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# ISSN: 2395-0560

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## Mathematical Model of the PMSG based on Wind Energy

Conversion System
K. Prechanon
Department of Electrical Engineering, Kasetsart University at Si Racha Campus, Chonburi, 20230, Thailand

Abstract This paper presents mathematical model of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) based on
Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS). In this paper the model of WECS includes wind turbine, pitch angle control,
drive train, PMSG and power converter model. The WECS model was tested in sample system.

Keywords Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG), Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS), Wind
Turbine

1. Introduction
The wind energy is a kind of renewable and clean energy. It has been widely accepted and considered that it has all the
qualifications to reduce the use of the traditional fuel [1-3]. Wind energy conversion system (WECS) consist of wind turbine, pitch angle control, drive train, generator and power converter. There are various types of generators used in WECS
such as induction generator (IG), doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and permanent magnet synchronous generator
(PMSG) . The advantages of PMSG based on WECS are high reliable operation, low maintenance expenses and light
weight with simple structure. Moreover, the PMSG based on WECS can connect to the turbine without using gearbox .
This paper presents the mathematical model, simulation of PMSG based on WECS in d-q model which investigate from d-q
equivalent circuit. The model of system will be presented in section II. Section III shows simulation results.

2. Mathematical Model
This section will present mathematical model of PMSG base on WECS. It consists of wind energy conversion, wind turbine, drive train, PMSG and converter as show in Figure 1.

## Figure 1. A PMSG based WECS

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## Volume1, Issue 3 of March 2015

2.1. Wind Energy Conversion
The kinetic energy of wind is given by 
1 2
mv
2
m = vS

(1)

Ec =

(2)

where
m = air mass
v = wind speed
= air density

Pw = Ec =

1 2 1
mv = Sv 3
2
2

(3)

## 2.2. Wind Turbine

Wind turbine is applied to convert the wind Energy to mechanical torque. The mechanical torque of turbine can be calculated from mechanical power at the turbine extracted from wind power. This fact of the wind speed after the turbine isnt
zero. Then, the power coefficient of the turbine ( C p ) is used. The power coefficient is function of pitch angle ( ) and tip
speed ( ), pitch angle is angle of turbine blade whereas tip speed is the ratio of rotational speed and wind speed. The power coefficient maximum of ( C p ) is known as the limit of Betz.
The power coefficient is given by 
c p ( , ) = c1 (c 2 / i - c3 - c4 )e
1
1
0.035
=
i + 0.08 3 + 1

-c5 / i

+ c6

(4)

(5)

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## Volume1, Issue 3 of March 2015

Figure 2. Characteristic

## for different value of the pitch angle

The c p_ characteristics, for different value of the pitch angle , are illustrated in Figure. 2.
The power coefficient is given by
Cp =

Pm
;C p < 1
Pw

Pm = C p ( , )

S 3
v
2 wind

(6)

(7)

where

Cp

## = the air density

S = the turbine swept area

k p = gain power

## = the tip speed ratio

= the blade pitch angle

## The mechanical torque is given by

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Tm =

Pm

(8)

## 2.3. Wind Turbine

In this paper, the WECS is presented with two-mass drive train model. The mathematical model are given by 
2H t

dt
= Tm - Ts
dt

1 d sta
= t - r
ebs dt

Ts = K ss sta + Dt

d sta
dt

(9)

(10)

(11)

where

## H t = the inertia constant of the turbine

sta = the shaft twist angle
t = the angular speed of the wind turbine
r = the rotor speed of generator
ebs = the electrical base speed
Ts = Shaft torque

## K ss = the shaft stiffness

Dt = the damping coefficient
2.4. PMSG Model
Consider the equivalent circuit of PMSG based on WECS in Figure 3. The model of PMSG is established in the d-q
synchronous reference frame as shown in Figure 3A and Figure 3B, respectively .

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Rs

Ld

id

e L d iq

vd

Rs

Lq

iq
e ((Ld iq) )

vq

## The voltage equations of PMSG as shown in Figure 3 are given by 

Lq
d
1
R
i =
v i +
p r i q
dt d L d d L d d Ld

(12)

Ld
p r
d
1
R
i =
v i p r i d dt q Lq q Lq q Lq
Lq

(13)

## The electromagnetic torque equation is given by

Te = 1.5 [ iq + ( Ld - Lq )i d i q ]

(14)

where
Lq = q axis inductance

Ld = d axis inductance
R = resistance of the stator windings
iq = q axis current

id = d axis current
vq = q axis voltage

vd = d axis voltage
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## Volume1, Issue 3 of March 2015

r = angular velocity of the rotor

## = amplitude of flux induced

p = the number of pole pairs
The dynamic equations are given by
d
1
= (T - F r - Tm )
dt r J e

(15)

d
= r
dt

(16)

where

J = inertia of rotor
F = friction of rotor

= rotor angular
A. Power Converter
Power converter consists of rectifier, DC-link and inverter. Rectifier will convert AC voltage output from PMSG based
on WECS to DC voltage. Inverter will convert DC voltage from DC-link capacitor to AC voltage at fundamental frequency. The relation of AC voltage at fundamental frequency and DC voltage is given by 
VB =

1
2 2

(17)

m B v dc B

where
mB = the modulation index
B = the phase angle of control wave

3. Simulation Results
The presented mathematical model of DFIG based on wind energy conversion system is tested on a sample system as
shown in Figure 4. A temporary three-phase to ground fault occurs at point m and the fault is cleared after 317 msec. It can
be observed from Figure 5 that DFIG can improve stability of power system.

## Figure 4. Sample system

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150

Without PMSG

100
50

With PMSG

0
-50
-100
-150

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2
1
Time (sec)

1.4

1.6

1.8

## Figure 5. Swing curve

4. Conclusion
This paper presents mathematical model of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) based on Wind Energy
Conversion System (WECS). The mathematical models are systematically derived. The presented model was implemented
and verified through the sample system. It was found from the simulation results the PMSG based on WECS can improve the
dynamic behaviour of the system.

REFERENCES


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