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Still the Century of Corporatism?

Author(s): Philippe C. Schmitter
Source: The Review of Politics, Vol. 36, No. 1, The New Corporatism: Social and Political
Structures in the Iberian World (Jan., 1974), pp. 85-131
Published by: Cambridge University Press for the University of Notre Dame du lac on behalf of
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Still the Century of Corporatism?*
Philippe C. Schmitter
The twentiethcenturywill be the centuryof corporatismjust
as the nineteenthwas the centuryof liberalism...
Mihal1 Manoilesco
Until recently,Manoilesco's confidentpredictioncould easily
be dismissedas yetanotherexample of the ideological bias, wishful
thinkingand overinflatedrhetoricof the thirties,an 6vdnementielle
response to a peculiar environmentand period.' With the subsequent defeat of fascismand National Socialism, the spectre of
corporatismno longerseemedto haunt the European scene so fatalistically. For a while, the concept itselfwas virtuallyretiredfrom
the active lexicon of politics,although it was left on behavioral
exhibit,so to speak, in such museumsof atavisticpolitical practice
as Portugal and Spain.
Lately, however,the spectre is back amongst us-verbally at
least-haunting the concernsof contemporarysocial scientistswith
increasingfrequencyand in multipleguises. Almostfortyyearsto
the day when Manoilesco declared that "the ineluctablecourse of
fate involvesthe transformation
of all the social and political institutionsof our times in a corporatistdirection,"2perhaps we
should again take his predictionseriouslyand inquire whetherwe
mightstillbe in the centuryof corporatism-but only just becoming aware of it.
The purposesof this essay are to explore various usages of the
concept of corporatism,to suggestan operational definitionof it

as a distinctive,
to discuss

the utilityof distinguishing
subtypesof corporatistdevelopmentand
practiceand, finally,to set forthsome generalhypotheses"explaining" the probable contextof its emergenceand persistence.

* An International
AffairsFellowshipfromthe Council on ForeignRelations (New York) forthe academicyear 1973-74and the generousinfrastructuralsupportof the EuropeanCenterof the CarnegieEndowmentfor InternationalPeace have made thisresearchpossible. Specifically
I would like to
thankMs. BarbaraBishopof the EuropeanCenterforhavingdecipheredmy
and prepareda legiblemanuscript.

Mihail Manoilesco, Le Sidcle du Corporatisme, rev. ed. (Paris, 1936).


Ibid., p. 7.

The originaleditionwas publishedin 1934.

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The firststep, I propose,is to rescuethe concept of corporatism
fromvarious usages of it which have crept into the literatureand
which seem (to me) to do more to dissipateor to disguisethan to
enhance its utility.On the one hand, it has become such a vaguely
bounded phenomenonthat,like clientelism,it can be found everywhere and, hence, is nowhereverydistinctive;on the otherhand,
it has been so narrowlyattachedto a singlepoliticalculture,regime-

thatit becomes,at best,uniquetypeor macrosocietal
ly descriptiveratherthan comparativelyanalytic.
Undoubtedly,the most difficulttask is to stripthe concept of
its pejorativetone and implication. This is made all the more difficult by the fact that--unlike the thirties-there are very few
regimes today who overtlyand proudly advertise themselvesas
corporatist.It, therefore,becomes a temptinggame to unveil and
denounce as corporatistpracticeswhich regimesare condoningor
promotingunder otherlabels, such as "participation,""collaboraand "permanentconsultative planning," "mixed representation,"
tion." On the other hand, if corporatismis left to mean simply
"interest-groupbehavior or systemsI do not like" and/or used
withsuch epithetsas "fascist"and "repressive,"then

it can becomeof littleor no utility

parison. This is not to say that those who use the concept must
somehow be enjoined fromutteringevaluative statementsor even
from expressingstrong normativereactions to its role or consequences. I have now studiedseveral corporatistsystemsand come
openly to quite firm personal judgments about each of them.
But, I hope that those who disagreeon its desirabilitycan at least
arriveat some commonprioragreementas to the empiricalreferents
which identifyits basic structureand behavior. They then can dispute the costsand benefitsand the intrinsic"goods" and "bads" it
In my work I have found it usefulto considercorporatismas
a systemof interestand/or attitude representation,a particular
modal or ideal-typicalinstitutionalarrangementfor linking the
associationallyorganizedinterestsof civil societywith the decisional
structuresof the state. As such it is one of severalpossiblemodern
of interestrepresentation,
of which pluralismis perconfigurations
haps the best-knownand mostfrequentlyacknowledgedalternative
-but more about that below.

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Restrictingthe concept,so to speak, to referonly to a specific
concrete set of institutionalpractices or structuresinvolvingthe
representation(or misrepresentation)of empiricallyobservable
group interestshas a number of importantimplications. These
my preferredusage fromthoseof severalothers
who have recentlyemployedthe same conceptuallabel.
First,by definingcorporatismin termsof its praxis,the concept

in any particular
is liberatedfromitsemployment
ideologyor sys-

tem of ideas.3 While, as will become manifestin later sectionsof
thisessay,I am quite interestedin the argumentsput forthby particular proponentsof modernor neocorporatism,
my readingof its
use in the recent historyof ideas suggeststhat an extraordinary
varietyof theorists,ideologues and activistshave advocated it for
widely divergentmotives,interestsand reasons.
These range fromsuch romantic,organic theoristsof the state
as FriedrichSchlegel, Adam von Miiller, G. W. FriedrichHegel
and Rudolf Kjellen; to the pre-Marxist,protosocialistsSismondi,
Saint-Simonand Proudhon; to the Social Christian,ethicallytraditionalistthought of Wilhelm von Ketteler, Karl von Vogelsang,
the Marquis de la Tour de Pin, Albert de Mun and, of course,
Popes Leo XIII and Pius XI; to the fascistauthoritarianismof
Giuseppe Bottai, Guido Bortolotto,Giuseppe Papi and Francesco
Vito; to the secular modernizingnationalismof a Mihail Manoilesco; to the radical (in the French sense) bourgeoissolidarismof
UAon Duguit, Joseph-Paul Boncour, Georges Renard and Emile
Durkheim; to the mysticaluniversalismof an Ottmar Spann; to
the internationalistfunctionalismof Giuseppe de Michelis and
David Mitrany; to the reactionary,pseudo-Catholicintegralismof
Charles Maurras, Oliveira Salazar, Marcello Caetano and Jean
Brthe de la Gressaye; to the technocratic,procapitalistreformism
of Walter Rathenau, Lord Keynes and A. A. Berle, Jr.; to the
anticapitalistsyndicalismof Georges Sorel, Sergio Panunzio, Ugo
Spirito,Edmondo Rossoni, Enrico Corradini and Gregor Strasser;
to the guild socialism of G.D.H. Cole, the early Harold Laski,
S. G. Hobson and Ramiro de Maeztu; to the communitarianism

a For an example of such a definitionby ideology,see James Malloy,
Corporatismand Mobilizationin Peru," elsewherein this
volume. Also Howard Wiarda, "The PortugueseCorporativeSystem: Basic
Structuresand Current Functions" (Paper prepared for the Conference
Groupon ModernPortugal,Durham,N.H., Oct. 10-14,1973). In bothcases
the authorswere heavily,if not exclusively,
influencedby "Social Christian"
versionsof corporatist
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ideologuesand activists temporary drinkunderyetotherlabels. 1944). itselfis likea labelplacedon a whole batchof bottleswhichare thendistributed amongdiverseproducerseachofwhomfillsthemwiththedrinkofhischoice. Not onlyis corporatism definedas an ideology(or worseas a to pin downto a centralsetofvaluesor difficult weltanschauung) beliefsand evenmoredifficult to associatewiththe aspirations or interests of a specificsocial group.52 on Wed. 4-5. A Frenchstudentof corporatism describedthe situationquite wellwhenhe said: The armyofcorporatists is so disparate thatoneis led to think thattheword. Italie.and as promoting metrically oppositepublicpolicies. Le Corporatisme. Le Corporatisme (Paris: Les Publications Techniques. Portugal.s consumer The situationis evenfurther confusedby thefactthatmanyconare peddlingthesame theorists. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .but virtuallyall detailedempiricalinquiriesof corporatist praxishave shownits performance and behaviorto be at considerable variance-ifnot diametrically advancedbyitsverbaldefenders. 206. 1942). France (Paris.The has to lookcarefully. 6 Auguste Murat.corporation.Pierre Mendes-France and David Apter. H. pp.149. infinitely trine."The realityof existingcorless seductivethan the docporatismsis. structures radicallydifferent as benefiting diaquite distinctsocial classes."6 Contemporaryconceptualizationsof corporatismbased 4 To this article I have appendixed a working bibliography of some 100 titles which seem importantto an understandingof the ideological and praxiological bases of corporatism up to and including the interwar period. Espagne. Allemagne. p. opposed-to thebeliefsmanifestly As anotherFrenchscholarof the forties(himselfan advocateof corporatisma sa maniere) observed. withouta doubt. W. Ferry. a Louis Baudin.88 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS or bourgeoissocialismof a Francois Perrouxor an Henri de Mannot to mention such contemporaryadvocates as Bernard Crick. All of these-and the listis by no means completenorare the above groupingsby any means sharplydistinctive4-haveconbetween vergedupon theadvocacyof an institutional relationship the systemsof authoritative and interest decision-making representation whichcan be considered as generically by my corporatist definedas such by the praxiologicaldefinition(and frequently authorsthemselves).103. althoughtheyconceivedof thisarrangement as involving of powerand influence. For excellent critical treatmentsof corporatistpractice in the This content downloaded from 128.

especiallyone linked to some geographicallycircumscribed area such as the Iberian Peninsula7 or the Mediterranean. L'Organisation des rapports economiques et sociaux dans les pays d re'gime corporatif (Paris. center-periphery residence. 206-235. 1937).. of ignorance.Latin Americansbehave differently fromNorthAmericansbecause of theirCatholic-Iberian heritage!" The few systematically comparativestudiesof attitudeswhich have includedbothLatin and NorthAmericansampleshave generallyconcludedthat once one controlsfor education.and Leaders and Followers.ergo. see Roland Prn. For an approachwhichreliesessentially an ill-defined. pp."WorldPoliticsXXV. In short.class. pp.103. well-founded)criticismsraised against most.if not all. sensitivepresentation of this argument. 2 (January. no."The Costs of AntiNationalism:Argentina.1970).8 This approach to corporatismnot only runs up against the usual (and in my view. as cited in Reinhard Bendix. Development. 1-29. L'Economie corporative fasciste en doctrine et en fait (Paris. put it to earlieradvocatesof politicalcultural 9 As Max Weberscornfully "the appeal to nationalcharacteris generallya mere confession explanations. Silvert.29)."The SociologicalReview MonographXI (1967). 1368. and Francois Perroux.institutionally Ronald Newton "On 'FunctionalGroups. 1967) pp. 1936). political-cultural"explanations"9-especially against those based on impressionistic evidence and circularreasoningl0-but also fails 1930's."International Social Science JournalXV (1964).1973). 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .fromthe start. 358-61. "The Politicsof Economicand Social Change in Latin America. 560-70.age. Catholic weltanschauunglich argument. ExpectantPeoples (New York.NorthAmericans are predominantly Protestant. 27-178.see Howard Wiarda. 1962] p.52 on Wed. etc. Louis Rosenstock-Franck.149."in K. 10 Such reasoninghas been particularlyprevalentamong Anglo-Saxon studentsof Latin Americawhere." The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. p. Also his Man's Power (New York.see ? For a subtle.ed. 59-64. Nor do I findit veryproductiveto considercorporatismto be an exclusivepart or a distinctiveproduct of a particularpolitical culture. NorthAmericaby GreatBritain. fn. 1934. 47-58. 1 (February. Capitalisme et Communaute' de Travail (Paris. 1970).. residualdifferences thatcould be assignedspecifically to cultureare statistically This content downloaded from 128. "Toward a Frameworkfor the Studyof PoliticalChange in the Iberic-Latin Tradition. 88. 63. Max Weber: An Intellectual Portrait [New York.' 'Fragmentation'and 'Pluralism' in Spanish American Political Society." Hispanic American Historical Review on L. 8 See especiallythe argumentby Kalman Silvert.Latin Americawas colonizedby Spain and Portugal. no.Latin Americansare Catholics.I findthereis simplytoo much normativevarietyand behavioral hypocrisyin the use of the corporatistideological label to make it a usefuloperationalinstrument forcomparativeanalysis.STILL THE CENTURY OF CORPORATISM? 89 exclusivelyon the statedmotivesand goals of actorsor theirapologists tend only to obfuscate this "less than seductive" reality in praxis. "NationalValues.thesearea specialistsseem to have drawn the followingsyllogism:"Latin Americansbehave differently fromNorthAmericans.

that many. practicesand consequences? By all empirically terest-group available standards. Those who advocatedcorporatism Americanareas unabashedlyand unashamedlyimportedtheirideas fromabroad. Also worthstressingis that among "Social Christians"or more broadly.stretching fromNorthernEurope.52 on Wed. nonmedieval. to name but a few.1945). Finally.Colom- bia moreso thanBrazil.90 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS completelyto explain why similar configurationsand behavior in interestpoliticshave emergedand persistin a great varietyof cultural settings. Even those who most publiclyclaimed to be inspiredby "Social Christian"ideals.of the theorists of 11 It is also worthmentioning moderncorporatism have not been Catholics.At best. the Iberian Peninsula and its "fragments.See especiallyJosephKahl.103.statistand authoritarian praxis. 1968). Thailand.not all by any means advocated corporatism.149.11 insignificant. Are we to believe that political cultureis a sort of "spigotvariable" which gets turnedon everyonce in a while to produce a different systemof functional representation?Also we might ask. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Belgian.culturalistarguments must be heavily supplementedto account for such embarrassingdeviationsin outcome. secondarilyand belatedly. See Henri Guitton. The Measurementof Modernity (Austin. Italian and Ruma- in the Iberianand Latin nian. Indonesia and Taiwan.Spain is more Catholic than Portugal.Texas.such as Salazar and Dollfuss.followeda muchmorebureaucratic.corporatismwas diffusedto the Iberian-Mediterraneanarea. Many were in fact militantly secular. since those who have advanced such an explanation also tendto place a greatdeal of emphasison ideology(occasionally even accepting word for fact).progressiveCatholics. not created withinit.English.Such prominentfiguresas Jacques Maritain and EmmanuelMounier opposed it. then.if not most. we mightwonder why the major ideologues of corporatismhave not come from this part of the world. why do societies supposedly in insharingthe same generalethosexhibitsuch wide diversity values. Modern. Also worthmentioning is that corporatism has been considered quite This content downloaded from 128.yetin each case it is thelatterwhichhas by far the more corporatistsystem. even withinthe presumedhomeland of such an ethos."corporatismhas waxed and waned during different historicalperiods.Le Catholicisme Social (Paris. acrossthe Mediterranean to such exotic places as Turkey. This formof pseudoexplanation also cannot contributemuch to answeringthe question of why. A quick glance at the admittedlyincompletebibliography attachedto this essaywill show that the intellectualoriginsof corporatismare predominatelyGerman.Iran.that is. French and Austrian and.

1967)."etc. 16 F.52 on Wed.4th ed. 1970).BritishPoliticsin the Collectivist Age (New York.better. (Paris. 18 Percival and Paul Goodman."Warner Modular Publications. into account the historicalfact that many "organicallyconceived" states were not composed of corporatistsubunits. familial. Beer..Communitas(Chicago. 13 Fustelde Coulange.See.eds. Rokkan. a translation of his La SocidtI d'AncienRdgime(Bruxelles. "productionist.103. 52 (1973). for example.except to differentiate of the "mechanical state.'7 even to the autonomous." in E. More importantly.318 moral excellencein Plato's ideal polity.1943). Linz has advanced and defendedthe idea of an "organicstate model" as the appropriateframework for the discussionof corporatism. 3) by JamesMalloyin thisvolume. Allardtand S.149.STILL THE CENTURY OF CORPORATISM? 91 Anothertendencywhich has cropped up in recent discussions of corporatism it intosomewider is to defineor.'s If one accepts that a special characteristicof modern corporatism (this in both ideologyand practice) concernsthe role of functional interestassociations."'12 The "organic state" concept runs up against many of the criticismsof definitionalvagueness.14to the threeto fiveestate systemsof various anciens rigimes. 1969). This content downloaded from 128.for example. 15 EmileLousse. La Revolution Regionaliste(Paris. 12 See the conceptof "limitedpluralism" in Juan Linz.1952). Laws 5-6. 17 RobertLaFont."Scandinavian PoliticalStudiesIV (Oslo. 1872). 1947) and Gar Alperovitz.submerge political configurationsuch as "the organic state" or "the authoritarian regime." Emphasizingthat macrocharacteristic does littleto specifyconcreterelationsof authority.La Cite'Antique. 88-102. "An Authoritarian Regime: Spain.non-Iberiancultures.374-81. 14 Plato. which may go into the establishment of an "organic state.influenceand reprethem fromequally vague notions sentation.15to the phalangesof Fourier."Policy-Making and PoliticalCulturein Sweden.See also the essaycited above '(fn. religious. Charles Fourier.." compatiblewith manynon-Catholic. moral.but built upon a great varietyof "organs" rangingfromthe curies and phratries to the "metallic" ordersof of Fustel de Coulange's ancient city.Mass Politics(New York.16 to the rigions of Robert LaFont. Samuel H.Organizagqoe representagdo corporativas (Lisbon.territorial-communitarian.plural communitiesof Percival and Paul Goodman or Gar Alperovitz. In subsequentconversations with this author. 251-83. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Theoriesde l'Unitd Uniti Universelle(1822) and Le NouveauMonde industriel et sociJtaire(1829).ReprintNo. pp."Notes toward a Pluralist Commonwealth. 1969) and ThomasAnton.lack of potential empirical specificityand circularityof argumentleveled above at it fails to take the political cultural approach.then it is but one of many possiblestructural units.

(1972).interesting) issue.149. in myview.if not to be essentialdefiningelementsof. but in some marcosocietalcharacteristic state formor regime-type. 1971). no.forthcoming). no.The Politicsof Accommodation (Berkeley. 20 Ronald Rogowskiand Lois Wasserspring. Sage Professional Exist? Corporatism Papers.1971).21Here the problemis simplythat stigmatized or pillared societiesexhibitquite differentdegrees of corporatism in the sense used herein and that."World PoliticsXXI. etc. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .levels of political mobilization.I tendedto definecorporatism exclusively rule.ideologicallyor linguisticallydeterminedzuilen lager. O."Proceedingsof the AmericanAcademyXXX.'9 regime-types another Yet tendencyin the revived discussionof corporatism which differsfromthat proposed here is that which submergesthe come apparent in the course of this essay I have found it more useful to defineit as a concrete."ComparativePoliticsIII. or famillesspirituelles.varietiesof ruling regime-types. 4 of Brazil?" in A. 2 (January. 83-108 and "The Portugalization Authoritarian Brazil (New Haven. Gehard Lembruch. ideology.vice versa. 207-25.103. 21 For example. "Paths to PoliticalDevelopmentin Latin America. pp. no. 2 (January.92 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS in interestpoliticsto a specific The relationof corporatism globaltypeof politicalregimeis a muchmorecomplicated(and. 1973). Politicsin Europe: Structures and Processes(New York.ArendLijphart.. not in some wider concept of regional political culture. Val R.varyingscopes of public policy.20 or the existenceof religiously..I hope.Proporzdemokratie: PolitischesSystemund politischeKulturin der Schweizund in Osterreich(Tiibingen. Then I will endeavor to specifydistinctsubtypesof corporatistrepresentationwhich seem to have at least an elective for. many heavilycorporatized systemsof interestrepresentationexist in societies which have no markedvisual stigmatizationor pillaredsocial and cultural structures. This content downloaded from 128. ed.Sweden is no less corporatizedbecause it lacks both in relationto 19 In earlierworks. with differentparty systems.1967). 01-024. no. specific affinity during specificperiods of their development. Also relevantare Arend Lijphart "ConsociationalDemocracy.observablegeneral systemof interestrepresentationwhich is "compatible" with several different i. See the concludingchapterof my InterestConflictand authoritarian PoliticalChangein Brazil (Stanford.these "pillared" notions linkedto a corporatist model of Europeanpolitics: "Patternsof are expressly European Politics: The 'European Polity'Model. Stepan III. also.1971). 1968)--wherein all fairnessthe conceptof corporatism In a forthcoming essayby MartinHeisler. itselfdoes not appear.1969 ). Does Political Development in Old and New Societies(BeverlyHills. Lorwin"Segmented Pluralism:IdeologicalCleavagesand PoliticalCohesionin the SmallerEuropean Democracies. such as the presenceof visual stigmata. For reasonswhichwill..II. 14-75.52 on Wed.however. Heisler et al." in M.e.

recognized (if notcreated)bythestateand granteda deliberate representa22 Roland Huntford.compulsory.52 on Wed. to a particular usesoftheterm. hierarchically and functionally differentiated or licensed categories. These are interesting in and by but theydo notseemto bear anycloseassociation with themselves. Van Den Brande.for example. agreeto disagreeon thebasisof a commonlexical spurnalternative and. see A. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . nonmonopolistic. This content downloaded from 128. ordered noncompetitive. In the presentstateof nominalistic anarchyprevailingin the it is absurdto pretendthatscholarswillsomehow"rally" discipline.Also corporatism.argues that is is preciselysocial and economichomogenization which contributes to the thoroughness of Swedish see The New Totalitarians(New York."VoluntaryAssociationsin the BelgianPoliticalSystem1954-1968. conceptualization.. pp.22Belgiumno moreso becauseit suffers and salientdimensions of societies.STILL THE CENTURY OF CORPORATISM? 93 fromboth.henceforth. a recentanalysisof Belgium'sassociationalstructure thatmultipillared in thatpolityserveto sustaina conflicts arguespersuasively more pluralist (i. May 5-6.New York. and to warnthe readerthata greatdeal of whathas recently been writtenabout and of what will subsequently be discussedin this corporatism essaymaybe ofno mutualrelevanceat all. Aboutall one can expectfroman introductory discussionsuchas thismaybe to gain a fewrecruits fora morespecific and boundeduse of the conceptof corporatism. Olaf Ruin. 1972). II Havingrejecteda seriesof alternative usagesof theconceptof and expresseda preference for a more empirically corporatism boundedspecification whichfocuseson a set of relatively directly distinctive traitsinvolvingthe actual observable. 329356."Res Publica. pp. upon me to producesucha conceptualspecification: can be defined as a system of interest Corporatism representation in whichtheconstituent unitsare organized intoa limited number of singular.institutionally it is now incumbent practiceof interest representation. competitive. 23 On the contrary. "Participation. 2 (1973). 1972).149.Corporativization and PoliticizationTrends in Sweden" (Paper presentedat Sixty-second AnnualMeetingof the Present-day Societyfor the Advancementof ScandinavianStudy. 86-87ff. thephenomenon we focusour attention uponwhichI recommend withthe conceptof corporatism.23 dimensions.overlapping) systemof interestrepresentation.e.103.

1973).partiesand movements. whetherthe whole schemereallycould bringabout class harmonyand constitutea tertiumgenus betweencommunism and capitalismwere the subject of extensivedebate and considerablefragmentation ideoamong corporatist logues. of Brazil?" (fn. 1966].have such a ConseilEconomiqueet corporatist.Moreover. (These rarelyexistand wheretheyhave been formally established-Portugal.) These institutional aspectsas well as the more important behavioralissues of how and who would formthe unique and hierarchical what would be theirdegreeof autonomyfromstate controland associations.such an elaborate definitionis an ideal-typedescription.) Nor does it say anything about the presenceof a highercouncilor parliamentcomposedof functional or professional does not specifythe existence of singularassociations(corporations)groupingboth employersand workers. 3). 26 See my Interest Conflict and Political Change in Brazil (fn. The formerhas been definedas: "a purposive.combination. partiesand territorial to existand variousyouthand religiousmovements may not onlybe tolerated but encouraged. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . October10-14.For example.94 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS tionalmonopolywithintheirrespectivecategoriesin exchangefor observingcertaincontrolson theirselectionof leadersand articulationof demandsand supports. Portugal.Constructive Typology and Social Theory [New York.g.52 on Wed. Spain and Italy-they do not functionas units. N.Durham. 19) and and Public Policy-Makingin Portugal" "CorporatistInterestRepresentation (Paper presentedat the ConferenceGroup on Modern Portugal.24 Obviously.25 a heuristicand logicoanalyticalconstructcomposed of a considerablevarietyof theoreticallyor hypotheticallyinterrelated components. ignoresa numberof institutional and behavioral dimensions theytendedto stress. 176). Also "The Portugalization This content downloaded from 128.H.26 Whilethewholegestaltor syndrome is notdirectly 24 At thispointit is perhapsworthrepeatingthat thisconstructed definition does not correspondto any of the ones advancedby specifically corporatist theorists. (Many politieswhich are not otherwisevery France or WeimarGermany. displacingterritorial subdivisions continue (In all existingcorporatist systems. Social or Wirtschaftsrat.although two which I have studied in some detail (Brazil and Portugal) come ratherclose.the conceptis more "a constructed type"than an ideal type. The ideological definitionclosest to my analytical one is Mihail Manoilesco's: "The corporationis a collectiveand public organizationcomposed of the totalityof persons(physicalor juridical) fulfilling togetherthe same nationalfunctionand havingas its goal that of assuringthe exerciseof thatfunction by rulesof law imposedat leastupon its members"(Le Sidcle du Corporatisme. 19)... many heavilycorporatistcountrieswhich do have them. p. and (sometimes) accentuationof a set of criteriawithempiricalreferents thatservesas a basis forcomparison of empiricalcases" (JohnC.103. No empiricallyextant systemof interestrepresentation may perfectlyreproduce all these dimensions. 25 not grantthemdecisionalauthority.e.p.149.)Nor does the definition associations will be the onlyconstituent units suggestthatcorporatist of the polity---completely entities.

Henry Kariel (ed. assessed.beyond that of describingthe behaviorof a certainnumberof politicalsystemswhichhave interestedme. Most of themmerelymourn the passingor degeneration of pluralismand eitheradvocate its return.STILL THE CENTURY OF CORPORATISM? 95 can be easily itspostulatedcomponents accessibleto measurement.52 on Wed.27its replacementwith some more formalistic. The Decline of American Pluralism (Stanford.such as ones "artificially"establishedfrom above by the state. 1961).if notimmediately quantified. Private Power and American Democracy (New York. quite conceivable at this early stage in researchinto these mattersthat what I have found to be a set of interrelatedinstitutionalpractices coalescing into a distinctive. onlyto Iberian authoritarianregimes.successful in exercising and subjectto determined within categories monopoly functionally formalor informalcontrolson leadershipselectionand interest whattypeof inwillnotonlyenableus to distinguish articulation terestsystemit belongs to. and his. recognized a representational factoway by the state. but may help us gauge the extentto which thesemultipledimensionsare empiricallyas well as logically interrelated.hierarchically petitivebetweencompartmentalized in somede jure or de or certified in internalstructure. also Grant McConnell. Frontierso?fDemocratic Theory (New York. 1970). some have even gone so far as to suggestthat it may no longerbe of much utilitywhen applied to the practicesof advanced industrial polities.compulsory ordered sectors. tionmaybe quitelimitedin itsscopeof applicability. authoritative(if not authoritarian) "jurid27 For example.It is. the closelyassociated liberal democraticregime-type)may be of littleutilityin describingthe likelystructureand behavior of in- in contemporary and while terest-group systems developing polities. One purposein developingthiselaborategeneralmodel. of course. highlycovariantand resistantmodernsystemof interestrepresentaforexample. This content downloaded from 128.Such detailedinquiryinto is limitedin the extentto whicha givensystemof representation noncomin membership.few if any of these scholars have proposed an alternative or contrastingmodel of modern representativeassociation-state relations. While a considerablenumberand wide varietyof scholars have discoveredthat pluralism (and with it. 1966).149. numberof component units.or restrictedto only one subtype of corporatism. is to offerto the politicalanalystan explicit alternativeto the paradigm of interestpoliticswhich has heretoforecompletelydominatedthe disciplineof the NorthAmerican politicalscience: pluralism.103.). 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

" violence They would also agree that emphasis) "giving to everycitizenthe same opinions.Policyand the Crisis of Public Authority (New York.pluralismdiffersmarkedlyfromcorporatismas an ideal-typicalresponseto thesefactsof modernpoliticallife. none deservesto be more promised by a well-constructed its than tendencyto break and control (my accuratelydeveloped the of faction. (4) the decline in the importanceof territorial tisan representation.52 on Wed. nonhierarchically and self-determined (as to type or scope of interest)categories whichare not speciallylicensed.(2) the persistenceand expansion of functionally differentiatedand potentiallyconflictinginterests. in Pluralismcan be definedas a systemof interestrepresentation whichthe constituent numunitsare organizedintoan unspecified ordered ber of multiple. and paroligarchy. 1971).believethatsuch a public unitycan be found 28 TheodoreLowi. as would almost any realistic model of modern interest politics: (1) the growingimportanceof formalassociationalunits of representation. The Politics of Disorder (New York.createdor otherwisecontrolledin leadershipselectionor interestarticulation by the stateand whichdo not exercisea monopolyof representationalactivitywithintheirrespectivecategories.subsidized.149.recognized.103. Practitionersof corporatismand of pluralism would heartily agree with James Madison that "among the numerousadvantages union. consequently. 29 Theodore Lowi. . (3) the burgeoningrole of permanentadministrativestaffs.96 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS ical democracy. 1969).the same passions and the same interests. This content downloaded from 128.basing theirfaith eitheron the superiorwisdom of an authoritarianleader or the enlightenedforesightof technocraticplanners."28 or its periodicbouleversement by spontaneous social movements.despite this wide area of mutual agreement.and (5) the secular trend toward expansion of private and in the scope of public policy and interpenetration public decision arenas." Corporatists. is as impracticableas [suppressingthem altogether.voluntary.PCS] would be unwise.of entrenched information. Nevertheless.29 Pluralism and corporatismshare a number of basic assumptions." Where the two practitioners would begin to diverge is with Madison's furtherassertionthat statesmen willbe able to adjust "it is in vainto saythatenlightened theseclashinginterestsand renderthemall subservientto the public good. .competitive. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .of specialized of technicalexpertiseand. The End of Liberalism:Ideology.

the latter advo- cate controlled verticalstratifiemergence.149. Madison's metaphorwas more mechanistic."to use Madison's felicitousphrase.103. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .and more dynamic. Their "scheme of representation. o30The quotations are all from The Federalist Papers. .numerical proliferation."but also that "most common and durable source of faction . no. Corporatistsof whatever stripeexpressconfidencethat an "enlightenedstatesman" (or an "enlightenedstate") can co-opt.ideologicallyselecdifferentiated and hierarchically tive. functionally ordered categories. the various and unequal distributionof property.articulationof demandsand mobilization of support. he was less sanguineabout limiting and orderingthe sources of faction-whether from above by impositionor from below by elimination. limitation.noncompetitive.52 on Wed.I suspect that these two contrastingbut not diametricallyopposed syndromesdo not by any means exhaust the of moderninterestrepresentation.STILL THE CENTURY OF CORPORATISM? 97 and kept. Hence.controlor coordinatenot only those "most frivolousand fancifuldistinctions[which] have been to kindleunfriendly sufficient passionsand excitetheirmostviolent conflicts. but they offeropposing political remedies and divergentimages of the institutionalform that such a modernsystemof interestrepresentation will take. possiblealternativesystem-types For example.both pluralistsand corporatistsrecognize. The former suggest spontaneous formation. horizontalextensionand competitiveinteraction."30 In short. intersecting corporatistsappeal to the functionaladjustmentof an organically interdependentwhole.. 10. quantitative cation and complementaryinterdependence. instead of extendingthe "number of citizens" and the "sphere of interests"would compressthem into a fixedset of verticalizedcategorieseach representing the interdependent functions of an organic whole.Pluralistsplace their faithin the shifting balance of mechanically forces.accept and and attempt to cope with the growingstructuraldifferentiation interestdiversityof the modern polity.created. the Soviet experience suggeststhe existence of a "monist" model which could be definedas a systemof interestrepresentation in which the constituent units are organizedinto a fixednumberof singular.subsidizedand licensed by a single role withinthat partyand partyand granteda representational vis-a-visthe state in exchangefor observingcertaincontrolson theirselectionof leaders. This content downloaded from 128. While time and space limitationspreventme fromdeveloping the idea further.

leads us to a considerationof possible subtypes of corporatism.this projected model seems to reject or to of seek to transformsubstantiallymany of the given characteristics the modern political process-more or less accepted or even encouraged by the other three syndromes. The ParticipatoryEconomy (Ithaca.nor controlledin theirleadershipselectionor interest articulationby state or party.voluntary.98 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS to specifyin termsof the component Much more difficult we have been usingforthe otherthreebecauseof its dimensions alternative.organizingand articulatingthe demands of civil societyas well as those of receiving.partlybecause scription in reit has emergedwithincreasing (if notspecificity) frequency and partly cent discussionsof participationand representation.neitherrecognized.rather than that of syndicalism. ironically.Nevertheless. 18). Also Jaroslav Vanek.not exercisinga representational allocatand "authoritatively monopolybut resolvingtheirconflicts of the ing their values" autonomouslywithoutthe interference state.and hence onlyintelligiblein purpose and consequencewhen consideredin relationto otherpolitical and whole regimeconfigurations.a briefde- of itscharacteristics willbe offered below. Nevertheless. possibilities Syndicalismcould be definedas a systemof interestaggregation in whichthe constituent unitsare an (more than representation) unlimited number of singular.52 on Wed. This content downloaded from 128.noncompetitive(or not hierarchically betterhived-off)categories.this excursionhas served to remind us that the process of capturing.Barely radical and utopiannatureis the syndicalist in bya numberoftheorists sketched (severalofwhomsubsequently became corporatists). 1971).103.149.This widerset of consubsystems and even applying the "imperativecoordinations"of the state is onlypart of the politicalprocess. even though the author associates his proposals with the tradition of pluralism. cal domination. 31 See especially the article by Gar Alperovitz and works cited therein (fn.31 because it seems to round out in logical termsthe combinatorial of thevariablesusedto definetheotherthreetypes.creatednor licensedby state or party. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . orderedor functionally specialized. we have moved some distance With this last definition-model with limited concern our stated from specifyingthe characteristics of corporatismas a distinctiveand self-sustaining systemof interest and not confusingit with a whole systemof politirepresentation.

343-65. Democracy in a ChangingSociety(New York.Los Empresarios ante el Poder Ptiblico The (Madrid. Anton (fn. "Swiss Democracy"in H. Capitalismand the Social Order 1918-1934 (Princeton. InterestConflictand Political Change in Brazil and "The o40Schmitter.38 Portugal. Ehrmann.33the Netherlands. esp.Democracy.52 on Wed. 1966). 106. " RobertE.. esp. no. 11). "5 Stein Rokkan. also JamesMalloy (fn. 1969). 38 KennethE. "FromFalange to Movimiento-Organizacion: SpanishSinglePartyand the FrancoRegime. 1964).. it has been argued and ratherconvincinglyshown that Sweden. pp. Kraemer. Also Fred Witney.103. 22) and Roland Huntford(fn. 84 P. 21) and FrederickC." ScandinavianPoliticalStudies. singular. ed. 1969)."Bases del corporativismo en el Peru. 169-70ff. 22). Authoritarian Politicsin Modern Society(New York.Mexican Government in Transition(Urbana. Also. Political Oppositionin WesternDemocracies (New Haven. Engelmann. 146-183.36 Austria.32 Switzerland. 651-620.39Brazil. 1966). "An Authoritarian Regime: Spain" (fn. pp. 45 Keith Legg. 26). Also Hans Meijer "Bureaucracyand Policy Formulationin Sweden. JuanLinz. of Brazil?" (fn. E. Dahl."CorporatistInterest Representationand Public PolicyMakingin Portugal"(fn. and Politicsin Denmark(Boston."Hagglingfor the Equilibrium: the Renegotiation of the AustrianCoalition.40 Chile. Labour Relationsin the Netherlands(Ithaca." AmericanPolitical ScienceReviewLVI.1959."Sociedad y Polftica. 103-16.AustrianCatholicsand the FirstRepublic.37 Spain. pp. W.43 Mexico"" and Yugoslavia45 have.1936-1968"in S.149.eds. Portugalization 41 Constantine Menges. s3 Hans Huber. Politicsand Social Forcesin ChileanDevelopment(Berkeley. Keller.would not be difficult--evenat the existinglamentable state of our empiricalknowledge. P. p.1969).ed. 1966). 2 (October."Public Policyand OrganizedBusinessin Chile.1962). Windmuller. 3 ( Illinois. 209-19.Labor Policy and Practicesin Spain (New York. Huntington and C.34Norway.Interesse-organisationer Thomas J. esp.Government esp. 26). 199203. Hence.1972). pp. chapters5 and 6..1969).includingmany whose global political systemsdiffermarkedly. Also James Petras. H." Journalof InternationalAffairsXX (1966). 82 Nils Elvander. 3).35 Denmark.41 Peru. Also John P. Scott. 105-106ff. 42 JulioCotler.1964). Workers'Management in Yugoslavia This content downloaded from 128. 4 (Oslo. 87AlfredDiamant.noncomi Dagens Sverige (Lund. 1959). 38 In additionto Juan Linz.The Societal State (Meppel. S* Schmitter. see JuanLinz and Armandode Miguel. Olaf Ruin (fn. 45 InternationalLabour Office. 1970).42 Greece. Moore. I.1960). Gehard Lembruch(fn."Norway: NumericalDemocracyand CorporatePluralism" in R. 1966). by and large.1968).STILL THE CENTURY OF CORPORATISM? 99 III To illustratethat the skeletonal connotation of corporatism offeredabove accuratelydescribesthe systemof interestrepresentationof a large numberof countries. pp. Politicsin ModernGreece (Stanford. 12). 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 3-12.

They deputize for thestatein wholesectorsof publiclife.46 As a competitiveness betweeninterestsectorsand. 28). Czechoslovakia. 38).100 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS petitive. 27).interestassociations exercisingrepresentationalmonopolies and accepting (de jure or de facto) governmentally imposedor negotiated limitationson the type of leaders theyelect and on the scope and intensityof demands they routinelymake upon the state. Moulin (ed."47 The to Sweden.). L'Europe de Demain et ses Responsables (Bruges.see AndrewJanos. Huntford(fn. They influencethe process of governmentdirectly.but it is broadly summaryabove appliesspecifically descriptiveof the countriescited above-and undoubtedlyof many othersyetto be investigated.therefore. hence.bypassingthe [parliament]. Great Britain: Samuel Beer (fn. pp. Moore. (fn. accountabilityto members. penetrationand des intiretset la (Geneva."CorporativeOrganization:The Case of a FrenchRural Association"in J. p. The End of Liberalism(fn.It may also serveto call into questionthe relevanceof many supposed propertiesassociatedwith to apply to these polities: compluralismand assumed.). vacillationand moderation cross-pressures in demands."La Representation d?cision politique" in L. Somethingapproachingthe corporatistmodel has been implicitlybut not explicitlyadvanced in describingcertain "degenerate" varietiesof totalitarian("partialitarian") rule in other Eastern European polities: Poland. H. 1968). Chapman (eds. WesternGermany:Ralf Dahrendorf.Hungaryand Rumania. hence. France: Suzanne Berger. VoluntaryAssociations(New York. and overlap and."Group Politicsin CommunistSociety: A SecondLook at the Pluralistic Model" in S. Theodore Lowi. eds.of the interestgroup universecan be describedas "corporatized".52 on Wed. 11).103. petitivenesswithinsectorsand.R. This content downloaded from 128. sectorallycompartmentalized. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .such associationshave attained "a quasi-legal status and a prescriptiveright to speak for their segmentsof the population.For an intelligent misuseof the surveyand critiqueof thisliterature's pluralistparadigm.hierarchicallyordered. 59-100. pp.149. 22). 1967). pp. even the U.e. Societyand Democracy in Germany (London. Pennockand J. 1969). 4 R.g.split-the-difference solutions. not substantialportions.Elite Accommodation in Canadian Politics (New York. the UnitedStates: GrantMcConnell(fn.if 48 In an evenwiderrangeof polities. P. Huntington and C. itself.S. 263-84. Such a demonstration of broad structuralidentitydoes have the virtueof debunking. 537-50. incremental. 1962).S.and theyhave dutiesdelegated to them that properlybelong to the civil service.if not divesting. They are agents of authority. 1973). 86. Canada: Robert Presthus. Also Dusan Sidjanski.some of these politiesof the pluralist labels they have acquired-a prestigioustitle usually bestowedupon them for no betterreason than the mere existence of a multitudeof organizedinterests.. authorshave suggestedthatparts. hence.

concentrationof attentionupon parliament. political culturestressingformalism.For example.permanent institutionalizationof access.leader accountability.consensusand continuousbargaining. This content downloaded from 128. state technocraticplanning and resource allocation.52 on Wed. major importanceattached to lobbyingand. hence. neitheromnipotentveto groups nor powerlessmarginal elements. low barriersof entryinto the policy process and. key roles assigned to "potential groups" and absence of systematicbias or exclusion.48 Corporatistsystemsmay manage to acquire and sustainsimilaroutcomes of demand moderation.sheer multiplicity suringspontaneousemergenceof countervailingforcesand.149.irrelevanceof class or rulingelite as politicalcategories.wide dispersionof politicalresourcesand. thestudiesI haveconductedofone type of corporatism." of Chicago. hence. finally. hence. extensivedevelopmentof functionallyspecialized. hence.countervalence of power and homeostaticbalance. hence."deideologization. assumptionthat policy initiativesare producedby group activity"frombelow" and. symbioticrelationwith clientelistand patrimonialistpracticesin certainissue areas and regimelevels. deliberate narrowingand encapsulationof "relevantpublics".I have found that such processfeaturesas preemption of issues. 19 8&26. absence of stable hierarchiesof organizationalinfluence and. "juridization" or legalizationof group conflictsthroughlabor and administrativecourts. finally.103. passiverolesassumedon the part of state executiveand administrativebureaucracies. hence.STILL THE CENTURY OF CORPORATISM? 101 subordinationof political parties and.the establishmentof what Dahrendorf called a "cartel of anxiety" among restrictedelites representingthe apexes of the differentiated hierarchic"orders" or "corporations"49contributedto the persistenceand viabilityof thosesystems-even over protractedperiods of economic and social change and when faced 48 These hypotheses aboutthefunctioning ofpluralistsystems are developed furtherand contrastedwith corporatist ones in my "Inventoryof Analytical PluralistPropositions. periodic but systematicuse of physicalrepressionand anticipatoryintimidation and. 1971. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . a general tendency toward homeostasisor shiftingequilibria. low party discipline and absence of strong partisan ideologies. University "* See the sourcescited in fns. vertical or sectoral policy compartmentalization. of interestand freeassociabilityenand. hence. but theydo not do so through the processeswhich theoristsand analystsof pluralismhave emphasized."inclusive participation.negotiatedsolutions.parastate agencies. broad aggregative party goals. co-optation of leaders.

in short.102 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS with acute. 1034-5.but mostreadersmustbe feelingsome vague sense of incompletenessif not of acute the stretchof the condistinction and pluralism. per genuset differentiam. in our thenwe mustproceedfurther. While comparisons of institutionallongevityare difficult to make. porations"were createdby and keptas auxiliaryand dependent and effective funcorgansofthestatewhichfoundeditslegitimacy 50 I am following here the advice (and occasionally the vocabulary) of Giovanni Sartori. hypotheses and evengeographical itlyqualifiedas to cultural. hierarchically orderedrepresentative "corporations.52 on Wed. taxonomictrip." If our recomsearchobjectiveis notto makeuniversalizing suprahistorical whichare explicbutto exploremiddle-range parisons.developthenotionof possible interestpolitics(just as. We must.103. and yet.providedthe keydistinction ferent pur. This delineationof an equally elaborate. externallyinduced political use Sartori'sexpression. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . pluralist not travelwell. however. This content downloaded from 128. especiallygiventhe ubiquityand prestigeof the "does label. betweentwo difMihail Manoilesco."or better. thereis no evidence can see of I that corporatistsystems whatevertype are less stable or shorterlived than pluralistones. dependent noncompetitive. no doubt. of course. althoughthat will not be attempted here) . esp."The secondin contrasthe in whichsimilarly calledcorporatisme "corstructured subordonne.The one he calledcorporatisme and functioning or exclusively ofthestatewereprimarily legitimacy on theactivity ofsingular." American Political Science Review LXIV. alternativemodel to pluralismmay seem to some to be in and by itselfsufficient justification forthisexercise. The reasonforthislatent(or in somecasesalreadymanifest) sense of dissatisfaction lies. pp. I madebetweencorporatism have ceptual Whilethismaybe an indispensable preliminary stepin classifying interest systems.verystrong evidence that they functionquite differently-ifoftento produce is stillone which. 4 (December. There is. there they are-ignominiously grouped togetherunder the same rubric. After all."travelstoo fartoo easily.50 That most originaland stimulating of corporatist theorists.149. Sweden is not Portugal and Switzerlandis not Greece. "Concept Misformationin Comparative Politics.historical whichthe subtypes. 1970).we subtypesof corporatist shouldwithpluralistones.

vol. This content downloaded from 128.or of state-decreedcentralizationand administrative dependence.autonomous and penetrative.arbitrationand repression.149. 51 Le Sidcle du Corporatisme.or by deliberate tioningon otherbases. dependent and penetrated.voluntary agreementsamong associations. 92.or de decreed. Manollesco also noted the existence of "mixedcorporatism" the twoideal-types. A somewhatsimilardistinction.1955).contractualdues checkoff.has been societal corporatism. (2) Singular: does not indicatewhetherthe outcomeof spontaneous co-optationor competitiveeliminationis by survivingassociations.52 For our purposeswe could label the former.or of the continuousinterposition of state mediation. pp.1958).QuestSes Corporativas ( FrancoisPerroux's between corporatisme lato sensu and sensu in corporatisme stricto Capitalisme et CommunautJde Travail (fn. (3) Compulsory:does not specifywhetherde factothrough social pressure. in whatwas deliberatelynotincludedin thatdefinition. (4) Noncompetitive: does not state whetherthe product of internal oligarchic tendencies or external.and the second. or by state-imposederadication of multiple or parallel associations. p. (1) Limitednumber: does not indicatewhetherestablished arrangement.STILL THE CENTURY OF CORPORATISM? 103 is one which. but one which placed primaryemphasis on its role in furthering class collaboration by different means.expanded upon and discussedat great lengthby Portuguesecorporatisttheoristswhere the two subtypes were labelled corporativismode associagdo and corporativismode Estado. 7-19. provisionof essential servicesand/or acquisitionof privatelicensingcapacity. combining 52 Jo~ioManuel statecorporatism. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . also JosePiresCardoso. Some clues to the structuraland behavioral elementswhich differentiate thesetwo subtypesof corporatismcan be found in our or morespecifically initialglobalconnotation. involvesnot only the nature of power and influence relationsbut also the developmentalpatternby which corporatism "political cartels" by processesof interassociational to designedby existingparticipants exclude newcomers. 6).exclusively jure throughlabor code or otherofficially concededauthority.51This radicaldistinction we shall see. I (Coimbra.A Corporagao.52 on Wed.103. treaty-like. (5) Hierarchically ordered: does not indicate whether the outcome of intrinsicprocesses of bureaucratic extension and/or consolidation.

The second type. subtypesexhibita basic structuralsimilarity. institutionally.103. When viewed in motion.Spain.Western Germany.Big Businessin the Third Reich (Bloomington. does not betweenthat whichis independently distinguish conqueredand that which is dependentlyconceded. National Socialist Germany53and Austriaunder Dollfuss.involvingall or most of the initial elements in the either/ordichotomiesmade above. these two When viewed statically.see ArthurSchweitzer. Switzerland. For an excellent of interest involving competing analysisof the struggles politicsand conceptions the eventualdemise of corporatisttendenciesafter 1936 in that polity. Petainist France. or of an asymmetricimposition by the "organized monopolistsof legitimateviolence.Nazi Germanyis an ambiguous case.149. 1964). The first. Canada. Chile. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .it is best exemplifiedby the cases of Sweden. Indiana. correspondsideally to what we have called societal corporatism.systemsas Great Britain. betweenrecog(7) Recognitionby state: does not differentiate nitiongrantedas a matterof politicalnecessityimposedfrom below upon publicofficials and thatgrantedfromabove by the stateas a condition forassociation formation and continuous operation.Norway and which sets them apart frompluralist.describedby the latterelementsin each either/ordistinction. Empirically.monistor syndicalistsystemsof interestrepresentation. and Greece-as well of course to the defunctexperiences of Fascist Italy. and the United States. as well as by emergentpropertieswhich have been observed by scholars in such other. France." Through this exercisein intention--thefurtherelaboration of propertieswhich combineto forma global concept-we have constructedtwo quite distinctivesubtypes. Brazil. Peru.theyare revealed as 63 Actually.104 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS (6) Functionally differentiated: does not specify whether arrived at throughvoluntaristicagreementson respective"turfs" and nonraidingprovisions. coalesces into a subtypewe have labelled state corporatistand this conformshistoricallyto the cases of Portugal.supposedlypluralist. Mexico. (8) Representationalmonopoly: similar to above.however. (9) Controlson leadershipselectionand interestarticulation: does not suggestwhetherthis is the product of a reciprocal consensus on procedureand/or goals.descriptively.or by state-establishedenquadramento (framing) of occupational-vocationalcategories.the Netherlands. This content downloaded from 128.52 on Wed.

20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .if not structuralnecessityfor.103."the corporativemystique.if not ineluctable.authoritarian. himselfrather caught up in "the corporativemystique"which swept his countryin the 1930's. corporatism and specification of the progressing along with the amplification processof associationaldevelopment. pp.149.One of these would be more likely SJean Malherbe. multilayeredterritorialunits. 1940).componentof the postliberal. elections are nonexistentor plebiscitary."54 The Swiss author of these lines.ideologicallyvaried. social and economic processes. Societal corporatismappears to be the concomitant. 13-14.language. but were also quite consciousof the need for two essentiallyseparate theoriesfor explainingthe emergence of modern corporatism. state corporatism seemsto be a definingelementof.generatingwhat one calls today in several democratic countries. ethnicity. illustratesnot onlythat theoristswho contemplatedthe mattercomparativelywere well aware of the distinctionbetweenthe two subtypeswe have definedabove. State corporatismtends to be associated with politicalsystemsin which territorialsubunits are tightlysubordinatedto central bureaucratic systemsare dominated or monopolizedby a weak singleparty. executiveauthoritiesare ideologicallyexclusiveand more narrowlyrecruitedand are such that political subculturesbased on class.52 on Wed.neomercantilist IV Corporatismappears undertwo verydifferent guises: the revolutionaryand the evolutionary. antiliberal. or regionalism are the vehiclesfor very differentpower and influencerelations. Societal corporatismis found imbedded in political systemswith relativelyautonomous. This content downloaded from 128. or the outcome of a natural evolutionin economicand social ideas and events. organized democratic welfare state.advanced capitalist. and as the purveyorsof very differentpolicy consequences.delayed capitalist. competitiveelectoralprocessesand partysystems. In the latter thenemergesas an aspectof a certainidbe-force case. coalitionallybased executive authorities-even with highly "layered" or "pillared" political subcultures.It is eitherthe product of a "new order"followingfroma fundamental overthrow of the political and economicinstitutions of a givencountryand createdby forceor special "collectivespirit". Le Corporatisme d'association en Suisse (Lausanne. open.STILL THE CENTURY OF CORPORATISM? 105 the products of very differentpolitical.the state.

56AlthoughI do not have themwithme in my currentvoluntaryexile.of their immediatebut superficialcatalystsand precipitantsin order to reveal the underlying elements of structuralconducivenesswhich led (and may lead in the future) to such similarand yet differentoutcomes as societal and state corporatism.For example. factors." Theoryof Behavior(NewYork. we mustadmit fromthe startthat the best we can do is to identifysome probabilistically necessarybut clearly insufficient conditions.55 Even if we focus specificallyand exclusivelyon those factorswhich hypothetically affectchanges in the systemof interestrepresentation. ten to twelveyearslater. Collective This content downloaded from 128.56I hardly need to emphasize the preliminaryand speculativenature of the followingdual theories. The task of constructingthis set of dual theoriesis enormous given the apparentlybewilderingvarietyof contextsin which one type or the otherof corporatismhas emerged. incrementalchange. Nor should I have to stressthat theymay not contributemuch to explainingspecificoccurrencesor nonoccurrences. In a nutshell. why did the haltingand tentativeexperimentsin state corporatism by Sid6nio Pais in Portugal (1917-18). We can only trypost factum to striphistorical cases of their idiosyncrasiesof personalityand culture.106 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS to emphasize long-termtrendsand slow. almostimperceptibledecay of advanced pluralism. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .149. the other more likelywould be forged out of immediate conjoncture and impending collapse. architectonicvision and inflatedrhetoric.gradual intellectualawareness and passive political acceptance. I do notrecallthatanyof thecasestudiesto be published underthe shortly of JuanLinz on "The Breakdown of Democracy" coneditorship specifically on interest centrates associations. Complicatingthe task even further is thenaturaltendency to confusethisproblemwiththemoregen- eral and clearlyinterrelatedone of the causes of the erosion/colof authorlapse of liberal democracyand the advent/consolidation itarian rule. the originsof state corporatismlie in the rapid. Primo de Rivera in Spain (1923-30).103.and the frustrating absence of empiricalstudieson the historicaldynamicsof whatever type of interestgroup system.of their accidents of good and bad fortune. strong leadership and repressiveaction. 56For thetheoretical modelunderlying thesedistinctions between "structuralconduciveness" and "precipitating see Neil Smelser.the originsof societal corporatism lie in the slow.1963). highlyvisible demise of nascentpluralism.52 on Wed. cultural and institutionalcontinuity. Pangalos in Greece (1925) and Jos6Uriburuin Argentina (1930-31) all fail to take hold when.

Summarizing.inquiryinto the originsof corporatismof eithertype leads one very quickly to the constraints.Differences in the nature of these or needs at different specific imperatives stagesin the institutional and contextof capitaldevelopment international as theyaffect thepattern ofconflicting classinterests. it leads to a considerationof the basic institutionsof capitalismand the class structureof property and power engenderedby it. ism.due to processesof concentrationof ownership.votingchoice. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . corporatism Switzerlandand the Netherlandsadopt internal"social peace" treatiesbetweenpeak associations of employers and workers in the 1930's and thenmove rapidlyand incrementally towardgeneralized societalcorporatism in the 1940'sand 1950's.103.Ireland and fitfully. 45) and the worksdiscussedtherein.bureaucratic-centralized socialism. Norway and Belgiummoved more hesitantlyand and still otherssuch as France. More specificallyfor the cases which have interestedme.but the resultantsituationis particularly"naked. party systemsand ideological doctrines. bourgeois-dominant regime.see the excellentarticleby Janos (fn.whileothercountries such as Finland." As a macrohypothesis.competition 57 Incompetencepreventsme fromeven speculatingabout the tendencies towardcorporatization which appears to exist among societieswith a quite differentsystemof economic exploitation.Denmark. Great Britain. This content downloaded from 128. the United States have proven consistentlymore resistantto the blandishmentsof corporatism? I doubt whether the following speculationscan answersuch specificquestionsverysatisfactorily.For an initialtreatment of theseissues.7 Perhaps it is the directnessof the linkage between the systemof interestrepresentationand these institutions of concentrationof productionand inequalityof distribution.namely.149.52 on Wed.I suggest that the corporatizationof interestrepresentationis related to certain basic imperativesor needs of capitalismto reproducethe conditionsfor its existence and continually to accumulatefurther resources.again in a nutshell. opportunitiesand contradictionsplaced upon political actors by the operation of the economic system.especially accountforthedifference in originsbetweenthesocietaland state formsof corporatism. Whateverreservationsone may have about the degreeof determinationexercisedby the structureand mode of productionupon such politicalvariables as individual attitudes.the decay of pluralismand its gradual displacementby societal corporatismcan be traced primarilyto the imperativenecessityfor a stable.STILL THE CENTURY OF CORPORATISM? 107 flourished in each case? Whydid Sweden.

52 on Wed.making corporatisman increasinglylikelyoutcome: (1) secular trends towardbureaucratizationand oligarchywithininterestassociations. In a startlingessay published in 1926 entitled "The End of Laissez-Faire.There is no "compact" conperpetualrightson thosewho Have or thosewho Acquire.and advanced. (4) impact of internationalwar and/or depression. partlybecausethereexistsa seriesof familiarity evocativelypresentedand excellentlydocumented studies of the subject. monopolyor concentratedcapitalistdevelopmentand collaborativeclass relationsin the case of societal corporatism.externally dependent and/or short of resourcesto respond effectivelyand legitimatelyto these demands withinthe frameworkof the liberal democraticstate. Of course. internally divided. ferring The worldis not so governedfromabove that privateand social This content downloaded from 128.149. mustadd severalother "overdeterminative" factorswhich combinewith the former.I shall be brief.partlybecause of my lesser withthisside. dependent capitalistdevelopmentand nonhegemonicclass relationsin the case of state corporatism. (2) priorratesof politicalmobilizationand participation." not by cooptingand incorporating.but by repressingand excludingthe autonomousarticulationof subordinateclass demands in a situation wherethe bourgeoisieis too weak. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .this seems closely associated with the necessityto enforce"social peace. The firstmajor theoristto perceive certain emergentimperativesof capitalismand to link themexplicitlywith corporatismwas John Maynard (Lord) Keynes.the core of myspeculationabout structuralconducivenessrestson the problems generatedby delayed. As forthe abrupt demiseof incipientpluralismand its dramatic and forcefulreplacementby state corporatism. Turning to an explication of the advanced capitalism-societal corporatismrelation." Keynes firstdebunks the orthodoxclaims of liberalism: It is not true that individualspossessa prescriptive"natural liberty"in theireconomicactivities.108 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS betweennational economies.103.expansionof the role of public policy and rationalizationof decision-makingwithinthe state to associate or incorporatesubordinateclasses and status groups more closely withinthe thesegeneralelements.(3) diffusionof foreignideologiesand institutionalpractices.

312.." on a greatscale of data relat(2) "dissemination ing to the businesssituations.. This content downloaded from 128..STILL THE CENTURY OF CORPORATISM? 109 interest alwayscoincide.58 Given these negativeresults(and sous-entendu a growing awarenessof themamongwiderand widerpublicsexercising the liberalvoluntaristic accorded them the franchise rights by open and freeassociability).finally. The titleof thisessay..."More specifically. p.a speechdeliveredin 1925.103. manyintricacies yet . is mostexpedient. is "Am I a Liberal?" Keynes's answer was. 1952). faute de mieux. whentheymakeup a socialunit. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ."60 For 1926. actingseparately ownendsare tooweakto attaineventhese. nationalpolicy productive (4) "a considered aboutwhatsizeofPopulation.arealways lessclear-sighted thanwhentheyact separately. namelythedependenceuponan intenseappeal to themoney-makof individualsas the main motive instincts ing and money-loving 58 John Maynard Keynes. thatwas a prescient statement aboutthefutureroleofthestatein societies-evendownto theitemizedcontentand sequencapitalist tialordering ofthenewpolicyagenda.the agenda and nonagenda (as Keynes called it) of the statemustbe modified.149. theGovernment willhave bluntly essay.It is not a correctdeductionfromthe of Economics thatenlightened self-interest Principles alwaysoperis enatesin thepublicinterest. as he put it more in another "In thefuture. ofthesesuggestions for"improvements Despitetheunorthodoxy in the techniqueof moderncapitalism. he notedthe need for(1) "deliberate controlof thecurrency and of creditby a centralinstitution. 59 Ibid. p. and whether thepresentorganization of the investment marketdistributes savingsalong the most nationally channels"and.Nor is it truethatself-interest moreoftenindividuals topromote their lightened. 331.52 on Wed. This essaywas initiallypublishedas a separatepamphletin 1926. pp.. Essays in Persuasion (London.. 317-19. to takeon manydutieswhichit has avoidedin the past.Or. leaveprivateinitiative and enterprise unhindered." 8o Ibid.Experience doesnot showthatindividuals."59The objectiveofthisimperative policyexpansionis to exercise"directive intelligence throughsome appropriateorgan of action over the of privatebusiness..thescaleon whichthesesavings community shouldgo abroad."(3) "coordinatedact(s) of intelligentjudgement. "Yes.."Keyneswiselyobserved that"thereis nothingin themwhichis seriously with incompatible whatseemsto me to be the essentialcharacteristic of capitalism. as to thescaleon whichit is desirablethatthe as a wholeshouldsave..

313-14 (my emphasis). or outsideof Great Britain.64 regulatedand plannedintegration deliberately 61 Ibid.And the more thisspontaneousharmonization provesto have littlerelationto reality.though some place it may stillbe necessaryto leave. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . blueprint-like. towardsmedievalconceptionsof separateautonomies.."'61 The reason for his confidence he in their compatibilitystems from the political instrumentality advocated to bring about this policy revolution.therefore.103. I suggest. 1961).but are subjectin the last resortto the sovereignty mocracyexpressedthroughparliament. 319.classes. p. pp.63the subsequentcourse of policy development in most developed Westernnations confirmedhis prognosis. of the the conditionsthat are essentialto the actual functioning classical Liberalistconcept of an automaticallyachieved equilibriumof freelycompetingsocietalforces.namely..see Hal Draper "Neo-corporatistsand neo-reformers. For a critical evaluation of this literature. as might be theseparateadvantageof particular groups. 62 Ibid.or faculties-bodieswhichin theirordinarycourse of affairsare mainlyautonomouswithintheirprescribedlimitaof detions. This content downloaded from 128. bodies within the growthand recognitionof semi-autonomous state-bodies whose criterionof action withintheirown fieldis solely the public good as they understandit.110 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS forceof the economic machine."New Politics ( may be said. 83. I believethatin manycases the ideal size forthe unit of control and organizationlies somewherebetweenthe individualand that progresslies in the the modernstate. 87-106. 64 Kraemer (fn.149.62 While thereis no evidence (that I know of) that Keynes's slim influenceor even propamphlet exerted a direct. and from whose deliberationsmotivesof privateadvantage are excluded. societal corporatism. voked a generalintellectualawarenessof the issues he raised. even more privatistic and antistatistthan that of Keynes. p.the in orderto securea is impelledto interfere morethe government of interests. until the ambit of men'saltruismgrowswider.I proposea return. as The much later discussion of these issues in the United States was. The fundamentalparadox involved has been excellentlyput by a Dutch scholar: The morethe privatecitizenssucceedin organizingthemselves of their intopowerfulcombinesand associationsforthe promoting the more theyundermine manifoldand oftenconflicting interests.52 on Wed. 34).

The sequence by which societal corporatismhas crept into the polityprobablyvaries considerablycase by case.STILL THE CENTURY OF CORPORATISM? 111 To thisI would simplyadd another: the more the modernstate comes to serve as the indispensableand authoritativeguarantorof capitalism by expanding its regulativeand integrativetasks. hierarchicallyordered." This osmotic process wherebythe modern state and modern interestassociationsseek each otherout leads. 1923).to sectoral licensing of a nationally boards on investment(1938). contractual capability and deferredparticipatorylegitimacywhich only singular."CollectiveBargainingand Incomes Policy in the Nordic Countries: A ComparativeAnalysis" (Paper preparedfordeliveryat the APSA Annual positions of controlin joint public-privatecorporations.Sept. then back to the establishmentof specialized Product and Industrial Boards. the more it finds that it needs the professionalexpertise. to public extensionsof cartel decisions (1935) and labor-managementagreements (1937). "in the last resortto the sovereigntyof democracyexpressedthroughParliament. To obtain these.jointlymanaged social insuranceschemes (1913).52 on Wed. 1973).New Orleans.specialized information.quasi- in authoritative cabinetstatus. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . obligatorily covering nonmembersand Keynes noted. to sectoralconsultative bodies (1933).to permanentmembershipin specialized advisorycouncils. then moved to abortiveattempts at establishingConciliationBoards (1919. There it began withlocal and sectorallevel. 4-8. to indicativenational planning (1945).The modalitiesare varied and range fromdirectgovernmentsubsidiesfor associations. to the reestablishment coordinatedwage determinationboard (1945) even furtherconcentrationand hierarchiccontrol withinthese private official to devolved responsibilities recognitionof bona fide interlocuteurs.149.and finallyto directparticipation decision-makingthrough national economic and social councils.subject. This content downloaded from 128. on the one hand. trend. along with an overall co- well in a nicelycontrolled ss A studywhich illustratesthis particularly culturaland developmental settingis Nils Evander. for such public tasks as unemploymentor accident insurance.the state will agree to devolve upon or share with these associationsmuch of its newlyacquired decisional authority.65but to the extent it showsa peculiar circular that the Dutch patternis representative. to even furtherextensionsof public guaranteesand equilibrationsand.prior aggregationof opinion. on the other.consensuallyled representativemonopolies can provide.

indicative planning).investment. pp. joint coordinationcouncil forsocial insurance (1959)-right back wheretheystartedin 1913.66 The resultant patternevolved and not the pragmatically unevenly. backand forthfroma concern enterprise withspecificgoods and services(insurance. grand corporatistdesign. This drasticmodification of thegovernmental in has turn to led is (and in agenda/nonagenda the between part productof) a major changein the relationship interest associations and thepublicbureaucracy.103.. up and down from to local to nationallevel. then down to the establishmentof consultativecouncils in each individual enterprise(1950) and.prices.commerce. public interpenetration 67 Not all treatments of the emergenceof societal corporatism place as muchemphasisas I do on the role of advancedcapitalismand the imperative it forceson the modernstate. 87 ff. he has demonstrated orderto correct inherent defects linkedto processes ofinternalconcentration and externalcompetition. cycles. While the Netherlands' osmoticadaptationmay be unique in manyreof measuresof creeping spects. by unfoldingof some conIt moved certed. transformations the modern"positive"state findsitselfsimultaneously to fosterfull employment. This content downloaded from 128.112 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS ordinatingagency.149. Huntford(fn. attempting smoothout business promoteeconomicgrowth.theroleof temperance societiesand a particulartype of industrialsettlement(bruk). 54-65] leaves offin 1958. finally. with specialized verticalproductionareas (metallurgy.apprenticeship). coverindividualeconomicand conditions.In hismagisterial. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .preventinflation. 34).the Social and Economic Council (1950).agriculture). 11). chemicals.52 on Wed.electronics.67 Thanksto theeffort it hardlyseemsnecesofAndrewShonfield. pp.retailcommerce) and withbroad horizontalsectors(industry. in greatdetailhow.places mostof his explanatory emphasison the traditionalagriculturalsystem of Sweden. Antonbases his argumenton a distinctive "Swedishpolicy-making styleand eliteculture"(fn. 22). Thomas J. Shonfieldunhesitatingly formulaas corporatist: "The majorinterest groupsare broughttogetherand encouragedto concludea seriesof bargainsabouttheir 68 The work from which this primitivesequential account is drawn [Kraemer(fn. 92-99.regulateworking socialrisksand resolvelaborconflicts. and sidewaysfromone issue area to another(wages. as advocatedand labels this predictedby Lord the creationof a national level. No doubtfurtherprivatehas occurredsincethen.I suspectthata sequentialplotting in other advanced societies wouldnotbe very corporatism capitalist different. pp. saryto pursuethesespeculations ModernCapitalism.

1965).. 233).have agreedthattheywantto go.and they continueto do so..70prior levels of institutional-legal voluntaryassociational consolidationand decision-makingstyle. 72 "The remarkablewillingness of the tradeunionsto collaborateactively in thispolicyof wage restraintis to be explainedby theiranxietyabout the futuresupplyof jobs forDutchmen"(Ibid.And the Government is in turnunderlegal compulsionto consulttheseorganizations beforeit takes legislativeor administrative action of certainspecifiedkinds" (Ibid.Modern Capitalism (New York.theirreligious associations.theynearlyall belong to theirbusinessand professional theirtradeunions. .Shonfield findsthisapproachcomtechnowithtwoothers:(1) intellectualized. The This content downloaded from 128. . essentially 89 "The corporatist formof organization seemsto be almostsecondnature to the Austrians. expectedto be merelytingedratherthanfinallyshapedby thosewho pay their salaries"(Ibid.which will have the effectof moving economic eventsalong the desiredpath. 212).whichhas stuckto it. The plan indicatesthe generaldirec- tionin whichtheinterest groups. In specificinstances. r7 "In Sweden thereis a societyin whichinterestgroupsare so strongly organized. pp. guardiansof the longterminterestsof the nation's industries.officialand unofficial.72 well-entrenched conceptionsof role on the part of organized interests. and othergroups.indeedmembership in someof themis compulsory.'7as all providinga greaterincentivefor corporatization.. pp. p. p. In a seriesof thoroughly researchedand well-constructed case studies.who flourished in the 1920's. It just happensthatit is the Swedishway to treatthe as being in large part an extendeddialogue between processof government whoseviewsare expertsdrawnfroma varietyof bodies.he emphasizesgeneral historicalvariables. 193-94).It is not thattheyare undemocratic.includingthestatein itsvarious economicguises. controland ownershipby the state.103. because of its associationwiththe one-party state" (p. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . (yet) the SwedishGovernment stillmanagesto act in a decisivefashionwhencircumstancesrequireit . 192)."68 In postwarWesternEurope. Corporatism got its bad name. Shonfieldgoes on to remark: "It is curioushow close this kind of thinking was to the corporatist theoriesof the earlierwritersof Italian Fascism.69ideological residues. petingor combining directeconomic cratic"indicative"planning.STILL THE CENTURY OF CORPORATISM? 113 futurebehaviour.149. have traditionally seen 73 "The generalpoint is that German Verbelnde themselves as performing an importantpublic role.and (2) reinforced. * Andrew Shonfield. 199-200). withthe alone or in combination other two. p. to find the old corporatistideal which was deeply T70"It is interesting embeddedin Italian pre-warthinking-theideal of a balancedand responsible economicgroupwithquasi-sovereign powersadministering itself-croppingup again in thisnew guise" (Ibid..he exploresthe extent to whichthissocietallycorporativeapproach has creptdifferentially intoEuropeanpolicyprocesses.52 on Wed.theirdemocraticbasis so firmand theirhabit of bargainingwith each one anotherindependently of thegovernment so well established .71 seriousnessof demographic pressuresand economic reconstruction. .

114 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS Even more fascinatingare his explanationsof why certain European countrieshave is too bad that it stops before Lyndon Johnson and even more rapidly. also pp. his evident delightin the exerciseof a kind of administrativeathleticism").overlapping jurisdictionsof the federal and state bureaucracies.fullemployment. Powerand influenceare stillpresent. pp. He findsthemin the internallycompetitive.74 answer in "the traditionalBritishview of the proper relationship between public and private power (in which) the two . self-confident does carryhis analysisinto the mid-1960's. and in the absence of a more profeselite of civil servants.Richard Nixon. policyhas becomemore consultative. This content downloaded from 128. 122 ff. withthe French '5 Ibid. in the 1930's.not so quicklyor thoroughly succumbed to this approach. he stressesthe role of on the part of specialized trainingand corporateself-consciousness civil for the United higher Kingdom. who managed to transformthis "arm's-lengthrelationshipwith privateenterprise"(as Shonfielddescribesit) into somethingmore closely resemblingthe sort of "active huddle" which the NRA corporatistshad advocated in the earlythirties.or better. .75 In a brilliantdiscussionof the Americanparadox-"the Americans who.103..52 on Wed.September16. 245)..the preferredleadershipstyleof Roosevelt ("his penchant forthe role of bargainer-in-chief.. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . intrusiverole of Congressin the administrativeprocess. he finds the servants. and social welfare"-Shonfield searchesforthe causes of thisabortiveattemptto encourage corporatistformsof policy-makingduringthe earlyNew Deal (1933-35).the juridical and legalistic imprintimposed on the American state by the special role which lawyershave played withinit. 7' Mark Green and Peter Petkas. 99. p.p. acted as the precursorsof the new capitalism. 231-33fora moreexplicitcontrast tradition.. '1 Ibid. "Nixon's IndustrialState. For France. 4 Ibid. pp.76While Shonfield sionalized. 1972. seemed to stall in theircoursejust when the systemwas comingto fruitionin the Westernworld--showingits full powers to provide the greatgiftsof economicgrowth. are thoughtof as utterlydistinctfromone another. . in the active.149. p.but the manneris different" (Ibid.77 Modern Capitalism providesus with a veritablegold mine of interesting general hypothesesconcerningthe emergenceof societal developmentone observessince the war is that the approachto problemsof with the emphasison technicaladvice. 18. 298-329." as well as resistance by industrialists to compulsorymembershipand jurisdiction." The New Republic.

start. But this lack of detailed comparative case studies or even good single countrymonographsis only part of the difficulty. This content downloaded from 128.rationing. 1973). So. for state corporatismare usually not very Theorists-apologists not so much because they tended to be less perhelpful. for example.such as degree of prior class consciousnessand associaintensityof class antagonism.for example. Is it just a coincidencethat those European countrieswhich were neutralin World War I moved more rapidlyand thoroughly towards (exceptAustria).mobilization and reconstructionmeasures taken during and following World War I and their impact upon subsequent "public policy paradigms.if somewhat ad hoc. to include planning. I would tend to emphasize a longer period of historical priorrates of political mobilization and participation. This. We are not so fortunatelyendowed at either the theoreticodeductive or the empirico-inductivelevel with respect to state our understandingof societal corporatismwe are offto an impressive. Only in the case of the United States does he systematically probe furtherback. subhypothesesexrole in contemporaryWesternpolitiesand plaining its differential of advanced its emergentrelationswith other policy-mechanisms capitalist management. rapid sketchof the Netherlands For the conceptof "dominantparadigmof publicchoice" and its effectin reducingalternativecourses of action. but because theywere caught in a built-incontradictionbetweentheir subjectivespeculativetask and the objective politicalfunctionthey were indirectlycalled upon to perform. and ceptive personally objective than.his com78 Shonfieldconcentratesalmost exclusivelyon the post-WorldWar II period. there is scarcely a single state-corporatist theoristwho does not proclaim his oppositionto statism.New Orleans."'" Add to these a more explicitdiscussionof certain political variables.if stillspeculative. Nevertheless.52 on Wed. say. one reason is that there exists no companion volume to Modern Capitalism entitledDependent or Derived Capitalism--not yet. Lord Keynes."Public Policy.extentof prior party-interest tion interpenetration(lager-typestructures).STILL THE CENTURY OF CORPORATISM? 115 corporatismand specific.ideological diffusion and internationalclimate. Anderson. Of course.than the belligerents?Also worthexploringin corporization greaterdetailare the diversepolicyresponsesto the GreatDepression-as our illustrated.Pluralismand the FurtherEvolutionof AdvancedIndustrialSociety" (Paper preparedfor deliveryat the APSA Annual Meeting.103. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . see Charles W. From my admittedlyless knowledgeable vantage point.

Interestingly. therebycausinga minorscandal at the 1932 FerraraCongresson Corporatism. One corporatism's of theirfavorite one which is somewhat themes-admittedly today lessloudlyproclaimed-isthatcorporatism fromabove constitutes somesortoftertium fromeithercapitalgenusbetweenand distinct ismor socialism-communism. naand the class-divided fragmented.nonorderedand functionally conflictive.they conjuringup terrible are obviouslynot veryconcernedwithrevealinghow the forceful of corporatism actsas an instrument forrescuing and implantation consolidating capitalismratherthanreplacingit. whilepresiding over thecreationof one of themostoverbureaucratized. while Hence. ourtheorist conveniently forgets thepoliticalmechanism presence bywhichthestate'sauthoritarian can be made to "fade out. Papi and Vito but not. theyare oftencapable of decrying. Bortolotto.116 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS to decisionaldecentralization and his desireforeventual mitment is aware that our theorist associationalautonomy. (Florence. lated.forUgo Spiritowho evenwent so far as to suggestthat corporazioneshouldreplace both privateindividuals and the stateas the basis forproperty and decision-making. Corporatismo.103. to He therefore use of state authority advocatesthe temporary establishthesecompulsory structures--and to removevoluntaristic.if obviouscase of thispraxiological hypocrisy and Salazar so because Oliveira only repeatedly (apparently)sinhis fervent cerelyexpressed oppositionto statismor even to any formof governmental economicintervention. This content downloaded from 128.Otherthansomevaguelyspecified ofa "corporatist eventualemergence consciousness" (his equivalent to specify to theNew SovietMan).of course. Perhapsthemost agentsof decentralized decision-making has been Portugal.singular.forexample."leavingthoseimaginedself-governing behind. in luridand quite convincing terms.52 on Wed. the name of nationaland/or to the reference publicinterest. then neithercan one expectthemto be entirelycandid about relationto capitalism and specific classinterests. compartmenhierarchically talizedassociations are notlikelyto be spontaneously forthcoming. charged given ideologically tureof the politicalsystemhe is operatingwithin.Capitalismoe 3rd ed.79 Nevertheless. Spirito'sworkshave been recentlyreedited.centralized can hardlybe trusted If suchtheorists withregardto thestate.149.the inequitable of existing and rachiticperformance (and of capitalistinstitutions visionsof lifeundergodlesssocialism). minutely regustateapparatuses everobserved. GiventheunanSA partialexceptionwould have to be enteredfor the Fascists: Bottai. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1934).

societal corporatism. Manoilesco was a sortof Salazar manqu6. 38).if schematic. Not only does he doubt the existenceof natural harmonyin such anciens rigimes. as we attempt to put togetherspeculativelysome hypothesesas to the contextsin which thisstate corporatistresponse emergesand the possible range of variation and sequences of implantationit may encompass.103.except in the case of direct he wroteLe Sidcle du Corporatismeand its companion work. afterhis politicalcareerhad been cut short and publishedthemin Paris.STILL THE CENTURY OF CORPORATISM? 117 imous emphasis they place on functional interdependenceand group harmony. since the elements of his position are frequentlyscattered rather widely and I have synthesizedthem freely.looking forwardprospectively ratherthan backward nostalgically. 1). All quotes are from the 1936 edition (fn. Huntington and C. fortunately. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . While convinced. H.52 on interesting exception: Mihall Manoilesco. with an imagined revival of Catholic or medieval practices. Second. in his view. argu- ment-elements of which are strikingly modern. Manoilesco makes his case on materialistgrounds.then.149. There is. institutionally ally. eds. is rigorouslysecular and. pp. both progressiveand realistic. 213-14. A professor of political economy (although an engineer by training) and ministerof commerceand industryfor a shortperiod in his native Rumania. "The One-Party State and Social Mobilization: East Europe between the Wars" in First Manoilesco asserts(other corporatisttheoriststo the contrarynotwithstanding)that his conceptionof thissystemof interest representation-actuallyhe presentsit as a complete systemof or ideationpoliticaldomination-has nothingto do.we should hardlyexpect them to delve too deeply into the elementsof class conflict. Moore. In short. sentation is designedto suppress. This content downloaded from 128. (fn.thatproperlyconstructedcorpora80soFor a brief description of his role in relation to Rumanian politics. In the formerhe not only advanced his cosmic predictionabout the ineluctablefutureof corporatism.Le Parti Unique. but he supportedhis positionwitha complex. 81 In the following summary of his argument I will not cite specific page references.status antagonismand centerperipherytension that such an imposed systemof interestrepre- if notovercome. see Andrew Janos.we are not likelyto get much help as we did in the case of from its manifesttheorists-apologists. His argument.but he accepts as definitiveand desirablethe rupture performedby nineteenth-century liberalismand capitalistdevelopment.

Third. by the former. Rather. as Ibid." While he occasionally hints at essentially internalpolitical conditions.if not determined.The entirespectrumof political forceshas shifted: "The NineteenthCenturyknew the economic solidarityof class. In fact. This content downloaded from 128.fragmentation and loss of nerve on the part of the bourgeoisie. ratherthan between classes within national units..52 on Wed. Justas Marx's theoryleads us to understandthe social phenomena of the capitalistworldand especiallythat of exploitation by classes. "premature" radicalization of the workingclass throughideological diffusion. he presentsit as a permanentinstitutional form. althoughin generalhe regardshim as a theoristof the past rather than the presentcentury.149. at several reprises. In contemporaryparlance.Manoilesco approvinglycites Marx. the imperativeforcesleading to corporatization were to be foundin the politicaleconomyof his time.urban-rural tensions.its essential"reason for becoming"lies in the systemof unequal internationalexchange.103.productionand distributionof capitalismitself.82 Corporatism. integratinghim into society through new communal bonds. In factthe latterare conditioned.not intrinsically beholden to any social class or even to the maintenanceof the statusquo. capable of subduingparticular intereststo overridingnational goals and eventuallyof transformingthe capitalistbasis of societyitself. Mano'ilesco was a theoristof "external dependence. 30. p.that might contributeto provokinga corporatistresponse. is an institutionalthat the political responseto a particularprocessof transformation world political economyand its attendantsystemof international is the nature of ownership.decline of local and regional loyalties. Its "dominant cause" lies in stratification the relationsbetween peoples.for example.118 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS tionswould providethe answerto overcomingmodernman's moral and spiritual malaise. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Manoilesco denies that corporatismis merelya temporary defensemechanismfor the mobilizationand/or protectionof class egoismwhich will somehowfade away when the conjunctural threathas passed.thistheoryof international exchangemakes us understandtheinequalitybetweenpeoplesand relationsof exploiterand he understoodand advocated it.

each act exclusively as its own agentin its own state. zero-sum parameters.Peripheralcapitalistnationsare becoming aware of the disparity in returnsgeneratedby their increasingly for the manufactured exchangeof raw materialsand foodstuffs economiesand goodsproducedbytheadvanced.he added a and politicalproblems wouldhave to be tackledand especially organizedwithinconstant. 35.52 on Wed.The twentieth century. p. Each nationalunit.espeindustrialization and conciallyonesaimingat import-substituting trolof foreign trade.Economic. To this.the risingdemandfor the definitive equalityof benefitand statusbetweennation-states.would see expansion. theexhaustion ofbothopeninternal and manifest frontiers external While he no means could be creditedwithforeimperialism.providedthe materialistic demarcationof territoriality (and forManoilesco'sideologyofdefensive.theUNCTAD (UnitedNationsConference on Trade and Development)position.149. naspeculative)foundations tionalisticmodernization fromabove.bargainingcontinually for survivaland self-advantage in a dangerousand unstablyequili83 Ibid. This content downloaded from 128.STILL THE CENTURY OF CORPORATISM? 119 The Twentiethwill knowthe economicsolidarity of nations."83 to in the element thisprocess According Manoilesco.. dynamic of worldeconomictransformation consistsof a radical"national" demandforrestructuring divisionoflaborand its theinternational distribution of benefits. had in a physical sensefilledoutexisting system space.earlierdeveloping are beginning to implement new nationaleconomicpolicies.territoriality had becomea constant.Manoilescoanthroughout ticipatedthe generalargumentsand even many of the specific pointsof whattwenty yearslatercameto be knownas theECLA forLatinAmericaof theUnitedNations) (EconomicCommission doctrine or. . Bordersand frombeinga variable loyaltieswerebecomingfixed.In essenceand embryo. These compoundchangesin international relations-thecollapse of the prewarliberaleconomicorder.morestaticobservation: theend of territorial he felt. by of Africaand Asia (his perseeingthe formaldecolonialization he did see thattheinternational spectivewas strictly Eurocentric). This diffusion of industrialization and policy techniqueswas greatlyacceleratedby World War I. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .musthenceforth interests and with its own resources. but is an autonomousseculartrendwhichcan be expectedto continueon the century.evenlater.

fromthestateto "neatlydefined. This content downloaded from 128." 3) By devolvingauthority 8" would compelsimilartransformations in the organizational structureand policypracticesof the earlierdeveloping. he argued. It alone would permit response impdratifs thestateto fulfilthenew functions whichwerebeingthrustupon publicpolicyby externalexigences. liberal-pluralist systems. to these de l'dpoque. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .wouldbe one of. and southernperiphery of Europe. noted.103. p.but once successful there. self-corrective operationof freeand competitive marketsand politicalprocesseswere no longervalid.149.depersonalizeleadershipand bring out balancedinterdependencies betweenissueareas. the capitalisms twentieth centurywould imposenew conceptionsof justiceand formsof politicalorganization. ifnotequallyconvincing and consistent: arguments wouldfillout a continuous of 1) Such corporations hierarchy the isolatedand impotentindividual therebyproviding authority.52 on Wed.ifnottheinstitutional Corporatism.thesenewunitsofrepresentation not just covereconomicinterests as in FascistItaly.Manoilesco wouldhave to be integral. witha set of well-defined ranksand loyalties"dragintermediary the political ginghim into society"A la Durkheimand offering systemthe means"to resolvefroma unitaryand logicalpointof view all the specializedproblemsposed by the complexrelations betweenthe individualand the state. 74. would be 2) The functionalspecializationof corporations "technologically self-determining" dividingthe polityintovertical unitsof interest whichin turnwouldenhancetherole aggregation of technicalexpertise..It would emergefirstwhere thoseimperatives and tensions thesoutheastern werethestrongest.Nineteenth-century assumptions and initiative in the of individual self-interest and pursuit liberty the benevolent. As a consequenceof thesenew tensionsbetweencentraland peripheral and betweenall autarkically mindednation-states."84To do this. Mostimnaturally and specifically.120 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS bratedinternational about system.but spiritual and moralonesas well. the expandingrole portantly theywouldfacilitate of the statein nationaleconomicplanningand international economicbargaining. But whycorporatism? Whythisparticularset of sous-instrumentsde l'Etat as Manoilescounflinchingly called them? His are multiple.

20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .) and could then devote more attentionand effortto such "essential" tasks as internal security.where solidarityand organization are imperativesfor survival. Despite the fact that corporativeconsciousnessis presently weak. The multiplicationof economic. teenthcentury. 107-8. p. The of our timeobligethe stateto recognizethese[conflicts imperatives of collectiveinterests].Initiativebecomesa new functionunknownby the individualist of national stateand embracingall manifestations life. Because in the limited world we are enteringtoday.103.86 While Manoilesco impliesthat this "benevolent" ninety-degree switchin the polaritiesof group consciousnesswould begin in the peripheryand come as the resultof. 86 Ibid." This latter.STILL THE CENTURY OF CORPORATISM? 121 "never contradictory"and "preestablished"interesthierarchies.therewill be no place for artificial social differences.. foreign affairs.52 on Wed.149.ratherthan the prerequisitefor. verticalpillaring 4) Corporatismthroughits compartmentalized and internalhierarchyof authoritywould provide an antidote to the "spiritof class. differences linked to the exceptionalcircumstances of the ninetemporary. the forcefulimplantationof state corporatism. . [Even more]the statemusthave [itsown powerof initiative].Bothsystems (aboutissent)in a minimalstate"!! ( "horizontalconsciousness" would be replaced by the new spiritof national solidarityand functionallyinterdependent organization. . And they make the state the most active and solicitedof arbitrators... This content downloaded from musthave the initiative over all generaldecisionsfacilitating the coordinationof national activities.It mustanticipatetheseconflictsof interest. intellectualand social functionsof the state and the pluralityof sourcesof public powercreatesa new function(or givesgreaterscope to a function already existingin embryonicform) which is the functionof arbitrationand coordinationof all national activities. 131.and national propaganda.etc.he hintsthat it will 85 Ibid.thereis a certaincoincidencein outcomes. p.the state would be relieved of decisional and implementationalresponsibilityover "nonessential"matters(welfare. . This is the same authorwho thirty pages beforehad claimed: "Betweenthe corporatistconceptionof the state and the pure individualistic result one. of class are mostlyartificialand Or. . theyeven obligeit to solvethem.external defense. In addition. it will always triumphin the end. 101).

"which Manoilesco exclaimedin a burstof totalitarianrhetoricto mean that: "All that conformsto the national interestis just. authoritarianaspects of the transitionto state corporatismwas his beliefthat the twentiethcenturywould see a major change in "the scales of moral and social values" held by citizensand subjects. can only be attained afterthe widespread developmentof "corporative consciousness"and such a high degree of national 8s Ibid.149. that "indisputablecriterion. have to be made compatiblewith and subordinateto the highestideal of all. 89 Ibid. pp. 108. based on differential rightsand obligationsaccordingto the functionalimportance of one's role in society. to incorporate "separate but equal" of ownersand workerswithinthe same (paritaire) representations corporation. Pure (read.and the goal of organizationwould replace on mutual activityin returnforsecurityand consensualrestrictions higherproductivity.. all that is contraryto that interestis unjust. 88 Ibid. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .88 5) One reason Manoilesco was able to soft-pedalthe coercive. p.Both of thesenew idoles de l'dpoque would. 1."89 As complexand suggestive(if schematicand deformedby wishful thinking)as these hypothesesmay be. of course. The past century'sideals of individual equality and libertywould be replaced by new collectivegoals of social justice.he conceded three years later.but in the long run it will no longerbe necessaryto provideeven such a simulatedequilibrium.103..given the projecteddisappearance of class identification. p." that is. Manoilesco is much less explicitabout the politicsand the specificdecisional sequence in- volvedin thetransition towardthisnewformofinterest representation. the owning class and the workingclass will draw together. fn. This content downloaded from 128.Manoilesco observesthat in the shortrun "the best way to vanquish the actual antagonismof classes is to recognize it. impelledby the commondangertheybothface equally of witnessingthe collapse of the industrialsuperiority fromwhichtheyhave both benefited.. 110. 108-9.THE REVIEW OF POLITICS 122 to the centerwhereits adoption will be be subsequentlytransmitted more spontaneousand voluntary: In WesternEurope.52 on Wed. societal) corporatism.87 Tactically speaking.

fora transitory period.103."90 In the presentabsence of comparative case studies. Subsequently. In a verygeneralway.52 on Wed.delayed-dependentcapitalism.quickly.. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . he admits. Rather. the no-party systems of Spain and Portugal. 1937). 91 Emile Coornaert.. a long way off and. There.or to elaborate furtherupon it. p. butnotruling.91overnightimmenseorganizational hierarchieswith sonorous names were created."creeping" patternof its societal cousin.state corporatismwas implanted much more dramatically. new sous-instruments.uneven. state executiveand administrative in bothestablishing and subsequently act directly these controlling of statecorporatism. p. sectoral planning and public enterprise.was compatiblewitha wide rangeof partycontexts-from of Brazil. 134. (Paris. 293. in the meantime.thesemonuof representative 90 Mihail Manoilesco.Greeceand Austria.149. at least.resentmentagainst inferiorinternational status.STILL THE CENTURY OF CORPORATISM? 123 integrationthat "old" and "artificial"class and partisan loyalties had been eradicatedor. extension of state control through regulatorypolicies.. professionalizedand achievement-oriented and the forced corporatizationof interestrepresentationfrom the weak. 1941).severelyeroded. awareness of relative underdevelopment. especially in the periphery. In no case was the single ruling partythe primaryor exclusivetutelary bodies tended to agent. On the surface. subordinate corporatismis the only answer: "It is natural that the corporationsmust be held in tutelage. "Born at the strokeof the legislative baton. in The implantation fact. is the singleparty. 4th ed. The indicated is not of the emereasy to evaluate the meritsof Manoilesco's prototheory gence of state corporatism.incremental. Le Parti Unique (Paris.. This." as one French criticput it. thereseems to be a correspondencebetween the contextof peripheral. coveringall interestsectorsand all levelsof the politywithimpressivesymmetry and equalityof access. desire for enhanced national economic and political autarky.single-party systems reigning to thestrongmonopolistic of FascistItalyand Nazi partysystems Germany. Les Corporations en France avant 1789.thoroughlyand rationallythan was the case with the hestitant. This content downloaded from 128. Manoilesco's belated remarkson the specificinstrumentality responsiblefor this change have been less well confirmed. emergence of a more situs of civil servants.those "imperativesof the epoch" demand action.

1919-1940 (Berkeley.sectoralpoliciesof importsubstitution economicnegotiations.103. 19 & 26).theresultant corporag5es foremployers. wherethe attemptwas belatedly have been runby and made (Portugal). suchprelocal control.149.therightto and exemptions. maskedtheirpretenceof class symmetry workerassociations to suppressall preexisting Moving ruthlessly vacuumas quicklyas posand to fillthe resulting organizational siblewiththemaximumnumberand mostwidelydispersedset of actedmuch thestatecorporatists workersindiLcatos. however.detailedanalyses92have not onlyrevealedthe fictitiousphysicalexistenceof manyof thesesonorousorganizations overpublicpolicy.wereleftlargelyuntouched.See Roland Sarti. The Italian Fascistcase.finally. exert greaterinfluencein international While by no means successfulin eradicatinghorizontal(class) 92 about the praxisof state corpoThis and the followinggeneralizations ratismdraw on my case studiesof Brazil and Portugal(fns. exceptforthosecultivating and associations certainexportcrops. However. voluntaristically supportedassowiththeirleadershipand ciationsweretoleratedor incorporated functionsintact.Fascismand IndustrialLeadershipin Italy.wereplaced undertheir forruralworkers. sectoralhierarchies. expressly sities.52 on Wed.Preexisting. privileges organizational of the general formspecializednationalassociationsindependent rurallandowners.whatappear at firstsightto be architecturnout and symmetry of greatscope. premodern corporations as was civil servants of prohibited. new compliant to withrespect producer morecautiouslyand "understandingly" and ownerinterests. of their those as corporatist societally lopsided about the Some of Manoilesco'sprototheoretical assumptions state of and functions corporatism policyconsequences political seemto have beenconfirmed praxis.In short.but have also unand theirmarginalinfluence and equalityof access.124 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS without foryearsvirtually mentsof politicalarchitecture persisted juridicalor formalmodification.1971). wellas otherformsof associability attemptwas made to create"uniclass"peak associationsof employersand workers(Brazil) or. whereallowedto exist.does not appear to differmarkedly. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .It has been by itssubsequent associatedwith the extensionof state controlover exportcomand attemptsto seriousattemptwas made to transform the univerand as the Church existent.foresight tonicmonuments and as to about be closer limited. This content downloaded from 128. strategically placed eliteswere grantedspecial forexample.corporatization no either forthissitus. improvised inspection just upon relatives.

For a further 93 The expression of theseideas. Most striking. C.a devaluation of the role of entrepreneurial risk-taking. Faschismusund Kapitalismus(Frankfurt. pp. that "processwherebystate stiindigte executive power becomes progressivelymore independent" from to organizedsocial groups.Faschismusund eindimensionale Gesellschaft(Neuwied u.The decision-making load on the statehas not been lightenedbut burdenedby the proliferation of dependent functional far frombeing freedto pursuebold and hierarchies. is fromMarx's The EighteenthBrumaire.theyhave beeninstitutionalized and augmented. 1970).Classinequalities in access disappearing and benefit have notbeen erased.STILL THE CENTURY OF CORPORATISM? 125 formsof consciousness.thatMarx so long ago accountability was the crucialelementin modernauthoritarian suggested rule. Bauer et al. also of Brazil?" (fn. a diminutionof the power of private property and the emergenceof a new social or collectivemode of production So far. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Khashdrahrblushed. It has advancedpari passuwithan expansionin theroleof technocratic and impersonal(if not to say faceless)leadershipstyles. F.1971).state corporatismhas produced the contraryand one rather suspectsit was always intendedto do so. Mansilla. Popular demandsforindividualfreedomand equalityhaveyetto givewayto respectfororganizational hierarchy and acceptanceof differential however. itsimposition ofverticalized decisionalhierarchiesand fragmented interestcategorieshas definitely underminedthecohesionand capacityto act of theproletariat and even of the bourgeoisiewith respectto generalpolicyissues. shakinghis head.52 on Wed. expertise Most importantly. innovative nationalpolicies. 19-38. my "The Portugalization This content downloaded from 128. and Nicos Poulantzas.Manoilesco'sspecificfunctionalhypotheses not stoodup so well.149. Berlin. V "Kuppo!" said the Shah. the total lack of confirmationin praxis of Manoilesco's assertion of pious hope thatcorporatismfromabove would resultin a secular decline in the rate of profit.Fascismeet dictature( justice. 1967). H. it has greatlyadvancedand facilitated verselbMacht der Executivgewalt.the corporatestatehas been trapped in a fantastically complexnetworkof fiscalprebends.sectoral and entrenched whichtiesit closelyto a staleexemptions privileges matedstatusquo. Horizontalconsciousness showsno sign of no matterhowsuppressed.103. see AugustThalheimer"tOberden Faschismus"in development O. 19).93 have Otherwise. and translateduneasily.apologetically..

They simplytax thatpartof industry's incomethatonce wentinto labor.inclusionisttype of corporatism.will manage to fillout its century.103.and needless competitionthroughorganization. Nevertheless."The government does notown themachines. PlayerPiano (p.and co-ordinated-topreventthe wasteof competition-bya committeeof leadersfromprivateindustry. authenticityof representation." Kurt Vonnegut.protractedencountersbetween classes and sectorswhich acquired distinctself-imagesand loyaltiesand. then we are presentlyrightsmack in the middle of the century of corporatism and hencecondemnedto live withit foranother fiftyor so years.not politicians.we've raisedthe standardof livingof the averageman immensely. eventually. Industryis privatelyowned and managed.on a previous pattern of relative noninterference by the state which only graduallycame to expand its role-and then usually at the request of organized private interests.we may queschange.28) If we accept Manoilesco's beliefin centenniallongevityand my hunch that it all began duringand immediatelyafterWorld War I. Statecorporatism is everywhere itselfmoreand more revealing costlyto maintain throughrepressivemeasures and less and less capable of providing the accurate information.semivoluntaristic compliance and contractualcomplicityneeded for managing the modern capitaliststate. and adopting a more surprise-free tion whethercorporatism. and.barring his vision of a future global conflagrationprecipitatingfurther institutionalshift fromthe imposed.Jr.By eliminatinghuman errorthroughmachinery.state or societal.' "No.has yetto be made peacefullyand incrementally.a measure of mutual respect. perhaps most importantly.the presenceof competitivepartyand parliamentaryarenas to which wider appeals could be addressed.'Communism.149. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .But the transitionto societal corporatismseems to depend very much on a liberal-pluralistpast. Countrieslocked into state corporatismat an earlier stage of This content downloaded from 128.and redistribute it. Kuppo!" said Halyard vehemently. involving the following: a historyof autonomous organizational development. Kurt Vonnegut's poetic imagination offersus the "comforting"thoughtthat full corporatizationwill only come in the aftermathof a thirdmajor world war.52 on Wed.126 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS " "Shah says. The obvious answer. exclusionistto the invited..

20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .nonspecialized. seem incapable of resolving.103. nomic growthand mass consumptionas ends in themselves. Here." voluntaristicunits.weak associational loyalties.1972. no effective means of appealing to wider publics and pervasivestate bureau- craticcontrol.94Undertheseconditions. however.are being called into question by these movementsand actions.functionalspecialization and hierarchicalorganecoization. of advancedsocietalcorpogS These and othertensionsand contradictions ratismare exploredin Christopher Wheeler. Established.nor even less a regressionto state corporatism. This content downloaded from 128. The very values and assumptionsabout society upon which corporatism ultimatelyrests. autonomouslyresponsiblefor allocating theirvalues and resolvingtheirconflicts.the inherentin the transformation 94 These conclusionsabout the difficulties to the otherare based on the studyI have confromone typeof corporatism and are discussedmore fullytherein.too. 26).underminingboth the stabilityof theirestablished internalhierarchiesof authorityand their claims to democratic legitimacy. the prospectiveassociationalansweris certainlynot furthersocietal corporatization."The Decline of Deference: the in OrganizedGroup Life in Tension betweenParticipationand Effectiveness Sweden. theyare being bypassedwith increasingfrequencyby broad social movementson the one side and specificspontaneous protestactions on the other.95They are being bombarded with demands for more direct and authentic formsof participation."productivism"and efficiency.suppressed or manipulated conflict.nor a reversionto past pluralism."unpublishedMS.little mutual respect among groups.149. 22).see ducted on Portuguesecorporatism and Public Policy-Makingin Portugal" "CorporatistInterestRepresentation (fn.STILL THE CENTURY OF CORPORATISM? 127 to evolve are likelyto findit much more difficult development toward such a consensual solution. one suspects that the state-corporatist system must first degenerate into openly conflictful.Again.uncontrolledinterestpolitics-pluralismin otherwords-as appears to be happening in contemporarySpain. There the establishedpattern is one of asymmetricdependence. BeloitCollege.securityand prdvision.52 on Wed. interestsystemwhich we earliertentativelyidentifiedas syndicalist.societallycorporatistsystemsare also facing new tensionswhich they.but may be some experimentation with the sort of dispersed."hivedoff.More importantly. unauthentic and fragmented representation. Also Ruin (fn. to imagine it is difficult a politicallycontinuoustransformation towardsocietal corporatism.

O sistemacorporativo(Lisbon. Guido Bortolotto.e.Traiti de Droit constitutionnel. (Coimbra. 1938). The Papal Encyclicals(New York.2 vols.Le syndicalisme. 78-118. D. corporatism up to and including the 1930's and 1940's. (Paris. in Industry(London.nonmedieval."De la divisiondu travailsocial. ses principeset ses mdthodcs (Neuch~tel. 1800-1950 The following is a listofapproximately 100 worksdealingwiththedoctrine ofmodern. Self-Government J.Le Corporatismepseudoremide contrel'etatisme(Paris. et l'Etat.that of syndicalism. M. This content downloaded from 128.1936).. 1944). 1948). Bouvier-Ajam. DirittoCorporativo(Milan. Manuel CortezPinto.A CorporaGao. La doctrinecorporative. 1902). 5 vols. 3d. Pinto da Costa Leite (Lumbrales) A doutrinacorporativaem Portugal (Lisbon. MarcelloCaetano. et Jean Br&thede la Gressaye.La corporationen Suisse. 1931). The next century.. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . pp. 1952). GiuseppeBottai.149.El Estado Corporativo(Madrid. and/orpractice i.From thisoptimisticperspective. 1956). 5th ed. vol.1934).EsperienzaCorporativa(1929-1934) (Florence. 1928). 1924-27).128 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS peaceful and incrementalroute to such a systemictransformation has yet to be found. 2nd ed. Eduardo Aun6sP&rez.ed. withthe theoryor doctrineof corporatism.52 on Wed. Anne Fremantle."Archivesde Philosophie JeanBr&thede la Gressaye.PrincipiosFundamentals ativa Portugesa(Lisbon. 1941). Lhoste-Lachaume.1935). 1936). Raoul Andouin and P. Emile Durkheim. RaymondDevrient.L'Etat Corporatif(Bruxelles. MartinBrugarola. Marx once suggestedthat societies only recognizedthe problems theystood some chance of resolving. (Paris. (Madrid.already awaits its Lord Keynesor its Mihal Manoilesco! A WORKING BIBLIOGRAPHY ON CORPORATISM: ca."La corporation du Droit et de SociologieJuridique(1938).renewed awareness that we may still be in the century of corporatismshould contributeto makingit the shortestcentury on historicalrecord.LiGoesde direitocorporativo(Lisbon. 1920). G.."Pr6face.1955-6).1935). II. IAon Duguit. J. MarcelloCaetano. L'organisationprofessionnelle l'Etat (Paris. ed. (Paris. Cole. H. JoaquinAspiazu. 1962).RdgimenSindical Cristiano(Madrid. 1934). da OrganizardoCorporAnt6niode CastroFernandes.El Estado Corporativo.103. I-Original worksdealingprimarily CharlesAnciaux.

7 vols. GadtanPirou. Vol. Un Ideal Sindicalista(Madrid. 1924).La Crisisdel Humanismo.3 vols. Originallypublishedas Authority. (Paris. AugusteMurat. et Socialisme(Bruxelles.Capitalismeet Communautd Doutrinae factos (Lisbon. Ramirode Maeztu.Le sidcle du corporatisme." Droit et de Sociologie]uridique (1938).STILL THE CENTURY OF CORPORATISM? 129 Otto Von Gierke.DeutschesGenossenschaftsrecht. 1917). (1887).52 on Wed. 1939). E. (Berlin. 1933). L'Organisateur(Paris. (Paris.La mystiquedu corporatisme (Paris.Le Corporatisme (Paris.La Thdoriede l'Institution S. Henri de Man. Opladen. Libertyand Functionin 1916. pp. XIX. et de la Fondation(Paris.2nd ed. "Nouvelle Ldition. 1935). 1933).2 vols. 1935). 2d.2nd ed.base de l'organisationdconomique(Paris.Studiesin the ProblemofSovereignty (New Haven. 1937). Corporatisme Mihail Manoilesco. Pedro Teot6nioPereira. GeorgesRenard. pp.1922). PierreJolly.1868). (Paris.Ausgewathlte ed. This content downloaded from 128. corporatif Proudhon.2 vols. 1936).OeuvresCapitales. MauriceHanriou.A Batalha do Futuro. 1919). L'organisationcorporative(Angers. (Padua. 1938). . von Ketteler. Originaleditionin 1934. 1865-73).A WorkingPeace System(Chicago.1939). Originallypublishedin 1809.Authority in theModernState (New Haven. Robert von Mohl.2nd. J. Oeuvres. Hobson.149. (Berlin. David Mitrany. 1966).Le Fddde'ralisme deconomique. Adam Miiller. Eugene Mathon."Vue sur le corporatisme. de Travail (Paris. Albertde Mun. (Paris. Archivesde Philosophiedu GeorgesGuy-Grand. (Paris. Harold Laski. 7-26. Ne'o-Socialisme Ne'o-Corporatisme. La corporation. 1927).1935).Die Elementeder Staatskunst. 1953).NationalGuilds (London. Ga6tanPirou. Miinchen. La dimocratieet le rigime parlementaire.L'Institution(Paris.esp. Original RudolfKjell~n.1951). 1973). Prins. 1895-1904).The End of Laissez-Faire(London. 1966). Lezioni di economiapoliticacorporativa. ed. 1921).WorldReorganisationon CorporativeLines (London. Swedisheditionin 1916. 1958). A. 1966).De Ia capacitdpolitiquedes classesouvrieres(Paris. Joseph-PaulBoncour. 5th ed. GiuseppeUgo Papi. G. Mihail Manoilesco.Le partiunique (Paris.1924). BernardLavergne.Essais Politiques(Paris.ed.Stato nazionalee sindicati(Milan. e'tude sur le regime et la reprdsentation des inte'rts. 1935). (Lisbon. (Wien/Leipzig. (BuenosAires.Le gouvernement des dde'mocraties modernes. Originallypublishedin 1943.Ndo-Libde'ralisme. WalterRathenau. Albertde Mun. 1926). PolitischeSchriften. CharlesMaurras.1911). JohnMaynardKeynes. Pierre-Joseph 1873). 176 et seq." (Paris.La triplerevolution(Paris. Giuseppedi Michelis. (KemptenSchriften. Jose Pires Cardoso. Henri de Saint-Simon. W.1935). Discours. ed. Henride Saint-Simon. 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1944). Der Staat als Lebensform. 1925). 4 vols.QuestoesCorporatives. Ramirode Maeztu. 1937). especiallyvol. Harold Laski. by Klaus von Beyme (K5ln u. FrancoisPerroux. Humbauer. 1901). Ma vocationsociale (Paris. I. 1937). 4th ed. SergioPanunzio.Essais sur le corporatisme (Paris.103. 1909).

Korporativismus (Frankfurt. WalterAdolf JShr. TeixeiraRibeiro.130 THE REVIEW OF POLITICS A. Wittich.Rlimpressiondes thesesde l'Union de Fribourg(Paris.ed.103. 1938). I."Ed.1375-1380. Ad~ritoSedas Nunes.1937).Economyand Society.1931).Naissancede l'Etat corporatif(Paris. 40-56. J. 1961). 1909). de politiquesociale (Paris. 1939).1886).1938).Lig'es de DireitoCorporative(Coimbra. Economiapoliticacorporativa(Milan. J. en Italie (Paris. 1956).339-354 and vol. (Florence. Ugo Spirito.Le Corporatisme: Italie. G. de OliveiraSalazar."L'organisationcorporativeaux Pays-Bas"in Semaine Sociale d'Anger.1932). Une rlvolutiondans la paix (Paris.Espagne. institutions withthe practiceof corporatist III-Works dealingprimarily (oftenhoweverheavilyideological): en Suisse (Neuchftel. 1937). M.France (Paris. 1942). 1947). 1836). III. by E. (Lisbon.Die korporative Peter CorneliusMay-Tasch. 1942). ed.Discuros.. (Jena.3 vols.Aphorismes Union de Fribourg. (New York. 1942). Geschichte.1789-1948 (New York. Bowen. pp. 1936). (Paris. sp6ciale de L'Homme Riel (Paris. "Neo-corporatists and Neo-formers.1966). Edouard Dollbans et al. (Paris. de la Tour de Pin. FirminBacconnier. und Autoritarismus 1971). GeorgesBourgin. Gallen.1935). Max d'Arcis.Gesammelte Aufsatzeiibersozialpolitische und verwandte Themata (Augsburg. II. esp. 3rd ed. Portugal. 1935). 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .4th. FriedrichSchlegel. P. "Syndicalismeet corporations. 1935)." pp.GermanTheoriesof the CorporateState (New York. New Politics (Fall.L'organisationcorporative(Angers. Behler (Stuttgart. 1969).Allemagne. Ralph H. 1935). Hal Draper. Camp. 1919).Situa'o e problemasde corporativisrnmo des peupleslibres J. 3rd. Verschave. pp. 1954). Louis Salleron. Vers un ordresocial chritien:jalons de route (18821907). RichardL.Etudes sur les constitutions (Paris. P.1934).I fondamenti Le corporatisme Marcel Tardyand EdouardBonnefous. Ugo Spirito. pp.149.Un rigimecorporatif pour l'agriculture(Paris. Jarlot.1934). 1968). Idee in derSchweiz (St.L'Etat corporatif This content downloaded from 128. by G.Idee and Neubau (Leipzig-Bern. Louis Baudin. della economiacorporativa(Milano-Roma.FrenchCorporatiucve Theory.Schriftenund Fragmente. OthmarSpann. Elbow. Keller. de OliveiraSalazar. Karl von Vogelsang. ed. Vito. Histoire d'une doctrine(Paris. ed.1935). (Coimbra. 1903). I.Les rdalisations corporatives Le Salut par la corporation (Paris.-Works discussingCorporatisttheorists. 994-1001. Max Weber. F. 6th.Le re'gimecorporatifet les catholiquessociaux. The Papal Ideologyof Social Reform(Leiden.Der WahreStaat. Roth and C.1948). especiallyvol.52 on Wed. Simondede Sismondi. de la Tour de Pin. MatthewH. 465-482. Vol. GeorgesSorel. Originallypublishedin 1907.Capitalismoe corporativismo.1395-1399. A. 292-299. 1937).ed. Louis Salleron. M. 87-106. L. C.Matlriauxd'une thdoriedu prolitariat(Paris.Die standischeOrdnung.

Theorie v. Les Camille Lautaud and Andr6Poudeux. 1927). 1941). Emile Coornaert. Fdlix-Faure. 1934). FreppelCotta. 4th ed. 1941).Capitaland Labor underFascism(New York. AntonioFerro. L'ExpJrienceRooseveltet le milieu social amhricain (Paris.Etude sociale compardedes re'gimesde libertdet des rdgimes autoritaires(Paris. (Paris. 1934).52 on Wed. 1937).La reprdsentation professionnelle. Daniel Guerin. Schmidt. 3-34.Le corporatisme & l'dpoquecontemporaine du merchantilisme JacquesMarchand. E.La colaboracidn Herman Finer. (Paris.103. jusqu'd leursuppression Carl T.EconomicPlanningin Corporative Staates (HeidelFritz Ermath.149.Fascismeet grand capital.1930). sociale et politique La Constitution F. This content downloaded from 128. Rosenstock-Franck.Salazar: Le Portugalet Son Chef (Paris. 1937). social en Hispanoamdrica (BuenosAires. Rosenstock-Franck. JoseFiguerola. 1939). 1938). Pereirados Santos. Hayward. Portugal(London. L'Organisationprofessionnelle J. (Westminster.1932).The CorporateState in Action (London. L'organisationcorporativede la France d'ancien rdgime (Paris.1943). L'organisationcorporativede l'industrieen Espagne (Paris. L'Iconomie corporativefascisteen doctrineet en fait (Paris.PrivateInterestand Public Policy: The Experienceof the FrenchEconomicand Social Council (London.1940). d'associationen Suisse (Lausanne. MartinSaint-IAon. EmileLousse. Praxis des fascistisch-Korporativen berg.L'organisationdes rapportsIconomiqueset sociaux dans les pays & rdgimecorporatif(Paris. 1935).Les Corporationsen France avanmt 1789.Histoiredes Corporations de mJtierdepuis leurs origines en 1791. Oliver-Martin. especiallypp. 4th ed. 1937).1938).FascistEconomicPolicy (Cambridge. Jean Lescure. S. Roland Pr6. aux Pays-Bas(Paris. Fr. CarmenHaider. L. J.Un Etat corporatif: portugaise(Paris. 1940). 20 May 2015 19:08:24 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1936).STILL THE CENTURY OF CORPORATISM? 131 Simone Comes. Welk. WilliamG.La socidtdd'ancienre'gime(Bruxelles. 1937). L. 1938). (Paris.2nd. ed. 1945).La renaissance (Paris.1943). RepresentativeGovernmentand a Parliamentof Industry 1923). JeanMalherbe. 1966). conseilsdconomiquesen Europe et en France (Paris. 210-230.