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MFT-004 >> Block-4 >> Unit-14 >>

Unit-14:National Standards / Regulations

14.0 : Objectives
14.1 : Introduction
14.4 : Let us sum up
14.5 : Definition/word meaning
14.6 : Answer to check your progress
14.7 : Suggested reading/ References

14.0 : Objectives

After going through this unit, we shall be able to

Understand background behind enactment of legislations related to food and existing

scenario about food regulations in India

Understand statutory regulations/standards and voluntary certifications/standards related

to various articles of food

Understand the sanitary and hygienic requirements and other safety issues for a food
processing industry and entire food supply chain

Deal effectively with the issues related to food safety and quality

14.1 : Introduction

Food is a basic necessity for human life. It is important that food we eat is safe so that it does not
do any harm to our health . An article of food becomes unsafe and injurious to health due to
contamination takes place in its source at farm level and various stages of procurement,
processing, storage & distribution. There is also man-made adulteration by some unscrupulous
food business operators for monetary gain. Further, food being a perishable commodity, it is

amenable to spoilage, and becomes unsafe for human consumption. Such spoilage may be
checked by processing and preservation. During processing many food additives are also used,
the excess use of which may lead to health hazards. To address the issues mentioned above so
that safe & wholesome food is available for human consumption, there is a need to regulate
production, processing, distribution, and sale of food & food products. Apart from safety issues,
there is a need to have quality standards to meet domestic and international requirements to
satisfy its consumer. Therefore, the legislations providing food safety and standards are of great
importance not only to a consumer but also to a food business operator engaged in production,
processing, distribution, and sale to sustain his business.
There are several legislations providing rules and regulations related to food, existing in India.
There are statutory regulations/standards such as Prevention of Food Adulteration Act ,1954 and
PFA Rules ,1955 applicable to all food products, promulgated basically to address menace of
adulteration of foodstuff. There are many Orders under Essential Commodities Act ,1955 such as
Fruit Products Order ,1955, Meat Products Order ,1973, Milk and Milk Products Order ,1992 ,
vegetable edible oils related Orders, enacted by Parliament to address specific requirements of
particular sector. The provisions of these Orders ensure hygienic production and also minimum
quality standards. Apart from safety & quality standards, the Standards of Weight and Measures
Act 1976 and Standards of Weight and Measures (Packaged Commodities) Rules, 1977 enacted
to ensure maintenance & declaration of standards weight and measures on the package of
foodstuff. There are multiple food laws and there is variance in domestic and international
standards. To consolidate various food laws and harmonise domestic and international standards,
Food Safety and Standards Act ,2006) has been promulgated.
In addition to statutory regulations and standards as mentioned above, there are some voluntary
certifications and standards such as BIS, AGMARK, where some of the food products are also
mandatory to be certified under these.

14.4 : Let us sum up

In order to ensure that an article of food is available in safe and wholesome condition to the
consumer food laws have been enacted from time to time. PFA Act, 1954 & PFA Rules, 1955
came in to existence to check the menace of adulteration endangering human health. The PFA
Regulations broadly cover food standards, general procedure for sampling & analysis, nature of
penalty etc. Various control Orders under Essential Commodities Act, 1955 such as FPO, MFPO,
MMPO, Vegetable oil & edible oil related Orders were promulgated to deal with specific sector
of food processing, basically to ensure hygienic production maintaining minimum quality
standards laid down in these Orders. Standards of Weights & Measures Act, 1976 enacted to
ensure standards weight & other declarations on the label of the container of the food product. In
order to integrate various food laws, Food Safety & Standards Act, 2006 has been promulgated.

Under the Act, Food Safety & Standards Authority of India has been established to integrate
various food laws to be implemented by single authority and to lay down science based
standards to meet domestic & international requirements. There is a major shift in the Act from
existing regulatory regime to self regulation & compliance through Food Safety Management
System. The responsibility of implementation & enforcement of the Act lies both with the State
& Central Governments.

14.5 : Definition/word meaning


Adulterant means any material which is or could be employed for making the
branded or containing extraneous matter.


Means Vanaspati meant for use as a shortening or leavening agent in the manu
the development of the desired cellular structure in the bakery product with an
tenderness and volume.


Contaminant means any substance, whether or not added to food,but which is

of production, manufacture, processing, preparation, treatment, packing, pack
food or as a result of environmental contamination.


Food safety means assurance that the food is acceptable to human consumptio


Means the adoption of Good Manufacturing Practices, Good Hygienic Practic

Point and such other practices as specified by regulation, for food business.


Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point - a systematic preventive approach

physical, chemical & biological hazards.


Hazard means biological, chemical or physical agent in food with the potentia


Means the process of addition of hydrogen to a vegetable oil using a catalyst t


Means the process by which one or more edible oils are treated through the us
rearrangement of fatty acids position within the glycoside molecules thereby c
melting point.


Means any tag, brand, mark, pictorial or other descriptive matter, written, prin
graphic, perforated, stamped or impressed on or attached to container, cover l
includes a product insert.


Means the law related to weight and measures.


Milk is heated to 63 degree Celsius for 30 minutes or 71.8 degree Celsius for
microorganism to make it fit for consumption.


Water fit for human consumption meeting the Bureau of Indian Standards.


Means substance or material, not including apparatus or utensils, and not cons
intentionally used in the processing of raw materials, foods or its ingredients,
purpose during treatment or processing and which may result in the non- inten
residues or derivatives in the final products.


Risk Analysis in relation to food means a process consisting of three compone

management and risk communication.


An article of food deemed to be sub- standard if it does not meet the specified
article of food unsafe.


Building or premises, which is licensed by Local Authority for slaughtering a



Means hydrogenated vegetable edible oil meant for human consumption.


Means a process by which edible fats & oils are fractionated through cooling.


14.6 : Answer to check your progress

Your answer should include following points:

Check your progress Exercise 1
1. There is need for food laws to regulate production, processing , distribution and sale of
article of food so that it reaches to the consumer in safe and wholesome condition .
2. The main objective of enactment of PFA Act,1954 was to check the menace of
adulteration endangering the human health and life.
3. There are seven Sub-committee under CCFS. Three sub-committee are:

Food additives & Contaminants .


Pesticide residues & Veterinary Drugs .


Nutrition, special dietary food, infant food/infant milk substitute.

Check your progress Exercise 2

1. Iron or Galvanized iron vessel is not permitted for storage & preparation of fruit to avoid
metallic contamination.
2. If raw meat is not slaughtered in the factory it shall be obtained only from slaughter
houses in which anti mortem and post mortem inspections are carried out according to
norms prescribed in that connection and so certified by the local authority. Such meat
shall be transported from the slaughter house to the factory under hygienic conditions
taking adequate precautions to ensure that no contamination or deterioration takes place
during the period between its procurement and the time of commencement of its
processing in the factory.
3. i) If raw milk is not processed within 4 hours after bringing to processing centre, it
should be cooled to 4C or lower and maintained at that temperature until it is processed.
ii) After pasteurization process is completed, the milk is to be cooled to 4C or lower.

Check your progress Exercise 3

1. The rationale behind the enactment of Food Safety & Standards Act, 2006 is to
consolidate various food laws so as to get rid of multi departmental control for
enforcement of these laws and also to harmonize national & international standards..
2. There are eight Scientific Panels under FSS Act, 2006. Three panels are as follows.
i. Food additives, flavorings, processing aids and materials in contact with food.
ii. Pesticides & antibiotic residues.
iii. Genetically modified foods.
3. Three products under mandatory BIS Certification are :
i. Vanaspati
ii. Skimmed Milk Powder
iii. Packaged Drinking Water.

14.7 : Suggested reading/ References


PFA Act, 1954

Essential Commodities Act,1955
Standards of Weights & Measures Act,1976
Agricultural Products ( Grading & Marketing ) Act,1937
BIS Act,1986
Food Safety & Standards Act,2006

Annex A
Category of factories as per FPO, 1955

*The height may relaxed by one ft. in hilly areas.

Annex B
Category of factories as per MFPO, 1973

sAnnex C

Quantum of Penalty for various offences under FSS Act, 2006

MFT-004 >> Block-4 >> Unit-15 >>

Unit-15:International Food Standards

MFT-004 >> Block-4 >> Unit-16 >>

Unit-16:Export Import Laws and Regulations