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This paper presents mathematical model of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) based on
Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS). In this paper the model of WECS includes wind turbine, pitch angle control,
drive train, PMSG and power converter model. The WECS model was tested in sample system.

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Conversion System

K. Prechanon

Department of Electrical Engineering, Kasetsart University at Si Racha Campus, Chonburi, 20230, Thailand

Abstract This paper presents mathematical model of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) based on

Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS). In this paper the model of WECS includes wind turbine, pitch angle control,

drive train, PMSG and power converter model. The WECS model was tested in sample system.

Keywords Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG), Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS), Wind

Turbine

1. Introduction

The wind energy is a kind of renewable and clean energy. It has been widely accepted and considered that it has all the

qualifications to reduce the use of the traditional fuel [1-3]. Wind energy conversion system (WECS) consist of wind turbine, pitch angle control, drive train, generator and power converter. There are various types of generators used in WECS

such as induction generator (IG), doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and permanent magnet synchronous generator

(PMSG) [4]. The advantages of PMSG based on WECS are high reliable operation, low maintenance expenses and light

weight with simple structure. Moreover, the PMSG based on WECS can connect to the turbine without using gearbox [5].

This paper presents the mathematical model, simulation of PMSG based on WECS in d-q model which investigate from d-q

equivalent circuit. The model of system will be presented in section II. Section III shows simulation results.

2. Mathematical Model

This section will present mathematical model of PMSG base on WECS. It consists of wind energy conversion, wind turbine, drive train, PMSG and converter as show in Figure 1.

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2.1. Wind Energy Conversion

The kinetic energy of wind is given by [6]

1 2

mv

2

m = vS

(1)

Ec =

(2)

where

m = air mass

v = wind speed

= air density

Pw = Ec =

1 2 1

mv = Sv 3

2

2

(3)

Wind turbine is applied to convert the wind Energy to mechanical torque. The mechanical torque of turbine can be calculated from mechanical power at the turbine extracted from wind power. This fact of the wind speed after the turbine isnt

zero. Then, the power coefficient of the turbine ( C p ) is used. The power coefficient is function of pitch angle ( ) and tip

speed ( ), pitch angle is angle of turbine blade whereas tip speed is the ratio of rotational speed and wind speed. The power coefficient maximum of ( C p ) is known as the limit of Betz.

The power coefficient is given by [7]

c p ( , ) = c1 (c 2 / i - c3 - c4 )e

1

1

0.035

=

i + 0.08 3 + 1

-c5 / i

+ c6

(4)

(5)

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Figure 2. Characteristic

The c p_ characteristics, for different value of the pitch angle , are illustrated in Figure. 2.

The power coefficient is given by

Cp =

Pm

;C p < 1

Pw

Pm = C p ( , )

S 3

v

2 wind

(6)

(7)

where

Cp

S = the turbine swept area

k p = gain power

= the blade pitch angle

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Tm =

Pm

(8)

In this paper, the WECS is presented with two-mass drive train model. The mathematical model are given by [8]

2H t

dt

= Tm - Ts

dt

1 d sta

= t - r

ebs dt

Ts = K ss sta + Dt

d sta

dt

(9)

(10)

(11)

where

sta = the shaft twist angle

t = the angular speed of the wind turbine

r = the rotor speed of generator

ebs = the electrical base speed

Ts = Shaft torque

Dt = the damping coefficient

2.4. PMSG Model

Consider the equivalent circuit of PMSG based on WECS in Figure 3. The model of PMSG is established in the d-q

synchronous reference frame as shown in Figure 3A and Figure 3B, respectively [8].

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Rs

Ld

id

e L d iq

vd

Rs

Lq

iq

e ((Ld iq) )

vq

Lq

d

1

R

i =

v i +

p r i q

dt d L d d L d d Ld

(12)

Ld

p r

d

1

R

i =

v i p r i d dt q Lq q Lq q Lq

Lq

(13)

Te = 1.5 [ iq + ( Ld - Lq )i d i q ]

(14)

where

Lq = q axis inductance

Ld = d axis inductance

R = resistance of the stator windings

iq = q axis current

id = d axis current

vq = q axis voltage

vd = d axis voltage

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r = angular velocity of the rotor

p = the number of pole pairs

The dynamic equations are given by

d

1

= (T - F r - Tm )

dt r J e

(15)

d

= r

dt

(16)

where

J = inertia of rotor

F = friction of rotor

= rotor angular

A. Power Converter

Power converter consists of rectifier, DC-link and inverter. Rectifier will convert AC voltage output from PMSG based

on WECS to DC voltage. Inverter will convert DC voltage from DC-link capacitor to AC voltage at fundamental frequency. The relation of AC voltage at fundamental frequency and DC voltage is given by [10]

VB =

1

2 2

(17)

m B v dc B

where

mB = the modulation index

B = the phase angle of control wave

3. Simulation Results

The presented mathematical model of DFIG based on wind energy conversion system is tested on a sample system as

shown in Figure 4. A temporary three-phase to ground fault occurs at point m and the fault is cleared after 317 msec. It can

be observed from Figure 5 that DFIG can improve stability of power system.

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150

Without PMSG

100

50

With PMSG

0

-50

-100

-150

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1

Time (sec)

1.4

1.6

1.8

4. Conclusion

This paper presents mathematical model of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) based on Wind Energy

Conversion System (WECS). The mathematical models are systematically derived. The presented model was implemented

and verified through the sample system. It was found from the simulation results the PMSG based on WECS can improve the

dynamic behaviour of the system.

REFERENCES

[1]

G. Poddar, A. joseph , and A. K. Unnikrishnan, Sensorless Variable Speed Wind Power Generator with Unity-Power-Factor Operation IEEE

Trans.Ind. Electron, vol. 50, pp 1007-1015, Oct 2003.

[2]

T. tafticht, K. Agbossou, A. Cheriti, and M. I. Doumbia, Output Power Maximum of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator based Stand

alone Wind Turbine, IEEE Industrial Electronics, Vol.3, pp 2412-2416, July 2006.

[3]

S. M. Muyeen, T. Rion, M. Toshiaki, and T. junji, Integration of an Energy Capacitor System with a variable-speed Wind Generator, IEEE

Transaction on Energy Conversion, Vol.24, issue. 3, pp. 740-749, September 2009.

[4]

Y. liyong, Y. peie, C. Zhenguo, C. Zhigang, L.Zhengxi, A Novel Control Strategy of Power Converter used to Direct Driven Permanent Magnet

Wind Power Generation System IEEE Power electronics and intelligent transportation system (PEITS), 2nd International Conference vol. 1, pp.

456-459, Dec 2009.

[5] M. E. Haque, K. M. Muttaqi and M. Negnevisky, Control of a Stand alone Variable Speed Wind Turbine with a Permanent Magnet Synchronous

Generator, IEEE Power and Energy society General Meeting Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st century, pp.1-9 aout 2008.

[6]

S. Saikuma, S. Saravanan, and R. V. Sandip, Modelling and Control of a Wind Turbine using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator,

IJEST, Vol3, no., pp.2377-2384, 3 March 2011.

[7]

S. Heier, "Grid Integration of Wind Energy Conversion Systems," John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 1998, ISBN 0-471-97143-X

[8]

F. Mei and B. Pal, Modal Analysis of Grid-Connected Doubly Fed Induction Generators, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 22, no. 3, pp.

728736, Sep. 2007.

[9] D. Grenier, L. A. Dessaint, Y. Bonnassieux, and B. Lepiufle, Experimental Nonlinear Torque Control of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

Using Saliency, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 44, pp.680-687. No. 5, October 1997.

[10] N. Mohan, T. M. Underland, and W. P. Robins, Power Electronics: Converters, Application, and design. Hoboken, NJ:Wiley, 2002.

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