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Chapter 10.2 Meiosis

Genes, Chromosomes, and Numbers


• Diploid cell: (2n)_____________________________________
o One came from ______, one came from ______
o This is why we have ______ of each kind of gene
o All body cells, except _____________, are diploid cells
• Haploid cell: (n) ______________________________________
o _________________ are haploid cells
• Each type of organism has a specific number of chromosomes
(humans have _____ chromosomes)
• Homologous chromosomes:
_____________________________
________________________________________________
o Have genes for the same ______________ .
o Genes are in the same _______, but may have different _____
 Ex: blue eye gene on 1 chromosome and brown eye gene on

the other chromosome

Meiosis
• Cell division that produces ________________ with _______ the
number of chromosomes as a body cell
• Gametes that are produced are ___________ cells for males and
___________ cells for females
• In humans, each sperm and egg cells has _____ chromosomes
(which is half of ______, the _____________ number of
chromosomes)
• Sexual reproduction: _________________________________
__________________________________________________
• _________ (23) + ______ (23) = ________ (46 chromosomes)
• Healthy zygotes cannot have more than ____ chromosomes
• Once formed, zygotes undergo ___________________ to grow
and develop.
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Before Meiosis
 Homologous chromosomes are attached to each other
Homologous chromosomes: ____________________________
_______________________________________________
 Chromosomes ____________________ themselves
 Tetrad: ___________________________________________
_________________________________________________
2 homologous chromosomes plus 2 copies

A a
A copy a copy
A a
Copies itself

Original Homologous
Chromosomes: One is from dad
and the other is from mom Tetrad
2 pairs of sister chromatids:
homologous chromosomes and
their copy.

• Crossing Over occurs during prophase I when


________________
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__________________________________________________
It results in ____________ __________________
Steps of Meiosis
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Meiosis I (2 new cells are formed)

Prophase I: *Tetrads form


*Nuclear membrane disappears
* Centrosomes move to opposite
ends of cell and spindle fibers
form

Metaphase I: Tetrads line up in the middle of


the cell

Anaphase I: Tetrads split and each set of


sister chromatids moves to
opposite ends of the cell

Telophase I: Cytokinesis (division of the


cytoplasm) results in 2 new cells

Meiosis II (4 new cells are formed)

Prophase II: Centrosomes move to opposite


ends of the cell to form spindle
fibers

Metaphase II: Sister chromatids line up in the


middle of the cell

Anaphase II: Sister chromatids separate and


move to opposite ends of the
cell

Telophase II: *Nuclear membrane forms


around each set of chromosomes
*Cytokinesis
*4 new daughter cells
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Mistakes in Meiosis
 Nondisjunction: ____________________________________
_________________________________________________
o homologous chromosomes move together into a new gamete
giving that gamete too many chromosomes, while the other
new gamete is missing the chromosome
o organisms with extra chromosomes can _______________
o trisomy 21: ____________________________________
o organisms with too few chromosomes usually do ____ survive
o Turner syndrome: ______________________________

 Polyploidy: ________________________________________
_________________________________________________
o instead of 46 chromosomes, they might have three
( _______) or four( ______________ ) the
_______________number.
o ______________ for animals
o Plants are usually healthier and larger.
o Wheat (6n) _________________
o Apples (3n) _________________