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LEGAL MEDICINE is a branch of medicine that deals with application of

medicalknowledge for thepurpose oflawand administration of justice. Ant person

who tesrifesin court in his professional capacity can be considered a practitioner of
legal medicine.

History pf legalmedivine
1958 the first medical textbook related tomedico-legal practice was first
printed and includedinhe curriculumofcollege of medicine in the UST
1895-a medico-legal laboratory was first established in the city of manila
1908- Legal medicine was taught in allmedical schools in the Philippines
1945 criminal Investigation laboratory division was created with DR Mariano
Lara as chief medicolegal officer
The medico-legal sytem in the Philippines at present is handled by a medicolegal officer who is a certified physician duly qualified to practice medicine in the
Philippines. Heis the one who investigates medico-legal cases of dath , physical
injuries , rape and other sexual crimes.

Person authorized to performautopsises:

1. medico-legal officers of the law enforcement agencies like the NBI and the
2. edical staff of accredited hospitals
3. health officers of remote rural areas

Is a means of ascertaining in the judicial proceedings the truth respecting the
matter of fact.
1. Real, autopticc or object evidence is the best and the highest form of
proof, ex. Human skeletal remains may be allowed in court to show antemortem fractures
2. Tesztimonial evidence form of evidence that is taken orally or in writing
the answers to the questions profounded by the counsel andpresiding

officer of the court. A medical officer can only testify in matters derived by
his own perception based on his medical knowledge of the subject matter.
Hearsay information are as a rule, not adimissible in court. Hearsay
evidence is nit a knowledge of the witness but a mere repetition of
what he has heard.Exceptiontot he rule is a dying declaration.
Physicians are frequent recipients of he dying declarations in clinis
and hospitals. To beadmissible in court, following factors shuld be
o the declarant was conscious of his impending death
o the declarant was in full possession of his mental faculties
o the declarant must be with regard to his impending death
however, the dying declaration is not admissible or cannt beusedin
civil aticons if he patient recovers
3. expiremmental evidence a medical witness may be permitted to conduct
experiment on laboratory animals to provehias allegations
4. Documentry evidence a written evidence presented to thecourt bythe
expert witness
a. Medical certification or report
i. Physical exam report
ii. Autopsy report
iii. Exhumation report
iv. Death certificate
v. Birth certificate
b. Medical expert opinion physician on account of his training ans
expertise can give his own opinion on a set of medical facts
c. Deposition a written record of evidence given orally and
transcribed in writing in the form of questions by the interrogation
and signed by the ltatter
d. Physical evidence - articles and materials which are necessary in
crime investigation an ddetection, that will aid establishing the
identities of the criminal and the circumstances surrounding the
commission of the crime i. Corpus delicti evidence the body of the crime or actual
commission of the crime charged. Ex. Body of the victim of
murder, blood stained knife
ii. Associate evidence evidences which linkes the suspects to
the commission of the crime. Ex. Weapons used, finger and
foot prints, wearing apparent
iii. Training evidence may helps in locatingthe whereabouts of
the perpetrators of the crime. Ex. Ship manifest, airline

1. Direct evidence evidence which proves the fact in dispute without the
aid of any inference or presumption
2. Circumstancial evidence
3. Prima Facie evidence
4. Corroborative evidence
5. Expert evidence
6. Relevant evidence
7. Material evidence
8. Competent evidence
9. Corpus delicti

Methods of preserving evience


Photography and audio

Testimony from the witness or witnwsses
Special methods
a. Embalming for human body
b. Refrigeration for blood
c. Staining forblood and semen


Ina criminal case, the defendant is entitled to an acquittal unless guilt is
shown beyond reasonable doubt.

MEDICAL Aspect in investigation;

Truth is necessary in the administration of justice attained by using medical
techniques. Although the results in medical techniques in deception decetection
technique are not admissible as evidence in court, it may be useful for further
investigation. The role of the physician in criminal investigation using highly
technical medical methods is to assist in its operation and interpretthe results.

1. Use of drugs:
this deception detection method uses anesthetic drugs
like Sodium Pentothal or Sodium Amythalto get information from the subject.
It is injected intravenously until inhibition is released and heinterrogator asks
the questions. It has been a mainstay of spyflicks for decades anscientist
really used it on suspects, psychiatric patients. It is a barbiturate that acts on
thecentral nervous system to calm anxiey, eliminates pain, induce drowsiness
and sometimes entirely knocks someone out. Yesthey all talked but was it
really meaningfulor they just say what the interrogators wanted to hear from
them? In 1915, there was Dr Robert House used the truthserum to exonerate
prisoners. Exonerate is to prove that someone is not guilty of a crime.
Heused it on a pregnant woman during childbirth and the woman
automatically responded to each of the question without thinking. And when
the subject woke up, she reminds nothing of what had happened. The us of
this drug in investigation is not advisable for the following reasons, they are
dangerous for if not properly administered, may kill the subject, damage the
brain and spinal cord. This method will give unreliable results and deprive the
subject of his free will to speak.
2. Hyoscine hydrobromide it is given intradermally repeatedly until a state of
delirium is achieved. Delirium is a mental state when you are confused and
not able to thinkor speak clearly usually because of fever and some other
illnesses. Renders a patient unconscious for 24 hours or more,may cause
respiratory failre that may lead to death