and Romanowski. It was assumed that abrasive wear was the dominant wear mechanism in hot precision forging. University of Stuttgart. R.. V. 1991.. T. 1999].. decreases with increasing friction factor. “Material Science and Tool-Life. 1991.” Report No. Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing. 2002...” Budapest. I.33 shows the FEM model of the hot precision forging process... May 2001. “Increasing Tool Life Quantity in Die Forging: Chances and Limits of Tribological Measures. The tolerances on these parts are especially critical. [Doege et al.. and Luig. Reports from the Institute of Metal Forming. N. 1992]: Artinger. S.316 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications 22. Ngaile. REFERENCES [Altan et al. Vazquez. 1999].” NAMRC.. ... “Die Wear in Precision Hot Forging—Effect of Process Parameters and Predictive Models. 7). Altan. Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing.” No. April 1998. T. “Elimination of Defects and Improvement of Tool Life in Cold Forging— Case Studies.. die wear is exceedingly detrimental to these processes. Vol 210 (No.” New Developments in Forging Conference (Stuttgart. [Kesavapandian et al. 22. 1969]: Aston. A. PF/ERC/NSM-98-R-15. Institute for Metal Forming Technology (IFU).. T. “Phenomenon of Edge Layer at Sealing Process of Drop Forge Tools. Metal Forming Fundamentals and Applications. under the conditions given in Table 22. G. [Dahl et al. Figure 22... 1990]: Hettig. Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing. PF/ERC/NSM-99-R-21.” No. the wear model in Eq 22. July 1969. Therefore.02 [Dahl et al.. 1999]. Iron Steel Inst. In the case of the valve extrusion. In this case. 1991]: Bobke.. Gegel.31..32. Altan. G. Figure 22.. class notes. May 1999. The maximum predicted die wear and the maximum measured die wear both occurred at the corner of the upper die (Fig. American Society for Metals. Technical University of Denmark.. the wear coefficient was assumed to be Kabr ⳱ 0. 2002]: Bay. Experimental Wear Measurement.5 [Bobke. 1983. The experimental wear depths for three different lubricants are summarized in Fig. 1993]. In general.e. C.” Report No.5) were extracted from the FEM simulation. E.” Report No. 106. it was shown that die wear increases with increasing friction factor because of the increased pressure developed on the die. Vazquez. and Barry.. prediction of die wear and enhancement of die life is very important to these manufacturers. T. This illustrates the advantage of being able to predict die wear. Seidel. [Bay... “A Further Consideration of Factors Affecting the Life of Drop Forging Dies. [Hettig. the model predicted that die wear increases with decreasing corner radius. V. die wear decreases because increased friction acts to decrease the sliding length [Dahl et al. E. and increases with decreasing die hardness (i.5 was used [Dahl et al. 1998]: Dahl. University of Hannover. 237. [Hannan et al.30 shows the precision forging die used in the experiments. [Bobke. measurement location 18). 1996. 22. Germany). Oh. 1990..3 Hot Precision Forging—A Case Study Hot precision forging of complex shapes is the focus of many manufacturers. T. Springer.

Hansel. of Materials Processing Technology.A.. K. Shivpuri. “Fatigue Failure of Cold Forging Tooling: Causes and Possible Solutions Through Fatigue Analysis. and Jou. Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing. and Shivpuri.. Altan. R. Feb 1995.. 2003]: Lee. 2003. Cser.” Report No.. Knoerr. 1994. [Lange et al. “Influence of Wear Pro- tective Coating and Scaling of Raw Parts on Forging Wear. Hettig. 1993]: Tulsyan. T.. [Liug.G... p 57– 71. 1995]: Painter. H. Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing. p 73– 78.” Annals of the CIRP. Geiger. Kals.” Report No. T.. J. “Investigation of Die Wear in Extrusion and Forging of Exhaust Valves.. Altan. 2002. [Tulsyan et al.. [Nagao et al.. R. [Matsuda. Tribology in Metalworking: Friction. Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing.. Oct 1988. [Lange et al. Y. University of Hannover. p 667– 675. 140. 1994]: Nagao.. R. March 1989. and Semiatin. June 1988. 1983]: Schey. “Improvement of Tool Life in Cold Forging. .. Aug 1993. 1989]: Knoerr.” J... M. 2002]: Matsuda. 1983. Altan. Lubrication. Vol 35. T.. ERC/ NSM-88-05. Shivpuri. and Hsiao.. 1992. p 43–48. of Materials Processing Technology.. B. R. 1992a]: Lange. and Wear.. Vol 1... 1988]: Liou.. [Lee and Jou. H. T.. IFUM. 315. American Society of Metals.” No. M. 1993]: Luig. R. p 73–85.. Vol 46. Knoerr. Vol. T.. “Application of Numerical Simulation for Wear Analysis of Warm Forging Die...” Report No. “Increasing Tool Life in Cold Forging Through Advanced Design and Tool Manufacturing Techniques. L.” J.. p 495– 513. ERC/NSM-B-95-06. S. [Painter et al.S. ERC/NSM-B-93-28.” J. A... 1994]: Knoerr. ERC/NSM-8833.. M. “Prediction of Die Wear in High Speed Hot Upset Forging. [Shivpuri et al. 1992b]: Lange. J. M.” Report No. [Liou et al.” Report No. Lange.. 1994.Die Failures in Cold and Hot Forging / 317 [Knoerr et al.” Advanced Technology of Plasticity. R. “Wear of Dies and Molds in Net Shape Manufacturing. M. 1993.L. ERC/NSM-B-89-15...” Journal of Material Processing Technology. “Failure in Forging Dies. J. Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing. Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing. “Tool Life and Tool Quality in Bulk Metal Forming. “Improvement of Tool Life in Cold Forging of Complex Automotive Parts. Vol 46. M.. 1992. Altan.... [Knoerr et al. M. of Materials Processing Technology. [Schey. 1988]: Shivpuri. “Computer-Aided Techniques for the Prediction and Measurement of Die Wear during Hot Forging of Automotive Exhaust Valves. K.. K.

p319-335 DOI:10. are forged as close as possible to the final dimensions of the desired part. 2000]. 2000] Tolerances in Precision Forging To reduce cost. The other forgings require minor machining or grinding.1. the dimen- . The steering spider seen in the forefront in Fig. www. such as the gear tooth geometry of the bevel gear.1 Examples of net shape forged parts [Meidert et al. minimal draft.. it is often desirable to replace conventional forging that requires several subsequent machining and finishing operations with precision forging. Some of the parameters affecting the quality of near-net shape forged components are illustrated in Fig. are ready for assembly [Meidert et al. Net shape forging can be defined as the process of forging components to final dimensions with no postforging machining necessary. Near-net shape forged components.e. in the range of 0.asminternational. Examples of typical near-net shape parts are given in Fig. and the absence of flash during forging. on the other hand.Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications Taylan Altan. 23. 23. 23. make near-net forging very attractive to the automotive industry. For cold forging processes to compete with machining. with minimal or no postforging machining. However. (0.05 mm).1 is a typical net shape part. editors. functional areas.. Gracious Ngaile.0004 to 0. The current minimum dimensional error in practical cold forging is Ⳳ20 to 50 lm.1 Introduction Net and near-net shape forging companies generally produce for the automotive industry. These parts are characterized by complex geometries and very close tolerances. cold and warm forging. with little machining or only grinding after forging and heat treatment.002 in.2 Fig. This is a major advantage when machining costs are taken into consideration. i. Gangshu Shen. while the error in machining has been reduced over the years to less than Ⳳ1 lm. These components are characterized by close dimensional tolerances. 23. at complicated and functionally important surfaces.01 to 0. The possibility of eliminating the high costs of machining. which yields parts with good dimensional tolerances.2. 23.org CHAPTER 23 Near-Net Shape Forging and New Developments Manas Shirgaokar Gracious Ngaile 23. combined with the inherent advantages of cold forging regarding material strength and finish..1361/chff2005p319 Copyright © 2005 ASM International® All rights reserved.

because of its high stiffness. 1999]: ● Die manufacturing: The dimensional accuracy of the dies directly influences that of the parts being produced with them. Hence.2 pressure. ● Elastic deflection of the press and tools: When the forming load is applied.3 Factors influencing the quality of near-net shape forged components. cemented carbide is the die material of choice. thus affecting the final tolerances on the part being forged. 2000] . These fluctuations affect the dimensional accuracy of the forming process. FE. die manufacturing is a very crucial part of the manufacturing sequence of precision parts.1 Precision Die Manufacturing Electrical Discharge Machining. and high wear resistance. The use of electrical discharge machining (EDM) and wire EDM machines in manufacturing cold forging dies has considerably improved the accuracy of forging dies. rather than high-speed steel. ● Variation of process conditions: In practical situations. In precision forging. 23. finite element [Meidert et al. The billet dimensions and material properties (flow stress) can be controlled by involving the suppliers in the design process to ensure procurement of billets with consistent dimensions and flow stress. billet dimensions. Some of the causes of dimensional variation in precision forging are [Osakada. The variation in lubrication conditions can be reduced by using lubricants with consistent friction coefficients. lubrication conditions.320 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications sional accuracy would have to be increased to within Ⳳ10 lm. low thermal effect. and material properties do not remain constant. the press and the tools undergo elastic deflection.. 23. process variables such as forming Fig. 23. A flow chart for manufacturing precision dies is shown in Fig.2.

Crack initiation is delayed due to the hardness of the coating. 1997] . The die insert impression is made by die sinking using a master electrode. followed by electrical discharge die sinking. computer-aided manufacturing [Yoshimura et al.3 23. The compression ring is produced by machining and milling. Surface coating is done to increase surface hardness on the working portion of the tools. CAM. which prevents any lubricant or workpiece material from getting wedged in these cracks.. The die insert is then shrink-fitted into the compression ring. so as to reduce wear and damage in that area. Flow chart of die manufacturing by electrical discharge machining (EDM). 1996]: ● Elastic deflection is a reversible change in dimension brought about by the applied load. TiN. Process design in precision forging usually requires extensive trials before the optimum settings can be identified to yield the desired part tolerances. followed by lapping to obtain a mirrored finish. 23.2.Near-Net Shape Forging and New Developments / 321 [Yoshimura et al. Thus.. The die insert impression is first made by rough grinding. followed by hardening or quenching to increase its stiffness.. and the assembled ring is machined for finishing. It can be controlled by appropriate calculations and design. tool design. Some of the phenomena affecting die deflection/ deformation are listed below in the order that reflects the increasing dependence on production run-time [Kocanda et al. 1997]. Two commonly used methods of surface coating are [Yoshimura et al. it is possible to compensate for the errors in the dimensions by evaluating the various factors affecting the part tolerances. 1997]: ● Chemical vapor deposition: TiC. and manufacture in net shape forming require not only the use of a highly qualified engineer and sophisticated computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) packages but also strict control on the tool and press settings. Al2O3 ● Physical vapor deposition: TiN Fig.. TiCN.2 Die Deflection in Net Shape Forging The stages of process planning.

temperatures. lubrication. which occur during multistage forging or forging of complex parts. the clearances in the guiding system. planestrain. and methods to minimize the component form errors due to elastic behavior of the press and location and the elastic behavior of the forging dies. However. etc. This phenomenon should not be ignored when the die geometry has stress concentration features. In order to quantify the elastic characteristics of the press.. Tempering is a function of both temperature and time and can occur during cold deformation processing at temperatures lower than the tempering temperature chosen for heat treatment of the tool. Softening of tool steel by unwanted tempering. 1996]. have a detrimental effect on the part tolerances. and the construction of the crosshead [Doege et al. Various stages and influencing factors of the forging process [Ishinaga. it is necessary to measure the load-deflection relationship of the ram under center and off-center loading conditions together with superimposed horizontal forces. Change in the modulus of elasticity may be caused by change in temperature of the tool steel. Relaxation and creep phenomena considerably decrease the prestresses in the die insert. Thermal expansion of the tooling is a result of the heat generation during deformation. press frame. Cyclic softening or hardening causes significant changes in the stress-strain response of the tool steel. appropriate definition of the joints. and the prestressing requirements for assembling the frame. This simulation enabled the determination of the horizontal offset and tilting of the forging dies for various orientations of the die parting line.4 ence of press deflection on the accuracy of the formed part and methodologies to compensate for these errors have yet to be standardized. the influ- Fig. The horizontal offset and tilting. This could be caused by improper tool alignment. Cyclic plastic deformation. inadequate lubrication. change in initial properties of the workpiece.3 Press Deflection in Net Shape Forging Major factors that influence the part tolerances are the tool and machine deflections and the various process parameters. which occurs near areas of stress concentration.2. may result in initiation of microcracks. the nonlinear characteristics of the load-deflection behavior between adjacent components. such as material properties. and asymmetry in press assembly make it difficult to analyze the elastic behavior of the press. a three-dimensional (3-D) FE simulation was conducted to determine the elastic characteristics of a 400 metric ton screw press. The forming loads were obtained by conducting a two-dimensional closed-die. 23. The simulation considered the modeling of the press components. Finite-element (FE) simulation has been employed to calculate the stress and deflection behavior of press components such as guide layout.. 23. 1990]. While the process parameters and tool design have been the subject of extensive research. Generally. In one particular study [Balendra et al. etc.322 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Plastic deformation is a permanent deformation as a result of an unintended increase in forming load or stress concentration. 1996] . aerofoil forging simulation. the modulus of elasticity decreases with increasing temperature.

Apart from improvements in forging processes. ● The postprocessing stage deals with machining. 1997]: ● Proper equipment and process to ensure high accuracy ● Proper design of die structure to achieve high stiffness ● Proper heat and surface treatments to eliminate the heterogeneity of the die material ● Proper control of heating conditions to maintain constant temperature at the die Tool life is also a major factor to be considered while quoting a part. which encompasses all the variables related to the forming process (temperature. eliminated. etc. thus resulting in material savings. 1997 and 2000]. incorporates a pantograph. tool fracture. formability. This is especially true in the case of cold forging.2. eccentricity. metal flow can be controlled to obtain the optimum deformation..6 and 23. and low initial cost. The ram motions for upper and lower punches can be set as synchronous. 23. ● The forging process. 23. surface finishing. developed earlier. have to be considered during the process design stage.3. lubrication.. or heat treatment of the forged parts and affects the material properties. . with the parameters affecting part attributes and tolerances [Ishinaga.or Trapped-Die Forging Enclosed-die forging uses multiple-action tooling as punches press the material in a preenclosed die to fill in the die space (Fig. thermal expansion. By controlling the motion of rams. or chemical composition of the part. Variations in the forging pressure would affect the thickness of the forging due to elastic deflection of the press and tools. as shown in the schematic in Fig. the requirement of only compressed air. 23. flow stress. Some of the advantages of enclosed-die forging are: ● The ability to form complex shapes in one process ● Elimination of flash. asynchronous. etc. and equipment. 2002]. materials engineering. 23. stress concentration. tool wear. in some cases.5). and lubrication techniques in order to produce precise components. The variable factors (enclosed in square brackets) affect each other and cause variations in the dimensions of the forged part. factors related to the tooling. One way to control the part quality is to ensure minimum deviation in each of the billet factors..). such as dimensions. easy installation in nearly all presses. elastic deflection. 1996]. Hydraulic pressure generated by an external hydraulic unit and an accumulator is used for closing the upper and lower die to form the die cavity. Thus. The following factors have to be considered in die manufacturing [Yoshimura et al.1 Enclosed.8 [Yoshimura et al. ● Low forming load is available where the area penetrated by the punch is relatively small.4 Process Variables in Forging Figure 23. A similar concept in die design. subsequent machining operations are either reduced or. and process failure have to be considered for cost reduction. there has been considerable progress in tooling and equipment design. remain within the allowable limits of die performance.3 Advances in Tool Design In order to produce precision-forged parts. namely. The advantages obtained from this die set were high productivity. However. if this pressure is too low. Off-center loading not only affects the accuracy of the process but is also detrimental to tool life. where precision die manufacturing is necessary to ensure the production of parts to close tolerances. simultaneous process design involving process planning and die design are essential to ensure that conditions such as loading pressure. A Japanese tool supplier has recently developed a special die set for forging radially extruded parts and a family of bevel gears (Fig. The entire forging process is divided into three stages: ● The preprocessing stage addresses the variables related to the billet.Near-Net Shape Forging and New Developments / 323 23. Since parts are formed to close dimensional tolerances. etc. etc. Some of these developments and future trends are discussed in the subsequent sections. The die-closing pressure is adjustable. or with back pressure to reduce forming load or to improve the filling of material.4 shows the various stages in forging. 23. surface conditions.. The growing demands for precision coldforged products in the automotive industry led to the development of economical means to manufacture these parts.7) [Yamanaka et al. Since the cost of manufacturing a die is considerable. tooling.

lower punch. 1. 2002] . 23. 23. 2.6 Enclosed forging die set developed by Yamanaka Engineering [Yamanaka et al. 2002] Fig.7 Some example parts forged in an enclosed forging die set [Yamanaka et al. lower die. finished part [Oudot et al. 2001] Fig.. 3...324 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Fig. upper die.5 Enclosed-die forging. 23. upper punch. 1⬘. 5. 4. billet.

1997]. the steel strip is preloaded with a controlled winding tension. 2003]. The die cavity. The strip-wound containers are manufactured by winding a thin strip of high-strength steel around a core of tool steel or tungsten carbide. the compressive prestress generated may be too low. composed of the upper and lower dies. Optimum stress distribution is obtained by varying the winding tensions from layer to layer. During the winding process. The core material has a structure and a hardness that can withstand high prestress and cyclic working load. leading to two. Depending on the complexity of the part and the required tolerances.. 1997].. Sometimes. which house the die inserts.Near-Net Shape Forging and New Developments / 325 it could result in flash formation in the die gap and cause chipping in the die. Die set for enclosed-die forging developed by Nichidai Corp. Thus.to tenfold improvement in the die Fig. Similar die designs have been developed at Institut fu¨r Unformtechnik (Institute for Metal Forming Technology) at the University of Stuttgart as well as by European die and press makers [Siegert et al. STRECON Technology has developed strip-wound radially prestressed containers with strength that is 2 to 3 times that of conventional stress rings [Groenbaek et al.2 Innovations in Compressive Prestressing of Die Inserts An important factor in enhancing die life is the design of compressive prestressing container systems. The conventional prestressing container normally consists of single or double stress rings. fracture may occur because the conventional radial prestressing does not have any appreciable effect on the stress condition in the axial direction. 2000].9b) [Groenbaek et al. To counteract this effect. 23. in cold forging dies.. The high strength makes it possible to provide an optimum prestress for the die. it is possible to obtain a higher interference when fitting a die into a strip-wound container than into a conventional multiple stress ring set. Consequently. the strip-wound containers can be loaded with a higher internal pressure than a conventional multiple stress ring set before the material will deform plastically. 23.8 life (Fig. moves at half the punch speed by the pantograph mechanism in order to obtain uniform deformation of the material in the axial direction [Yoshimura et al.. The strip steel is developed especially for optimum combination of the physical and mechanical properties.9a). 23. STRECON has developed strip-wound containers with integrated axial prestressing (Fig. 23. The prestressed condition in the coiled strip is equal to that of a conventional construction with ‘several hundred’ stress rings. [Yoshimura et al. 1997] ..3.

23.4 Advances in Forging Machines Net shape forging of complex parts.4. since the resistance to flow increases gradually during forming. and the formation of a friction hill is prevented due to the divided flow. flow relief hole and flow relief axis. 23. thus creating divided flow.10. 23. 1997]: ● Multislide construction: Each slide has its own independent slide. Kondo et al. has developed a multislide forging press for the purpose of minimizing the effect of off-center loading during multiprocess transfer forming. because the inner plate moved down with the die plate until the preset backup load.3. three independent slides operate with a phase difference of 30⬚ and a capacity per slide of 280 tonf (2500 kN). Manufacture of a helical gear utilizing flow relief axis with back-up pressure is shown in Fig. 23. Prestressed strip-wound containers developed by STRECON Technology [Groenbaek et al. 1996]. with consideration of a multitude of interacting variables such as those shown in Fig. such as helical gears.3 Reduction of Forging Pressure by Divided Flow Method To reduce forging load and tool stresses. 23. press builders have developed multislide and multiaction hydraulic presses [Nakano.10(a) and (b). 23. There are two principles of flow relief shown in Fig. The features of this press are [Nakano.9 23. 23.11 [Kondo. A schematic of the press with the slide and die area is shown in Fig. 1999 and 2002].12.. resulting in a centripetal flow as an outcome of the hole shrinkage. Fig..11. In the former. helical-tooth pinions. ● Time difference operation: Each slide strokes with a phase difference. namely. 1997 and 2000] . etc. In model MF-7500.1 Multislide Forging Press Aida Engineering Co. Research shows that the relief hole principle is more suitable for working pressure reduction.13(a). a blank with a relief hole is compressed by flat tools. 1997. requires new concepts in press and tooling design. In the relief axis principle.326 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications 23. and Ishinaga. In order to increase the accuracy of the product and to extend the service life of the tools. The forming process was completed in one step. such as the gear parts shown in Fig. a reduction in working pressure occurs due to two reasons: extrusion of the axis serves as flow relief and suppresses the increase in fractional reduction in area. The final part with the boss is also shown in Fig. 23. have developed the divided flow method and applied this concept in forging a variety of parts. The total capacity is 845 tonf (7500 kN) with different working timing.

Near-Net Shape Forging and New Developments / 327 Fig. 1999 and 2002] . 1999] Fig.10 Gear forging process utilizing divided flow [Kondo. 23. 23.11 One-step divided flow method with back-up pressure [Kondo.

This hy- Fig. Also. 23. and Ishinaga.13(b) shows the slide motion. 1997]. Characteristics of press and accuracy of formed products [Nakano. new processes such as microforming and orbital forging are being further developed for practical and economical applications. and two in the bed.4.14 shows a helical gear cup formed using the MF-7500 press system [Nakano. two annealing processes and phosphate coating were eliminated.2 draulically operated press has five cylinders: one for driving the slide.16). 1997.17). 23. which are commonly used in the industry. is formed in just three steps. 1997]. As a result of these features it was possible to: ● Reduce the press capacity and reduce facility cost due to reduction of total load and torque of the press ● Reduce slide tilting and thus improve the accuracy of the formed parts.12 23. Multiaction Forging Press Multiaction forging is an effective means of net shape forging parts with complex features. A multiaction press for forming helical gears is shown in Fig. 23. The press uses computer numerical controls for high functionality. there is more than one pressure source to operate the dies and the slide. hightorque servomotor drive with a crank mechanism.15(b) shows the construction of a die for forming the helical gear seen in Fig.15(a). two cylinders in the slide. 23. Additionally. In multiaction forming. since the slides perform independently without any mutual interference ● Reduce the vibration and noise during press operation Figure 23. 23.328 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications whereas Fig. The cup. 23. 1996] . Figure 23. It is thus possible to program the forming motion and speed in order to set the optimum parameters required to form the part (Fig.5 Innovative Forging Processes Besides the conventional precision-forging processes. 23.15(c) [Nakano.3 Servomotor Press Figure 23. the dies make several relative motions during one stroke.4. 23. The press achieves reduced power usage by using a capacitor to store energy (Fig. This can be used advantageously to increase die life and produce hardto-form materials.16 shows a servomotor press that combines a newly developed large-sized. which traditionally required five forming stages. These cups require a higher forming load in the first and second stage and hence are ideal candidates for production in using this press.

20 and is also discussed in Chapter 12.5. relative stiffness of the tooling. Effects of miniaturization on friction have been investigated by using the double-cup backward extrusion test. (4 mm) diameter billet. In cooperation with industry. 4 times larger than that needed for forging a 0. “Special Machines for Forging. 23.5.0004 in. 1997] Microforming The trend in miniaturization allows the production of cold-forged parts with dimensions less than 0. 2001]. 1997] .1 mm) and final edge thickness of 0. 23. since deformation takes place incrementally.. These parts are currently produced by 3-D etching and other metal-removal processes. The friction energy observed for forming a 0. 23.or medium-batch production of various round parts. a comprehensive knowledge pertaining to the following factors is needed: scale effects/microplasticity.2 Orbital or Rotary Forging Orbital or rotary forging is a very unique process with a complicated die movement that can be used to reduce axial load requirements for axisymmetric or near-axisymmetric forging operations.1 Multislide forging press MF-7500 [Nakano. Microforming is a potential process for mass production of net shape/ near-net shape microcomponents. The principle of orbital forming can be seen in Fig.18 shows an example of 3-D FE simulations for a surgical blade with initial blank thickness of 0. effect of microstructure on the process. 1999].01 mm) [Palaniswamy et al. Comparisons between experiment and simulation show that friction ef- fects increase with a decrease in the size of the specimen. (0. 23. due to a high surface-to-volume ratio of parts.Near-Net Shape Forging and New Developments / 329 Fig. a forging process that may require Fig. (1 mm) range for electronics and biomedical applications. the interrelationships between these variables can be studied so as to provide guidelines for developing microforming processes. (1 mm) diameter billet was.. However. Furthermore.13 23.” in this book. (0. 23. With the aid of finite-element modeling (FEM). with oil as a lubricant (Fig. Figure 23. In microforming. This process is not new and has been used for small. The main advantage of this process is the reduction of the forging load.16 in.14 Helical gear cup formed using the MF-7500 [Nakano. the Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing (ERC/NSM) at Ohio State University has developed a microforming process for production of surgical blades. in proportion to total forming energy.19) [Tiesler et al. friction becomes even more important than in conventional forging.04 in. for microforming to be cost-effective and competitive.04 in.004 in. and process control and capability.

) were conducted to study and develop a robust assembly process of an automotive spindle and an outer ring. Figure 23.15 Multiaction forming press with the dies and the forged gear [Nakano. although the cycle time is longer than in upset forging. orbital forging simulations using DEFORM-3D (Scientific Forming Technologies Corp. residual stresses. Japan). At the ERC/NSM at Ohio State University. 1997] Fig. Fig. 23. orbital forming has been used by various bearing and axle manufacturers for the assembly of spindle drives (NSK Bearings. and quality of assembly.16 Sectional view of the drive mechanism of the Aida Digital Servo Former. [Aida Engineering] . which considers elastic and plastic deformation.330 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications multiple-station operations can be done on one machine. This application illustrates the current capabilities of FEM in simulating complex and incremental cold forging operations to optimize process conditions and product design. Courtesy of Aida Engineering Co. 23. Recently.21 shows the simulation progression.

23. with Fig. through channels such as overseas patenting. and information management in forge shops.1 mm). as shown in Fig. the punch or tool does not move orbitally but rotates around a fixed inclined axis. This implies that the current automotive suppliers will have to change their production strategies to remain competitive in the global marketplace. Such machines are used to forge railroad car wheels or forgings for large gears and near-net shape formed spiral bevel ring gears for truck differentials (Fig. the advances in information management and personnel training cannot be ignored. have been developed by several machine tool builders. final blade thickness ⳱ 0. A number of forging companies have gone global. Thus. forging suppliers from developed nations must focus on production of high-value-added forgings. 23. which account for a very large portion of forged parts. is rotated and pushed vertically upward while the inclined punch rotates. conventional cold forging operations will grad- ually shift to developing nations for production of low-tech components. 23.6 Future of Forging Technology in the Global Marketplace Automotive companies. Courtesy of Aida Engineering Co. While the process tool and equipment design have been the subject of extensive research and development. In order to succeed in the global marketplace. As a result of inexpensive labor. A forging company should have the ability to organize engineering knowledge and properly disseminate useful information to the respective departments for implementation. located in a die. [Aida Engineering] Machines for hot forging large wheels or rings. (0.18 Microforming of surgical blades.17 Some example settings of forming motions and speeds. forging technologies are diffusing across firms and across boundaries at increasing rates. and subassemblies with the aid of new developments such as advances in the use of computer modeling in forging process development. to be retrieved when and where desired.24). 2001] .22 [Husmann. and alliances. 23. Therefore.01 mm) [Palaniswamy et al. Due to globalization. international investments. A global economy allows.23). It is necessary to store an abundance of data. use of innovative tool design for complex forging operations. These two aspects are just as crucial to ensuring a defect-free part with the desired functionality as the technical developments. Blank thickness ⳱ 0. advances in press design. finished parts. In these designs.0004 in. licensing. (0.6. the machine is similar to a ring rolling mill that has a lower die cavity that is hydraulically pushed upward (Fig. using the incremental forming principle of orbital forging.004 in. are rapidly expanding global operations in an effort to produce cost-effective vehicles. The part. 23. any supplier that can satisfy part design requirements to bid and obtain a contract. 23.1 Information Management in the Forge Shop Management of complex engineering information in the forging environment plays a big role in ensuring that the desired production outputs are met.Near-Net Shape Forging and New Developments / 331 Fig. exchange of technology-intensive goods. This has vast implications for local automotive suppliers.. appropriate training in advanced cold forging technologies. 23. production costs for simple parts are much less expensive in developing nations. in many instances. 1999]. irrespective of the geographic boundaries.

information management systems can be helpful for storing and retrieving data pertaining to tool designs. press stress analysis. and metallurgical engineers who may be assuming new responsi- Training of Personnel Due to global competition.. becomes increasingly important. 23. process control plan. 1997]. engineering drawing management. etc. 23. The web can provide cold forging companies with both operational and administrative benefits that can improve the firm’s overall competitive position. purchasing.g. inventory tracking. Continuous improvements in forging technology and application of recently generated research and development results require that engineers be continuously updated in new methods. who are expected to Fig. tool life tracking.6..2 plan and supervise the design and production of parts and dies. mechanical. Failure to do so might hinder their chances of competing on the global marketplace. and dimensional control plans.. machines.. machine specifications and drawings. At the engineering departmental level.332 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Fig. e. 1999] branches in various locations. To date. receiving. The steady growth and development of the worldwide web has prompted many forging firms to reassess and redesign the way they share critical business information [Beatty et al. More sophisticated computerized information management systems will continue to emerge. 2001]. the training of metal forming engineers. process instructions.19 Double-cup extrusion test for determination of friction conditions in microforming [Tiesler et al. information flow becomes complex and difficult to manage efficiently. and the forging companies will be compelled to adopt these systems. [Beatty. 23. engineering. and process technology. just-in-time jobs/rush jobs. product specification. 2001] . changing tool materials. companies such as Plexus Systems have developed computerized systems that can assist the management of information flow at various departmental levels. shipping. Thus. Professional education in forging and metal forming is necessary not only to upgrade the knowledge level of practicing forging engineers but also that of industrial.20 Schematic representation of the orbital forging process [Oudot et al.

More importantly. It should be noted that most of the material related to advanced forging technology taught at the university level is very basic and may not be of significant value to the hightech forging industry. 23.Near-Net Shape Forging and New Developments / 333 bilities in the forging industry [Vazquez et al. Universities may be re- quired to revise their design courses or develop new ones that address real design issues pertaining to forging. 2003] Fig. In order to prepare engineers who will work in high-tech forging companies. 1999] . for the course to be successful and cost-effective. CAD..22 Fundamental principle of axial closed-die rolling [Husmann. die/tool designs. 1999 and 2000]. and CAM systems. 23. press automation and design. the current curriculum given in most universities would have to be restructured. there is a need to link universities to the forging industry in areas such as process sequence development..21 Finite-element simulation of orbital forming (finite-element model and stress distribution) [Altan et al. Fig. and computational tools such as computer-aided engineering (CAE) software.

Proceedings of the Fifth ICTP (Columbus.. G. tool section [Husmann.6. 71..” Aida Engineering Ltd. Furthermore. 1996. Thus. reduction of variation of process conditions. and Ou. 2003.. 38. 2001]: “Factors Influencing Corporate Web Site Adoption: A Time-Based Assessment. constant velocity joing (CVJ) inner races) and prediction and elimination of forming defects such as laps and chevron cracks ● Design and implementation of advanced forging presses and tooling for production of complex components ● The adoption and development of effective computerized information management systems for cold forging operations ● Life-long learning and training of engineers to equip them with relevant knowledge that can be readily applied to the dynamic technological environment of the 21st century 23. 23. 1997]: Beatty. [Altan et al. June 2–4. [Balendra et al. leading-edge forging companies continue to develop strategies and capabilities for producing “ready-to-assemble” parts and subassemblies for their customers.. H. Shirgaokar. 1990]: Doege.. 1.23 Axial closed-die rolling machine. 1999] Fig. 2001.334 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications The following strategies for technology development are being increasingly adopted by competitive world-class companies to respond to increased market globalization: ● Use of CAE for virtual prototyping of complicated high-value parts (microforming. To facilitate product and process development in minimal time and expense. 1996]: Balendra. “Advanced Information Management in the Forge Shop. Hy-Flex D Series.. [Doege et al. Ngaile.” Journal of Materials Processing Technology. Vol. 1997. [Beatty et al.. 2003]: Altan. helical gear extrusion. 7–10. R. and Silberbach. Oct.” International Conference on New Developments in Forging Technology at IFU (Fellbach/Stuttgart.. OH).3 Concluding Remarks The forging industry will continue to focus on the development of tooling and processes for net shape manufacturing of complex forgings. REFERENCES Fig. “Cold Forging Technology in Global Competition.” Information and Management. Vol. type AGW. T.. “Influence of Various Machine Tool Com- . [Beatty.. p 337–354. and use of special tooling/presses with specific functions that enhance part quality. R. it is imperative that state-of-the-art CAE capabilities be fully exploited. Vol. with an emphasis on reduction of press/tool elastic deflection..” Advanced Technology of Plasticity. achieving tight tolerances. M. Germany). p 25–29. E..24 Bevel gear with teeth made on an axial closeddie rolling machine [Husmann. “Influence of Forming Press Elasticity on the Accuracy of Formed Components. it is expected that high-tech cold forging suppliers in developed nations can remain competitive by producing high-value-added parts and subassemblies that require advanced technological expertise. G. 23. 1999] [Aida Engineering]: “The Aida Digital Servo Former: NC-1 and NS-1.

1. 2000. 1990. [Kondo. “Forming of Microparts—Effects of Miniaturization on Friction..... “Process Design and Die Manufacturing for Precision Forging.” Advanced Technology of Plasticity.. 98. NV)... S.” Nichidai Corporation... . Vol. “Cold Lateral Extrusion of Automotive Components.. Sept. and Altan. and Faure. “Some Reminiscences of the Development of Precision Forging Processes.. A. Scientific Forming Technologies Corp. J. [Vazquez et al.. [Groenbaek et al. “Improvement of Precision in Cold Forged Parts. 2000]: Yoshimura. [Ishinaga. and Birker. and Shimasaki.. 39 (No. Geiger. V. N. 1997]: Yoshimura. M.” Proceedings of the International Cold Forging Group Conference (Columbus.. 7–10. [Osakada. “High Speed Ring Rolling and Closed-Die Rolling.. T.. Vol. Vol. M.” Nichidai Corporation.” Advanced Technology of Plasticity. 1996. C.. Japan).. Japan). 1983. Vol.. p 53. K... [Meidert et al.. “Improvement of Product Accuracy in Cold Die Forging. Proceedings of the Sixth ICTP (Nuremberg. and Altan.” presented at the FIA Conference (Reno. 1999]: Tiesler. and Hansel.” presented at the 1999 FIA/FIERF Conference. M. 1997]: Nakano. Vol. T.” Third International Cold and Warm Forging Technology Conference. Vol. OH). 19–24. “Manufacturing of Dies for Precision Forging. 2000]: Vazquez. Proceedings of the Seventh ICTP (Yokohama. 7–9. Ngaile. Sept. “Innovations in Cold Forging Die Design. Oct. 1999]: Vazquez. 1. Inc. Nov 14. N. 2.. [Tiesler et al.. Wang. Hamaya. Sept. [Kocanda et al.” Advanced Technology of Plasticity. 19–24. 2.. and Wang. Second JSTP International Seminar of Precision Forging (Osaka. 2000. “An Advanced Press Design for Cold Forging. p 30–35. Geiger.. J. May 15–16. 2000]: Groenbaek. Proceedings of the Sixth ICTP. M. U. ERC/NSM. H. March 31 to April 1.” Journal of Materials Processing Technology. [Groenbaek et al. T. “New Methods for Precision Forging.Near-Net Shape Forging and New Developments / 335 ponents on Workpiece Quality.. J. G.. 2–4. K. “Coining of Surgical Slit Knife. Meisenbach Verlag. “A Study of Enclosed Die Forging. OH). K. K. V.” Proceedings of Umformtechnik 2000 plus. Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing. Schuler. Oct. Oct. X. Czyzewski. [Oudot et al. F. [Siegert et al. 2001]: Palaniswamy. JSTP International Seminar of Precision Forging (Osaka. 2001]: Oudot. Vol. 2002]: Yamanaka. H.” Advanced Technology of Plasticity...” Advanced Technology of Plasticity. May 1999. 1997]: Groenbaek. Germany).. 2003]: Siegert. and Baur. 2002.. 71. 4. “State of the Art Technology for Training Engineers for the Forging Industry. Engel. 1997. [Husmann.. SELECTED REFERENCE ● [Yoshimura et al.. H. ERC/NSM. 1983]: Yoshimura. R..... and Nielsen. p 27 (in French).” La Forge. 1999. 2003. [Yoshimura et al. 1999. April 2001.. H. The Japanese Society for Technology of Plasticity. 1997.” Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 2000]: Meidert. 1999. [Yamanaka et al. “Stripwound Containers for Combined Radial and Axial Prestressing..” Aida Engineering Ltd. [Vazquez et al. JSTP International Seminar of Precision Forging (Osaka. MI). Germany).B... [Yoshimura et al. Kubota. [Kondo. [Palaniswamy et al. 1999.” Journal of Materials Processing Technology. [Nakano.C. p 155–161. Ed. Japan). 1997. Yamanaka Engineering. E. J. 1999]: Osakada. P..” Journal of the JSTP.. “State of the Art Technology for Training Engineers for the Forging Industry.. p 150–154.. p 24– 30. Proceedings of the Fifth ICTP (Columbus. and Sunami. Proceedings of the Sixth ICTP (Nuremberg. 98. 1). 28–31. 19–24. 1996. 1999]: Husmann. T. and Altan... M. 2002]: Kondo... 2002.. Cacko.” Annals of CIRP. K. 1996]: Kocanda. No.” F/ERC/NSM-01-R-26. “Presses for Cold Forging. Vol. 1999]: Kondo. 2000. T.” Cold and Warm Precision Forging Workshop (Canton. 1999.. “Some Aspects of Die Deformation in Net-Shape Cold Forging. S.. “Tool Design for Precision Forging. H.. March 31 to April 1. 1996]: Ishinaga. Vol. Sept. 2001. OH)... 1. “Net-Shape Cold Forging to Close Tolerances under QS 9000 Aspects. SME and ERC/NSM (Columbus. Japan). H..

214–215(F. See also Ring testing errors 33–35. T) ring testing 65(T).org Index A Accuracy in forging 112 of mechanical presses 126–128(F. 45(T) hot forging temperatures 163(T) lubrication 73(T). All Rights Reserved. 203(F). T) process modeling for 199(F). displacement 109(F) Blocking. 40(T). 238 Bending. Inverse analysis. 11(F) Coining load vs. 29–35(F. 239(F).asminternational. 242(F) B Barreling. 44(T) hot forging temperatures 163(T) load-displacement curve 29(F) lubrication 71(F). 232(F) process modeling 237–246(F) system variables 213(F) tooling 225–228(F). and flow stress errors 33–35. displacement 109(F). preform C Carbon steels hot forging temperatures 163(T). T) lubricants for 70–73(F. process modeling for 203(F). 35(T) specimen preparation 28(F). 73(T). 175(F) Casting. and FEM simulation 244–245(F) Connecting rod load prediction 177–182(F.© 2005 ASM International. Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications (#05104G) www. 38(F). 241. 74(T) preform dies 174(T). 37(F). 36(F). T). T) of screw presses 133 Aircraft/aerospace applications isothermal and hot-die forging 257–275(F. 110(F) overview 10(F). 286–289(T) Compression testing. Slab analysis for flow stress and friction 83–89(F. 36(F). 31–32 tooling 27(F) Computer-aided design (CAD) system. load vs. See Dies. 214(T) lubrication 71–73(F. 38(F) for microstructure model development 247–248 press slide parallelism 32–33. 230–233(F). T) Analysis. T). 34(F). 37(F). 75(T). See also Finite difference analysis. 201(F). T) process modeling for 206–207(F) Copper and copper alloys flow stress-strain 40(T). 240(F). T) Automated mesh generation 196 Automotive applications and globalization 331–334 process modeling for 200(F). 286–289(T) finite-element modeling 307–311(F. 27(F). load vs. for tooling 286–287. of dies 292 Cemented carbides. T) for forging operations 91–105(F. 214–215(F) preform dies 174. T). Finite element analysis/modeling. 36(F). 230(F). 201–202. 38(F) and flow stress 26(F). 205–206 cold forging of 213–215(F. 75(T) . 202–205(F). 299 Blanking. 205–206(F) Aluminum and aluminum alloys aircraft component. 204(F). 28(F). displacement 109(F) overview 14(F) Cold forging advantages 212–213 billet preparation 214(T) dies 228–229. 175(F. 37(F). 231(F). 87–89(F. displacement 109(F) Biaxial stress 19–20(F) Billets and die failure 297–299 lubrication 214–215(T) as process variable 8(F) separation and shearing 151–157(F). 288(T) Ceramic dies 285 Closed-die forging. See also Impression-die forging load vs. T) materials for 213–214(T) overview 211–212(F) process design 229–230. T) flow stress-strain 30(F).

308–309(F) dies 228–229. 9 Dies. 166(F) simplified model 187(F). 243(F) E Eccentric presses. and plastic deformation 55–56. 230–233(F) trapped-die 220–221(F) D Deformation. 161. See also Cold forging. 201 Exhaust valves. FEM analysis of 314–315(F. 230(F). T) Finite difference analysis 92(T) Finite element analysis/modeling 75(F). 221–222. T). 292. 295–317(F. 163(F) inverse analysis 83–89(F. T) inverse analysis 83–89(F. 303. specific forging processes analysis methods for 91–105(F. 163(F) Forging machines. 193–209(F). 161–162 selection. 240(F). 160(F). 222–225(T) F Failure. process modeling for 199(F). 165–167 finite-element modeling 307–316(F. 230(F) double cup backward extrusion testing 77(F). 11(F). T). 265(F) Forgeability. 109(F). 295–317(F. 190–191 . 110(F).org 338 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Crank presses. 202–203.asminternational. 320–321(F) manufacture of 289–292(F. and die failure 301–303(F. 8(F) Equipment. 159. T). 323 temperature and heat transfer in 59–66(F. 304 for isothermal and hot-die forging 264–267. See Mechanical presses Efficiency factor 111 Electro-upsetting 10. See also Closed-die forging. T). Hammers. Impression-die forging. 78–80(F. Presses advances in 326–328(F) principles of 107–113(F. 237 as process variable 8. 237–246(F). 78–80(F. T) future developments 331–334 innovations 328–331(F) load and energy requirements 108–109(F). 98–104(F). 162(F). T) Fatigue. 307–308(F. of dies 231–232. 270(F) lubrication 74(T) machining of 291(F). 160–161. 301–303 precision 320–321(F) preform 171–177(F. T). Metal forming. 161. 12(F). All Rights Reserved. of dies 292 Electrodischarge machining. 322(F). Enclosed-die forging. Near-net shape forging. 161(F). 83–89(F. T) Extrusion backward 11. 307–316(F. T). 238 in forging 67–81(F. Presses. 190(T). 185. T) and friction/lubrication 70. 9 surface finish 303–304 surface treatments 292(T). 191. 320–321(F) materials for 277–289(F. See Homogeneous deformation. 239(F). 238(F) of nickel-base superalloys 266(F) of titanium alloys 264(F). Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications (#05104G) www. 159–160. 91. T).© 2005 ASM International. T) types of 9–14(F) Fracture mechanisms. T) friction and flow stress 221–222 load and energy 218–220(F). Plastic deformation. 12(F). 111 system variables 7–9(F). 230(F) failure of 231–232. for lubricity 77(F). See also Dies. 196 G Gatorizing 258 Gears cold forging of 211(F) process modeling for 200(F). 221–222 and forgeability 25–49(F. T). in die failure 296 Friction estimation of 181. T). Open-die forging advances in 325(F) casting of 292 ceramic 285 cold forging 228–229. 218–225(F. 131–133(F) Engineering strain 23(F) Environmental factors 4. 189–190. 145(F) Electrochemical machining. T). 207–208(F) punch failure 310–311(F) Geometry and manufacturing process 2 and process modeling 194–195. Hot forging. 164–165. 142–143. 9. 303 Double cup backward extrusion testing. T) finisher design of. Superplastic deformation Deformation energy 57 Deformation zone. of dies 291(F). Forging machines. T) special 141–150(F) Forging processes. T) as process variable 8. 162. 109(F). 111. 320–321(F) Enclosed-die forging 323–325(F) Energy requirements 108–109. Shearing and die failure 299–301 as process variable 8(F). T) Flash 10(F). 218–225(F. and flow stress 25–49(F. 201(F). T) laws 69 as process variable 9. See also Hammers. 286–289(T) extrusion 228–229. 92–93(T). See Transverse rolling lubrication 219 open-die 221(F) tooling 225–228(F). 123–124. 243(F) forward 10–11. as process variable 8(F). 167–169(F) Flow rules. See Mechanical presses Cross rolling. 96 Flow stress average values 48(T) data representation 36–48(F. T) estimation 178–181(T).

284(T) Heat transfer. T) in isothermal and hot-die forging 268–269. See also Postforging heat treatment of die steels 285 process modeling for 207–208(F) HERF machines 111(T) Hobbing of dies 291–292 of golf ball mold cavities 239–241(F) overview 11. 257–275(F. as lubricant 74(T). 196 Heat treatment. finite-element modeling of 309–310(F) Knuckle-joint presses. 12(F) Homogeneous deformation 21–23(F). 196. 200. T) finite-element modeling 311–316(F. process modeling for 199(F). T) Modeling. 54(F) Molybdenite. T) process design 159–183(F. T) J Jet engine disks. of dies 289–291 Magnesium and magnesium alloys flow stress-strain 47(T) hot forging temperatures 163(T) lubrication 75(T) Manufacturing processes characteristics of 2–4 classification of 1–2 metal forming 1–5 Maraging steels for dies 283–284(T) hot forging temperatures 163(T) Material characterization 8–9. 111(T). 111(T). 237–238 Mechanical presses 111(T).asminternational. 267(F) I Impression-die forging. T) friction and lubrication 67–81(F. 214 Molybdenum and molybdenum alloys. modeling of 239–241(F) Grain growth 251–252. T) prediction. 233–234 process and machine variables 108(F) temperatures 163(T) Hydraulic presses 110. See also Closed-die forging load estimation. 332(F) Microstructure modeling. and die design 164 Low-alloy steels for hot forging 278(T) hot forging temperatures 163(T) lubrication 214(T) preform dies 174(T).© 2005 ASM International. hot forging temperatures 163(T) . See also Horizontal forging machines Mesh generation. of die steels 283(T). T) and heat transfer 59–66(F. 201–202 K Knockout pin. automated. All Rights Reserved. T) in manufacturing 1–5 plastic deformation 17–23(F). T) requirements 108–109(F). 110(F). T). 253(F) Graphite. 162–163. 185–192(F. in superalloy forging 199(F). T). 331(F). 175(F) Lubrication and die failure 304 evaluation methods 74–80(F. 123–124(F). 147(F) Hot-die forging 257–275(F. 233 die and tool materials for 277–285(F. T) in extrusion 219 in forging 67–81(F. as lubricant 74(T). 300 Heading 13–14(F) Heat checking. 271(F) Globalization 331–334 Golf ball mold cavities. 9. 162 M Machining. See Automated mesh generation Metal forming analysis methods 83–85(F). 198–200(F). Process modeling Mohr circles 53(F). 263–264. See Microstructure modeling. See Mechanical presses L Lead and lead alloys. for flow stress and friction determination 83–89(F. 91–105(F. for connecting rod 177–182(F. 111. 271(F) mechanisms 68–69(F) as process variable 8. 13(F). 247–255(F. 56(F) Horizontal forging machines 144–145. 115–120(F). 120–131(F). T) lubricants for 73–74(F. 135–139(F). 131–133(F) Lot size. as lubricant 74(T). 268–269. T) and flow stress 25–49(F. 214 H Hammers/hammer forging 110. T) Hot forging advantages 212–213. 222–225(T) in impression-die forging 167–171(F). 75(T) overview 211. 201–202. 51–57(F) Microforming 329. in metal forming 59–66(F.org Index / 339 Glass. T) process modeling using FEA 193–209(F) systems approach 8(F) Information management 331–332 Inverse analysis. T) Ironing 14(F) IsoCon process 258 Isothermal forging 11–12. flow stress-strain 47(T) Load in extrusion 218–220(F). Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications (#05104G) www. simplified method 185–192(F. 181–182(T).

237–246(F) Product geometry and variables 8(F) Production rate. 74(T) Steels. 41–43(F) lubrication 72(T). 218(F) Slip-line field analysis 91–92(T) Stainless steels cold forging of 213 flow stress-strain curves 32(F) hot forging temperatures 163(T) lubrication 73. 330(F). T) microstructure modeling 199(F). Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications (#05104G) www. See Near-net shape forging Presses. 144(F) Rotary forging. 56(F) Plastic strain. 38(F) for lubricity 75(F). T) and flow stress 35. 201–202. 331(F) Shape complexity. FEM analysis of 243–244(F) Radial forging 11. 93–97(F). of billets 151–157(F) Simulation code 196–197 Slab analysis 91. 74(T) Strain. 200. 177–182. Low-alloy steels. and friction/lubrication 70 Screw presses 110. 76–77(F. 145. Multiaction press. T). hot forging temperatures 163(T) . 143(F).org 340 / Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Multiaction press 328. 250(F) meta-dynamic 249–251(F).© 2005 ASM International. for dies 285 Nickel and nickel alloys. See also Carbon steels. 148(F). 269(F) Superplastic deformation 259. 13(F) Orbital forging 12–13(F). 201 finite-element analysis for 193–209(F). 185–192(F. 111(T). 216–217. 253(F) Reducer rolling 141–142(F). Multislide press. See Geometry Shearing. hot forging temperatures 163(T) Nosing 14(F) O Open-die forging 12. in impression-die forging 169–170(F). 328. 131–135(F) Servomotor press 328. 331(F) Swing forging. See True strain Postforging heat treatment. cross-groove inner. See also Engineering strain. Servomotor press Pressure. Mechanical presses. Maraging steels. 329(F) N Near-net shape forging 319–331(F) Necking 26(F) Nickel aluminides. 147(F) Ring testing of Al 6061-T6 87–89(F. All Rights Reserved. 261(F) Surface finish for dies 303–304 and manufacturing process 4(F) Surgical blades. 92(T). See Orbital forging Roll forging 141–142(F). See also Superalloys hot forging temperatures 163(T) lubrication 75(T) Niobium and niobium alloys. in isothermal and hot-die forging 269–271 Powder metal (P/M) forging 13(F) Precision forging. 57 stress state 51–52(F) yield criteria 52–55(F). True strain effective 57 overview 20–21(F) Strain rate. Screw presses. 143(F). automotive. T). effective 57 Stress tensor overview 17–18(F) and plastic deformation 51–52(F) properties of 18–19(F) Stribeck curve 68(F) Superalloys for dies 284–285 flow stress-strain curves 33(F) hot forging temperatures 163(T) isothermal and hot-die forging of 257–275(F. 252(F). 242(F) Plane stress 19–20(F) Plastic deformation of die steels 280–281(F) flow rules 55–56 power and energy 56–57(F) strain and strain rate 17–23(F).asminternational. 247–255(F. Tool steels cold forging of 213–215(T) for dies 277–289(F. T) flow stress-strain relation 39(T). 245(F). 329–331(F) P Personnel training 332–334 Petroforge 111(T) Pinions. See Orbital forging T Tantalum and tantalum alloys. See Hydraulic presses. 330(F) Multislide press 326. 78(T) Rocking die forging. 171(F) Process modeling applications/examples 239–245(F) in cold forging 237–246(F) for equipment selection 199(F). 144(F) Ring rolling 143–144. T) yield strengths 268(F). FEM simulation 241. 145–149(F) Recrystallization dynamic 248–249(F). 12(F). 146(F). Stainless steels. and manufacturing process 3–4 R Race. microforming of 241–243(F). 170–171(F). See Orbital forging S Scale.

162–163(T) Tensile testing. 286–289(T) and friction/lubrication 69–70 for isothermal and hot-die forging 263–264 materials for 277–289(F. 265(F) lubrication 73(T).org Index / 341 Temperature. T) Wear resistance. displacement 109(F) overview 13–14(F) and slab analysis 93–97(F). 312–314(F.© 2005 ASM International. 196. 263(F). process modeling for 203(F). for lubrication 71–73(F. T). 103(F). 97–98 Upset forging. See Enclosed-die forging Tresca yield criterion 52–53(F). 26(F). 214(T) Zirconium and zirconium alloys. 145(F) Trapped-die forging. and flow stress 25(F). Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications (#05104G) www. 205–206 alpha and beta stabilizers for 262(T) beta transus and forging temperatures for 262(T) flow stress-strain 46(T) hot forging temperatures 163(T) isothermal and hot-die forging of 259–262(F. of die steels 279–280(F) Y Yield criteria. 144(F). 237–238 Torsion testing. 54–55(F) True strain 23(F) Tungsten and tungsten alloys hot forging temperatures 163(T) lubrication 75(T) Tungsten carbide. in die failure 296–297(F). T) as process variable 8(F). 9. failure investigation using FEM 202(F). 95–96 and strain rate 21 Visioplasticity analysis 92 Von Mises yield criterion 53–55(F). 287(T) Tooling advances in 323–326(F) automotive. T) and friction 67(F) and horizontal machines 144–145. 264(F). 147(F) load vs. for tooling 287. See Hot forging Wear mechanisms.asminternational. 175(T) ring compression testing 65(T) Tolerances and die design 164 and manufacturing process 2–3(F). and plastic deformation 52–55(F). T). flow stress-strain 47(T) . T) and finite element analysis 101–102. 216–217. All Rights Reserved. 56(F) Z Zinc phosphate. 56(F) W Warm forging. 203–205 for cold forging 225–228(F). and metal forming 59–66(F. 75(T) preform dies 174. 27–29 Titanium and titanium alloys aircraft component. T). 218(F) and upper-bound analysis 97–98 Uranium and uranium alloys. of die steels 281–283(F) Training 332–334 Transverse rolling 142. 230–233(F). 298(F. and flow stress 36 Toughness. flow stress-strain 47(T) V Velocity field and local deformation 20 and slab analysis 93–94(F). 288(T) U Upper-bound analysis 92(T). See also Electro-upsetting closed-die 216–217(F) cold 215–217(F. 4(F) in precision forging 319–323(F) Tool steels AISI classification and composition 278(T) for cold forging 286(T).

technology. apparatus. Materials Park. express or implied. sale. In Japan Takahashi Bldg. Ohio. whether or not covered by letters patent.org This publication is copyright © ASM International®.ASM International is the society for materials engineers and scientists. Although this information is believed to be accurate by ASM.co. and applications of metals and materials. 44-3 Fuda 1-chome.ameritech. ASM International 9639 Kinsman Rd. Materials Park. at their sole discretion and risk. Therefore. You may download and print a copy of this publication for your personal use only. Tokyo 182 Japan Telephone: 81 (0) 424 84 5550 Terms of Use. or as a defense against liability for such infringement. composition. are given in connection with this publication. United In Europe Kingdom Telephone: 01462 437933 (account holders). Other use and distribution is prohibited without the express written permission of ASM International. evaluation of the material under end-use conditions prior to specification is essential. in connection with any method. or trademark. copyright. or system.uk Neutrino Inc. ASM cannot guarantee that favorable results will be obtained from the use of this publication alone. All rights reserved. or reproduction. Since the conditions of product or material use are outside of ASM's control. warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. Ohio 44073. or trademark. . a worldwide network dedicated to advancing industry. USA Email CustomerService@asminternational. including.org/bookstore Telephone 1-800-336-5152 (US) or 1-440-338-5151 (Outside US) Fax 1-440-338-4634 Mail Customer Service.asminternational. Chofu-Shi. No warranties. ASM assumes no liability or obligation in connection with any use of this information. 27-29 Knowl Piece.asminternational. 01462 431525 (credit card) www. USA www. Nothing contained in this publication shall be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture.org American Technical Publishers Ltd. This publication is being made available in PDF format as a benefit to members and customers of ASM International. Wilbury Way. As with any material. without limitation. This publication is intended for use by persons having technical skill. product. process. specific testing under actual conditions is recommended. copyright. and nothing contained in this publication shall be construed as a defense against any alleged infringement of letters patent. Hitchin Hertfordshire SG4 0SX. use.. ASM International. Publication title Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications Product code 05104G To order products from ASM International: Online Visit www.