You are on page 1of 5

ISSN: 2395-0560

International Research Journal of Innovative Engineering


www.irjie.com
Volume1, Issue 3 of March 2015

Performance Analysis And Comparison Of Vapour


Compression Refrigeration System Using R-134a And
R-600a Refrigerants
Shubham R. Yennawar1, Prajyot P. Borkar2, Akshay S. Harkare3,Vishnu L. kale4,Abhilash K.
Kamble5,Vineet A. Bhandari6
1

J.D.I.E.T.,Yavatmal, 445001, India ,2J.D.I.E.T., Yavatmal, 445001, India


J.D.I.E.T.,Yavatmal, 445001, India 4J.D.I.E.T., Yavatmal, 445001, India
5
J.D.I.E.T.,Yavatmal, 445001, India 6J.D.I.E.T., Yavatmal, 445001, India
3

Abstract - The performance of heat transfer is one of the most important research areas in the field of thermal
engineering. There are a large number of refrigerants, which are used to transfer heat from low temperature reservoir to
high temperature reservoir by using vapour compression refrigeration system. This paper presents a performance analysis
of vapour compression refrigeration system with using refrigerants like R-134a & R-600a (Isobutane). Various
performance measures like compressor discharge temperature, pressure ratio, volumetric cooling capacity (VCC),
volumetric efficiency and mass flow rate are analyzed. The performance in term of coefficient of performance (COP),
refrigerating capacity (RC), and compressor work (We) were evaluated for the investigated refrigerants at various
evaporating and condensing temperatures. The system performance increases as the evaporating temperature increases, but
reduces as the condensing temperature increases. The COP of R134a obtained was lower than R-600a (isobutane).

Keywords: Refrigerant, Isobutane, Vapour Compression Refrigeration System, R-134a, R-600a(Isobutane)

1. Introduction
The ozone depleting potential (ODP) and global warming potential (GWP) have become the most important criteria
in the development of new refrigerants apart from the refrigerants CFCs due to their contribution to ozone layer depletion
and global warming. In spite of their high GWP, alternatives to refrigerants CFCs and HCFCs such as hydro fluoro carbon
(HFC) refrigerants with the zero ODP and hydro carbon refrigerants (HC) have been preferred for use in many industrial
and domestic applications. The presence of fluorine atoms in HFC134a is responsible for the major environmental impact
(GWP) with serious implications for the future development of the refrigeration based industries.
For this reason, a more efficient and environment being alternative refrigerant is needed in the refrigeration system. The
natural refrigerants are naturally occurring substances such as ammonia, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, water and air. In
this group, the hydrocarbons are most closely related to the HFCs. Their thermodynamic and transport properties are very
similar to most HFCs currently used in refrigeration and air-condition systems, which make them suitable as substitute
refrigerants in the existing HCFC and HFC systems without any major changes in the design.
The present study mostly concentrates on the performance of the vapour compression refrigeration cycle. The refrigerant
HC R600a is used as the working fluid for the comparison with the conventional refrigerant R134a. The effects of the main
parameters like compressor discharge temperature, pressure ratio, volumetric cooling capacity (VCC), volumetric
efficiency and mass flow rate are analyzed.
The performance in term of coefficient of performance (COP), refrigerating capacity (RC), and compressor work (We)
were evaluated for the investigated refrigerants at various evaporating and condensing temperatures.

__________________________________________________________________________________
2015 ,IRJIE-All Rights Reserved
Page -89

ISSN: 2395-0560

International Research Journal of Innovative Engineering


www.irjie.com
Volume1, Issue 3 of March 2015
The system performance increases as the evaporating temperature increases, but reduces as the condensing temperature
increases. The COP of R134a obtained was lower than R-600a (isobutane)

Refrigerant

R 600a

R 134a

Name

Isobutane

1,1,1,2-Tetraflouro-ethane

Formula

(CH3 ) 3 CH

CF3 -CH2 F

Critical temperature
in C

135

101

Molecular weight
in kg/kmol

58.1

102

Normal boiling point


in C

-11.6

-26.5

Pressure
at -25 C in bar (absolute)

0.58

1.07

Liquid density
at -25 C in kg/l

0.60

1.37

1.3

4.4

373

658

Enthalpy of vaporization
at -25 C in kJ/kg

376

216

Pressure
at +20 C in bar (absolute)

3.0

5.7

Vapour density
at to-25/+32 C in kg/m
Volumetric capacity
at -25/55/32 C in kJ/m

Table1. Refrigerant data comparison

2.Compatibility R600a as refrigerant


In order to use R600a as suitable refrigerants, a comparative study of its individual thermo-physical
properties has been carried out. Thus, based on the data presented, one can notice that fluids molar mass, triple
point temperature (t triple ), critical point pressure (p ) and also for temperature (t min , t max ), pressure (p
max) and density ( max) in regard with their range of application. Both fluids present several desired
refrigerant properties such as: critical pressure over 35 bar, critical temperature (t K ) over 95C, evaporating
temperature (t0 ) below zero and increased latent heat of vaporization (q v0 ), both at atmospheric pressure, and
also a small adiabatic exponent (k). Regarding the evaporating temperature at the atmospheric pressure one can
notice that R600a presents a lower value making it suitable for refrigeration applications. At the same time
R600a have an almost double latent heat of vaporization compared to CFCs, HCFCs and HFCs refrigerants.
This is a very important advantage concerning R600a in order to use it as refrigerants. Besides their
thermodynamic properties which make R600a suitable as refrigerants, various papers on its use in domestic,
commercial and industrial applications prove as well that R600a compatible with the commonly used materials

__________________________________________________________________________________
2015 ,IRJIE-All Rights Reserved
Page -90

ISSN: 2395-0560

International Research Journal of Innovative Engineering


www.irjie.com
Volume1, Issue 3 of March 2015
in VCRS. The suitability as refrigerants, from a thermodynamic and functional points of view suggest that
R600a, as natural substances having ODP=0 and GWP<20, isanviable solution as eco refrigerants for the
substitution of pollutant synthetic refrigerants like CFCs, HCFCs and HFCs. Although R600a is not toxic, it is
flammable and classified according to ASHRE as A3 substances having low explosive range (lower explosive
limit - LEL/upper explosive limit UEL=1.9/8.5 % vol.). Under these circumstances, in case of its use as
refrigerants, measures concerning operational safety, sealing and explosion prevention equipment have to be
adopted.

3. Cycle Description and Model


A vapour compression refrigeration system consists of four components such as evaporator, liquid
vapour heat exchanger, compressor, condenser and expansion valve. These components connected in a closed
loop through piping that has heat transfer with the surrounding. At state 11, refrigerant leaves the evaporator at a
low pressure, low temperature, saturated vapour and enter the liquid vapour heat exchanger where it absorbs the
heat from high pressure- temperature refrigerant flows from condenser.

Figure 1. Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram


The refrigerant from the liquid-vapour heat exchanger enter into compressor through the suction line in
which both temperature and pressure increased at state 1. At state 2, it leaves the compressor as a high pressure,
high temperature, superheated vapour and enter the condenser where it reject heat to surrounding medium at
constant pressure after undergoing heat transfer in the discharge line. Refrigerant leaves the condenser at state 3.
The expansion valve allows to flowing the high pressure liquid at constant enthalpy from high pressure to low
pressure. At state 4, it leaves the expansion valve as a low temperature, low pressure, and liquid vapour mixture
and enters the evaporator where it absorbs the heat at constant pressure, changed into saturated vapour and cycle
is completed.

Figure 2.construction of VCR system

__________________________________________________________________________________
2015 ,IRJIE-All Rights Reserved
Page -91

ISSN: 2395-0560

International Research Journal of Innovative Engineering


www.irjie.com
Volume1, Issue 3 of March 2015

4. Comparison of Refrigerants
Parameter

R-134a

R-600a

T1(0C)

-1.0

18.8

T2(0C)

67

44.1

T3(0C)

52.3

37.02

T4(0C)

-10.1

-5.3

H1(KJ/Kg)

397.51

647.3

H2(KJ/Kg)

428.25

548

Hf3(KJ/Kg)

274.71

275.5

H4(KJ/Kg)

274.71

275.5

V(volt)

230

230

I(ampere)

0.9

0.7

Pd(bar)

11.2

6.8

Ps(bar)

0.35

1.67

Table 2.Observation from test rig of refrigerator using R-134a and R600a as refrigerant
4.1. For R134a
Power, P = VICOS
P = 2300.900.85
P = 171.81 J/sec
But P = mr (h2-h1)
171.81 = mr (428.25-397.51)
`mr = 5.589 gm/sec
Refrigerating Effect,
R.E = mr (h1-hf3)
R.E = 5.589 (397.51- 274.71) R.E = 686.32 J/sec
Work done,
W.D = mr (h2-h1)
W.D =5.589(428.25-397.51)
W.D = 171.80 J/sec
Coefficient of Performance,
COP = RE/ WD
COP = 686.32/171.80
COP = 3.99
4.2.For R600a
Power, P = VICOS
P = 2300.900.85
P = 136.85 J/sec
But P = mr (h2-h1)

__________________________________________________________________________________
2015 ,IRJIE-All Rights Reserved
Page -92

ISSN: 2395-0560

International Research Journal of Innovative Engineering


www.irjie.com
Volume1, Issue 3 of March 2015
136.85 = mr (645.3-578)
mr = 2.033 gm/sec
Refrigerating Effect, R.E= mr (h1-hf3)
R.E = 2.033(578-275.5)
R.E = 614.98 J/sec
Work done,
W.D = mr (h2-h1)
W.D =2.033(645.3-578)
W.D = 136.82 J/sec
Coefficient Of Performance,
COP = RE/ WD
COP = 614.98/136.82
COP = 4.53

5. CONCLUSION
In this study, an ideal vapour compression refrigeration system is used for the performance analysis of
alternative refrigerant as substitute for R-134a which is R-600a. Considering comparison of coefficient of
performance(COP) and load ratios of the tested refrigerants and also the main environmental impact of ozone
layer depletion and global warming, refrigerant R-600a is found to be the most suitable alternative. For reducing
the harmful effects on environment, it is necessary to use the refrigerant R-600a with low GWP and ODP. R600a is refrigerant having high COP with less environmental impact.

REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]

Y.S.LEE & C.C.SU, Experimental studies of isobutene (R600a) as the refrigerant in domastic refrigeration system
Applied Thermal Engineering 22, pp. 507-519,2002.
B.O.BOLAJI, M.A. Akintunde, T.O. Falade, comparative analysis of performance of three ozone friends HFC
refrigerants in a vapour compression refrigerator, journal of sustainable energy and environment 2(2011) 61-64.
B.O.BOLAJI, selection of environment-friendly refrigerants and the current alternative in vapour compression
refrigeration system, journal of science and management, vol 1. No. 1 (2011) 22-26
James M. Calm, emission and environmental impact from air-conditioning and refrigeration system, International
Journal of Refrigeration 25, pp. 293-305,2002.
Samira Benhadid-Dib, and Ahmed Benzaoui, refrigerants and their impact in the environment. Use of the solar
energy as the sourcr of energy, Energy Procedia 6, pp. 347-352, 2002.Ji J Chow T
Eric Granryd, hydrocarbons as refrigerants an overview International journal of refrigeration 24, pp. 807-816,
2012
Sandip P. chavhan& S.D. Mahajan, A review of an alternative to R-134a refrigerant in domastic refrigerator,
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering volume 3, issue 9, pp.550-556 (2013)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It gives me immense pleasure to submit the paper topic entitledPerformance Analysis And
Comparison Of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System Using R-134a And R-600a Refrigerants. It is
believed that our heartiest gratitude with pleasure is towards my guide Dr. R. U. Sambhe (Associate Prof. &
Workshop Superintendant) , Prof. S. J. Kadam,J.D.I.E.T, Yavatmal, which gave us an opportunity in fulfilling
our desire of reaching our goal. The satisfaction that accompanies the successful completion of any task would
be incomplete without the mention of all people who deserve it. Last but not least, we would like to thanks our
entire friend for their timely suggestion during the project.

__________________________________________________________________________________
2015 ,IRJIE-All Rights Reserved
Page -93