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UNDERSTANDING THE

STATUS OF
FLAVOURINGS

INTRODUCTION TO FLAVOURINGS
Understanding the status of flavourings
For many people not intimately involved with the manufacture of
flavours or Food Law, their legislative status for labelling purposes
can be confusing, if not at times, positively contradictory. For
example, how can you possibly have a Nut-Free Natural Nut
Flavouring?
Another confusing issue is the correct use of Flavour and Flavouring
from a legislative point of view. For information, legally, Flavouring
is what we add to Food and Drink Products – in use, these
Flavourings have the effect of adding Flavour to the product/s. The
same is true of the use of Colourings to provide the effect of adding
Colour to the product/s

g. it is added during some form of pre-processing. to a fruit compound. Natural is subdivided into the following categories: Natural 100% FTNF (From The Named Fruit) All components must come from the fruit as described e.g. in a 100% FTNF Orange Flavouring ALL components must come from an Orange A grey area of legislation exists with respect to the necessity to declare such a flavouring on the list of ingredients – strictly speaking. however. derived from natural origin). e. if.e.INTRODUCTION TO FLAVOURINGS Natural All components must be found (and proven to be found) in Nature and the source MUST BE NATURAL (i. there is some discussion as to the necessity of label declaration . if a 100% FTNF Flavouring is added at the point of manufacture it should be declared as (Natural) Flavouring.

fruit (or picture) depictable Legal requirement for Fruit Depictability is that the flavour should come. The remaining 10% or so will comprise Natural components from other sources Natural.INTRODUCTION TO FLAVOURINGS Natural. ‘Wholly or Mostly From The Named Fruit’ New guidelines agreed by Trading Standards and BEMA state that the flavour must be at least 90% FTNF (rather than the former advice is that 51%+ is fine). non-depictable General requirement for ‘Natural’ listed previously applies Please note that a Natural Flavouring may or may not contain any components From The Named Fruit This means that it is possible to have a nut-free Natural Nut Flavouring .

lower dose rate) and the greater stability of flavour is found in use (NI components come without the instability precursors that are always present along with the natural versions of these materials) . In practice.e. most NI Flavourings contain natural components in addition to the NI ones The greater the content of NI components the greater the concentration of the flavouring is likely to be (i.INTRODUCTION TO FLAVOURINGS Nature Identical All components used must have been identified in nature but may be manufactured synthetically If a Natural Flavouring contains even a trace of NI it must be declared as a Nature Identical Flavouring.

INTRODUCTION TO FLAVOURINGS Artificial Artificial Flavouring components are synthetic flavour materials that are manufactured chemically and are neither occur in nature nor have been identified in nature If any trace of artificial flavouring components is present in either an otherwise Natural or Nature Identical Flavouring then it is automatically reclassified as Artificial .

INTRODUCTION TO FLAVOURINGS For Example… Vanilla Vanilla is the most common flavour in the world. familiar to all of us as a flavouring for ice cream. but is available in a number of forms: . custards and many other sweet products.

The vanilla flowers must be pollinated within 24 hours of opening. mainly in Madagascar and Indonesia.the first recorded use was by the Aztecs. and requires a hot moist climate with regular rainfall. The flowers are normally pollinated by hand (hummingbirds are not reliable enough!) After harvest. The best quality (Bourbon) is grown in tropical climates. Bourbon (Vanilla Planiflora) and Tahitian (Vanilla Tahitensis) produce vanilla for food use. and are thought to originate from Mexico . vanilla pods are cured for 2-3 months to allow the flavour to develop .INTRODUCTION TO FLAVOURINGS Natural Vanilla Pods (or Beans) Two species of Orchid. or the flower wilts and produces no fruit. except for a two month dry period during the flowering season.

with Eugenol. due to limited availability. Caproic Acid and more than 200 other flavour compounds DISADVANTAGES It is very expensive (typically £60 . ADVANTAGES It is a completely natural product It has the best flavour profile. and varies hugely depending on crop yields (poor weather in the last 3 years has caused a doubling of the price) . which is then drawn off.INTRODUCTION TO FLAVOURINGS Natural Vanilla Flavouring (or Extract) Natural Vanilla Flavouring is produced by the maceration of vanilla pods in alcohol for 24-48 hours. consisting mainly of the compound Vanillin. The flavour compounds are solubilised in the alcohol.£250 per kilo) There are seasonal and annual variations in the quality The price is very volatile.

but man-made from a different raw material. ADVANTAGES It is relatively inexpensive in comparison to natural vanilla (£10 -£30/kilo) The raw materials are cheap and plentiful. the same flavour component found in natural vanilla. The largest source of NI vanillin is from lignin (a by-product of the paper industry) .INTRODUCTION TO FLAVOURINGS Nature Identical Vanilla Flavour Nature Identical Vanilla Flavourings usually consist largely of Vanillin. giving much more stability to the price The term “no artificial flavourings” can be used on the end product DISADVANTAGES It lacks the flavour quality and complexity of natural vanilla (in fact most NI vanilla flavourings include a small proportion of natural vanilla to improve the quality) Cannot be described as “natural” on the end product ingredient list .

a compound very similar to Vanillin. typically £3-£10 per kilo The price is very stable It is 3-4 times stronger in flavour than Vanillin. but not found in nature. ADVANTAGES It is very cheap. and the public’s long term exposure to this flavouring means that many people can notice its artificial character The descriptor “no artificial” or similar cannot be used on the label . Most Ethyl Vanillin is manufactured from lignin or coal-tar .INTRODUCTION TO FLAVOURINGS Artificial Vanilla Flavouring Artificial Vanilla Flavourings are usually made from Ethyl Vanillin. and changes little during storage or processing DISADVANTAGES It’s flavour is similar to. reducing cost in use It is very stable. but not the same as Vanillin or natural vanilla.

INTRODUCTION TO FLAVOURINGS BASICS OF FLAVOUR MANUFACTURE .

INTRODUCTION TO FLAVOURINGS Citrus Fruit Structure ALBEDO (PITH) JUICE SACS FLAVEDO (SKIN) CONTAINING OIL SACS SEED CORE SEGMENT MEMBRANE .

INTRODUCTION TO FLAVOURINGS Citrus Processing FRUIT JUICE WHOLE FRUIT PEEL OIL PULP ETHANOL EXTRACTION EVAPORATION CENTRIFUGATION FLAVOUR VOLATILES WATER SOLUBLE FLAVOURS FCOJ EXTRACTION OF FLAVONOIDS PULP WASH FRAGRANCES & FLAVOURS NFC FRUIT JUICE INTERMEDIATES PEEL & CORE JUICE SACS (FOR ADDITION BACK TO JUICE) WATER SOLUBLE FLAVOURS PROCESSES ANIMAL FEED & PECTIN COMMINUTES & COMPOUNDS FLAVOURS & COMMINUTES END PRODUCTS .

The water/alcohol phase is collected without the insoluble terpenes.INTRODUCTION TO FLAVOURINGS Flavour Production Peel Oil. flavouring baked goods adding back to the fruit juice in small quantities or processed into a flavouring for use in water based applications (such as beverages). The oil is mixed with alcohol and water and allowed to stand for up to 24 hours for separation to occur. by using solvent extraction (known as ‘washing’). can be used either in its natural state for: flavouring oil based products. collected during the juice extraction stage. This may then be filtered and/or chilled to remove any waxy deposits found .

in its current state is classified as a 100% FTNF Natural Flavouring But is also used as a component in Fruit Depictable Natural Flavourings (>90%FTNF) Natural WONF Flavourings Nature Identical Flavourings (NI flavourings are rarely made with 100% NI components) .INTRODUCTION TO FLAVOURINGS Flavour Production Washed Peel Oil Flavouring.

INTRODUCTION TO FLAVOURINGS FLAVOUR CHARACTERISTICS .

INTRODUCTION TO FLAVOURINGS Time / Intensity Curves Ideally. with good impact in the initial phase. as little fade as possible in the mid phase. be well rounded. the flavour should develop quickly in the mouth. i. the flavour of a product should be well balanced.e. and last well MID PHASE TAIL PHASE INTENSITY INITIAL PHASE TIME . and a long tail phase.

By adding a small amount of menthol to the product. it is not always possible to achieve this through the use of natural ingredients. the flavour of garden mint has good initial intensity. or sometimes a single flavour. but fades quickly. the intensity of the flavour is extended TIME .INTRODUCTION TO FLAVOURINGS Time / Intensity Curves INTENSITY In practice. GARDEN MINT TIME MENTHOL INTENSITY For example.

INTRODUCTION TO FLAVOURINGS WHY USE FLAVOURINGS? .

the flavour components of many herbs.g.INTRODUCTION TO FLAVOURINGS Why do we use flavourings? Flavourings are used for a wide variety of reasons. Flavourings can be used to boost these notes to retain the correct character after heating . by addition of a reaction flavouring to a vegetarian product to provide a ‘meaty’ or ‘roasted’ character TO REPLACE VOLATILES LOST DURING PROCESSING. by addition of a fresh strawberry topnote to a product containing processed strawberry fruit (which tend to taste ‘jammy’) TO ADD BASE NOTES.g. e. e. such as basil and coriander. are very volatile and can be quickly lost in processing. TO ADD TOPNOTES. e.g.

OR SEASONALLY VARIABLE INGREDIENTS flavour profiles of some food ingredients can change dramatically during the growing season. e. 0. TO REPLACE SEASONAL.g. late season oranges – 13% sugar. whereas flavourings (because of the extraction processes) are relatively ‘clean’ .g.INTRODUCTION TO FLAVOURINGS Why do we use flavourings? Flavourings are used for a wide variety of reasons. e. e. 0. flavourings can be used to mask unpleasant tastes from functional ingredients or flavours that develop during processing TO REDUCE MICROBIAL LOADING. most spices and fruits naturally carry a high microbial load. early season oranges – 8% sugar.g.5% acid TO MASK OTHER FLAVOURS.8% acid.

tingle . Flavourings can be used to provide a ‘layered’ effect TO CHANGE MOUTHFEEL. e. cooling. E. it is often preferable that all the flavours do not express themselves at the same time.g. and can be used to replace all or part of the flavour providing material TO PROVIDE LAYERING.g. COST REDUCTION. flavourings can be used to change other properties of the finished product that are not specific flavours.INTRODUCTION TO FLAVOURINGS Why do we use flavourings? Flavourings are used for a wide variety of reasons. in a complex flavour product. but have a great impact on the perception of the product. heat. flavourings are generally cheaper in use. mouthfeel.

INTRODUCTION TO FLAVOURINGS DELIVERY SYSTEMS .

but ideal for oil phase products and emulsions. liquids and powders: Liquids are generally superior. The advantage with oil soluble flavourings is that flavouring components that are insoluble in water or alcohol can be incorporated into the product. best for soft drinks.INTRODUCTION TO FLAVOURINGS Delivery Systems Flavourings are available in a number of formats. OIL SOLUBLE. unsuitable for beverages. There are 2 basic formats. WATER SOLUBLE. to suit the application. Tend to be more temperature stable than water soluble . sauces and other liquid products. but also suitable for goods which have a liquid component in manufacture (such as baked goods) LIQUID. being stronger and less susceptible to spoilage (most liquid carriers will not support microbial growth) LIQUID.

are liquid flavourings sprayed onto a carrier. They are short shelf-life. and have an equivalent usage rate to the ingredient they replace . All powder flavourings start out as liquids and are dried or put onto a carrier PLATED POWDERS. such as salt. such as snacks and coatings. but also in many baked products where it is more convenient to disperse the flavour in a dry mix.INTRODUCTION TO FLAVOURINGS Delivery Systems Powders are generally used for dry products.

such as maltodextrin.INTRODUCTION TO FLAVOURINGS Delivery Systems SPRAY-DRIED POWDERS. are liquid flavourings spray dried onto a carrier. The disadvantage with spray-dried powders is that volatiles tend to be lost in processing ENCAPSULATED POWDERS. This allows flavourings to retain more freshness in the end product. dependent on the application . etc. are powder flavourings with an exterior coating that melts on cooking or dissolves on eating. The melting point of the encapsulating coating can be varied. as they are not subject to oxidation.