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J. Castro

University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain

M. Karstunen

Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden & University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK

N. Sivasithamparam

University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK & Plaxis B.V, Delft, The Netherlands

C. Sagaseta

University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain

**ABSTRACT: The paper presents the results of numerical simulations studying the installation effects of stone
**

columns in a natural soft clay. Stone column installation is modelled as an undrained expansion of a cylindrical cavity, using the finite element code PLAXIS that allows for large displacements. The properties of the

soft clay correspond to Bothkennar clay, a soft Carse clay from Scotland (UK). The complexity of this material is simulated via two advanced recently developed constitutive formulations able to account for the soil

structure, namely S-CLAY1 and S-CLAY1S. Modified Cam Clay model is also used for comparison purposes. The paper shows the new stress field and state parameters after column installation and the subsequent

consolidation process. This sets the basis for including installation effects in studying the settlement reduction

caused by stone columns.

1 INTRODUCTION

Stone columns are a common improvement technique for foundation of embankments or structures

on soft soils. The gravel columns have a higher

strength, stiffness and permeability than the natural

soft soil. Therefore, they improve the bearing capacity and the stability of embankments and natural

slopes, reduces the total and the differential settlements, accelerates the soil consolidation and reduces

the liquefaction potential. Besides, column installation also modifies the properties of the surrounding

natural soft soil. However, design of stone columns

does not usually consider those installation effects

and is typically based on their performance as rigid

inclusions (Barksdale & Bachus 1983, Balaam &

Booker 1985, Castro & Sagaseta 2009). Some authors (Priebe 1995) account for a certain changes in

the stress state during installation by using higher

values of the earth pressure at rest than that for the

natural soil. This paper discusses the alteration of

the stress state and the initial state parameters of the

soil caused by the column installation, which is

nowadays one of the major concerns in an accurate

design (Egan et al. 2008).

The study is restricted to those cases where columns are used in purely cohesive soils and the main

effect is considered to be the cavity expansion induced by the vibrator penetration. Stone columns

may also be used in soils that have an important

granular fraction and in those cases, the densification caused by the vibration is probably the main in-

**stallation effect. That process is beyond the scope of
**

the paper and has been analysed using mostly field

measurements (Slocombe et al. 2000, Massarsch &

Fellenius 2002), as the numerical modelling is quite

complicated (Arnold & Herle 2009).

Experimental studies have shown some of the effects of column installation. For example, the increase of pore pressures and horizontal stresses, and

the remoulding of the surrounding soil have been

measured in the field (Watts et al. 2000, Watts et al.

2001, Kirsch 2004, Gäb et al. 2007, Castro & Sagaseta 2012). There have also been attempts to investigate these effects through physical modelling of

the process by means of centrifuge testing (Lee et al.

2004, Weber et al. 2010), but the soils used are reconstituted and hence, not fully representative of

natural clays.

Numerical modelling is a useful tool that may

help to derive some conclusions or recommendations about installation effects for column design, if

the assumptions made in the model are validated by

experimental measurements. Furthermore, few attempts (Kirsch 2006, Guetif et al. 2007) had been

made in this field, using simple soil models. Therefore, the authors recently decided to study installation effects numerically using advance soil models

to reproduce the behaviour of natural structured soft

soils (Castro & Karstunen 2010). The results were

satisfactory, as they compared well with field measurements (e.g. Roy et al. 1981, Kirsch 2006, Serridge & Sarsby 2008).

the in situ water content is close to the liquid limit. 2005). S-CLAY1S additional parameters. 2003) and S-CLAY1S (Karstunen et al. in a structured soil. because columns are usually installed in a short period of time.0 16. Column installation is modelled as the expansion of a cylindrical cavity. After undrained expansion of the cavity.02 0. For the numerical model in this paper. to simplify the problem to an axisymmetric two-dimensional geometry.5 κ ν' λ M μ 0. The ground water level is 1.94 Table 2.2 0. properties of Bothkennar clay were used for the soft soil.18 χ0 5 a 11 b 0. 2001. The Modified Cam Clay model (MCC) (Roscoe et al. a0.0 m below the ground surface. which uses an updated Lagrangian formulation described by McMeeking & Rice (1975). af. The study here focuses on the results after full consolidation. Mesh sensitivity studies were performed to confirm the accuracy of the mesh. Stone columns have been applied in Bothkennar clay (Watts et al. 2 NUMERICAL MODEL The finite element code Plaxis v9 (Brinkgreve 2008) was used to develop a numerical model of a reference problem to study installation effects of stone columns. additionally.1 and af 0.Here.2 The geometry of the numerical model and the finite element mesh is shown in Figure 1. S-CLAY1 is a Cam clay type of model with an inclined yield surface to model inherent anisotropy. the generated excess pore pressures are dissipated through the permeable column and the surface. Typically.48 1. Parametric studies were carried out to check how wide the model should be to have a negligible influence of the outer boundary. which reduces to MCC model by assuming μ=0 and α0=0. modelling the tip of the column may lead to some numerical instabilities.02 0. especially on the settlement reduction. 2008).1 2 OC R α0 0. S-CLAY1 initial state variables.4 30 30 0. and a rotational component of hardening to model the development or erasure of fabric anisotropy during plastic straining. The values for S-CLAY1 model parameters (soil constants) and the initial state variables for Bothkennar clay are listed in Table 1 and 2. The installation of only one stone column was considered. which is considered to occur in undrained conditions. a column length of 10 m is used.539 1. a detailed analysis of those numerical results once the excess pore pressures have been dissipated is presented. Values of a0=0. namely SCLAY1 (Wheeler et al. e0 depth (m) 0-1 1-10 1. The models have been implemented as User-defined soil models in Plaxis. λi 0. The untreated clay underneath is not modelled. Serridge & Sarsby 2008) or other Carse clays (Egan et al. The Bothkennar soft clay test site has been the subject of a number of comprehensive studies (Géotechnique Symposium in print 1992).35 0. for interparticle bonding and degradation of bonds. to a final one. The new state of the soil that is obtained after column installation and full consolidation sets the basis of a future study of the influence that stone column installation has on the ground improvement. The SCLAY1S model accounts. In order to consider a realistic situation. 1958) is also used for comparison purposes. The soil at Bothkennar consists of a firm to stiff silty clay crust about 1.5 POP K0 (kPa) 30 - 1.94 0. Model geometry and finite element mesh. depth (m) 0-1 1-10 γ (kN/m3) 18.539 0.41 m represent the installation of a column with a radius of rc=0.4 m (Carter et al.2 0.a0 Figure 1. Table 1.544 Table 3. which is underlain by about 19 m of soft clay. 15 m Upper crust a0 Bothkennar clay 10 m af . instead of an explicit previous version in Castro & Karstunen (2010). because the installation effects in this part of the soil are not particularly significant and furthermore. S-CLAY1 parameters for Bothkennar clay.48 0. An implementation that uses an implicit integration scheme (Sivasithamparam 2012) has been used. respectively. using an intrinsic yield surface and a hardening law describing destructuration as a function of plastic straining.4 1.0 m thick. S-CLAY1 model is formulated to be a hierarchical model. The expansion of the cavity is modelled as a prescribed displacement from an initial radius. . 1979). The additional parameters for S-CLAY1S are de- tailed in Table 3. Calculations accounted for large displacements using the "updated mesh" option in Plaxis. The behaviour of Bothkennar clay was modelled using two advanced constitutive models. Further details of the numerical model can be found in Castro & Karstunen (2010).

the values near the column/pile are very similar and well correlated with the initial undrained shear strength. where vertical stresses change only slightly and (3) points that are on the yield surface also after consolidation (closer than 4. . 2008) have numerically backcalculated. That also causes subtle differences in the shape of the curves. where densification and the increase in mean effective stresses are important. radial stresses increase near the column. '/'z0 2. The vertical and hoop stresses are around 3 times the initial value of the undrained shear strength and the radial stresses are between 4 and 5. In the far field. also to the depth and the initial vertical stress in this case.Normalised effective stress.5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Distance to column axis.0 0. The vertical. Randolph et al. Effective stresses after column installation and full consolidation: (a) MCC. the soil parameters and the initial stresses used in the current study. r / rc 2.5 column radii depending on the soil model) where soil behaviour is always elastic and hoop stresses decrease. As expected. cu. Elshazly et al. '/'z0 3 STRESS FIELD 'r/'z0 '/'z0 'z/'z0 (c) SCLAY1S 1. (2006. The comparison shows that. Horizontal stresses increase after column installation and. Priebe (1995) already assumed in his method a value of K0=1. but vertical and hoop stresses also change. the changes in the stress field are usually considered through an increase in the lateral earth pressure coefficient.5 1. (b) S-CLAY1 and (c) S-CLAY1S. Three different areas may be distinguished: (1) an elastic one (beyond 11. Assuming an increase of the K0 value is a useful approach for column design but it is just a simplification of the changes in the stress field during column installation. and therefore.5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Distance to column axis. 'r/'z0 '/'z0 'z/'z0 (b) SCLAY1 1. The results from this study with the MCC model are compared with those results (Figure 3). For example. (1979) presented similar results for normally consolidated Boston Blue clay using the MCC model and a similar numerical model for driven piles.5 1.7 and 2.0 Normalised effective stress.0 Normalised effective stress. from field measurements of loaddisplacement curves. although there are differences in the OCR. but for S-CLAY1S where vertical stress decreases because of destructuration.5-6 column radii).5 1. Randolph et al. '/'z0 The aim is to study how the stress field in the natural soft soil around the column has changed. which is higher that the initial value at rest for most soils. (1979) predicted a slightly higher value because their analysis is in perfect plane strain conditions while in the present analysis there are some vertical strains since the model realistically considers the soil surface. The stress changes are different at different depths but they are directly proportional to the undrained shear strength.0 0. with average values around 1. Vertical stresses increase in the part nearest to the column.7 times the initial one have been measured. r / rc Figure 2. the hoop stresses are quite different to radial stresses.5.3. the initial stresses of the present analysis are lower because of the lower value of the σ'z/cu relationship. r / rc 2. K0. therefore. Interestingly.5-13. Figure 2 shows the results for the three soil models considered.5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Distance to column axis. depending on the distance to the column.0 0. radial and hoop (circumferential) stresses may be still considered as the principal stresses as the shear stresses are negligible. (2) an area that is plastic during undrained expansion of the cavity but is not after consolidation.0 'r/'z0 '/'z0 'z/'z0 (a) MCC 1. Kirsch (2006) presented field measurements of K0 and showed that after column installation values between 1 and 1. values of K0 between 0.

r / rc 20 30 .4 m e0=2. Special care should be taken to ensure that equilibrium is fulfilled: ' MCC S-CLAY1 S-CLAY1S 3. the coefficient a2 must be lower than 1 because the void ratio cannot be negative in the soil domain. 'r/cu 5 (a) 'r Column installation not only alters the stress field but also the values for the state parameters of the soil. in this case a3=2. 0 1 2 3 4 5 Distance to column axis. That requires curve fitting of the stress field and the modification of the soil model input parameters to allow for this particular initial stress field. Furthermore. Normalised radial effective stress. the installation of several columns will cause some interaction and overlapping of the stress changes.5 column radii for the densification area.0 p' 3a 3 0. r ' ' 0 r r r (1) neglecting shear stresses to avoid unnecessary complexity. the installation of only one column is considered.5 0=5 2.5 1. (1979) 4 (2) The coefficient a3 must be equal to the initial void ratio prior to column installation. Comparison with a previous study by Randolph et a.0 OCR0=1. the densification is especially important in the area closer than 2 column radii (Zone 3a). such as the void ratio (Figure 4). Obviously. (1979) 4 3 2 1 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Distance to column axis.8 rc=0. r / rc 2. The void ratio decreases just near the column.7 25 0=5 Distance to column axis. less than 4.6 Figure 3. Weber et al.0 S-CLAY1S S-CLAY1 MCC OCR0=1.5-6 column radii (Zone 3). a similar function may be here proposed to fit the void ratio: This study (MCC) Randolph et al.4 VOID RATIO AND OVERCONSOLIDATION .0. Effective stresses after column installation and full consolidation. They fitted the data points of porosity and density using a hyperbolic function.5 2. Void ratio after column installation and consolidation. As the finite element mesh gets very distorted after column installation. (1979) using MCC model.5 p'm 1. 5 (b) ' & 'z a1 r rc a2 e a3 0 5 10 15 20 1. (2010) measured a similar value of 2. p'/p'0 The stress field described in Figure 2 is the basis for an ongoing study on the influence that the installation effects have on the settlement reduction.5 Zone 1 2 p'mi 0 1 2 5 10 Distance to column axis. In the present model.0 3 'z / cu 1. '/cu This study (MCC) Randolph et al. However. it is advisable to input directly the stress field as the initial one in a new model. Normalised effective mean pressure. r / rc Figure 4. r / rc 1.0 p'm 1. e Normalised effective stress.9 2 ' / cu 1 0 Void ratio.

Figure 7 shows the (z-θ. given by p'm.539 for the initial situation and changes only slightly. Components of the fabric tensor after column installation and consolidation in S-CLAY1. are plotted in Figure 5. where the components of the fabric tensor. 5 ANISOTROPY The advanced soil models S-CLAY1 and SCLAY1S can used to reproduce the changes in soil fabric due to column installation. the fitting of those components must fulfilled that 3 r z (3) .8 0.5 r- z- (b) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Distance to column axis. {i}. i. The changes in the stress field and the initial state variables.82 0. which explains the similar results for the void ratio. The value of the void ratio is directly related to the changes in the mean effective stresses and the mobilized soil stiffness. as shown in Figure 6. for closely spaced columns. is significantly expanded in Zone 3a. p'mi. but the densification or the strain hardening is only important in Zone 3a. where the distance to the column axis is in logarithmic scale to amplify the zone of interest near the column.7 0.2 1. The two models predict almost identical changes in anisotropy. the mean effective stresses does not change.e. (3) the current stress point is on the yield surface and (3a) the yield surface is notably expanded through strain hardening. The different zones previously distinguished are also visible here: (1) far from the column. Note that the extension of these zones is slightly different depending on the soil model. Visualization of the soil fabric: (a) before column installation and (b) after column installation and consolidation. That requires curve fitting of those components.5 rc=0.The results for MCC and S-CLAY1 are quite similar but soil destructuration due to column installation causes a greater densification of the soil. (2) the mean effective stress increases but without expanding the yield surface because the overconsolidation ratio is OCR=1. To help to visualize the changes in soil fabric. there is not an elastic region anymore and the soil has not hardened either. they are very similar.6 0.5. i Figure 5. 2003). do not necessarily coincide with p'm when the point is on the yield surface because p'm is the mean effective stress at the apex of the yield surface on the right (Wheeler et al.1 r 1. which may be positive if the yield surface is expanded and the soil hardens (Zone 3a) or may be negative if the yield surface is not clearly expanded as the soil loses its overconsolidation and for a subsequent loading process.4 m 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Distance to column axis.9 r0=0=0. The inclination of the yield surface changes.36 S-CLAY1 1. the differences are noticeable but for S-CLAY1 type models. Its length is equal to 0=0. 1.0 0. For normal column spacings. which has a positive effect on the improvement as the column is better laterally confined and (b) the increase in the mean effective stresses. The components of the fabric tensor after column installation and consolidation (Figure 6) must be input as the initial values to study the influence that those changes have on the settlement reduction. By definition of the fabric tensor. the intrinsic yield surface. the soil is in Zone 3. (a) 0. Size of the yield surface and mean effective stresses after column installation and consolidation. This vector changes from horizontal direction for an initial vertical cross anisotropy towards a nearly vertical one for radial cross anisotropy.5 Inclination of the yield surface. are plotted. For MCC. For SCLAY1S. p'. p'm increases. r-θ) vector in arbitrary points. r / rc Figure 6. if anisotropy and destructuration are not considered. The relative expansion of the yield surface is similar for MCC and S-CLAY1.3 z 1.4 1. The current mean effective stress. r / rc Figure 7. have an influence on the ground improvement through the following features: (a) the increase in the radial stress. The mean effective stresses and the size of the yield surface. z0=1.

International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 3(4): 305-322. 115-124.C. Installation effects of vibro replacement stone columns in soft clay. & Mosaad.. Experimentelle und numerische Untersuchungen zum Tragverthalten von Rüttelstopfsäulengruppen. Bochum. Effect of inter-column spacing on soil stresses due to vibro-installed stone columns: interesting findings.. C. Carter. J. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 39(3): 695-709.H. F. S.R. of Numerical Modelling of Construction Processes in Geotechnical Engineering for Urban Environment. . 2007.. W. H.. Federal Highway Administration. & Wroth. Design of vibro replacement. Krenn. F. & Tan. it seems sensible to keep θ constant and decrease z the same amount that r increases. A. B..N. Scotland. Wheeler. K. (2012). & Wroth. Millpress: Amsterdam. P. The densification of granular soil using Vibro methods. Influence of column deformation.F. Driven piles in clay-the effects of installation and subsequent consolidation.S. pp. 24-27 September 2007. D. of the 14th European Conf. J. Taylor and Francis: London.P. & Baez. In Karstunen and Leoni (eds. B. Brinkgreve. M. Istanbul. M.. Juneja. In Proc. pp. Bothkennar soft clay test site: characterisation and lessons learned. Slocombe.S. 2002. 2006.P. Géotechnique 50(6): 715-726. Development and implementation of advanced soft soil models in finite elements. Randolph. T. Geotech. R. Taylor and Francis: London.D. K. International Journal of Solids and Structures 11: 606-616. M. Karstunen. Roy. J. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 47(10): 1127-1138. of the 15th Int. & Bachus. D.H. J.R. Tavenas. M.. Plaxis. 2008. & Elleboudy.A.. Lee. the increase of the radial stress improves the lateral confinement of the column. pp. 1979. M. & Serridge. & Fellenius. Z. 6 CONCLUSIONS The paper describes the changes in soil stresses and initial state variables after stone column installation. The latter case occurs for closely spaced columns. J. 1983. & Adam.P. Barksdale. Sivasithamparam.So.. 23-29.. & Herle. J. Delft. M. I.M. C. M. 3-5 September 2008.P.J.J. R. 2005. Comparison of vibrocompaction methods by numerical simulations.L. 2010. National Technical Information Service Report FHWA/RD-83/026. Consolidation around stone columns. M. Blanchet. University of Strathclyde. Randolph. Soil Mech. Egan.R. 2004. 1995. A. R. 1981. Kirsch.Version 9. 1992. M. & Wroth. D. Elkasabgy. & Booker. Design and construction of stone columns. The stresses near the column are related to the initial undrained shear strength of the soil.. In any case. 2007. H. Koskinen. Castro. Stress and pore pressure changes in clay during and after the expansion of a cylindrical cavity. 2000. Géotechnique 54(1): 1-16. H. Carter. 1979. R. 1867-1870. H. Géotechnique 29(4): 361-393. J. Behaviour of a sensitive clay during pile driving.A. Back calculating vibro-installation stresses in stone columns reinforced grounds. For normal column spacings. Vibro stone column installation and its effect on ground improvement. Geotech. Field trial to investigate the performance of a floating stone column foundation. Proceedings of ICE . Guetif. & McCabe. C.C. R.. Taylor and Francis: London. N. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 33(7): 851-877. 2001. R. Roscoe. A. C. Elshazly. 28-31 August 2001. Géotechnique 42(2). Proceedings of ICE . 1975. Géotechnique Symposium in print. 1311-1316..P. Watts. The stresses and the void ratio may be fitted by hyperbolic curves that fulfil some conditions. Hafez.. Chown. & Rice. In Proc.B. Soil Mech. C. Elshazly. & Sagaseta. Plaxis 2D . which may be negative for a subsequent loading process because it has lost its overconsolidation or positive if the yield surface has been notably expanded (strain hardening). C. 2006. PhD thesis. The initial vertical cross anisotropy of the soil changes towards a radial one when approaching the soilcolumn interface. Journal of Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 26: 225–236. Eng. Thurner.. M. 2009.C. Vibratory compaction of coarse-grained soils. H. Germany. Balaam. & Karstunen. Massarsch. & Sagaseta. They will be used as the initial ones in an on-going study of the influence that those installation effects have on the settlement reduction. the soil is in a plastic state. Stress and pore pressure changes due to sand compaction pile installation in soft clay. Improved soft clay characteristics due to stone column installation. Dissertation.I. Glasgow.F. 2012. R. 1985. 23-24 March 2006. Effect of anisotropy and destructuration on the behaviour of Murro test embankment. 2009. Technische Universität Braunschweig. Madrid.F. Schofield.) Geotechnics of Soft Soils – Focus on Ground Improvement.Ground improvement 165(2): 97-109. 2008. Conf. & La Rochelle. 2004. 2008. 1958. such as equilibrium.H. Finite-element formulations for problems of large elastic-plastic deformation. Géotechnique 8(1): 22–53. Pore pressure during stone column installation. B. A. Bouassida.J. Effect of stone column yield on settlement of rigid foundations in stabilized clay.J. for the sake of simplicity. J. Numerical simulations of stone column installation. ASCE International Journal of Geomechanics 5(2): 87-97. Kirsch. Castro. Ground Engineering 28(10): 31-37. McMeeking. Virginia. N. Priebe. pp. Schweiger. F. & Zentar. R. Gäb. Springfield. Bell. K...M. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 9(4): 331-351. & Debats.Ground improvement 10(2): 47–53.. Castro. J.. On the yielding of soils.P. Computers and Geotechnics 34(2): 104-111. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 18(2): 67-85. Scott. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 33(16): 1823-1838. In Proc. M. REFERENCES Arnold. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: The research was carried out as part of a GEO-INSTALL project by the European Community through the programme Marie Curie IndustryAcademia Partnerships and Pathways (PIAP-GA-2009230638). F. Eng. Vibro stone columns in soft clay: A trial to study the influence of column installation on foundation performance.

Plötze. Géotechnique 50(6): 699-708. Géotechnique 60(3): 197-206. L. Wheeler. & Springman. A. An anisotropic elastoplastic model for soft clays. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 40(2): 403-418.J. Näätänen.M. 2000.A. G.Watts. Laue. Johnson.. D. Weber... Wood. 2003.. K..S. J.M. Karstunen.. K. Peschke. M. S.. & Lojander. An instrumented trial of vibro ground treatment supporting strip foundations in a variable fill. & Saadi. A. 2010. S. M. Smear zone identification and soil properties around stone columns constructed in-flight in centrifuge model tests. . T.

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